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DRAFT IN
WIDE CIRCULATION
DOCUMENT DESPATCH ADVICE

Reference Date
CED 39/T- 16 15 10 2009

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING SECTIONAL COMMITTEE , CED 39

ADDRESSED TO :

1 Interested Members of Civil Engineering Division Council, CEDC
2. All members of CED 39 and CED 39/AP/Tsunami
3. All others interested

Dear Sir,

Please find enclosed the following document:

Doc No. Title

CED 39(7545) Draft Indian Standard Tsunami Resistant Design of Buildings
and Structures Recommendations
ICS No. 91.120.25


Kindly examine the draft standard and forward your views stating any difficulties which you are
likely to experience in your business or profession, if this is finally adopted as Indian Standard.

Last date for comments : 31 12 2009

Comments if any, may please be made in the format as given overleaf and mailed to the
undersigned at the above address.

In case no comments are received or comments received are of editorial nature, you will kindly
permit us to presume your approval for the above document as finalized. However, in case of
comments of technical in nature are received then it may be finalized either in consultation with the
Chairman, Sectional Committee or referred to the Sectional Committee for further necessary action
if so desired by the Chairman, Sectional Committee.

The document is also being hosted on BIS website www.bis.org.in.

Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,


(A.K. Saini)
Sc `F & Head (Civil Engg.)
Encl: as above email : ced@bis.org.in


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Please e-mail your comments to ced@bis.org.in or s.chaturvedi@bis.org.in or Fax to
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1
Doc : CED 39(7545)


DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY
(Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard)

Draft Indian Standard

TSUNAMI RESISTANT DESIGN OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES
RECOMMENDATIONS

FOREWORD

The Great Indian Ocean Tsunami on 26 December 2004 caused massive damage and a
great deal of it was structural. Furthermore a large proportion of the loss of life could be
ascribed to this structural failure, since it had not planned for vertical evacuation, and the
resulting debris became an added hazard. Although, structural failure was widespread,
many structures did survive inundation by the tsunami, particularly if it was only partial
inundation, suggesting that if communities are going to be built in tsunami prone areas
there may be structural solutions that could be expected to provide a safe refuge in all but
the most extreme events. There is also a need for critical infrastructure in tsunami prone
areas to be resilient to tsunami inundation.

To date there has been very little research undertaken on the design of structures to
resist tsunamis, primarily because major tsunamis were perceived as being so rare as
not to warrant attention from the point of view of public safety. However public
perceptions in this regard are changing. If suitable structural solutions are to be found
they will need to be based on a fundamental understanding of the forces imposed on
structures by tsunami inundation, and the response of structures to them. This will require
considerable knowledge about the physical characteristics of the tsunamis as they
penetrate over land. Three important variables are penetration, depth and velocity. Some
information is available on penetration and depth, but very little is known about velocities
during inundation, and the effect of the entrained debris, which are critical to estimating
forces.

In the context of the above a need was felt to formulate a code, which can provide a
guideline to professional engineers and government bodies for designing tsunami
resistant structures near coasts

Tsunami forces are so high that structures cannot be designed to resist the full impact of
tsunami forces either elastically or in-elastically. Buildings subjected to tsunami are likely
to experience extensive damage even if designed to conform to the provisions of this
code. Tsunami force could be 8-10 times the earthquake force. It will be difficult to design
the normal residential structures to sustain tsunami forces. Hence normal structures must
be protected from design tsunami waves and need not be designed for tsunami forces.
However the coastal protection structures such as walls, dykes, embankment and the
structures inside the sea (e.g. bridges, jetty etc) must be able to sustain the tsunami
forces. Though earthquake occurrence time is of the order of few seconds, the tsunami
arrival time on the coast may range from few minutes to few hours. The simultaneous
impact of both the phenomenon on a structure is not possible, hence, while combining
the loads the effect of forces for earthquake and tsunami need not be taken
simultaneously.

2
The presence of suitable coastal protective measures have been found to mitigate the
extent of damage to structures. Coastal protection measures include hard solutions like
groins, seawalls, break waters, bulk heads, water gates, etc. and soft solutions like
artificial beach nourishment, bioshields, mangroves etc. The presence of coastal
protection measures is an added advantage to safety and it should not be considered for
reducing the design forces stipulated in this code.

With the availability of time gap between initiation of a tsunami event and of its striking a
region, it is recognized that installation of appropriate tsunami warning system plays a
very important role to enable evacuation and prevent loss of life. In the aftermath of the
December 2004 tsunami, India has developed its own tsunami warning system, which
includes a seismic network and ocean bottom pressure recorders. This system enables a
warning to be issued within 20-30 minutes of an earthquake

The effects of sea level variation due to climate change are beyond the scope of this
standard and hence is not addressed.

This draft Indian Standard has been prepared based on studies carried out by various
research groups and the papers published in national and international journals. In the
preparation of this standard, assistance has been taken from the following documents :

Tsunami Glossary:International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) Intergovernmental
Oceanograhic Commission (of UNESCO): International Co-ordination Group for the
Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ICG/ITSU) , 2006.

Guidelines for Reconstruction of House affected by Tsunami in Tamil Nadu: Revenue
Administration, Disaster Management & Mitigation Department, Government of Tamil
Nadu, 2005.

Development of Design Guidelines for Structures that Serve as Tsunami Vertical
Evacuation Sites (52-AB-NR-20051) By Harry Yeh (Oregon State University), Ian
Robertson)University of Hawaii), Janes Preuss, Planwest Partners, 2005

Preventive / Protection and Mitigation from Risk of Tsunami, A Strategy Paper by
Anand.S. Arya, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 2005.

Reducing Tsunami Risk-Strategies for Urban Planning and Guidelines for Construction
Design by Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre.

Designing for Tsunami by National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Steering
Committee, USA, March 2001

For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied
with, the final value observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis,
shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding of numerical
values (revised). The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value
should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.






