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Chanel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Chanel (disambiguation).

Chanel S.A.

Type

Socit Anonyme

Industry

Fashion

Founded

1909

Founder(s)

Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel

Headquarters

Paris, France 135 Avenue Charles de Gaulle 92521 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex

Number of locations 310 (ca. September 2010) Area served Key people Asia, Europe, Oceania, and the Americas Karl Lagerfeld, Chief Designer Alain Wertheimer, co-owner Gerard Wertheimer, co-owner Products Revenue Net income Haute couture, perfume,jewellery, accessories 1.809 billion (2010) 280.3 million (2010)

Employees Website

1,270 (2010) www.chanel.com

Chanel S.A. (/nl/; French: [a'nl]) is the French house of high fashion that specializes in haute couture and ready-towear clothes, luxury goods, and fashion accessories.[1][2] In her youth, the couturire Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel gained the soubriquet Coco in the course of her career as achanteuse de caf in provincial France. As a fashion designer, Coco Chanel catered to a womans taste for elegance in dress, with blouses and suits, trousers and dresses, and jewellry (gemstone and bijouterie) of simple design, that replaced the opulent, over-designed, and constrictive clothes and accessories of the 19th-century fashion. Historically, the House of Chanel is most famous for the stylistically versatile little black dress, theperfume No. 5 de Chanel, and the Chanel Suit. As a business enterprise, Chanel S.A. is a privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer andGerard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, an early business partner of Coco Chanel. Commercially, the brands of the House of Chanel have been personified by fashion models and actresses, by women such as Ins de la Fressange, Catherine Deneuve, Carole Bouquet, Vanessa Paradis, Nicole Kidman, Anna Mouglalis, Audrey Tautou, Keira Knightley, and Marilyn Monroe, who epitomise the independent, selfconfident Chanel Girl.[3]

La couturire Coco Chanel (1920)

As a couturire, the milliner and dressmaker Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel presented and established new clothing and costume designs that promoted women from being male objects of conspicuous consumption and sexual display, to being persons who dressed for themselves, in comfortable clothes that allowed free movement; as such, the practical application of jersey fabric to the construction of clothes was one technical innovation that made the garments popular and affordable.[4] Chanel revolutionized fashion haute couture and prt--porter by replacing the structured-silhouette fashions, based upon the corset and the bodice, with garments of simple design that were cut and confected to be functional, and to aesthetically enhance the womans figure, in action and in repose.

In the 1920s, the simple-line designs of Chanel couture made popular the flat-chested fashions that were the opposite of the hourglass-figure achieved by the restrictively structured and ornate fashions of the late 19th century the Belle poque of France (ca. 18901914), and the British Edwardian Era (ca. 19011919). Besides comfortable wear, Chanels stylish and functional clothes were complemented by the suppleness of jersey fabric, which allowed the modern, 20thcentury-woman to live and practice an active style of life; colour-wise, the fashion designer Coco Chanel used traditionally masculine colours, such as grey and navy blue, to connote boldness of character.[5][6] The clothes of the House of Chanel also are known for quilted fabric and leather trimmings; the quilted construction of the garment reinforces the fabric, the design, and the finish, which produce a garment confected to maintain its form and function in every circumstance. The notable example of such haute couture techniques is the woolen Chanel Suit a knee-length skirt and a cardigan-style jacket, trimmed and decorated with blackembroidery and gold-coloured buttons. The complementary accessories are two-tone pump shoes and jewellry (gemstone and bijouterie), usually a necklace of pearls, and a leather handbag. Moreover, the great financial, commercial, and cultural successes of perfume No. 5 increased public recognition of the House of Chanel, desire for its haute couture designs, demand for the prt--porter clothes, and enhanced the artistic reputation of the couturire Coco Chanel; and, in lean times, perfume kept Chanel solvent.[2][5][7]
Contents
[hide]

1 History

o o

1.1 The Coco Chanel era 1.2 The postCoco era

2 Corporate identity 3 Products 4 The shops 5 The Chanel Girl 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

[edit]History [edit]The

Coco Chanel era

Establishment and recognition 19091920s

The actress Gabrielle Dorziat wearing a Chanel plumed hat. (1912)

Fashion before Chanel: The artificial bust, waist, and hips of corsetry. (Bianca Lyons,1902)

The Chanel Suit 2009: a tailored cardigan-style jacket, knee-length skirt, two-toned shoes, jewelry, and a leather handbag.

