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Harnessing Wind Energy to Power Homes in Tonle Sap

A response to the Engineers Without Borders Challenge, 2009

Gone With The Wind


Cameron Batten Eleanor OHagan Jason Pickup Brendan Sedgers Joshua Stainlay Sophie Thompson

St Johns College Within the University of Sydney 8a Missenden Road Camperdown NSW 2050

22 September 2009 Mr. Daniel Almagor Chief Executive Officer Engineers Without Borders Australia PO Box 79 Elsternwick VIC 3185 Dear Mr Almagor, Please find enclosed our report: Harnessing Wind Energy to Power Homes in Tonle Sap, the submission from Gone With The Wind, The University of Sydney, for the 2009 Engineers Without Borders Challenge. This report outlines our solution to the issue of energy in Tonle Sap, Cambodia, in an attempt to assist the development of this community. This report was researched, written and compiled by the group members of Gone With The Wind Cam Batten, Eleanor OHagan, Jason Pickup, Brendan Sedgers, Joshua Stainlay and Sophie Thompson. We expect that you will appreciate the hope that we believe our concept has the ability to bring to the community of Tonle Sap. Sincerely,

Sophie Thompson On behalf of Gone With The Wind

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Executive Summary
The Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia, is the largest lake in South East Asia, home to 32% of the Cambodian population. The Tonle Sap Lake and surrounding communities are faced with many problems including pollution, a lack of clean water, transport limitations and an energy crisis. According to the World Bank the power grid in Cambodia only reaches 12% of households, at an extremely expensive rate. A significant proportion of power in the Tonle Sap region is obtained from diesel generator stations which charge 12V car batteries that cause pollution when disposed of. The rest is generated from non-renewable, dirty means. Cheap, easy to maintain, clean and renewable energy must be researched to fix these problems as power is also important for the Cambodian people to progress and increase their living standards. We have chosen to address the energy crisis with windpower - according to the World Bank, the Tonle Sap area is home to good wind speeds and has the potential to make use of renewable wind energy. Our plan is to use a device called a Windbelt to produce electricity for a single home which will allow for an enhanced standard of living and decreased dependency on diesel generators and other less sustainable methods of energy production. The Windbelt was designed by Shawn Frayne and patented by the Humdinger Wind Energy Company in 2007, and uses the principle of aeroelastic flutter in a taut membrane to oscillate a pair of magnets between copper coils, generating AC electricity. Our adaptation of the Windbelt is 1 metre in length, rated to produce 3 5 W in 6km/h winds. This AC current can then be harnessed and converted to DC at 3 12 Volts for use in simple appliances such as lighting, radios and clocks. The Energy created from the system can be directed straight into these applications or used to recharge the batteries that the people of Tonle Sap rely on for power.

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By introducing the Windbelt, the currently devastated environment of the Tonle Sap Lake will be positively influenced as the popularity of diesel generators should decline. Diesel generators, as well as the practice of deep charging car batteries, common in developing and poverty-stricken communities including Tonle Sap, have disastrous environmental consequences, resulting in the pollution of both the water of the lake, and the air. The social impacts of the introduction of the Windbelt are nearly entirely positive. Most importantly, the low cost of the Windbelt both initially and in maintenance, combined with the subsidisation available, should enable electricity in the home to be accessible to a much larger volume of the population than there currently is. From this access to electricity, an improved standard of living in the Tonle Sap community will arise. As professional engineers, the proposed idea reflects a series of conscious ethical decisions that reflect both the professional expectations for ethical behaviour as engineers, and as those providing aid. Sustainability is applied in our design, with one of our main motivations being the need to improve environmental conditions in the Tonle Sap Lake in order for it to be a safe and desirable home for future generations. This is not only reflected in the attempt to alleviate the use of non-renewable and environmentally harmful energy generation methods, but also the utilisation of recycled materials in the construction of the Windbelt which not only reduces the price of the Windbelt to the household, but also reduces the amount of waste of the community. In the implementation stage of our project, Non-Government Organisations would be able to assist not only with the financial costs of introducing the Windbelt to the Tonle Sap, but also the training of the local Cambodians in construction, fitting and repair of the Windbelt devices. The involvement of the local community would create a greater desire for these devices, a result of community ownership, as well as supporting the local economy by supplying jobs and income for those families.

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Team Reflection
As a part of a subject titled ENGG1803 Professional Engineering 1, the Engineers Without Borders Challenge has taught us more than any textbook, lecture, question set or moderately inspired class discussion could on the skills required to live the dayto-day life of a professional engineer. Whilst the sniggers from peers who elected the much easier and equally pointless other project, looks of dismay from tutors who inevitably expect better, and hours sitting at a computer, anxiously anticipating a reply in an ever-running volley of email-banter amongst the group, have at some stage challenged each of us, dare we say it, EWB has actually been rewarding? Whilst clich, our group started as six relative strangers, with no sense of cohesion and an obtuse presence of wariness about what we had gotten ourselves into. Awkwardly at first, ideas for solutions were nervously thrown into the forum, contemplated, then shelved as another idea was proposed and pursued, with lastminute mayhem featuring heavily for the first assessments. Despite this beginning, a team a cohesive unit capable of any challenge, was born, and with it rhythms, strengths and weaknesses. This teamwork was possibly the most important gain from completing the challenge, instilling each member with various lessons such as respect, sacrifice, initiative, communication, punctuality, leadership and responsibility. Yet, as teamwork is thrust upon most from as young an age as pre-school in the classroom, as well as in many life-experiences common to young people throughout Australia, the role of the actual task completed in the Engineers Without Borders Challenge making a difference in Tonle Sap, cannot be ignored. The common motivation of our group, to do work that was more than just an assignment, but taking responsibility for the reality of the lives of others, has been essential in shaping our perceptions of the professional engineer. Whilst it is easy to lose sight when an

average day at university might involve 2 hours of Integral Calculus, the Engineers Without Borders Challenge has highlighted something especially important to us all: Engineers change peoples lives.

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Table of Contents
Letter of Transmittal Executive Summary Team Reflection Table of Contents Table of Figures 1. Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.1.1 Reduce Reliance on Diesel 1.1.2 Cheaper Power 1.1.3 More Efficient Batteries 1.1.4 Reduce Pollution in Lake 1.1.5 Renewable Power 1.1.6 Greater Access to Power 1.1.7 Wind Power 1.2 Background Research 1.2.1 Renewable Energy 1.2.2 Batteries 1.2.3 Climate Change 1.2.4 Wind Power and Wind Speed in Tonle Sap 1.2.5 Lifestyle in Tonle Sap 1.2.6 Culture in Tonle Sap 1.2.7 Millenium Development Goals 1.3 Literature Review 1.3.1 Definitions 1.3.2 Research and Findings 2. Design Options and Considerations 2.1 Wind Turbines 2.2 Solar Water Disinfection 2.3 Solar Panels 3. Design Details 3.1 Principles of Design 3.1.1 Principle 1: Aeroelastic Flutter 3.1.2 Principle 2: Electromagnetic Induction 3.2 Concept 3.2.1 Components 3.2.1.1 Bracket ii iii v vii x 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 10 10 11 13 13 14 15 15 17 18 19 19 19 20 22 22 22

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3.2.1.2 Copper Coils 3.2.1.3 The Ribbon 3.2.1.4 Magnets 3.3 Design Evolution 3.3.1 Design Considerations and Influences 3.3.2 Prototype Testing and Performance 3.3.3 Review of Prototype 3.4 Analysis 3.5 Final Design 4. Construction 4.1 Schedule 4.2 Costing 4.3 Maintenance 4.4 Construction Method 4.4.1 Prototype Construction Method 4.4.2 Construction of the Actual Windbelt to be Implemented 5. Design Appropriateness 5.1 Environmental Impact 5.2 Economic Impact 5.3 Social and Cultural Impact

22 23 23 25 25 26 27 28 29 33 33 35 37 38 38 41 43 43 45 46

6. Professional Considerations 48 6.1 Ethics 48 6.1.1 Engineering Ethics 48 6.1.2 Development Aid Ethics 50 6.1.2.1 Methods of Funding Aid 51 6.1.2.2 Power Plays in the Funding of Aid 51 6.1.2.3 Interactions Between Developers and the Developing Community 52 6.2 Environmental Sustainability 53 6.2.1 Sustainability of Materials 53 6.2.1.1 Bamboo Frame 53 6.2.1.2 E-Waste, Magnets and Coils 54 6.2.2 Reducing Pollution Within the Lake and Surrounding Region 54 6.2.2.1 Burning of Fossil Fuels 55 6.2.2.2 Diesel Spills 55 6.2.2.3 Storage of Power in Batteries and Disposal of Batteries 56 6.3 Maintenance 57 6.3.1 Live and Lear Environmental Education 57 6.3.2 Social-Environmental Education 57 6.3.3 Keeping Costs to a Minimum 57 7. Statement of External Support 7.1 Idea Development Stage 7.2 Funding for the Support for the Project 7.2.1 An Overview of International Aid 59 59 60 60