3
Doc : CED 39(7545)


Draft Indian Standard

TSUNAMI RESISTANT DESIGN OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES
RECOMMENDATIONS



1 SCOPE

1.1 This standard deals with the strategies for protection against tsunami and the design
of structures located on coastal sites to resist the forces induced due to tsunami.

1.2 This standard also includes special criteria for multistory buildings that may be used
for vertical evacuation.

2 REFERENCES

2.1 The standards listed in Annex A contain provisions which through reference in this
text, constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions listed
were valid. All standards are subject to revision and the parties to agreements based on
this standard are encouraged to apply the most recent editions of the standards indicated
in Annex A.

3 TERMINOLOGY

3.1 Arrival Time

Time of arrival of the first wave of a tsunami at a particular location.

3.2 Crest Length

The length of a wave along its crest. Sometimes it is also called as crest width.

3.3 Datum

Reference level for measurement of elevation on land (mean sea level extended
landward is considered as datum in the context of tsunami).

3.4 Dynamic Wave Pressure

The pressure that a moving mass of water associated with tsunami would induce while
encountering an obstruction.

3.5 Estimated Time of Arrival

Computed arrival time of the first wave of a tsunami at coastal zone after a specific major
disturbance in the ocean like, earthquakes, landslides or volcanoes that has occurred.



4
3.6 Elapsed Time

Time interval between observed time of arrival of the first wave of a tsunami at a specific
location on the coast and the time of reaching the normal water level conditions.

3.7 Evacuation Map

A drawing or representation that outlines danger zones and designates limits beyond
which people must be evacuated to avoid any harm from tsunami waves.

3.8 Far-Field Tsunami

A tsunami capable of widespread destruction, not only in the immediate region of its
generation, but across the entire ocean basin.

3.9 Force

Pressure distribution integrated over a given area of the structure.

3.10 Hazard

A Hazard is a situation which poses a level of threat to life, health, property or
environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm,
however, once a hazard becomes active, it can create an emergency situation.

3.11 Impact Standing Wave Pressure

The pressure that acts on the structure experiences due to formation of a standing wave.

3.12 Inundation depth

Depth of water measured at a given location inland at the time of occurrence of tsunami.

3.13 Inundation Distance

The distance that a tsunami wave penetrates inland, measured horizontally from the
intersection point of mean sea level and the beach face (also known as shoreline).

3.14 Intensity

Intensity is the degree of damage to buildings.

3.15 Local Tsunami

A tsunami of which destructive effects are confined to coasts within a hundred km of the
source.

3.16 Mean Sea Level

The average height of sea surface, based upon hourly observations of the height of tide
on the open coast or in adjacent waters which have free access to the sea.


5
3.17 Mean Tsunami Height

Average height of a tsunami measured from the trough to the crest.

3.18 NearField Tsunami

A tsunami from a nearby source, generally less than 200 km or associated with a short
travel time of less than 30 minutes.

3.19 Reference Sea Level

It is level of water at the time of tsunami occurrence.

3.20 Regional Tsunami

A tsunami capable of causing destruction in a particular geographic region, generally
within about 1000 km of its source. Regional tsunami also occasionally have very limited
and localized effects outside the region.

3.21 Run up

Maximum vertical height of the water level inland, measured above mean sea level.

3.22 Sustained Wave Pressure

The pressure that a structure continues to experience for a short period to time.

3.23 Terrain Slope

The tangent of angle made by the ground surface with respect to the mean sea level
(symbolically indicated as tan in the fig.1)

3.24 Travel Time

Time required for the first tsunami wave to propagate from its source to a given point on a
coastline.

3.25 Tsunami

A Japanese term derived from the characters "tsu" meaning harbor and "nami" meaning
wave. A tsunami is a series of waves with a long wavelength and period (time between
crests) usually generated by disturbances associated with earthquakes/landslide or
volcanoes occurring below or near the ocean floor. Time between crests of the wave can
vary from a few minutes to over an hour. Tsunamis are often incorrectly called tidal
waves; they have no relation to the daily ocean tides. Tsunamis can occur at any time of
day or night.

3.26 Tsunami Amplification

Tsunami amplification is the increase in the height of tsunami as it travels from deep
ocean to near shore region.


6
3.27 Tsunami Dispersion

Redistribution of tsunami energy, particularly as a function of its period, as it travels
across a body of water.

3.28 Tsunami Height

It is the vertical distance between the crest (highest point over the water surface) and
trough (lowest point over the water surface) of a tsunami.

3.29 Tsunami Magnitude, Mt

A number characterizing the strength of a tsunami based on the tsunami wave height. Mt
= log 2H, where H = maximum run-up height or amplitude on a coast line near the
generating area Or, Mt = logH + a logR + D, where R is the distance in km from the
earthquake epicenter to the tide station along the shortest oceanic Path, and a and D
are constants

3.30 Tsunami Period

Time that a tsunami wave takes to complete a cycle. Tsunami period typically ranges
from 5 minutes to two hours.

3.31 Tsunami Wavelength

Wavelength is the horizontal distance between successive crests of a tsunami wave.

3.32 Wave Celerity

The speed with which a wave crest moves horizontally across the ocean surface is
defined as wave celerity (c) or phase speed, and is usually measured in meters per
second.

Note: Refer to Fig.1 for some of the important glossary of terms.



















7
4. TSUNAMI CHARACTERISTICS

4.1 Generation of Tsunamis

Tsunamis are generated by any large, impulsive displacement of the sea bed level
(Fig.2). Earthquakes generate tsunamis by vertical movement of the sea floor. If the sea
floor movement is horizontal, a tsunami is not generated. Earthquakes of M > 6.5 are
critical for tsunami generation. Tsunamis are also triggered by landslides into or under
the water surface, and can be generated by volcanic activity and meteorite impacts.