The House of Chanel (Chanel S.A.) originated in 1909, when Gabrielle Chanel opened a millineryshop at 160 Boulevard Malesherbes, the ground floor of the Parisian flat of the socialite and textile businessman tienne Balsan, of whom she was mistress.[2] Hence, because the Balsan flat also was a salon for the French hunting and sporting lite, Chanel had opportunity to meet their demi-mondaine mistresses, who, as such, were women of fashion, upon whom the rich men displayed their wealth as ornate clothes, jewelry, and hats; Coco Chanel thus could sell to them the hats she designed and made; she thus earned a living, independent of her financial sponsor, the socialite Balsan. In the course of those salons Coco Chanel befriended Arthur Boy Capel, an English socialite and polo player friend of tienne Balsan; per the upper class social custom, Chanel also became mistress to Boy Capel. Nonetheless, despite that social circumstance, Boy Capel perceived the businesswoman innate to Coco Chanel, and, in 1910, financed her first independent millinery shop, Chanel Modes, at 21 rue Cambon, Paris; yet, because that locale already housed a dress shop, the business-lease limited Chanel to selling only millinery products, not couture. Two years later, in 1913, the Deauville and Biarritz couture shops of Coco Chanel offered for sale prt--porter sports clothes for women, the practical designs of which allowed the wearer to play sport.[2][5] The economic imperatives of national military victory in First World War (191418) affected European fashion through scarcity of materials, and the socio-economic mobilisation of women from objects of sexual desire and economic display to productive workers. Besides activemilitary service, the enforced and increased production of coal made men scarce in the factories and in the fields, where they were replaced by women. Until that time the end of 19th-century culture fashion for women was about the masculine display of conspicuous consumption, so, clothes makers and designers then had to produce practical and protective garments that would allow women the physical freedom required to do a mans job in factory and field in order to supply the French war effort against Imperial Germany (18711918). By that time, Chanel had opened a large dress shop at 31 rue Cambon, near the Htel Ritz, in Paris; among the clothes for sale were flannel blazers, straight-line skirts of linen, sailor blouses, long sweatersmade of jersey fabric, and skirt-andjacket suits. Technically, besides its relative low cost, as a couturire, Coco Chanel used jersey cloth because of its physical properties as a garment, such as its drape how it falls upon and falls from the body of the woman and how