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7.2.2 The Role of International Aid in the Implementation of the Windbelt 60 7.2.2 The Role of the Millenium Development Goals in Funding the Project 61 7.3 Education of the Local Cambodians 62 8. Conclusion 9. Bibliography 63 65

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Table of Figures
Figure No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Title Map of Tonle Sap and Surrounding Areas Use of renewable energy versus non-renewable energy globally. Growth rates of renewable energy methods. Wind Resource Classifications Wind speed adjustment factors. Wind speeds at 30m in Cambodia. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge The input and output of a Rectifier. Wind Speed Vs Output Voltage Timeline for the implementation of the Windbelt to Tonle Sap Cost Breakdown for the Windbelt Prototype Project Budget Cutting Timber pieces using the circular saw Drilling Timber screws for frame assembly Hand wiring a copper coil Optimizing the output of the Windbelt using a multimeter The Tenets of the IEA Code of Ethics The regions throughout the world where Bamboo grows A diesel spill. Environmental Aid as a Percentage of Total Bilateral Aid Page No. 1 5 6 8 8 9 20 21 26 33 35 36 39 39 40 40 48 53 55 61 Reference No. 7 25 25 30 30 30 26 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 7 12 36

1. Introduction
The Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia, is the largest lake in South East Asia. It is unique in the way that its volume expands incredibly in monsoon season when the flow of the Tonle Sap River, connecting the lake to the Mekong River, is reversed. The lake basin is home to a 32% of the Cambodian population and over 340,000 live in on, or close to the lake itself. The lake provides the surrounding communities with jobs, food, and a place to live. It is an extremely diverse environment with many different species of fish, mammal and reptile, as well as the largest colonies of water birds in Indochina[3].

Figure 1. Map of Tonle Sap and Surrounding Areas [7]

The Tonle Sap lake and surrounding communities are faced with many problems. The lake continues to be polluted; inhabitants struggle to find clean water; transport in and around the lake is limited and there is an energy crisis. According to the World Bank, 2007, the power grid in Cambodia only reaches 12% of the households, and to those that it does reach it is extremely expensive, and as most people living on the Tonle Sap live below the poverty line, it is unaffordable to them. A significant proportion of power in the Tonle Sap region is obtained from diesel generator stations which charge portable 12V car batteries, that cause pollution when disposed of[42]. The rest is generated from wood, coal and petrols, all of which contribute a large carbon footprint when burnt and are not sustainable for people to use (United Nations Development Program 2008). Cheap, easy to maintain, clean and renewable energy must be researched to fix these problems as power is also important for the Cambodian people to progress and increase their living standards.

1.1 OBJECTIVES
Throughout the world today there is a huge amount of pressure on countries to reduce carbon emissions and use renewable energy instead of energy attained through fossil fuels. Alternative, renewable, ways of producing electricity are consequently being researched now more than ever. In considering the Tonle Sap energy problems we decided that we should attempt to find a way to reduce the reliance on diesel, give the communities greater access to cheaper, renewable power.

1.1.1 Reduce reliance on diesel


The inhabitants of the Tonle Sap region rely heavily on the use of diesel powered generators to charge their car batteries (United Nations Development Program 2008). This requires the owner of the battery to travel to the generator, which may be many kilometers away, and charge their battery, which may take several hours. This we aim to reduce, or completely eliminate this trip. Also, as we aim to move into a renewable-energy based future, any reliance on diesel must be minimised in order to keep with this progression. This in turn will reduce the greenhouse gas emissions significantly in and around the Tonle Sap.

1.1.2 Cheaper power


Khennas et al (2003) estimate that each recharge at a diesel generator station costs US$0.50. This is a significant amount of money for someone who lives below the poverty line. As well as this the purchase of a battery is expensive. We aim to provide the community with a way to harness energy for a much smaller amount of money. As well as this, since we aim to use renewable energy, there will not be continuous payments that have to be made.

1.1.3 More efficient batteries


Khennas et al (2003) also states that charged car batteries were used to their maximum
depth of discharge before their next charge, a practice detrimental to the batteries lifespan. If the battery were able to be charged more frequently, or continuously even, then it would last longer and further reduce costs for the Cambodians.

1.1.4 Reduce pollution in lake


The lake is relied on by all the Cambodians in the region for bathing, drinking and use on crops. Pollution is therefore a serious concern. However, the Live and Learn Environmental Education Booklet[28] states that all liquid and solid waste is also discharged into the lake, including open sewage, solid waste, toxic pesticides and chemicals. This has led to bacterial levels around floating houses being up to ten times higher than in surrounding lake areas[17]. By reducing the use of diesel and extending the life of batteries we hope to help reduce the levels of pollution in the lake. Batteries will not need to be disposed of as regularly, and educating the communities about proper battery disposal is a goal that we have discussed. Also, leakage of diesel into the lake is less likely if there were less reliance on it.

1.1.5 Renewable power


Renewable energy is increasingly being utilised in place of non-renewable energy, such as that attained from fossil fuels. We aim to use renewable energy to provide this community with electricity that they can use for small appliances and basic 3

necessities. The use of renewable energy is also much cleaner, often cheaper, and much better for the environment.

1.1.6 Greater access to power


The access to electricity is limited in Cambodia, and to those that do have it, it is often expensive[42]. What we would like to achieve is greater access to electricity by providing families with their own ways of getting power without the reliance on any other clients or middle-men. This will make it cheaper, more readily available and less precious for the families within the Tonle Sap Region.

1.1.7 Wind Power


We aim to utilise wind power to create energy. There is enough wind in the region to successfully produce electricity, and we aspire to take advantage of this, instead of other renewable sources, as the primary source for energy in the region.

1.2 BACKGROUND RESEARCH


We conducted significant amounts of research in finding a way to meet each of our objectives. There is great interest in renewable energy and reduction of pollution throughout the world at the moment due to climate change and predictions of disasters and large temperature fluctuations. This made it easy to find information and similar projects which we could use to our advantage in designing a possible solution. We broke up our research into things we would need to consider if we were to harness wind energy successfully, and use it to charge batteries.

1.2.1 Renewable energy


According to Mohammed El-Ashry (2007), the Chairman of REN21 (a renewable energy network), Renewable energy offers our planet a chance to reduce carbon emissions, clean the air, and put our civilization on a more sustainable footing. This is very good motivation for the use of renewable energy. El-Ashry also states that, more than 65 countries now have goals for their own renewable energy futures, and are enacting a far-reaching array of policies to meet those goals. Renewable energy is a required step for every country, as the reliance on fossil fuels must be reduced[31].

Figure 2. Use of renewable energy versus non-renewable energy globally. [25]

As the above graph shows, renewable energy made up 18% of the worlds energy usage in 2006. This is increasing.

Figure 3. Growth rates of renewable energy methods. [25]

1.2.2 Batteries
Car batteries are lead acid batteries that supply approximately 30-40 watt-hours per kilogram[21]. Car batteries, as the name suggests, are primarily used in cars for starter motors, lights and ignition of a car. There are two different ways in which this type of battery can be used, in a shallow cycle or a deep cycle. The deep cycle usage is our groups primary concern as this is the use to which the battery is put in many Cambodian households. Linden and Reddy (2002) explain that the deep cycle is for use over extended periods of time, and can be used as storage for energy from small wind turbines. These batteries require a direct current to be charged, and also send a direct current.

1.2.3 Climate Change


The Australian Government released an information booklet on climate change in 2008 entitled Climate Change What Does It Mean. The booklet reports that burning fossil fuels, such as coal, oil or gasusing energy generated by burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) [and] clearing land produce greenhouse gases. The high levels of greenhouse gases produced since the industrial revolution has led to a rise in temperature inside the earths atmosphere. Change is a problem that we must directly address in determining a solution to the energy problem in Tonle Sap. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that, Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level (IPCC 2007). As well as this the Stern Review, which reported the economic and financial effects of climate change suggested that, the impacts of climate change are not evenly distributed - the poorest countries and people will suffer earliest and most (Treasury 2006).

1.2.4 Wind power and Wind Speed in Tonle Sap


When considering different types of renewable energy with cost restraints in mind, we decided that solar energy and hydro energy would be too expensive. Wind power can be relatively cheap however. It is also starting to be considered more as a potential source of electricity for a lot of Asia as wind speeds are often good. Wind energy made up 121 gigawatts of the worlds electricity usage in 2008[44]. This is equivalent to 1.5% of the electricity used in 2008. Asia is home to two of the worlds largest wind energy users, China and India. Large-scale wind energy, which used turbines and wind farms, has become significantly cheaper in the past 20 years. The following tables, from the Wind Energy Resource Atlas of South East Asia show the way in which TrueWind Solutions have been researching and mapping out potential for wind power in this region.

After Wind Resource Classifications [30] Figure 4. reading the tables above, we consulted the wind map below, and discovered that in the Tonle Sap region wind speeds were Fair Good for small wind turbines.

