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Neonatal Pneumonia

Newborn babies are highly susceptible to infection, as the responsibility for respiration and other functions of the organs is passed to the infant. Conditions that may lead to infection can even arise while the baby is still in the womb prior to birth. Pneumonia is a common result of neonatal infection and is responsible for many infant deaths within the first month, especially in cases of low birth weight or maternal malnutrition. Neonatal pneumonia generally fall into two categories: 1. Aspiration pneumonia fetus in the womb or during delivery inhaled amniotic fluid, meconium, or birth canal secretions, or breast milk after birth, such as caused by inhalation, and often secondary infection. 2. Pneumonia prenatal infections (in the mother's body) usually from E. coli, anaerobes, hemolytic streptococcus and viruses (cytomegalovirus, wind attending virus) cause. During childbirth or puerperal infection often by Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, hemolytic streptococcus to cause respiratory viruses. Symptoms
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The lack of typical manifestation. Usually manifested pale or bluish-purple, body temperature did not rise, vomit foam, reduce or reject milk sucking, breathing growing fast, nose flap and difficulty breathing. Lungs can hear the wet rales or signs of obvious. Chest X-ray photograph may have patchy pneumonia in the shadow of the change. There are recognizable symptoms consistent with neonatal pneumonia that may be indicative of respiratory infection, which may in turn develop into pneumonia. These symptoms can include: elevated respiratory rate; grunting when exhaling; increase of mucous and other fluid substances in the airways; and unstable body temperature.

Difficulties in Diagnosing
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There are many causes of respiratory infections in newborn infants. The presence of sepsis (infection) in the mother can be passed on to the unborn infant, where symptoms may begin developing before exposure to external septic sources. In cases of suspected lung problems unrelated to pneumonia, newborns are often placed in ICU with an endotracheal tube.

Causes
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Tracing the source of infection that leads to pneumonia in newborns is very difficult. Infection within the first 48 hours of birth (early onset) is complicated by the variety of possible avenues of entry. Unless a baby requires incubation due to suspected disease or illness, she is generally not isolated. Therefore,

infection can come from airborne bacteria or bacteria commonly found on the skin (staphylococcus epidermis). Late onset infections are also difficult to trace, often for the same reasons. Treatment
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Antibiotics are generally prescribed for neonatal pneumonia. Ampicillin and gentamicin are commonly used until more specific infectious bacteria can be identified. When response to antibiotics is not favorable, macrolides such as erythromycin may be prescribed. Suspected congenital (inherited) pneumonia will often require mechanical ventilation. Any antimicrobial therapy for neonatal pneumonia will generally last between five days and three weeks. careful feeding. pale or cyanosis, difficulty in breathing person should give oxygen. Intravenous antibiotics, often combined with penicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and gentamicin for Staphylococcus aureus infection if it can be used oxacillin. Course of antibiotics is usually 10 ~ 15 days.

Prevention Maternal attention to health. Childbirth to avoid suffocation, to prevent the inhalation of amniotic fluid, meconium. To strengthen newborn health, indoor air circulation, fresh, and avoid contact with respiratory tract infections.