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Genetic resources

Restorers and maintainers of WA cytoplasmic male sterile lines in rice


M.N. Upadhyay and H.K. Jaiswal, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi 221005, India E-mail: manindra_upadhyay@rediffmail.com

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food of almost half of the worlds population. Hybrid rice has proved to be the most viable option to increase rice production. The use of wild abortive (WA)-type cytoplasm to develop hybrid rice is now a success story. The first commercial usable CMS line was developed in China in 1973; it came from a spontaneous male sterile plant isolated from a population of wild rice O. sativa f. spontanea in Hainan Island. The identification of maintainers and restorers is a basic requirement for better hybrid seed production. Four CMS lines and 22 nonaromatic rice genotypes were planted in a crossing block in the 2008 wet season at the Agriculture Research Farm at BHU. In the following wet season, the 88 F1s were planted in a randomized block design to determine which were restorers, partial restorers, partial maintainers, and maintainers. Twenty-five-day-old seedlings were transplanted (one seedling hill-1) at a spacing of 20 cm 15 cm (row to row and plant to plant). The experiment was repeated in the 2010 wet season to confirm the previous years results. Pollen fertility and spikelet fertility were observed to identify the maintainers and the restorers, following the classification of Govindraj and Virmani (1988). In our study, 88 crosses were made using four CMS linesIR79156A, IR68897A, IR80555A, and IR67684A. All four CMS lines were found to be stable. A pollen parent is classified as a restorer if its hybrid records >60% pollen fertility and >80% spikelet fertility. The genotypes BPT 5204, Swetha, Jaya, HUR 5-2, and Sasyasree were classified as stable restorers as they recorded more than 60% pollen fertility in both years (see table). These genotypes will be useful in developing hybrids as they possess different traits of interest. Tomar and Virmani (1990), Rosamma and Vijayakumar (2005), and Kumar et al (2010) similar results reported in their studies using different elite lines. Early Shamba, Salivahana, Sarjoo-52, and Swarna were restorers for IR80555A and IR67684A. Of these, Early Shamba and Salivahana additionally 1
2012

International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

Genetic resources

restored the fertility of IR68897A and Sarjoo-52 and Swarna restored the fertility of IR79156A. The findings suggest that these four genotypes have a common genetic background with respect to restoring the fertility of lines IR80555A and IR67684A. However, they differed in the restoration of IR79156A and IR68897A, and this may imply that Early Shamba and Salivahana have different specific nuclear genes for the restoration of IR68897A. The same may be true for the genes in Sarjoo-52 and Swarna to restore IR79156A fertility. Ajay restored the fertility of IR79156A, IR68897A, and IR80555A. Phalguna, Swarna Dhan, Pant-4, and Nidhi restored two of the four CMS lines used, whereas Triguna, HUR-3022, HUR-36, NDR-359, and Nagarjuna proved to be poor restorers and could restore only one of the four CMS lines. This suggests that these restorers have variable restoring ability because of differential interactions of nuclear genes with the CMS factor. In the case of an F1 testcross showing <1% pollen fertility and <1% spikelet fertility, the pollen parent can be considered as an effective maintainer. The effective maintainers can be further backcrossed with their respective F1s to select completely sterile backcross progenies so that these can be developed as new CMS lines. Shanthi was an effective maintainer for two CMS lines. It is 85 cm tall and is similar to the CMS lines used; it is thus most appropriate for conversion. In a majority of the cases, the genotypes behaved as a restorer for one CMS line and as a maintainer, partial restorer, or partial maintainer for the other CMS lines (Bisen and Motiramani 2005). Gautam and Singh (2004) suggested that partial restorers or maintainers have no utility in hybrid rice breeding. The variation in fertility restoration behavior indicates that either the fertilityrestoring genes are different or that their penetrance and expressivity varied with the genotype of the parents or the presence of modifier genes in the female background. Hemareddy et al (2000) reported similar results.

References
Bisen R, Motiramani NK. 2005. Identifying maintainers and restorers using WA source cytoplasmic male sterile lines in rice. Int. Rice Res. Notes 30(1):14-15. Gautam RK, Singh RK. 2004. Identification of salt-tolerant varieties as restorers and maintainers for cytoplasmic genic male sterility for developing salt-tolerant rice hybrids. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Rice: From Green Revolution to Gene Revolution. India: Directorate of Rice Research. p 109-110. Govindraj K, Virmani SS. 1988. Genetics of fertility restoration of WA type cytoplasmic male sterility in rice. Crop Sci. 28:787-792. Hemareddy HB, Lohithaswa HC, Patil RS, Manjunath A, Mahadevappa M, Kulkarni RS. 2000. Differential fertility restoration behaviour of genotypes of WA, Oryza perennis and MS577A cyto-sterile system of rice. Oryza 37(1):26-28.

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International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

Genetic resources

Kumar M, Verma OP, Kumar K, Verma GP. 2010. Fertility restoration behaviour of rice genotypes for CMS lines under saline-alkali situation. Oryza 47(4):265-268. Rosamma LA, Vijayakumar NK. 2005. Maintainers and restorers for CMS lines in rice. J. Trop. Agric. 43(1-2):75-77. Tomar JB, Virmani SS. 1990. Identifying maintainers and restorers of CMS lines for hybrid rice breeding. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 15(6):5-6.