Figure 5. Wind speed adjustment factors. [30]

However, as turbines would take up space, and even perhaps contribute to floods and global warming through forest clearing, we decided that a smaller, less environmentally impacting device was needed. The wind speeds around Tonle Sap at 30m above land range from 4.5-6.5 m/s on average (see Figure 6). This is sufficient for the device we wish to use.

Figure 6. Wind speeds at 30m in Cambodia. [30]

1.2.5 Lifestyle in Tonle Sap


Life in the Tonle Sap revolves around the use of the river. In a report prepared for the Asia Development bank by Live and Learn Education (2004) which collected information from groups of people on the Tonle Sap it states that Nearly all focus groups responded that they use water for washing clothes (95% of focus groups), bathing (90%), drinking (90%) and cooking (85%). In communities where many of the participants were farmers they also added that water was used for watering crops (20% of focus groups) and for pumping to flood rice fields (20%). Due to this excessive usage of the water, it is not very safe water to drink, which can very easily lead to illnesses and death. The reliance on electricity in the Tonle Sap is mainly for home appliances such as ovens, televisions and similar common household devices. At present the majority of power is generated by batteries and wood fires, however neither of these sources is very clean, and batteries can be expensive to recharge.

1.2.6 Culture in Tonle Sap


The Cambodian people have suffered through many harsh times, French control, the Pol Pot regime and the Khmer Rouge, has left the country with a focus on the present rather than the future, because before now the future has never been stable enough to think about.[1] At the same time Cambodians feel that they are resilient and can achieve great feats, which is symbolised through their national pride of Angkor Wat. As a result of the harsh times that Cambodia has been through many Cambodians are very religious, in particular Buddhism, as faith helped to rebuild their lives after the Khmer Rouge.[1] However the younger generation is drifting away from the more traditional lifestyle of their parents and grandparents. With increased television they have adopted a more western lifestyle of partying, dressing in western cloths and not marrying and settling down as their parents did. [30] Cambodian families are still a patriarchal society in which women receive less education and very little power both in government and in social roles. Women are expected to take care of the home, however in many families they are also the sole income earners for the family.[30] There is indication that womens role is changing

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with the younger generation, however women are still not given the same opportunities as men.[30]

1.2.7 Millennium Development Goals


The Millennium Development goals, which the UN aims to have completed by 2015, are as follows[40]: End Poverty and Hunger: Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day Target 2: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Universal Education: Target 1: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Gender Equality: Target 1: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Child Health: Target 1: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Maternal Health: Target 1: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Target 2: Achieve universal access to reproductive health Combat HIV/AIDS: Target 1: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 2: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Target 3: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Environment Sustainability

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Target 1: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources Target 2: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss Target 3: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Target 4: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Global Partnership Target 1: Address the special needs of least developed countries, landlocked countries and small island developing states Target 2: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system Target 3: Deal comprehensively with developing countries debt Target 4: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries Target 5: In cooperation with the private sector, make available benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications By proposing the use and implementation of renewable energy in Tonle Sap we believe that we can help the area become cleaner, healthier, sustainable and eventually more developed.

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1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW


1.3.1 DEFINTIONS
A/C Current - In alternating current the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. An electric charge would for instance move forward, then backward, and repeat this movement indefinitely. This can be represented accurately by a sine wave. (Hawkins 1917) D/C Current - Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also be through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric charge flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). (Hawkins 1917) Rectifier - A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC), this conversion is known as rectification. Rectifiers can be used in components of power supplies and as radio signal detectors. (Hawkins 1917) A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. (Hawkins 1917) Aeroelastic Flutter - A self-feeding vibration where aerodynamic forces on an object couple with a structure's natural mode of vibration to produce rapid periodic motion. Electromotive Force (emf) - electromotive force is "that which tends to cause current (actual electrons and ions) to flow. (Irving 1916). An example of such a force is that created by a vibrating or rotating magnet in close proximity to a copper wire.

1.3.2 RESEARCH AND FINDINGS


The sources that were used have led to many useful discoveries regarding the project. By combining the research we have been able to propose a solid plan for the implementation of Wind Belts into Tonle Sap as a primary charger of car batteries.

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Through the information on climate change we have devised that any use of fossil fuels must be pushed to be eradicated, this is also relevant in the transportation (or lack thereof) of materials to be used in the construction process. This area of research also helped us rule out other options which we considered at a key decision making time of the project, such as the clearing of land for wind turbines. Climate change is a large concern for a large proportion of global projects in the current day. For any proposal to be considered, climate change must be taken into account seriously and proportionately. The information on wind speeds has helped us in accurately predicting the average power that we can generate over a period. Without this knowledge it would be hard to compare and compete against the already primed diesel industry in Cambodia. The wind atlas was helpful in giving information on the wind speed in the Tonle Sap area, and had useful graphs, tables and maps. The information on implementation of renewable energy in developing countries presented in the sources was reassuring and functional. Several reports showed that this is definitely a large part of the development of these countries, and can play a big part in boosting the economy. The online videos played a big part in introducing our group to the technology of Wind Belts. They displayed the way in which a Wind Belt works and the general science behind it. The inventor, Shawn Frayne, describes different applications of the Wind Belt, different materials which can be used, influences and why it was originally invented.

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2. Design Options and Considerations


2.1 WIND TURBINES
When contemplating wind power, the conventional Wind Turbine was an obvious initial concept. Wind turbines have been developed as a large-scale community based renewable energy solution, where turbine farms have been shown to be effective in supplying substantial amounts of energy to towns. However the conditions to make a wind turbine effective through cost and efficiency do not satisfy the context on the Tonle Sap region they require consistently high wind areas for best efficiency. Whilst they are capable of outputting kilowatts of power, suitable for supplying an entire developing nation community, the limitations in these regions and the negative impacts of turbines outweigh the implementation benefits. [41] Studies of currently implemented wind turbines, from the wind energy development program, highlight a number of concerns voiced by communities involved with wind turbines. Noise pollution from the turbine blades can be loud. The tower needs to be built around 30m high, creating an eyesore for the community and tourists visiting the region. The impact of the blade rotation, over 100km/h, kills thousands of birds a year. Additionally, there are severe economical impacts of turbine implementation. The most technologically advanced and efficient systems now cost between 1 2.5 million USD. Beyond this, there is the transport cost, rated as high as 20% of the build cost, as well as the maintenance and monitoring of the performance of the turbine.

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With this known, we concluded that wind turbines were not a suitable solution to energy in the Tonle Sap region.

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2.2 SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION


Access to clean water is imperative to any living being on Earth. The people of Tonle Sap drink directly from polluted lakes containing waterborne viruses such as e-coli. We considered the sanitisation of water to be a hugely important issue in the region and came across a Solar Water Disinfectant solution. The SODIS bag uses UV rays from the sun to kill almost all bacteria that cause preventable disease in polluted waters. Filling the clear plastic bags with lake water and leaving them in the sun for around 6 hours kills enough bacteria for the water to be suitable for drinking. This solution has been implemented in a few regions already, utilising plastic water bottles for convenience. There have been limitations with importing these plastic bottles, however Shawn Frayne is currently developing a self-sealing SODIS bag, that can be easily manufactured cheaply and to a high quality, and then imported to the developing community. [34] A second limitation that deterred our group from the SODIS concept was the environmental impact of importing thousands of plastic bags. Plastic is an easily damaged material, and once it is torn or damaged, is useless for storing water, leaving huge amounts of plastic waste that will pollute waterways and harm the environment. Finally, the SODIS bag may vastly change social patterns in the communities of the Tonle Sap. In most third world communities, women (who predominantly fill the role of gathers) will make fetching water from wells and other known healthy sources, an activity that may require hours of time walking or performing tedious labour, a social event. With the introduction of household SODIS bags, the need to obtain water is removed, and the people of Tonle Sap will lose part of the social life within the community.

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2.3 SOLAR PANELS


Solar panels are slowly becoming a more efficient and feasible solution for UV energy harvesting. In developed nations, such as the United States of America, solar farms are fast becoming one of many solutions to the worldwide energy crisis. The problems we immediately foresaw with solar panel implementation in Tonle Sap are yearlong use, damage potential and social inequity. [5] The process behind harnessing the suns energy requires access to the suns rays. Being a monsoonal region, there will be long periods of time during the year of cloud and rain, which will prevent the production of solar energy. We needed a solution that could be implemented all year round, as any lapses in the performance of a new solution provides a reason for the Tonle Sap community to revert to their environmentally unsustainable pre-intervention practices. Solar panels are highly fragile, expensive systems. The threat of high winds and strong rain during monsoon season poses a serious threat of damage to the panels, which once damaged, often must be replaced. The high likelihood of this occurrence is unfavourable for a community living on $2 USD per person per day. Social inequity between those that can afford a solar panel system and those who dont have this luxury could result in community tensions. There is potential for an increase in the crime rate, with panels being stolen or damaged, which would be detrimental to the development created by the improved living standards that renewable electricity provides. A review and resulting dismissal of these systems left our team to settle with a wind based concept called the Windbelt.