4.2 Characteristics of Tsunamis

Tsunami velocity is dependent on the depth of water through which it travels (Velocity
equals the square root of water depth h times the gravitational acceleration g, that
is h g = V ) (see fig.3). Tsunamis travel approximately at a velocity of 700 kmph in 4000
m depth of sea water. Thus, the tsunami from Sumatra coastal earthquake traveled to
Tamil Nadu coast in about two hours. In 10 m of water depth, the velocity drops to about
36 kmph. Even on shore tsunamis speed is 35 40 km/h, hence much faster than a
person can run.



Possible bore
formation on shore
As waves approach shore
they slow down, the waves
lengths shorten and
amplitudes become higher
Submarine fault
movement, landslide, or
volcanic activity
Tsunami wave train
formation
Fig. 2 Wave train of Tsunami*
3
4
2
*Source:- International Tsunami Information Centre Gerologic Hazard
**Source: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/pr/itic/library/pubs/great_waves/tsunami_great_waves_4.html
8

























Tsunamis range in size from few centimeters to over 30 m height. Most tsunamis
however are less than 3 m in height. In deep water (greater than 200 m), tsunamis are
rarely over 1m high and will not be noticed by ships due to their long time period.

The scientific and technical studies carried out after Indian Ocean Tsunami have
provided some lessons and guidelines for the construction of tsunami safe buildings and
structures and these have been covered in Annex B.

5 GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING OF BUILDINGS AND EVACUATION OF HUMANS

The tsunami waves always approach from the direction of sea towards the coast. The
general guidelines for planning of buildings shall be as follows:

5.1 Minimizing Tsunami Pressures

The buildings constructed on reinforced stilt columns
with sufficient clearance under the building
superstructure, the tsunami wave will be able to pass
though exerting only the minimum pressures on the
columns (see Fig.4). For further reduction in such
hydrodynamic pressures, the columns may be made
circular, octagonal or square with chamfered/rounded
corners. The risers in stairs should be left open for
water to cross through.








Tsunami Max
Fig. 4 - House constructed on stilts
Possible
Bore
Fig.3 Tsunami Velocities**

9
5.2 Providing Soft Breaking Obstructions

Buildings may be built as per 5.1 but with infill/cladding wall panels which would break
easily and give way to the tsunami wave to pass through under the upper structure of the
building. Such a lower level space may be used to perform functions like seating for
primary education schooling or community gathering purposes in the normal course.

5.3 Protecting the Building by Strong Walls

On the coastal side of the building, strong walls may be constructed by which the wave
water will be deflected back towards the sea (see Fig.5 a). The walls may be curved
concavely towards the sea in vertical or the horizontal plane. Needless to say that the
walls will have to be designed for the resulting very large reactive forces.












NOTE Recommended heights of bund above high tide line (on the basis of Dec 2004 Indian
Ocean Tsunami) given in Annex C.

5.4 Use of Break Waters

On the coastal side of the building, appropriate energy dissipation blocks of concrete or
stone may be arranged as under the canal falls or the spill way dams which will dissipate
the energy of the fast moving waters of the tsunami so that the impact on the building
elements will be minimized to safe level (see Fig. 5 b).













5.5 Designing the Building Resistance

It is known that the tsunami forces can even be ten times larger than the maximum
earthquake or cyclonic wind pressures. It will therefore require a very heavy wall structure
in the lower storyes of the building to make it safe against tsunami impacts. The kind of
actions created on the building are shown in Fig. 6.


Blocking Wall
Fig. 5a Construction of Blocking walls for
deflection of tsunami waves.
Fig. 5b Construction of wave breakers
for slowing speed of waves.
10
























5.6 Evacuation of the Population

Evacuation of the people could be affected by vertical evacuation through raised
platforms with proper staircase approach, or into multistoreyed upper floors, or to
platforms constructed at high enough elevation as part of elevated water towers, or by
creating safe areas at higher elevations provided with easy and direct approach to the
nearby communities as shown in Fig. 7. The design approach for structures to be used
for evacuation purposed should be chosen suitably for the sites under consideration.














6 TSUNAMI HAZARD MAP

The Tsunami hazard map at present may be empirically defined using a deterministic
approach based upon potential maximum Tsunami wave heights. The definition of the
tsunami hazard zones, as preliminary estimates, is given in Table 1. For the terrestrial
environment the hazard has been presented as inundation depths. Tsunami hazard map
indicating the elevation data of coasts (contour maps) is yet to be developed. However,
Maximum Probable Storm Surge Height and Seismic Zone in Coastal Districts of India
are given in ANNEX C. For the marine environment (In water) Harbor, Bay and Reefs
hazard has been specified in terms of potential tsunami amplifications.

Fig. 7 Vertical & Horizontal Evacuation
VERTICAL
EVACUATION
HORIZONTAL
EVACUATION
HIGH MOUND
WAVE
BREAK
OVERTURNING
SLIDING
SCOURING
Fig. 6 Actions on Structures created by
Tsunamis
11


Table 1 Tsunami Hazard Zones Definition

Tsunami Hazard Zone

Characteristics
Very high High Medium Low Very Low

On land
structures:
Inundation
depth above GL
(m)
> 9 6-9 3-6 1-3 < 1.0
In water
Structures:
Tsunami
amplification
above MSL (m)
- > 2 1-2 0.5-1.0 < 0.5

7 GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Due to the effect of tsunami, structures are subjected to the following additional
pressures such as dynamic and sustained wave pressures in addition to the impact wave
pressure. The effects of long term erosion, storm-induced erosion and local scour should
be considered in the design of foundations of buildings and structures.

7.1 Category of Structures

For tsunami resistant design of structures, the structures are classified into the following
categories:

Category Description

I Load bearing or Non-engineered buildings.

II RCC & steel buildings which are not intended for
vertical evacuation.

III Structures for vertical evacuation.

IV All near shore and on shore structures not covered in I,
II & III categories.


7.2 Materials and Methodology for Category I Structures

No special analysis and design provisions are envisaged for category I structures.
However, applicable clauses of IS 4326 / IS 13828 may be used as recommended in 8 of
this standard.