well it adapted to the simple garment-design that allowed the wearer freedom of movement, physical comfort, and flattering aesthetics. Sartorially, some of Chanels designs derived from the military uniforms made prevalent by the War to End all Wars; and, by 1915, the designs and the clothes confected by the House of Chanel were known throughout France.[2] In 1915 and in 1917, Harpers Bazaar magazine reported that the garments of the House of Chanel were on the list of every buyer for the clothing factories of Europe.[2] The Chanel dress shop at 31 rue Cambon presented day-wear dressand-coat ensembles of simple design, and black evening dresses trimmed with lace; and tulle-fabric dresses decorated with jet, a minor gemstone material; the high-quality confection (design, construction, finish) of such clothes established the professional reputation of Coco Chanel as a meticulous couturire.[2] After the First World War, the House of Chanel, following the fashion trends of the 1920s, produced beaded dresses, made especially popular by the Flapper woman.[2] Moreover, by 1920, Chanel had designed and presented a womans suit of clothes composed either of two garments or of three garments which allowed a woman to have a modern, feminine appearance, whilst being comfortable and practical to maintain; advocated as the new uniform for afternoon and evening, it became known as the Chanel Suit. In 1921, to complement the suit of clothes, Coco Chanel commissioned the perfumer Ernest Beaux to create a perfume for the House of Chanel, and he produced several chantillons, including the perfume No.5, named after the number of the sample Chanel liked best. Originally, a flaon of No. 5 de Chanel was a gift to regular clients of Chanel yet, the popularity of the perfume prompted the House of Chanel to offer it for retail sale in 1922; in the event, No. 5 de Chanel became the signature fragrance of the couturire and of her house of couture. In 1923, to explain the success of her clothes, Coco Chanel told Harpers Bazaar magazine that design simplicity is the keynote of all true elegance.[2][8] Business partners late 1920s The success of the No. 5 encouraged Coco Chanel to expand perfume sales beyond France and Europe, and to develop other parfumerie for which she required investment capital, business acumen, and commercial access to the North American market. To that end, the businessman Thophile Bader (founder of Galeries Lafayette) introduced the venture capitalist Pierre Wertheimerto the couturire Coco Chanel. Their business deal established the Parfums Chanel company, a parfumerie of which Wertheimer owned 70 per cent, Bader owned 20 per cent, and Chanel owned 10 per cent; commercial success of the joint enterprise was assured by the Chanel name, and by the cachet of la Maison Chanel, which remained the sole business province of Coco Chanel. [7]Nonetheless, despite the great business success of the Chanel couture and parfumerie, the personal relations between the couturire and her capitalist partner deteriorated, because, the artisteCoco Chanel said that Pierre Wertheimer was unfairly exploiting her talents as a fashion designer and as a businesswoman.[7] Wertheimer reminded Chanel that he had made her a very rich woman; and that his venture capital had funded Chanels productive expansion of the parfumerie which created the wealth they enjoyed, all from the success of No. 5 de Chanel. Nevertheless unsatisfied, the businesswoman Gabrielle Chanel hired the attorney Ren de Chambrun to renegotiate the 10-per-cent partnership she entered, in 1924, with the Parfums Chanel company; the lawyer-to-lawyer negotiations failed, and the partnership-percentages remained as established in the original business deal among Wertheimer, Badel, and Chanel.[7]

Elegance and the War 1930s1940s

The avant-garde couturire Elsa Schiaparelli was Coco Chanels only worthwhile rival in the design of clothes.

From the gamine fashions of the 1920s, the dressmaker Coco Chanel had progressed to womanly fashions in the 1930s, which was a decade of innovations in the confection of haute couture clothes at Maison Chanel S.A.; evening-dress designs were characterised by an elongated feminine style, and summer dresses featured scintillating contrasts, such as silver eyelets, and shoulder straps decorated with rhinestones. In 1932, Mademoiselle Chanel presented an exhibition of jewelry dedicated to the diamond as fashion accessory; it featured the stylistically memorable Comet and Fountainnecklaces of diamonds, which were of such original design, that Chanel S.A. re-presented them in 1993. Moreover, by 1937, the House of Chanel had expanded the range of its clothes to more women, and presented prt--porter clothes designed, cut, and confected especially for the petite woman. [2]Among fashion designers, wherein rag-trade originality is in the dress-making technique design, cut, and confection only the haute couture created by the avant-garde Elsa Schiaparelli could compete with the clothes of Coco Chanel.[2]

Chanels spymaster: General Walter Schellenberg Chief of the Sicherheitsdienst.

During the Second World War (193945), Coco Chanel closed shop at Maison Chanel leaving only jewellry andparfumerie for sale and moved the Htel Ritz Paris, where she resided with her boyfriend, Hans Gnther von Dincklage, a Nazi intelligence officer.[2][5][7] Upon conquering France in June of 1940, the Nazis established a Parisian occupation-headquarters in the Htel Meurice, on the rue de la Rivoli, opposite the Louvre Museum, and just around the corner from the fashionable Maison Chanel S.A., at 31 rue Cambon. [2] Meanwhile, because of the Nazi occupations official anti-Semitism, Pierre Wertheimer and family, had fled France to the U.S., in mid-1940. Later, in 1941, Coco Chanel attempted to legalistically assume full and formal business control of Parfums Chanel, but was thwarted by an administrative delegation that disallowed her sole disposition of the parfumerie. Having foreseen the Nazi occupation policy of the seizure-and-expropriation to Germany of Jewish business and assets in France, Pierre Wertheimer, the majority partner, had earlier, in May 1940, designated Felix Amiot, a Christian French industrialist, as the Aryan proxy whose legal control of the Parfums Chanel business proved politically acceptable to the Nazis, who then allowed the perfume company to continue as an operating business. [7][9] Occupied France abounded with rumours that Coco Chanel was a Nazi collaborator; her clandestine identity was secret agent 7124 of the Abwehr, code-named Westminster.[10] As such, by order of General Walter Schellenberg, of the Sicherheitsdienst, Chanel was despatched to London on a mission to communicate to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill the particulars of a separate peace plan proposed by Reichsfhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler, who sought to avoid surrendering to the Red Army of the Soviet Russians. At Wars end, upon the Allied liberation of France, Chanel was arrested for having collaborated with the Nazis. In September 1944, the Free French Purge Committee, the puration, summoned Chanel for interrogation about her collaborationism, yet, without documentary evidence of or witnesses to her collaboration with the Nazis, and because of Churchills secret intervention in her behalf, the puration released Coco