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3. Design Details
3.1 PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
The Windbelt is an innovation which is based around the two main principles of Aeroelastic Flutter and Electromagnetic Induction.

3.1.1 Principle 1: Aeroelastic Flutter


Aeroelastic Flutter involves aerodynamic forces acting on a structure to result in a self feeding high energy oscillation. Flutter has the potential to occur in any object subject to wind. If there is positive feedback in the structure between the aerodynamic forces and its natural vibration, flutter will occur. This means that the vibrational oscillation of the object, coupled with wind, will drive the object to move farther or faster. Aeroelastic Flutter results in self-exciting oscillation and will build up until the aerodynamic or mechanical damping of the system matches the energy input. At this point, large amplitudes of motion are occurring which can cause rapid failure in structures. The potential for destruction was illustrated by the catastrophic failure of the Tacoma Narrows bridge. The Tacoma Narrows bridge was only 4 months old when it collapsed. During the bridges lifespan, it was observed that during steady winds around 42 miles per hour, the bridge would oscillate in a harmonic like motion, shown by in figure 7. The amount of energy required to cause enormous amounts of steel and concrete to move and eventually collapse must have been huge.

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Figure 7. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge [26]

American Engineer Shawn Freyne recognised the potential to harness the energy caused by aeroelastic flutter and channel it into a very simple yet efficient renewable energy source.

3.1.2 Principle 2: Electromagnetic Induction


The second principle behind the Windbelts design is that of Michael Faradays electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction is the production of voltage across a conductor in a changing magnetic field.[15] Faraday found and stated that the induced electromotive force or EMF in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit. [26] Faradays law is:

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Where N is the number of loops of a conductive coil is the change of electromagnetic flux [33] In practice, a changing magnetic field applied through a conductive wire in a closed circuit will generate electricity. The current produced in the Windbelt is an alternating current, with a frequency typically between 50 and 60 Hz, depending on the wind speed and construction dimensions for the unit. This gives us the building blocks for the creation and effective application of the Windbelt. One more principle that needs to be addressed is the process of converting the generated alternating current to direct current. The conversion is required for storage in a DC lead acid battery found in a typical Tonle Sap household. To change AC to DC we need a rectifier. A Rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current to direct current, suitable for trickle charging a lead acid battery. The simplest rectifiers are made from a single diode. The diode works by blocking either the negative or positive portion of the input wave to leave just direct current as shown in figure 8.

Figure 8. The input and output of a Rectifier. (public domain, no reference)

Rectifiers become more advanced with multiple diodes and bridges to smooth the output current and convert both positive and negative polarity input current. The end result produces a smoother more efficient conversion to direct current.

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3.2 CONCEPT
Our team, Gone With the Wind settled on a conceptual design based around American Engineer Shawn Freynes Windbelt. The Windbelt is a wind based power generator, and is the only design in its field that doesnt require a turbine. The Windbelt applies the concepts of aeroelastic flutter and electromagnetic induction to harness the renewable energy wind resource and output a low voltage of alternating current.

3.2.1 Components
The Windbelt is a very simple design that can be self modified and enhanced to suit the needs of the user. The main components are a containing bracket, two copper coils, two strong button magnets, a ribbon and some bolts and wing nuts to piece together the entire system.

3.2.1.1 Bracket
The bracket holds together the entire unit. It can be fabricated from any available material such as treated timber, aluminium or plastic. The bracket requires a top and bottom piece and four spacer pieces. (See drawings for dimensions). It is important to consider the lifespan of the material since exposure to the elements is imminent. According to the Engineers Without Borders supplied information, Sawn planks of timber are locally available for about $4/m. Weather treatment and protection will need to be applied, or else the Windbelt can be sheltered in an environment that channels wind through the capture zone. [10]

3.2.1.2 Copper Coils


The copper coils provide the medium for electromagnetic induction, as explained in the concepts section. According to Faradays law of induction, the induced Electromotive Force (EMF) is directly influenced by N, the number of turns in a coil. We plan to use coils that have the maximum number of turns to fit in the available space between the bracket and the ribbon. To reduce the cost of the unit, we hope to make use of available electronic waste imported into the region from developed nations. There are copper coils in almost all appliances such as televisions and speakers. Any of these coils will potentially work in the Windbelt, and education

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into how to extract and employ these already available resources will aid in a more cost affective unit.

3.2.1.3 The Ribbon


The ribbon is the platform for the entire functionality of the Windbelt. When exposed to wind above 3m/s the ribbon in our Windbelt will experience aeroelastic flutter. Wind will cause the ribbon to move up and down with high frequency oscillating motion. It can be pictured to be similar to the flutter of a tarp on the back of a ute, or the vibration of a piece of grass stretched between your fingers. The material for the ribbon can be anything durable enough to withstand monsoon weather and high wind forces. The company Humdinger have shown that a Mylar coated ribbon will be most durable and lightweight solution. It is key for the ribbon to be as light as possible so that the cut in wind speed for flutter is minimised. The ribbon also needs to be torsionally strong so that the oscillation is as linear as possible, with little twist during the motion.

3.2.1.4 Magnets
Two button magnets are attached to the ribbon in line with the centre of the copper coils. Joining the magnets on either side of the ribbon means they naturally attract, and using strong magnets will prevent movement over time. The stronger the magnetic field, the greater the magnetic flux and thus the larger induced current. As the magnets move up and down with the flutter of the ribbon the polarity of the field through the copper coils reverses. This change in polarity results in an alternating current best represented by the sine wave in figure 8. We now have the basic foundations for a simple Windbelt appropriate for implementation in the Tonle Sap region. The final design of the unit is shown in the drawings section. To capture the power output from the Windbelt, we plan to connect the wires from the copper coil into a rectifier for AC to DC conversion, and then plug the DC power into a lead acid battery. The end goal for the Windbelt is to replace the reliance on diesel generators and the costs associated with recharging lead acid batteries. This unit will serve as a trickle

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charger for the battery and slowly recharge it when not in use for household appliances.

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3.3 DESIGN EVOLUTION


3.3.1 Design Considerations and Influences
The original basis for Gone With the Winds solution to the energy problems in the Tonle Sap came from Humdingers Windbelt technology. The original design and development by Shawn Frayne focused on a wind energy solution for the third world region Haiti. His solution addressed many of the key points we needed to consider for implementation in Cambodia. Upon careful consideration of the environment that our Windbelt will be used in, we made some useful adaptions to the unit. Firstly we needed a method to convert and store the generated power into a lead acid battery. The concept we applied employs a simple rectifier joined into the circuit to convert the generated AC current into DC current. The rectifier will be attached to the top frame piece of the Windbelt, to maintain the portability of the unit. From the rectifier, we needed to ensure maximum portability and flexibility of the unit. It was suggested that we have a Windbelt that can be used in the household, a boat, a field or anywhere that superior wind may be found. With this in mind, we have neglected a fixed position mounting. If long insulated wires are used from the rectifier to the battery, the Windbelt can be placed on the roof of households. People in the Tonle Sap travel by boat the majority of time during the wet season. To maximize the potential to generate electricity, we thought about how to attach the Windbelt to a moving boat and generate power to be stored for later use. The simplest and cheapest innovation for this, was to tie or clamp the Windbelt onto the nose of the boat. We knew that the household lead acid battery needed to be transportable since it already needs to be recharged regularly, hence, we have a fully transportable system that can make use of the wind experienced in a moving boat.

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3.3.2 Prototype Testing and Performance


The construction of our prototype saw a full scale working Windbelt capable of generating energy. To test the prototype, we used a three speed fan to provide a constant supply of wind power, coupled with a multimeter to observe the output voltages. We noted that the Windbelt underwent flutter during all three wind speeds, highlighting the versatility of the unit, capable of working in a range of winds. We tested the unit with low to medium strength button magnets, as well as more powerful natural earth magnets. Figure 9 shows a rough list of the performance of the prototype: Wind Speed (Fan setting) 1 (low) 2 (medium) 3 (High) Output Voltage (Normal Output Voltage (Natural Magnets) 0.01 Volts 0.04 Volts 0.09 Volts Earth Magnets) 0.03 Volts 0.7 Volts 1.0 Volts

Figure 9. Wind Speed Vs Output Voltage

From Figure 9, there is a direct connection to the magnetic field strength and the induced voltage. The much stronger natural earth magnets immediately improved the performance of the Windbelt. As discussed in the concepts section, Faradays law shows the relationship between field strength and induced EMF:

Where the numerator (magnetic flux) is directly dependant on magnetic field strength (B):

Without a method to test the tension in the belt, we were unable to tabulate the optimum belt tensions Vs wind speed.

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3.3.3 Review of Prototype


Upon reviewing the successes of the prototype, we re-evaluated our design to include a few more features. During testing, it was difficult to make small changes to the tension in the belt. A tensioning rod, similar to those used in guitars or even tennis nets needs to be included into one end of the frame for easy adjustments. Using either a threaded screw, or a small gear teeth mechanism, the belt can be attached to the tensioning rod and very slightly altered to achieve the peak voltage output. Since wind will often vary in direction and can change without warning, a selfrighting position system will increase the overall production of energy and independence of the Windbelt. The final production unit will include a tail, like those featured on weather stations to determine wind direction. The Windbelt will be mounted on a swivel with the tail attached to the frame. The flow of the wind will naturally cause the tail to direct the Windbelt perpendicular to the direction of the wind.