7.3 Materials for Category II, III and IV Structures

The requirements in this clause are applicable to structures of category II, III & IV only.
12


7.3.1 Concrete

Exposure condition for coastal environment shall be taken as defined in IS 456. Minimum
grade of concrete, cement content, maximum w/c ratio, maximum aggregate size and
cover to reinforcement shall be as per the provisions of IS 456.

NOTE In case, prestressed concrete is used, it shall conform to IS 1343.

7.3.2 Reinforcement Steel

Reinforcement steel Fe 415 or TMT bars (Fe 500 or Fe 550) conforming to IS 1786 and
having minimum elongation of 14.5 percent shall be used.

7.3.3 Structural Steel

Structural steel conforming to IS 2062 shall be used with suitable corrosion protection
measures. Provisions pertaining to durability and corrosion protection as given in IS 800
shall be complied.

7.4 Methodology for Designing Category II Structures

The provisions of IS 1893 and IS 13920 shall be applied for analysis and design of
category II structures as per seismic zone V requirements for the structures in the
tsunami affected area of the district. However, for rest of the area, design of structures
shall be done as per seismic zones given in Annex C.

7.5 Forces due to Tsunami Impact on Category II Structures

7.5.1 Estimation of Tsunami Amplification Near the Shore

Tsunami amplification near the shore can be estimated from the following equation:

d) (g
2
1
H )
0
d (g
2
0
H =
(1a)
or
4
1
d
0
d
0
H
1
H

= (1b)
where
H
o
=Approximate height of tsunami in flat deep ocean floor (can be determined
from the fig. 8. For rugged deep ocean floor adopt fig. 9)
H
1
= height of tsunami near the shore (m)
d
o
= water depth in the deep sea (m)
d = water depth near the shore (m)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s
2
)
13

Figure 8 Height of tsunami in flat deep ocean floor (depth more than 4000 m )



Figure 9 Height of tsunami in rugged ocean floor

7.5.2 Estimation of Impact Forces for Structures Located Near the Sea Front

7.5.2.1 For Structures Located Within 50 m from the Sea Front

The following procedure for estimating the design force for structures within 50 m from
the sea front shall be adopted. For structures located beyond 50 m upland, procedure
given in7.5.2.2 shall be adopted


14
a) Determination of dynamic wave pressure

The following equation gives the dynamic wave pressure:


h H g
c
K
gh
P
1
2
4
w
dm
= (2a)


or

1
4
w
dm
gH
C
K P =

(2b)

where
P
dm
= maximum dynamic wave pressure (N/m
2
)
c = wave celerity (m/s)
h = initial water depth (m)
H
1
= Height of tsunami near shore (m)
= density of seawater (kg/m
3
)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s
2
)
K = kinetic wave coefficient (0.3 to 0.51)

b) Determination of Sustained Wave Pressure


( )
1
2
1
dm
s m
gH
c
cos 2 0. 14
P
P
+ = (3)


where

1
: structure slope (Fig. 10)
P
sm
: maximum sustained wave pressure (N/m
2
)
P
dm
: maximum dynamic wave pressure (N/m
2
)
c : wave celerity (m/s)
g : acceleration due to gravity (m/s
2
)
H
1
: Height of tsunami near shore (m)

Figure 10 Definition sketch for
1




15
c) Determination of Impact Standing Wave pressure

The relation between the sum of maximum dynamic wave pressure P
dm
, maximum
sustained wave pressure P
sm
and maximum impact wave pressure P
im
is given by the
following equations.

<
+
=
+
1. 1
c
cot ) H (h g
for 0. 5
P P
P
2
1 1
s m dm
i m
(4)


+
=
+
1. 1
c
cot ) H (h g
for 6. 6 cos 10
P P
P
2
1 1
1
s m dm
i m
(5)

where
P
im
: maximum impact standing wave pressure. (N/m
2
)

1
: structure slope (Fig. 10)
P
sm
: maximum sustained wave pressure (N/m
2
)
P
dm
: maximum dynamic wave pressure (N/m
2
)
c : wave celerity (m/s)
g : acceleration due to gravity(m/s
2
)
H
1
:height of tsunami near shore (m)

d) Estimation of wave force


Figure 11 Pressure distribution over the vertical face

Assuming a triangular pressure distribution (Fig. 11), wave force per unit length of the
structure can be calculated based on equation

1
H Pi m 0. 5 F = (6)

where

F : Wave force / meter length of the structure (N/m)
Pim : maximum impact standing wave pressure. (N/m
2
)
H
1
: Height of tsunami near shore (m)
16

7.5.2.2 For Structures Located Upland (More than 50 M from Sea Front)

For structures located upland maximum of the wave force obtained from the following two
methods:

Method 1

a) Determination of inundation distance and inundation depth (see fig. 12)


Figure 12 Definition sketch for inundation distance and inundation depth

X
1
= Location of the structure upland from the edge of the beach.
X
2
= total inundation distance from the edge of the beach.
H
1
= Tsunami height at 6m water depth or the chosen depth.
tan = slope of the terrain ( above the beach berm )
h* = inundation depth at the structure = H
1
[ 1-(x
1
/ x
2
)]
Evaluate distance X
2
from equation (7), where suitable value of the factor has to
utilized.

=
tan
H * fact or
X
1
2
(7)

where the factors* are given in Table 2.

