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STANDARDS COUNCIL OF INDIA under Article 2(ii)f of its Articles of Association at the first meeting of the Board of Governors held on November 20, 1985 and amended in February 1995 and in June 1999. Declaration of Fundamental Principles This Code for Self-Regulation has been drawn up by people in professions and industries in or connected with advertising, in consultation with representatives of people affected by advertising and has been accepted by individuals, corporate bodies and associations engaged in or otherwise concerned with the practice of advertising with the following as basic guidelines with a view to achieve the acceptance of fair advertising practices in the best interests of the ultimate consumer:

To ensure the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made by advertisements and to safeguard against misleading advertisements. To ensure that advertisements are not offensive to generally accepted standards of public decency. Advertisements should contain nothing indecent, vulgar or repulsive which is likely, in the light of generally prevailing standards of decency and propriety, to cause grave or widespread offence To safeguard against the indiscriminate use of Advertising in situations or of the promotion of products which are regarded as hazardous or harmful to society or to individuals, particularly minors, to a degree or of a type which is unacceptable to society at large.

To ensure that advertisements observe fairness in competition so that the consumers need to be informed on choices in the market-place and the canons of generally accepted competitive behaviour in business are both served. Both the general public and an advertisers competitors have an equal right to expect the content of advertisements to be presented fairly, intelligibly and responsibly. The Code applies to advertisers, advertising agencies and media.

Responsibility for the Observance of this Code The responsibility for the observance of this Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising lies with all who commission, create, place or publish any advertisement or assist in the creation or publishing of any advertisement. All advertisers, advertising agencies and media are expected not to commission, create, place or publish any advertisement which is in contravention of this Code. This is a self-imposed discipline required under this Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising from all involved in the commissioning, creation, placement or publishing of advertisements. This Code applies to advertisements read, heard or viewed in India even if they originate or are

published abroad so long as they are directed to consumers in India or are exposed to significant number of consumers in India. Definitions An advertisement is defined as a paid-for communication, addressed to the public or a section of it, the purpose of which is to influence the opinions or behaviour of those to whom it is addressed. Any written or graphic matter on packaging, or contained in it, is subject to this Code. Standards Of Conduct Advertising is an important and legitimate means for the seller to awaken interest in his products. The success of advertising depends on public confidence. Hence no practice should be permitted which tends to impair this confidence.

Introduction DAGMAR is Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. It is basically an approach to advertising planning and a precise method for selecting and quantifying goals and for using those goals to measure performance. An advertising objective involves a communication task, intended to create awareness, impart information, develop attitudes or induce action. In the DAGMAR approach, the communication task is based on a specific model of the communication process, as shown below.

Communication Process in DAGMAR Approach The model suggests that before the acceptance of a product by an individual, there is a series of mental steps which the individual goes through. At some point of time, the individual will be unaware of the product or offer in the market. The initial communication task of the advertising activity is to increase consumer awareness of the product or offer. The second step of the communication process is comprehension of the product or offer and involves the target audience learning something about the product or offer. What are its specific characteristics and appeals, including associated imagery and feelings? In what way does it differ from its competitors? Whom is it supposed to benefit? The third step is the attitude (or conviction) step and intervenes between comprehension and final action. The action phase involves some overt move on the part of the buyer such as trying a brand for the first time, visiting a showroom, or requesting information. The whole communication process is a bit more complex. And under different circumstances, it may differ slightly, but the basic concept revolves around what is mentioned in the paragraphs above. The DAGMAR approach emphasises the communication task of advertising. The second important concept of the approach is that the advertising goal be specific. It should be a written, measurable task involving a starting point, a defined audience, and a fixed time period. Now that the basic theory is told, how to apply in your specific situation? We are mainly traders dealing with products from other reputed and not so reputed companies and sitting here, we cannot dictate the company's advertising strategy. So, we look forward to developing a model which can reasonably applied in our case. Let's build your scenario and have the advertising brief: You are a dealer or distributor and want to sell products of a reputed company. You don't have to worry about the image and perception of the brand. You are just worried that customers might not want to buy from you. And, instead, buy from a competing shop next to yours dealing with the same kinds of products. In such a case, what should be done? What should be your advertising objective? Should you have a advertising strategy? What would be the ingredients of such an advertising plan? What should be the budget? Let's discuss some of the issues related to your promotion/advertising related activity. You must first distinguish between advertising from your marketing objectives. And DAGMAR is aimed at setting your advertising goals/ planning and not marketing goals. A Measurable Objective

The DAGMAR approach sounds impractical once we talk of measurements, surveys, questionnaires and all that staff. After all, who'd go for a survey! But, as the approach emphasises the importance of objectives, we must have some form of measurement to indicate the effectiveness of the advertising/ promotional campaign. So if you are thinking of a promotional campaign, it must have an objective. And an objective that is measurable. For a yellow page advertisement, the measurement could be the phone calls received before and after the ad was published or the referrals through yellow pages. Many of our advertisers are surprised by orders/ offers received through phone calls, which found to be through advertisements in yellow pages. number of number of pleasantly were later

Now, the question is, if they did not advertise in the yellow pages, would they have received those orders/ offers? That's another matter, though. Your measurable objective must be written, clear and unambiguous. Goals like 'Improve store image'/Increase awareness of our store' etc are too vague and do not lead to anywhere. A good starting point to work on the goal would be: Increase awareness of our store by 10% Notice the missing fullstop? We still have to construct our campaign objective. A Conceivable Benchmark When we talk of measurement, it is both current and future. We must, first, know where we stand now, and know in quantitative terms. The current position is your starting point which will help in establishing a goal and selecting a campaign to reach it. Getting more customers into your store might not be an optimal goal, if you already receive a large number of visitors. So, have an objective analysis of where you are and then start working on your objective. If you know that already many customers are visiting your store, you may probably have some idea of their behaviour related to purchases. (If you don't, that's a pity). Now you know that your advertising can be aimed at converting your visitors to customers. Let's reconstruct our goal now: Increase awareness of our store from the current level of 20% to 30% Well-Defined Target Audience Perhaps, the first lesson you should learn in marketing is target audience. Not everyone is going to buy your product. Not everyone needs your product, it is another matter that some needs are latent and needs to be aroused. So,

identify your target audience, to whom you are going to aim your ad campaign. Most likely, this is going to be your user segment as well. As an example, if you are selling premium car accessories, you should target customers who are stylish, sophisticated or own premium cars. Working further on the advertising goal, we now have: Increase awareness of our store from the current level of 20% to 30% among the owner of product X Fixed time period Your advertising campaign should not run for eternity, without having milestones to achieve over the future time frame. You should have a fixed time period, six months or a year, within which you should aim at attaining certain goals. There should also be some time allocated to test the campaign, make amendments, if required to the campaign. A time should be fixed upon the arrival of which the campaign can be evaluated. So, we finally have our advertising goal as follows: Increase awareness of our store from the current level of 20% to 30% among the owner of product X before the launch of product Y which is expected within the next six months.