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3.4 ANALYSIS
Vast potential for modification of the Windbelt remains. The simplicity and compactness of the Windbelt enables it to be used for various purposes and in vastly differing situations. Windbelt technology could be effectively utilised in many situations from an emergency telephone to harnessing energy from moving air when strapped to a vehicle such as a boat or bicycle. Whilst the most obvious use of this technology remains the powering of personal dwellings, the use of Windbelts could not only power pre-existing appliances (currently running on unreliable generators and car batteries) but could even make new infrastructure such as an early warning system, for floods and other natural disasters, feasible. While Windbelts may not generate enough power to provide for large appliances they can be taken advantage of in more small-scale technology such as streetlights, phones and speakers. Positioning of the Windbelt is important in maximizing wind flow across the belt, thus making it more efficient. A transportable panel of Windbelts may also be very helpful in harnessing the energy of the moving air when travelling in a boat, to power batteries for personal use in dwelling or on the transport itself. This panel of Windbelts could generate enough power to be used in the home for lighting, cooking or other minor appliances. Windbelt technology could also be applied to community buildings such as schools, which currently are unpowered. Through even the simple implementation of lighting in school the community could benefit so much more. This could also be further implemented so that there is internet access at community buildings, and seen through the vast use of mobile phones in the area, there is every possibility the community will use the internet. If there was some reason that a family could not have or use a Windbelt, the recharge stations could build many Windbelts and have a wind farm of them. This way a family is still able to recharge their battery, and although it is likely to still cost money, it would be much more environmentally friendly. This would be good for the recharge stations as they will lose clientele with the introduction of our project.

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3.5 FINAL DESIGN

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4. Construction
4.1 SCHEDULE
Whilst it is difficult to interpret the timeframe required, even for a small project such as the implementation of the Windbelt in the Tonle Sap, it is expected that there would be a time interval of 2-3 years between the receipt of grant funds and the installation of the final units in the first round of implementation. The timeline below illustrates this model. Time (months) 0 Receipt of the United Nations Development Programme Small Projects Grant. With these funds available, immediately a pilot program can begin, introducing the Windbelt to 50 homes with relevant education to the household. 6 Evaluate the pilot program by gaining verbal feedback from households on issues such as practicality, cultural appropriateness and any other areas they believe to be of concern, as well as examining the Windbelt in each household for loss in performance, wearing, as well as any other technical problems. From this evaluation the design can be modified accordingly. 8 Work with Live and Learn Environmental Education, as well as consultation with the community to develop the training program for those to be employed in maintaining the Windbelt. 9 Begin the training program for workers to manufacture and maintain the Windbelt, providing a combination of practical and theoretical training. Simultaneously, begin education programs in the community to ease adaptation to life with the Windbelt, so as to improve the chances of the Action

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longevity of the device in the community. 12 Begin the installation of the Windbelt in homes. Whilst the households will not be required to pay for the Windbelt device, they must employ someone to install the device properly. More workers should continue to be trained to service the growing population of Windbelts. 18 The transition of the management of the Windbelt project to Live and Learn Environmental Education and the Tonle Sap community should be initiated, by providing on and off the job training to identified change agents, as well as providing greater responsibilities to the Cambodian citizwens involved in the project. 24 Complete Cambodian management of the project should be reached by this point, with only casual liason between the Cambodian management and Engineers Without Borders. 24-36 Final Windbelts installed. First round of installation complete.

Figure 10. Timeline for the implementation of the Windbelt to Tonle Sap

As with any development project, whilst the implementation schedule appears to be viable on paper, the many unpredictable facets of providing development aid presents a likely potential that reality may be highly divergent to the schedule. By working with the community throughout the course of the project to create a sense of local ownership, it could be expected that issues such as communication breakdowns, corruption, community resistance, inappropriateness of design and many others that impede cooperation, may be minimised as much as possible to improve the likelihood of a smooth introduction of the Windbelt to the Tonle Sap community. This schedule reflects only an initial round of installation. Pending the success of this first round, further aid funding and the development of technology, more rounds of installation may take place in the future, expanding the targeted geographical area, or aiming to install multiple Windbelts per household as future energy consumption may demand.

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4.2 COSTING
All the materials needed to construct the prototype Windbelt were found at local hardware stores. The timber and ribbon we used were cutoffs from home. Theoretical prices for these components are used in the following table. Material Washers (x2) Bolts (x2) Timber Screws (12 pack) Wing Nuts (x2) Button Magnets (6 pack) Timber (2.5m) Mylar Taffeta Ribbon (2m) Copper Coil (approx 22m) TOTAL = Cost $AUD $0.48 $5.54 $3.38 $2.20 $ 5.82 - (Household cutoffs used) - ($1.90 per 16m roll) $9.95 $27.40 Approx Cambodia Riel 1800 21300 1300 8500 22400

40000 7300 38300 105500 Riel

Figure 11. Cost Breakdown for the Windbelt Prototype

As the components were purchased individually and from retail outlets, the price for the prototype is significantly higher than the cost per unit that could be expected for the actual Windbelt that would be implemented. It is expected that the cost per unit for materials would be between $10 and $15 AUD approximately 39000 to 58000 Riel (Considering that the license to the intellectual property of the Windbelt must be purchased from Humdinger Wind Energy, an approximation closer to $15 AUD is more realistic). Similarly to the prototype, the timber for building the frame could be recycled, or from a free and readily available source such as bamboo that grows in the area, and quickly regenerates. Beyond this, many other components of the Windbelt to be implemented could be recycled, with only the Mylar ribbon, and possibly some copper coils and magnets, required to be purchased new for the production of the Windbelt.

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Additionally, as a part of our maintenance scheme, those persons undergoing training, and then producing the windbelt would be required to be paid during this training period by Engineers Without Borders. This entails the wages of 20 manufacturing workers, paid for three months at $70 USD/ month[1]. Assuming we receive a United Nations Development Programme Small Projects Grant of $20,000 USD, a project budget can be created. Small-Projects Grant Labour Community Education Schemes 1000 x Windbelts at approx $15/ windbelt TOTAL
Figure 12. Project Budget

20000 -4200 -500 -15000 300

Whilst this budget may seem tight, a lot of the costs are highly approximated, and consequently, are probably much lower than estimated. The flexibility in the number of Windbelts produced means that the project will not run into debt, just stop when appropriate. Additionally, this budget does not account for any financial assistance the Cambodian government may contribute to the project. Whilst the project will be successful without any additional funding, as illustrated above, more funds will enable a greater number of Windbelts to be produced, providing a greater proportion of the population with free access to this renewable power.

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4.3 MAINTENANCE
As with any technology, the wind-belt will require maintenance after it is implemented in the Tonle Sap community, to ensure that it is successful in creating permanent, positive change. Some workers from the diesel industry will be displaced as demand for this product is redirected to the green-power provided by the windbelt. However, through a scheme introduced with EWB partner, Live and Learn Environmental Education, a training program to see these displaced persons, as well as other unemployed members of the community, provided with the skills to service wind-belts professionally may be implemented. Whilst traditionally electricity generators are high-maintenance, with the wear resultant from the mechanical processes that take place in their operation requiring frequent replacement of parts, the simple design of the wind-belt, with no contacting, moving surfaces, means that little maintenance is required, ensuring low ongoing costs to the household, and thus reducing the likelihood of the wind-belt falling into disrepair and disuse. Our maintenance scheme sees the aforementioned displaced workers undergo a 3 month training program, conducted through Live and Learn Environmental Education, providing them with the skills to manufacture and maintain the Windbelt, including extensive safety training, not only with regard to the handling of electricity, especially in the wet context of the Tonle Sap Lake, but also in areas including the safe resourcing of components for the Windbelt from recycled materials. These qualified persons will then be available for hire by households, as a tradesman, to maintain the Windbelts.

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4.4 CONSTRUCTION METHOD


4.4.1 Prototype Construction Method
Timber was measured, marked and cut to length into four pieces using an electrical circular saw (Figure 9). - 2 X 1000mm (Top and Bottom frame pieces) - 4 X 80mm (Spacers) All pieces of the frame were aligned. Markings were made for the timber screws and the bolt holes which were then pre drilled. At each end of the 1m pieces, two timber screws 60mm long were screwed through the top piece into a spacer (Figure 10) The frame was then assembled with the M10 X 150mm bolts and wing nuts. Insulated copper wire was hand-wound around a hollow plastic tube as evenly as possible for about 100 turns to make a copper coil. Once the first coil was wound, a section of straight wire approx 300mm long was left unwound to allow the circuit to reach from the top to the bottom of the frame (Figure 11). The second coil was wound at this point, and after 100 turns, some excess wire was left free. This would allow an appliance, rectifier, or, in the case of our prototype, a multimeter to be introduced into the circuit. Ribbon was then tightly clamped in one end of the frame by tightening the wing nut on the bolt. To find the right tension in the belt, a fan was used to provide a constant stream of air while the belt was pulled tighter. When the belt fluttered with the most effective amplitude and frequency the second wing nut was tightened. We tested a number of materials for the belt ranging from simple fabric ribbon, to videotape. Unfortunately we were unable to obtain a sample of Mylar ribbon to test. However, outside sources have found Mylar to be the medium of choice (See Concept Components). Ribbon with a small fold down its length on either side was the chosen medium as it had the least torsional rotation.