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International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

Genetic resources

Classification of F1 testcross results based on restoration ability, 2009-10.a


Line PF% 2009 Triguna NDR 359 Uma Early Shamba Sarjoo 52 Vajram Salivahana BPT 5204 Phalguna Swetha HUR 36 Swarna Swarna Dhan Pant 4 Nidhi Jaya HUR 5-2 Sasyasree Shanthi HUR 3022 Ajay Nagarjuna 82.9 7.0 0.9 44.9 89.6 92.1 0.3 87.0 57.1 90.2 2.8 89.5 11.4 63.3 92.8 88.8 82.7 84.3 15.9 77.4 68.1 7.6
a

IR79156 SF% 2009 96.1 3.1 0.9 51.5 91.5 90.6 0.4 92.8 45.0 95.7 10.3 92.2 12.2 82.7 91.0 97.0 92.4 95.9 20.3 95.7 86.7 10.3 2010 90.1 12.4 9.7 59.9 88.5 91.3 0.5 84.4 56.5 85.2 13.9 90.4 27.2 84.5 92.8 81.6 84.9 89.8 25.5 89.4 84.5 18.5

Class

PF% 2009 2010 0.9 86.3 0.9 81.4 16.4 9.3 89.5 71.3 81.4 76.2 79.3 0.5 22.1 79.5 0.8 80.6 65.2 75.3 0.5 0.5 81.5 0.2

IR68897 SF% 2009 0.8 95.6 0.4 95.8 22.5 11.3 95.1 83.7 92.8 96.7 91.3 3.8 18.4 93.0 0.1 81.5 85.2 81.2 0.7 0.2 97.2 0.7 2010 0.8 92.4 0.9 92.3 25.5 18.6 82.5 82.4 90.3 85.2 89.9 0.4 34.5 82.9 0.5 86.5 86.2 87.9 0.7 0.3 90.3 0.8

Class

PF% 2009 2010 0.8 7.4 54.5 72.8 69.7 1.5 71.6 76.5 79.5 85.3 0.5 76.6 71.7 0.5 82.8 80.8 70.4 74.3 0.8 30.3 71.5 92.5

IR80555 SF% 2009 0.8 4.0 47.6 89.5 82.8 8.1 91.3 94.4 82.1 94.0 0.5 93.1 95.3 0.2 96.1 92.2 95.6 82.4 0.2 22.1 84.3 89.5 2010 0.7 12.4 49.5 91.6 86.3 10.3 85.5 84.8 86.6 89.7 0.6 89.5 89.4 0.3 90.4 83.3 82.4 87.1 0.5 35.5 89.5 85.5

Class

PF% 2009 2010 0.1 8.4 44.3 81.8 72.3 0.4 81.5 74.6 46.5 72.0 0.4 78.5 78.3 0.4 81.6 75.8 78.2 78.8 12.5 5.5 8.3 0.5

IR67684 SF% 2009 0.2 4.1 56.6 93.1 82.7 0.6 86.9 94.7 52.8 94.5 0.6 95.9 81.3 0.6 96.1 94.7 95.5 87.6 5.0 12.6 8.7 0.8 2010 05 12.5 56.7 89.7 85.3 0.3 90.5 86.3 58.5 87.1 0.6 92.3 82.9 0.4 89.5 85.8 85.4 86.7 20.3 14.4 15.9 0.9

Class

2010 72.3 8.5 3.5 48.6 82.8 89.3 0.3 81.2 49.5 78.2 3.5 82.6 18.4 71.5 87.5 77.5 76.9 82.0 18.4 71.4 61.5 9.4

R PM M/PM PR R R M R PR R PM R PM R R R R R PM R R PM

0.7 88.2 0.7 85.1 12.3 4.7 85.0 67.8 86.2 89.4 85.3 0.7 12.2 87.3 0.8 76.3 66.8 65.3 0.8 0.9 86.8 0.4

M R M R PM PM R R R R R M PM/PR R M R R R M M R M

0.6 4.9 60.9 77.8 65.4 1.2 78.6 75 75.1 86.9 0.5 87.1 66.4 0.6 91.3 81.4 96.5 86.2 0.7 16.8 74.9 99.7

M PM PR R R PM R R R R M R R M R R R R M PM/PR R R

0.5 2.3 50.4 83.1 75.3 0.4 85.5 88.9 52.5 89.2 0.9 89.3 88.7 0.8 86.0 87.5 88.5 73.6 11.7 7.0 5.0 0.7

M PM PR R R M R R PR R M R R M R R R R PM PM PM M

PF = pollen fertility, SF = spikelet fertility. R = restorer (PF >60%; SF >80%), PR = partial restorer (PF 3059%; SF 2979%), PM = partial maintainer (PF 129%; SF 220%), M = maintainer (PF <1%; SF <1%).

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International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)