Table 2 Factors Recommended for the Given Slope of the Terrain

Tan Factor
(rugged terrain)
Factor
(plain surface)
< 0.003 0.75 1.2
0.003 0.006 0.85 1.5
0.006 0.011 1.12 2.24
0.011 0.025 1.6 3.2
0.025 0.03 1.8 3.6








17
b) Estimation of wave force

The force can be directly evaluated as follows (see Fig. 12)

[ ]

=
2
1
x
x
1 (gd) v* (8)


2
a(v*) F = (9)
Where
a : the projected area of the building (h* x
1
) / meter length of the building .
v* : tsunami flow velocity (m/s)
F : Wave force / meter length of the structure (N/m)

Method 2

Let Hb be the height of the building

a) Estimation of wave force for * 3h Z 3h*, H
max b
=

( see fig. 13 a for pressure distribution )

Pressure distribution is obtained based on equation 10 (z varies from zero to 3h*)

Z)) (3h (z) P
*
m
= (10)


* *
3h g) (3h 0. 5 F = (11)

b) Estimation of wave force for
b max
*
h
H Z , 3h H = <

( see fig. 13 b for pressure distribution )

Pressure distribution is obtained based on equation 11 ( z varies from zero to Hb)

( ) z)) (3h z
m
P
*
= (12)

b
b
*
H g
2
H 6h
F


= (13)

Where
: density of seawater kg/m
3

g : acceleration due to gravity m/s
2

H
b
: height of the building
pm : pressure (N/m
2
)
F : wave force / meter length of the structure (N/m)
18


Figure 13 a Pressure distribution over a structure 3 * b H h





Figure 13 b Pressure distribution over a structure (Hb < 3 h*)

Maximum of the forces estimated based on equations (9) and (11 or 13 as applicable)
shall be adopted as design wave load.

7.6 Forces Due to Tsunami Impact on Category IV Structures

For structures which are classified as Category IV structures, the following forces due to
Tsunami such as hydrostatic force, hydrodynamic force, buoyancy force and fluid flow
drag, foundation scour and impact due to waterborne debris shall be considered. These
loads may cause large structural deformation, yielding, fracture and collapse and / or
dislodgment of coastal structures from their bases, hence should be properly considered
in design.

7.6.1 Hydrostatic Force (F
h
)

Hydrostatic force occurs when standing or slow moving water encounters a building or
building component. This load always acts perpendicular to the surface to which it is
applied. It is caused by an imbalance of pressure due to differential water depth on
19
opposite sides of a structure or structural members. The lateral hydrostatic force is given
by:

2 2
2
p
h
gd
1
h g
2
1
2g
u h
g
2
1
F

+ =

+
=

where,

F
h
: Hydrostatic force
: Density of water
g: Gravity
h: water depth
u
p
: Water velocity normal to the wall (as obtained from simulation )

The resultant force will act horizontally at a distance of h
R
above the base of the wall
where:

+
=
2g
u h
3
1
h
2
p
R


This formula applies to steady state situation of a bridge column supported by a
foundation underneath the sea. In the case of tsunami, the hydrodynamic loads are
transient and the effects of water velocity are accounted for by the hydrodynamic and / or
the surge force. The above formula may not be relevant to a building with finite breadth,
for which the water can flow around and quickly fill up behind the building. Hydrostatic
force is usually important for 2-D structures such as seawalls and dikes or for evaluation
of an individual wall panel where the water level outsides differ substantially from the
level inside.

7.6.2 Buoyant Force (F
b
)

The buoyant or vertical hydrostatic forces on a structure or structural member subjected
to partial or total submergence will act vertically through the center of mass of the
displaced volume. Buoyant forces are a concern for basement, empty above ground and
below ground tanks, and for swimming pools. The buoyant force is given by:

V g F
b
=
or
2
v L b
U A C
2
1
F =
where,

V = volume of water displaced by the structure considered.
C
L
= lift coefficient (normally=0.8)
A= projected area
U
v
= vertical velocity ( gd)

7.6.3 Hydrodynamic Drag Force (F
d
)

When the water flows around a building (or structural element or other object)
hydrodynamic loads are applied to the building. These loads are a function of flow
20
velocity and structure geometry, and include frontal impact on the upstream face, drag
along the sides and suction on the downstream side. These loads are induced by the flow
of water moving at moderate to high velocity. They are usually called drag forces, which
are combination of lateral loads caused by the impact of the moving mass of water and
the friction forces as the water flows around the obstruction. The hydrodynamic drag
force on a structure component in the direction of a steady flow can be expressed as:

2
p D d
u A C
2
1
F =

Where
A : Projected area normal to the direction of the flow
C
D
: Drag coefficient, the value of which is taken as follows

Circular piles 1.0
Square piles 2.0
Wall sections 1.5

For large obstructions this value is given in the following table :

Width to Depth Ratio Drag Coefficient C
D


from 1-12

1.25
13-.20 1.3
21-32 1.4
33-40 1.5
41-80 1.75
81-120 1.8
> 120 2

7.6.4 Surge Impingement (F
s
)

Surge forces are caused by the leading edge of a surge of water impinging on a
structure. The hydrodynamic force of the leading edge of the fluid flow acting per unit
area of a structure due to tsunami surge is given by:

F
s
= 4.5 g h
2


Where, h is the height of surging flow.

The resultant acts at a distance of approximately h above the base of the wall. This
equation is applicable for walls within heights equal to or greater than 3h. Walls whose
heights are less than 3h require surge forces to be calculated using appropriate
combination of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic force equations for the given situation

7.6.5 Impact Force (F
i
)

During the tsunami or storm surge, water-borne objects (e.g. boats, oil rigs, vehicles, drift
wood etc.) may hit a coastal structure with tremendous impact force. This scenario
involves highly non-linear coupled fluid (tsunami or storm surge flow)- structure-(debris)-
structure interaction and the physics is often very complex. This load can be estimated by
21
parametric study using complex finiteelement model and simulation. The generalized
expression for impact force F
i
is given by following equation:

=
t
u
m F
I
i

where,
u
I
= approach velocity that is assumed equal to the flow velocity
m = mass of the body,
t = impact duration that is equal to the time between the initial contact of the body
with the building and the maximum impact force. The value of t may be taken
from the table.
Value of t


Duration (t) of impact (sec)

Type of construction
Wall Pile
Wood 0.7-1.1 0.5-1.0
Steel Na 0.2-0.4
Reinforced Concrete 0.2-0.4 0.3-0.6
Concrete Masonry 0.3-0.6 0.3-0.6

7.6.6 Wave Breaking Force (Fbrkw)

Following expression for wave breaking force may be used:

2
b db brkw
H D C g
2
1
F =

Where, C
db
is a shape coefficient (value = 2.25 for square or rectangular piles and 1.75
for round piles), D is the pile diameter, and H
b
is the wave breaking height (H
b
= 0.78 ds,
where ds is the design still water depth).