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Figure 13. Cutting Timber pieces using the circular saw

Figure 14. Drilling Timber screws for frame assembly

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Figure 15. Hand wiring a copper coil

Figure 16. Optimizing the output of the Windbelt using a multimeter

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To mark where the coils should be fixed to the frame, a multimeter was used to test the voltages produced by two magnets attached to the fluttering belt. The magnets and coils were moved between half way and the end of the belt to observe the maximum induced voltage. We found the most effective position to be around 50mm inside the end of the belt. (Figure 16) A two-part epoxy was mixed to create a strong adhesive, and the copper coils were glued to the frame and left overnight to set. We now have our completed Windbelt power generator.

4.4.2 Construction of the Actual Windbelt to be Implemented


Many of the construction principles utilised in the construction of the prototype will be relevant in the construction of the actual Windbelt to be implemented. The major differences between the prototype and the actual Windbelt to be implemented lie most prominently in the use of materials: In the actual Windbelt, the ribbon will be made from Mylar Taffeta Ribbon, rather than the simple cloth used in the prototype. This will have no great ramifications for construction, as similarly to the cloth ribbon in the prototype, the Mylar ribbon will be stretched across the frame, held at each end by the compressive forces in the timber frame created by the 150mm bolts and wing nuts. Machine-wound copper is essential for decent performance of the Windbelt, in terms of power generated, however was not used in the construction of the prototype. It would be inefficient to hand or mechanically wind the copper into coils on-site in Tonle Sap, however pre-wound coils are available for purchase, and can be recycled from the components of e-waste, which is found in Cambodia. The prototype uses relatively weak button magnets (more commonly known as fridge magnets), which is another contributory factor to the small amounts of power it produced. In the actual Windbelt to be implemented, purchasing

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rare-earth magnets, or recycling them from e-waste, would be necessary to produce greater outputs required to power a household.

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5. Design Appropriateness
5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
With the implementation of our project there will be less oil in and around the Tonle Sap region. The people in the Tonle Sap at the moment use petrol or diesel to power their generators to recharge their batteries or travel to recharge stations to get them recharged. Reducing the amount of petrol and diesel that is used will have significant health benefits for both the people and the environment. When diesel combusts it lets off poisonous nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which is a green house gas, these gases can change the pH of the lake, and are highly detrimental to all life forms in and around the lake[37] . Another recurring problem in the Tonle Sap is oil spills on the lake when the oil is being transported; with Windbelt technology less oil will be transported on the lake which may lead to less oil spills. In Cambodia 80% of the power comes from wood and charcoal[6], which has lead to extensive deforestation in the area. If Windbelt technology can be used to replace the burning of wood and charcoal, such as powering a hot plate, then this could decrease the amount of logging in the area. This would also increase safety for homes, as most homes are made out of wood or bamboo. All materials for the Windbelt, in some form, can be purchased locally, although the local alternative might not be as ideal as the materials we suggested. This will reduce travelling costs that the current form of electricity must undergo, for example the diesel must be transported to the community. This will reduce green house gas emissions released through trucks or boats that are used to transport the oil.

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The materials needed in making the Windbelt can be recycled from many electronic items, such as televisions. This will diminish the amount of waste that the local people are producing, and hopefully reduce the amount of waste that goes into the lake. An environmental problem associated with our project, is that it may promote further and greater lead-acid battery purchases. As there is no current management to dispose of these batteries, they may be deposited into the lake which could cause health problems to people, fish, animals and plants. However our project plans to increase the life of batteries, so this might offset some of the increased use of lead acid batteries.

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5.2 ECONOMIC IMPACT


Most people on the Tonle Sap have access to electricity through twelve volt batteries. However to recharge them, it is either through a diesel generator or they travel to a recharge station to pay 50 c for a battery. As 37% of the people living on the Tonle Sap are below the poverty line[6] these costs are quite significant. Windbelt technology will almost completely abolish these costs, as the technology generates electricity from a free source; the wind. However, there may be some minimal costs throughout the life of the Windbelt to maintain it; however these costs will be less than a recharge. A lead-acid battery in the Tonle Sap region is around $20[6], which is a very significant price to those living below the poverty line. With the recharge cost so high, it is common practice to completely discharge the battery before taking it to a recharge station. This reduces the life cycle of the battery and the number of recharges it can have[18]. As a result by recharging the battery constantly, as our project will, the batteries can last longer which will reduce the cost of electricity. As a result more homes and families in the Tonle Sap will have access to electricity. A possible downside is that the people will not go to recharge stations, reducing their profit. It is possible that these people could incorporate the Windbelt technology into their business; however it is most likely that their customers will diminish. The petrol and diesel industry may also suffer, however the people will still need to buy these products for their transportation, so this industry will not suffer significantly.

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5.3 SOCIAL AND CULTRAL IMPACT


Increased access to electricity will benefit the community in many ways. Telecommunications will improve as radios and television set will be able to be listened and watched more frequently. Increased lighting at night will allow children to study at night, furthering their education. Electric lighting is much safer than candles or lamps, which are dangerous in wooden homes that may be subjected to unstable levelling, if the house is floating. Furthermore, in a not properly ventilated house, the fumes from candles and lamps can be dangerous to humans. The younger generation of Cambodians have a lifestyle that is more television and electronically based[30]. As this generation matures, it is certain that electricity demands will increase. Windbelt technology will be able to supply that extra electricity in an environmentally friendly way. Through educating the people of the Tonle Sap region, new skills and knowledge is created. Through learning how to build the Windbelt, our project hopes to further the knowledge of the people about electricity and how to use it safely. Also by creating new skill, the people may be able to gain new employment opportunities or help the community in a positive way. Also through using materials that the local people can make or sell could introduce a new industry in the area that will benefit the locals and not an external company. There are currently some solar panels in the Tonle Sap region. These panels appear to be more on nicer looking homes[6], this suggests that solar panels are for more welloff families. As a result if the Windbelt is marketed as a technology similar and as good as the solar panels it is hoped that individual families want one as to look prestigious to others, and to Cambodians their status image is considered of high importance[30]. There is the possibility that the implementation of our project may displace people form the diesel and petrol industry and recharge stations. However, it is our hope that

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these people will benefit from the education schemes of the Windbelts and are able to gain new skills, and employment in this industry.

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6. Professional Considerations
6.1 ETHICS
There are two ethical levels on which our group must reserve deep consideration of our concept as engineers complying with the Engineering Australia Code of Ethics, and as an aid organisation promoting development in the Tonle Sap community. Both are equally relevant, and directly influenced the development of our concept, and the proposed implementation of it.

6.1.1 Engineering Ethics


1. Members shall place their responsibility for the welfare, health and safety of the community before their responsibility to sectional or private interests, or to other members; 2. Members shall act with honour, integrity and dignity in order to merit the trust of the community and the profession; 3. Members shall act only in areas of their competence and in a careful and diligent manner; 4. Members shall act with honesty, good faith and equity and without discrimination towards all in the community; 5. Members shall apply their skill and knowledge in the interest of their employer or client for whom they shall act with integrity without compromising any other obligation to these Tenets; 6. Members shall, where relevant, take reasonable steps to inform themselves, their clients and employers, of the social, environmental, economic and other possible consequences which may arise from their actions; 7. Members shall express opinions, make statements or give evidence with fairness and honesty and only on the basis of adequate knowledge; 8. Members shall continue to develop relevant knowledge, skill and expertise throughout their careers and shall actively assist and encourage those with whom they are associated, to do likewise; 9. Members shall not assist in or induce a breach of these Tenets and shall support those who seek to uphold them if called upon or in a position to do so.
Figure 17. The Tenets of the IEA Code of Ethics[1]

The

Institution

of

Engineers, body of

Australia professional engineering and engineering in

(IEA), is a representative engineers, technologists associates/officers

Australia, covering the many facets of work in the engineering industry. The IEA has formulated a code of ethics for members, outlining the principles for conduct in the industry that reflect the values held by the

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global engineering community. The code is centrally tied by three cardinal principles[1]: to respect the inherent dignity of the individual, to act on the basis of a well informed conscience, and to act in the interest of the community. These principles form the basis for the Tenets of the Code of Ethics (figure 16), which serve as a comprehensive, but not exhaustive, summation of the ethical responsibilities of engineers. It is these tenets that have great influence on the solution we present to the situation in Tonle Sap. Tenets 1,2,4 and 6 refer to the role of engineers in serving the community. This community is not exclusively the community of Tonle Sap, but also the global community, including the team at Live and Learn Environmental Education, the individuals, organisations and nations whose donations to aid make projects such as ours possible, as well as future generations of citizens of Tonle Sap. We maintain the independence of our project by only utilising funds from international, nondenominational, Non Government Organisations (NGOs), and not requiring any return from the Tonle Sap community as payment, thus enabling our scheme to facilitate a functional and fruitful relationship between Live and Learn, and the residents of Tonle Sap, without external influences that would otherwise consume resources and draw attention away from the major issue that our scheme strives to address. The more abstract concept of the community of future generations of residents of the Tonle Sap is closely associated with that of sustainability, a central theme of tenet 6. Sustainability in this context refers to the ability of the solution provided by our scheme to service the needs of future generations, not only from the perspective of providing power, but also the needs to maintain, if not improve, current environmental conditions, and promote economic prosperity for the future. A major component of the issue of environmental sustainability stems from the prospect of climate change, and the ramifications this will have, not only for the Earth as a planet, but moreover the small, poverty-riddled communities such as Tonle Sap. The effects of climate change are highly inequitable Generally, poor countries, and poor people in any given country, suffer the most, notwithstanding that the rich countries are responsible for the bulk of past emissions. (Stern, 2007, pg 28). As 49

previously suggested, a major issue in electing an appropriate renewable energy generation system to be implemented in Tonle Sap is the prospect of the ongoing effectiveness of the energy generation system in the instance of climate change, and the predicted ramifications for energy harvesting this will have. For example, whilst a naturally logical solution for the present context in Tonle Sap is hydro-electricity, harnessed from the tidal flows of the lake as it expands during monsoon season, then contracts afterwards, experts predict that rainfall in Asia will be severely affected by climate change in the coming decades, with not only a disintegration of the seasonality of the current climate, but also a general reduction in the volume of rainfall, as 1 billion Asian residents are expected to suffer water shortages by the 2050s[3]. Accordingly, whilst it would presently be reasonable to introduce a scheme that harvests energy from the lake in the form of hydro-electricity, it would be unethical to do so, given that contemporary science suggests that this may not be sustainable in the medium to long term. Again, it would be unethical to implement a solution to the energy issues in Tonle Sap that undermined the local economy and thus was not financially viable for extended use in Tonle Sap households. In order to prevent our scheme from falling into disrepair, and consequently, disuse, it was essential that the maintenance costs to our solution were low enough for an average household to meet as they arise. Beyond this issue, the displacement of workers from the established diesel industry as consumer demand would be redirected to the green power provided by our solution, should be addressed through our solution, else the local economy would face negative impacts as a result of the new technology, eroding the relationship between the Tonle Sap community and Live and Learn Environmental Education as the implementers of the aid. This is addressed in our solution with a training program that provides these displaced persons, as well as other unemployed members of the community, with the skills to professionally service the Windbelt, thus contributing to local income, and preserving stimulation to the local economy.

6.1.2 Development Aid Ethics


There are many complexities involved in the provision of development aid, due to cultural, political and geographical differences that exist and often contribute to the

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situation in poverty-stricken areas, that consequently lead to a multitude of issues involved in the implementation of effective and enduring relief. In recent decades, the understanding and expectation of ethics in the provision of international aid has evolved and grown substantially, to encompass a system of experience, theory and advice for decision making[14].

6.1.2.1 Methods for Funding Aid


Whilst there are several views on how the funding for international aid should be obtained, regarding the ethical treatment of donors, as well as those receiving the aid, our project utilises aid from charity, namely the charity of NGOs. This is a common method for funding aid, and is widely considered to be ethically sound, with the prerogative of parties to donate, and to decide how much to donate, underpinning the sovereignty of the system, yet still enabling those in need, in this case the residents of the Tonle Sap, to access the assistance they need. The major shortcoming associated with the use of charity as aid is the conditionality that the donor often holds the position to impose on the receiver.

6.1.2.2 Power Plays in the Funding of Aid


One of the major criticisms of Aid funded by charity is the power, or control, over the funds reserved by the donor. The conditionality that donors are often able to impose on the receivers for how the donated funds are to be utilised, a product of the high demand for, compared with supply of, aid funding, has been shown to have many negative consequences, including inefficiency resulting from a lack of flexibility and adaptability to change, as well as perhaps most importantly, the demotion of the aid recipient to a subordinate position, creating international tension and consequently eroding the success of development cooperation. Our scheme attempts to overcome these power plays by the cooperative development of a solution, combining the technical knowledge and skills of the engineers from developed countries, and the local knowledge and wants of the Tonle Sap residents. By avoiding exclusive funding from individual nations, instead seeking funding from the United Nations, the ability of the donor to implement control over funds should similarly be reduced.

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6.1.2.3 Interactions Between Developers and the Developing Community


The presence of developers in any developing community can have profound effects on the success of the project within the community. The image portrayed by developers of life in a developed country, and the developeds perceptions of the developing, communicated through conduct and behaviour, dress, integration and interest in community life and other displays of financial status and frivolity directly affects the communitys attitude towards the aid they receive, and consequently their participation in development cooperation. Different aid organisations have different policies on how developers should interact with the community they are assisting. The United Nations style per diem system is popular, An official sent out-of-station is paid large amounts per day in addition to his/her salary and travel costs, in order to cover all possible hazards of life amongst the heathen and to sustain a style of life sufficient to impress upon them the status and resources of his/her organisation. (Gasper, 1999, pg 20) however the extravagant displays involved in this system have great consequences in creating distance between developers and the community they are working in, hindering the effectiveness of work. Mutual stereotyping from both parties in the aid implementation process presents a severe barrier to achievement of development. Whilst many different perspectives are taken on the role that the community should play in aiding their development, our project intends to train local citizens, mainly those displaced from the diesel industry as a result of the introduction of our technology, to manufacture and maintain the Windbelt after it is implemented. Beyond this, a lengthy consultation process with residents throughout the development of the project should see ample community involvement in stimulating their development, thus providing the ownership and empowerment required for the project to maintain longevity after being initially implemented, then left to the Tonle Sap community to manage and continue use.

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6.2 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY


One of the key reasons for implementing the wind-belt generator as an alternative to the current, most common source of power, the diesel generator, is the need for greener energy in a rapidly growing nation. The environmental sustainability of this generator is paramount to its success and integration into the Tonle Sap region. The wind-belt generator should effectively eliminate serious issues such as climate change and deforestation caused by current power generation.

6.2.1 Sustainability of Materials


To ensure that the project can go ahead with minimal impact to the surrounding environment, the materials for construction and operation of the wind-belt must be carefully selected based on price and renewability.

6.2.1.1 Bamboo Frame


The simple and compact design of the wind-belt generator means it will require minimal materials to construct, it must however be built with sustainable materials to make certain it does not have an adverse effect on the fragile Tonle Sap ecosystem. The generator must also be built to last and use local materials hence making it available to all citizens within the region. Bamboo makes an ideal choice for a framework due to its habitat and tensile strength, combined with its very rapid growth cycle and low price.

Figure 18. The regions throughout the world where Bamboo grows.[7]

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This tropical grass can be harvested after just two years of growth and naturally thrives in the Tonle Sap region. This hasty maturing of the plant leaves hardwood as an almost impossible choice due to its minimum six years[9] to reach maturity. Bamboo will also reach a height of around three metres in only two years, making it plausible to construct two generators from only one stem. When dried, most bamboos have a tensile strength three times that of steel, a favourable property considering the high velocity moving parts that will be secured to the frame.

6.2.1.2 E-Waste, Magnets, and Coils


According to ABC America around fifteen million tonnes of e-waste is exported to third world nations by the United States each year[43], one of these recipient nations being Cambodia. The recycling of this waste to harvest valuable copper coils and magnets would eliminate a large portion of the cost of a single generator, whilst solving the problem of e-waste ending up cluttering landfill. It is however, paramount to the success of the wind-belt scheme to ensure trained professionals properly harvest e-waste in a facility designed for this exact purpose. Studies have shown the incredibly toxic and dangerous illnesses resulting from the burning of e-waste in dumps by unskilled workers. The heavy metals and dangerous chemicals released by this process are a confirmed carcinogen and may have been proved to alter DNA. This is also vital to prevent further damage to the environment in the region. It would however be a simple transition to move workers from the diesel industry into the e-waste recycling industry, thus stimulating the economy and creating jobs in a very poor nation. Hard drive heads have also been shown to be a valuable resource when used within the wind-belt. They can be employed for use as the fastening point for the mylar ribbon.

6.2.2 Reducing Pollution Within the Lake and Surrounding Region


If wind-belts can be properly integrated into the power supply grid of the Tonle Sap region, the amount of pollution from current use of diesel generators would be drastically reduced. This would be remarkably beneficial in preserving the health of the lake ecosystem on which the local wildlife and residents heavily depend.