7.6.7 Tsunami and Storm Surge Scour

Scour of supporting material at the foundation base of a structure or a bridge pier due to
tsunami or storm surge differs from the ordinary case of a bridge scour, which occurs
gradually caused by periodic waves and steady current loads. In a tsunami or storm
surge, the leading wave may scour away much of the supporting materials around the
base of a structure and weaken the foundation so much that the foundation of structure
or pier of bridge fails under the subsequent fluid drag load. The behavior of tsunami and
storm surge scour is very complex and dependent on the geometric properties of the
bridge columns as well and the material properties of the surrounding soil at the base.
Currently, no simple formula exists for scour prediction. Much experimental work needs
to be conducted to provide data for empirical prediction and analysis.

Note : As tsunami is a very low probability event and the forces due to tsunami are very huge, the
economic implication of designing all the members of the structure for tsunami forces shall be
deliberated. The infill walls may be allowed to collapse in the event of a tsunami. However, the
frame members shall be designed to withstand the tsunami forces. Alternatively, measures such as
wave arrestors can be provided at the coast to reduce the magnitude of forces so that the full
impacts of the waves are not experienced by the structures to be designed.



22
7.7 Load Combination

When tsunami forces are considered on a structure, these shall be combined as per 7.7.1
and 7.7.2 where the terms DL, IL and Ft stand for the response quantities due to dead
load, imposed load and tsunami load for the members facing the tsunami wave. These
load combinations are in addition to all other relevant load combinations that should be
considered while designing the structures as per relevant Indian Standards. Even though
tsunamis are generally caused due to earthquake, the earthquake and tsunami forces are
not considered simultaneously due to the difference in their arrival time.

7.7.1 Load Factors for Plastic Design of Steel Structures

In the plastic design of steel structures following additional load combinations involving
tsunami forces shall be accounted for:

i) 1.7 (DL + F
t
)
ii) 1.3 (DL + IL + F
t
)

7.7.2 Partial Safety Factors for Limit State Design of Reinforced and Prestressed
Concrete Structures

In the limit state design of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structure, following
additional load combinations involving tsunami forces shall be accounted for:

i) 1.2 (DL+IL+F
t
)
ii) 1.5 (DL + F
t
)
iii) 0.9 DL + 1.5 F
t


8 Construction Aspects of Category I Buildings

For earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings of Category I, IS 4326 & IS
13828 shall be followed as appropriate for the material of construction and the Seismic
Zone of the area where such buildings are to be constructed. Besides special
considerations will be required if the buildings are situated in high cyclone prone and
storm surge prone or tsunami prone coastal areas. Such special considerations are
provided in the following clauses:

8.1 Siting of Buildings

Coastal areas of low elevations within 500 m to 1.5 Km from the shore may suffer due to
impact of tsunami flow and inundations. Also such areas may also suffer on account of
high wind speeds in the tropical cyclones and storm surge of the sea water under the
action of cyclones. Therefore it is recommended that:

i) The selection of site should preferably avoid areas likely to be submerged under
tsunami or storm surge inundation.

ii) Building should be founded on soil strata reliably stable against scour and erosion
and should not be susceptible to liquefaction due to earthquake.

iii) The site should preferably be selected at higher elevation as possible



23
8.2 Foundation

The following safety considerations may be applied for determining the depth and type of
foundation:

i) Shallow foundations have the risk of being scoured by the receding tsunami wave
hence a minimum depth of foundation of 1.5 m below natural ground level is
recommended.

ii) Use of under ream piles or concrete pedestal piles or reinforced brick pedestal
piers going to more than 2 m depth will be preferable. Such foundation shall have a
ground level reinforced concrete beam at the top of piles/pedestals for supporting the
super structure walls.

iii) Where the storm surge or tsunami wave height is estimated to be more than 5 to
6m, the building may be constructed on stilts, the columns being founded on piles with
a ground level interconnecting beam and knee braces provided near the top of the stilt
columns (full diagonal brasses are to be avoided so as not to obstruct the passage of
the floating debris during storm surge & tsunami)

Note: The ground floor in stilt buildings can be used for various temporary purposes like storage,
running of classes for small children, play area of children or any community function.

8.3 Planning of the Building

i) An integrated enclosure of a room by the four walls creates a stable structure
against the onslaught of lateral water pressure. But if the rooms have very long walls,
those may be destroyed under the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures since
such walls act like vertical cantilevers. A crate like plan will be much more stable.
Hence wall lengths in the rooms may be restrained to 4 m.

ii) Every building may be planned to work for vertical evacuation of the residents by
providing a flat roof accessible through a stair case. The roof may also have a strong
parapet to assure the safety of the people on the roof.

iii) The staircase may be made without vertical risers having only treads so as to
permit free flow of water without breaking the staircase.

iv) The external wall corners may be made chamfered or curved in plan to permit
smoother flow of water.

8.4 Building Super Structure

i) The construction of walls, masonry piers etc. should follow the Guidelines given in
IS 4326 or IS 13828 as the case may be. Notwithstanding the earthquake safety
requirements provided in these codes for moderate seismic zones, in the storm surge
or tsunami prone area the following safety measures should be adopted for the load
bearing masonry buildings:

ii) The safety measures provided in IS 4326 for the most sever Seismic Zone V should
be adopted for strengthening the walls by the following measures:



24
a) Use of rich mortar as specified for zone V

b) Control on the size and placing of door and window openings

c) Provision of seismic bands at plinth and lintel levels in buildings with
reinforced concrete slab floor and roofs

d) Additional provision of seismic bands at eave level, around the gable
masonry in the case of pitched roofs

e) Provision of vertical reinforcement on all corners and junctions of walls from
the foundation masonry through the floor and anchored into the roof

f) Provision of vertical bars at the jambs of door and window openings,
anchored into the plinth and the lintel bands

Note: All these provisions will incorporate such strengthening measures that the total
disintegration may not occur under the tsunami impact as it may not be able to destroy the
building totally but create damages in opposite walls to create openings for the water to follow
through.