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6.2.2.1 Burning of Fossil Fuels


The burning of diesel releases volatile compounds dangerous to the lake and surrounding ecosystem. This exhaust is not only poisonous to animals but also to people working and living within the area. Carbon Monoxide poisoning remains the main form of gas poisoning[2] around the world and is also somewhat responsible for acid rain along with other chemicals released in the burning of fossil fuels such as diesel. The burning of fossil fuels has also been attributed as the main cause of global warming and climate change, as outlined in the Stern Report. It is therefore highly necessary to reduce reliance on fossil fuels not only in Cambodia but also around the world.

6.2.2.2 Diesel spills


Due to the higher vaporisation point of diesel than that of gasoline, diesel will not evaporate like gasoline when spilt, it remains as a liquid until other processes remove it. Diesel is also immiscible in water and forms an oily slick poisonous to animals and people.

Figure 19. A diesel spill.[12]

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6.2.2.3 Storage of Power in Batteries and Disposal of Batteries


One of the main problems regarding the charging of batteries by diesel generators is the fact that they are not left on constant charge, which often results in deep-charging of the battery. This is when the battery runs entirely out of charge and can result in serious damage to the battery and shortening of its lifespan. These batteries contain harmful acids and heavy metal, which result in poisoning of animals and people through the food supply if they are not disposed of properly. The wind-belt would help to eliminate any occurrence of deep-charging.

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6.3 MAINTENANCE
As with any technology, the wind-belt will require maintenance after it is implemented in the Tonle Sap community, to ensure that it is successful in creating permanent, positive change. As already highlighted, some workers from the diesel industry will be displaced as demand for this product is redirected to the greenpower provided by the wind-belt.

6.3.1 Live and Learn Environmental Education


A maintenance training scheme introduced with EWB partner, Live and Learn Environmental Education, will be implemented, preserving stimulation to the local economy as the skills transfer associated with this training will enable the hiring of local skills by households. Whilst traditionally electricity generators are highmaintenance, with the wear resultant from the mechanical processes that take place in their operation requiring frequent replacement of parts, the simple design of the windbelt, with no contacting, moving surfaces, means that little maintenance is required, ensuring low ongoing costs to the household, further underpinning the economic sustainability of the Windbelt.

6.3.2 Social-Environmental Education


Social-environmental education to support the structural change created by the introduction of windbelts must be applied in Tonle Sap to ensure a smooth and definite transition to an improved way of life accomadating the windbel, maintaining its relevance to the household for years to come. A scheme introduced through schools and other community forums that are accessed by a greater volume of the population to educate residents of Tonle Sap on the environmental consequences of their current way of life is essential for the enduring success of the windbelt within households. This scheme should also outline the benefits inherent in renewable energy, specifically for the Tonle Sap lake and community, and equip residents for living with the windbelt, addressing issues such as efficiency, other facets of sustainable living, and most importantly, safety.

6.3.3 Keeping Costs to a Minimum


One key feature of the Windbelt is its simplicity, resulting in low maintenance requirements, due to minimal points of stress. After extensive investigation the main

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issue associated with Windbelts over time is the tendency for the Mylar ribbon to stretch and henceforth lose tension, reducing the devices effectiveness. It is therefore paramount to cater for this by allowing the Mylar ribbon to easily be re-tensioned, through the use of simple wing nuts and human strength. This results in prolonging the lifespan of the most expensive material involved, the mylar ribbon.

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7. Statement of External Support


This project will require the help of external organisations and persons. This support, which will be outlined below, will be needed in different stages of the project, which include idea developmental stage, the funding for the project and the education of the Cambodians.

7.1 IDEA DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE


In the process we used to develop our idea we consulted Humdinger Wind Energy the company responsible for the production and sale of the Windbelt, which provided us with the concept and basic specifications for our Windbelt prototype, as well as the specifications and performance details of the current prototype under production by Humdinger. Shawn Frayne is the inventor of the Windbelt device which we will be using in the overhaul of the current energy production systems in Cambodia. With the use of the Windbelt device which is assigned to the Humdinger Wind Energy company under US Patent #7573143, we will be able to provide cheaper and more environmentally friendly energy solutions for the people of the Tonle Sap region. Following receipt of the United Nations Development Programme Small-Projects Grant, a price for the licence of the intellectual property of Humdinger Wind Energy would need to be negotiated.

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7.2 FUNDING SUPPORT FOR THE PROJECT


7.2.1 An Overview of International Aid
The United Nations unanimously agreed to make significant efforts in providing .7% of their national income as aid to poorer countries. However only 5 of the 22 agreed countries have achieved that goal, with Australia only providing 0.34% and the United States of America only donating 0.18% of their total national income. The percentage of total aid donated to environmental projects is outlined in the table to the left which shows Denmark donation the greatest percentage of its total aid to environmental aid with 21.9% between 1995 and 1999. Australia fits in at 11th with 9.3% of
Figure 20. Environmental Aid as a Percentage of Total Bilateral Aid [36]

the total aid given going to environmental causes.

7.2.2 The Role of International Aid in the Implementation of the Windbelt


The essential initial cost for the implementation for the Windbelt and also the set up costs for a production factory will need to be supplied by a third party. The United Nations Development Programme has a Small Projects Grant available to small projects that combats climate change in developing countries. The specific category that our project falls under is the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries[39]. The Small Projects Grant provides funds up to the amount of US$50.000 with an average sum of US$20,000.

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The sum of $20,000 USD would be able to cover the cost of the construction of approximately 500 units at approximately $20 per unit. The extra funds would be able to cover the employment costs of workers and construction of a basic production factory.

7.2.3 The Role of the Millenium Development Goals in Funding the Project
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) outline 8 specific goals set down by the United Nations to improve our global situation. The 8 goals include eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and creating a global partnership for development. Our project addresses the 7th goal, ensuring environmental sustainability with reducing the reliance on diesel generators which directly combats specifically Goal 7.2 which states Reduce Biodiversity loss achieving a significant reduction in the CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP. With direct connection between our project and the Millennium Development Goals, we will be able to justify significant international aid for our project, and using the MDGs generates an importance to the world of the necessity of our project. This gives us a greater opportunity to attract both the approval and help from the United Nations and the world.

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7.3 EDUCATION OF THE LOCAL CAMBODIANS


The Live and Learn programme provides workers in developing countries to help educate the locals to implement self sustaining projects that allow the local people to continue to apply the projects, in this case the workers from Live and Learn would educate the local Cambodians in the production and maintenance of the Windbelt and also be able to effectively implement the Windbelts in the majority of homes on the Tonle Sap area. The education of the Cambodians in the production allows for the community to continue producing the Windbelts and keep the production costs minimal and most of the revenue generated from the products to be kept in the local community.

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8. Conclusion
The Windbelt implementation scheme for the community of the Tonle Sap Lake holds great potential to improve the lives of residents for years to come. Through an extensive process of design, review, and modification, framed by a clear sense of vision, that has lasted until days before the final submission, the solution presented in this report reflects the culmination of an intense journey to what we believe to be amongst the highest quality of responses to the needs of the Tonle Sap community. The wide research conducted by this group into the shortcomings of the previous aid attempts has enabled us to tailor, not only our general concept, but also the finest details of our design to ensure the highest possible success of the Windbelt. We have recognised the role of learning through mistakes in the art of delivering development aid, and consequently believe we have developed a model that reflects the enlightenment that can be obtained only through the observation of error, both through research of real failures in the context of Tonle Sap, as well as the wider developing world, but moreover through rigorous prototype testing to reduce the risk of technical failures that can set back development in a region for significant periods of time. Beyond contributing to the development of the community, the social, environmental and economic impacts, and subsequent sustainability, of our solution formed major criteria for the development of our design through its evolutionary process. Consequently, the Windbelt scheme boasts a corresponding education and training scheme, to be delivered through Live and Learn Environmental Education, that will not only ensure the ongoing relevance, and thus use of the solution, but will foster the growth of the local economy, address issues associated with the move away from unsustainable technologies such as the retrenchment of workers from the diesel

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industry and the structural social changes that will ensue from the introduction of the windbelt, and improve the holistic sustainability, across all three areas, of the way of life of the Tonle Sap community. The engineering profession presents real hope to the people of Tonle Sap for a better life in the future. We answer this hope with the implementation of the Windbelt.

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Interior, Bureau of Land Management, viewed 22 September 2009 at <http://windeis.anl.gov/guide/concern/index.cfm> 42. World Bank, 2007, Sharing Growth, Equity and Development in Cambodia Equity Report, Cambodia. 43. World News with Charles Gibson: Toxic U.S. E-waste: Third World Problem, 2009, Television news article broadcast on the ABCNEWS channel on YouTube.com on 29 July 2009, viewed 23 September 2009 at <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_Zohgg4S8>. 44. World Wind Energy Association 2008, World Wind Energy Report 2008, Report, World Wind Energy Association, Bonn, Germany viewed 22 September 2009 at <http://www.wwindea.org/home/images/stories/worldwindenergyreport2008_s.pdf>.

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