25
ANNEX A

( Clause 2.1)

LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS

IS No. Title

IS 456: 2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth
revision)

IS 800: 2007 Code of practice for general construction in steel (second
revision)

875(Parts 1 to 5):1987 Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for
building structures:

Part 1 Dead loads - Unit weights of building material and
stored materials (second revision)

Part 2 Imposed loads (second revision)

Part 3 Wind loads (second revision)

Part 4 Snow loads (second revision)

Part 5 Special loads and load combinations (second revision)

IS 1786 : 2008 High strength deformed steel bars and wires for concrete
reinforcement Specification

1893 (Part 1): 2002 Criteria for earthquake design of structures:
Part 1 General Provisions and buildings

IS 1904 : 1986 Code of practice for design and construction of foundations
in soils : General requirements

IS 1905 : 1987 Code of practice for structural use of unreinforced masonry

IS 2062 : 2006 Hot rolled low, medium and high tensile structural steel

IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 1
: 1979
Code of practice for design and construction of pile
foundations: Part 1 Concrete piles, Section 1 Driven cast in-
situ concrete piles ( Revision under print )

IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 2
: 1979
Code of practice for design and construction of pile
foundations: Part 1 Concrete piles, Section 2 Bored cast-in-situ
piles ( Revision under print )

IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 3
: 1979
Code of practice for design and construction of pile
foundations: Part 1 Concrete piles, Section 3 Driven precast
concrete piles ( Revision under print )

26
IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 4
: 1984
Code of practice for design and construction of pile
foundations: Part 1 concrete piles, Section 4 Bored precast
concrete piles ( Revision under print )

IS 2911 : Part 2 : 1980 Code of practice for desing and construction of pile
foundations: Part 2 Timber piles

IS 2911 : Part 3 : 1980 Code of practice for design and construction of pile
foundations: Part 3 Under reamed piles

IS 2911 : Part 4 : 1985 Code of practice for design and construction of pile
foundations: Part 4 Load test on piles
IS 4326: 1993 Code of practice for earthquake resistant design and
construction of buildings (third revision)

IS 13828 : 1993 Improving earthquake resistance of low strength masonry
buildings - Guidelines

IS 13920: 1993 Ductile detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to
seismic forces


27


ANNEX B

SOME LESSONS FROM THE GREAT INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI OF DEC. 26, 2004

B-1 Dynamic Forces

The force of some tsunamis is enormous. Large rocks weighing several tones along with
boats and other debris can be moved inland hundreds of meters by tsunami wave
activity. Trees are uprooted, and homes and other buildings are destroyed. All this
material and water move with great force and can kill or injure people.

B-2 Effect on Off-Shore/On-Shore Structures

It was observed that a number of jetties and other harbor walls were severely damaged
by the tsunami through its hydro-dynamic force as well as scouring of foundations acting
simultaneously. This damage very adversely affected the relief work to be carried to the
Andaman & Nicobar Islands through ships from the Indian mainland.

B-3 Lessons for Protection and Structural Safety

The important lesson learnt from the Tsunami impact on off-shore structures and
buildings near the coast and is that the brute force of tsunami waters if allowed to flow
freely, may not cause any damage. But if it is resisted structurally, the resistance required
will have to be very high against the breaking of the bore and the hydro-dynamic force of
the flowing water. These forces will be further enhanced due to the debris created by the
tsunami and flowing with the water creating impact on any obstructing element, wall or
column.

The lessons from behavior of various structures impacted by the Indian Ocean Tsunami
are summarized in Tables 1 & 2, which would be helpful in planning the various new
structures in coastal areas considered prone to impact of future tsunamis.

28
Table 1 Phenomenon of Inundation

Effect Design Solution

Flooded basement Choose sites at higher elevations
Flooding of lower floors Raise the buildings plinth above flood elevation
Flooding of mechanical
electrical & communication
system & equipment
Do not stack or install vital material or equipments on floors or basement
lying below tsunami inundation level
Damage to building materials
& contents
Protect hazardous material storage facility located in tsunami prone area.
Contamination of affected
areas with water borne
pollutants
Locate mechanical systems & equipments at higher location in the
building

Use corrosion resistant concrete & steel for the portions of the
building which are liable to inundation.

Hydrostatic forces (Pressure
on walls by variation in water
depth on opposite sides
Provide adequate openings such as louvers to allow water to reach
equal heights inside & outside of buildings.

Design for static water pressure on walls.

Consider suction tensions on walls under receding waters.

Buoyancy floatation or uplift
forces caused by buoyancy
Elevate building to avoid floatation due to flooding.

Anchor building to foundation to prevent floatation

Saturation of soil causing
slope instability and/or loss of
bearing capacity
Evaluate bearing capacity & shear strength of soil that support
building foundation & embankment slopes under condition of
saturation.

Avoid slopes or setbacks from slope that may be destabilized when
inundated.


Table 2 Phenomenon of Currents, (wave break & bore)

Effect Design Solution

Hydrodynamic forces
(pushing forces on
the front face of the
building and drag
caused by flow
around the building
Elevate building on stilts to avoid hydrodynamic pressures

Design infill wall panels on ground floor, in R.C. frame buildings, to fail under
flowing water pressure without causing failure of columns. Anchor columns
to foundations deep enough to escape soil erosion under receding waters.

Design for dynamic water forces on walls: off-shore and on-shore jetties,
protection walls, break waters etc.

Debris Impact Elevate building to permit free flow of water and avoid debris impact.

Design for Impact loads.

Scour Use deeper foundation (piles or piers).

Protect against scour and erosion around foundation.




29

ANNEX C

Maximum Probable Storm Surge Height and Seismic Zone in
Coastal Districts of India

Sl.
No.
Coastal
States and
UTs
Coastal Districts Strom
Surge
height
above
Concurrent
Sea Level,
m
Indian
Ocean
Tsunami
run-up and
Inundation,
m (m)
Seismic
Zone (IS
1893:2002)
Height of
Tsunami
Run-up, m
Recom-
mended
Height
of bund
above
High
Tide
Line, m

1 Andhra
Pradesh
Srikakulam 4 II 4.5 4.5

Vizianagaram

4

II

4.5 4.5
Vishakha Pattanam

4


II


4.5


4.5


East Godawari

4.5 III 5 5.0
West Godawari

5 III 5.5 5.5
Krishna

5.5 III 6 6.0
Guntur

7.5 III 8 7.0
Prakasam

6 III 6.5 6.5

Nellore 4.5 III 5 5.0

2 Goa North Goa

4.5 III 5 5.0
South Goa 4.5 III 5 5.0

3 Gujarat Kachchh

3.5 V 4 4.0
Surendra Nagar

3.5 IV 4 4.0
Rajkot

3.5 IV 4 4.0
Jam Nagar

3.5 IV 4 4.0
Porbandar

3.5 III 4 4.0
Junagarh

3.5 III 4 4.0
Amreli

4 III 4.5 4.5
Bhavnagar

4.5 III 5 5.0
Ahemdabad

4.5 III 5 5.0
Anand

4.5 III 5 5.0
Bharuch

4.5 III 5 5.0
Surat

4.5 III 5 5.0
Navsari 4.5 III 5 5.0


Valsad

5 III 5.5 5.5
30
4 Karnataka Uttara Kannada

4.5 III 5 5.0
Udupi

4.5 III 5 5.0
Dakshina Kannada 4.5 III 5

5.0
5 Kerala Kesaragod

4 III 4.5 4.5
Kannur

4 III 4.5 4.5
Kozhikod

4.5 III 5 5.0
Malappuram

4.5 III 5 5.0
Thrissur

4.5 III 5 5.0
Ernakulam

4 III 4.5 4.5
Kottayam

4 III 4.5 4.5
Kollam

3.5 III 4 4.0

Thrivunanthapuram 3

III 3.5 3.5
6 Maharashtra Thane

5 III 5.5 5.5
Mumbai

5 III 5.5 5.5
Raigarh

5 IV 5.5 5.5
Ratnagiri

4 IV 4.5 4.5

Sindhudurg 4

III 4.5 4.5
7 Orissa Baleshwar

11 III, II 11.5 7.0*
Bhadrak

9.5 II 10 7.0*
Kendrapara

8.5 III 9 6.0*
Jagatsinghpur

6.5 III 7 6.0*
Puri

4 III 4.5 5.0

Ganjam 4

II 4.5 4.5
8 Tamil Nadu Thiruvallur


3.5 2.1-3.5 (500-
700)
III 4 4.0
Chennai 3.5 2.2-2.3 (500-
700)
III 4 4.0
Kanchipuram

3.5 2.7-4.7 (100-
400)
III, II 5.2** 4.0
Viluppuram 3.5 3.3-4.8(300-
500)
II 5.3** 4.0
Cuddalore 3.5 1.8-4.6(140-
1500)
II 5.1** 4.0
Thiruvarur
(East Coast)

3.5 3.5-4.8 (700-
1000)
II 5.3** 4.0
Thiruvarur
(South Coast)
5.5 3.5-4.8 (700-
1000)
II 6 6.0
Nagapattinam

4.5

3.0-5.0 (300-
1500)
II 5.5** 5.0
Thanjavur


5.5 ? II 6 6.0

Pudukkottai

7 ? II 7.5 6.0*
31
Ramnathapuram
(East Coast)

12 ? II 12.5 8.0*
Ramnathapuram
(South Coast)

7 ? II 7.5 6.0*
Toothukudi 7 3.5-5.1 (60-
600)
II 7.5 6.0*
Tirunelveli

7 3.6-4.0(40-
750)
II 7.5 6.0*

Kaniyakumari 3 2.2-3.3(90-
200
III 3.8** 3.5
9 West Bengal South 24 Parganas

12 IV 12.5 8.0*
Medinipur 13

III 13.5 8.0*
10 Andaman &
Nicobar
Islands
Chattam wharf

? 3.4 V 3.9** 3*
Jugli ghat

? 3.8 V 4.3** 3.5*
Bamboo flat jetty


? 4.0 V 4.5** 3*
Hut bay ? 6.1 V 6.6** 5*

Chidiatapu

? 3.9 V 4.4** 3*
Havelock island

? 3.0 V 3.5** 2*
Mayabandar

? 2.9 V 3.4** 2*
Diglipur

? 2.9 V 3.4** 2.5*

Nicobar Island ? 6-10 V 6-10.5** 4.6*

11 Daman &
Diu
Daman

5 III 5.5 5.5
Diu 3.5 III 4 4.0

12 Lakshdeep ?

III 3 3.0
13 Pondicherry Karaikal

3.5 III 4 4.0
Mahe

4 III 4.5 4.5
Pondicherry

5 III 5.5 5.5

Yanam ? III 3 3.0



* Overtopping to be considered in design,

** Places where measured Tsunami run-up exceeded storm surge height

NOTE -1) Indian Ocean Tsunami run-up and Inundation (m) have been provided by IIT Madras.

2) The recommended height of bund above high tide lines is, in most cases, 0.5m above the storm
surge height which is more frequent than occurrence of the worst tsunami hence not considered
even if higher than surge height. In few cases where the maximum surge height was very high,
say more than 6 m, the bund height is recommended from economy consideration with the
guiding footnote that design may take the overlapping possibility in a rare event into account.