Chanel from arrest as a traitor to France.[11][7] Nation-wide, the liberated French people avenged themselves upon the men and the women who had collaborated with the Third Reichs brutal, five-year occupation of France; a shaved head was the mildest punishment for les collaborateurs horizontales, women who had expediently perdured the Occupation and survived the War with sexual prostitution. Despite having been freed by the British political grace of the deus ex machina Churchill, the strength of the rumours of Chanels Nazi collaboration had made it infeasible for her to safely remain in France; promptly, Coco Chanel and her German lover, Hans Gnther von Dincklage, went into an eight-year exile to Switzerland.[2][7] In the postWar period, during Coco Chanels Swiss exile from France, Pierre Wertheimer returned to Paris, and regained formal administrative control of his familys business holdings including control of Parfums Chanel, the parfumerie established with his venture capital, and successful because of the Chanel name. [7] In Switzerland, the news revived Coco Chanels resentment at having been an artiste commercially exploited by her business partner, for only ten per cent of the money; spiteful, she then established a rival Swiss parfumerie to create, produce, and sell herChanel perfumes. In turn, Wertheimer, the majority capital stock owner of Parfums Chanel, saw his business interests threatened, and his commercial rights infringed, because he did not possess legally exclusive rights to the Chanel name. Nonetheless, Wertheimer avoided a trademark infringement lawsuit against Coco Chanel, lest it damage the commercial reputation and theartistic credibility of his Chanel-brand parfumerie. Sagaciously, Pierre Wertheimer settled his business- and commercial-rights quarrel with Mademoiselle Chanel, and, in May 1947, they renegotiated the 1924 contract that had established Parfums Chanel she was paid $400,000 in cash (wartime profits from the sales of perfume No. 5 de Chanel); assigned a 2.0 per centrunning royalty from the sales of No. 5 parfumerie; assigned limited commercial rights to sell her Chanel perfumes in Switzerland; and granted a perpetual monthly stipend that paid all of her expenses. In exchange, the astute businesswoman, Gabrielle Chanel closed her Swiss parfumerie enterprise, and sold to Parfums Chanel the full rights to the name Coco Chanel.[7][12] Resurgence 1950s1970s

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Chanel haute couture: Cashmere suit comprising a sleeveless dress and a long, cardigan-style coat. (ca. 1960)

In 1953, upon returning to France from Switzerland, Coco Chanel found the fashion business enamoured of the New Look (1947), by Christian Dior; the signature shape featured a below-mid-calf-length, full-skirt, a narrow waist, and a large bust (stylistically absent since 1912). As a postWar fashion that used some 20 yards of fabric, the House of Dior couture renounced wartime rationing of fabric for clothes.[7] In 1947 after the six-year austerities of the Second World War (193945) the New Look was much welcomed to the fashion business of Western Europe, because sales of the pretty clothes would revive business and the economy.[13] The artistic and business challenges were upon Coco Chanel; despite being a pretty and very feminine fashion, the New Look reinstated the ornamental woman created with corseted fashions like those of the Belle poque and of the Edwardian Era which Chanel had opposed at the beginning of her career as a couturire.[2] Chanel met the artistic and technical challenges of The New Look by recognizing and acknowledging that the House of Chanel could be re-established, despite the changed, postWar market for haute couture she found in France.[2] To regain the business primacy of the House of Chanel, in the fashion fields of haute couture, prt--porter, costume jewelry, and parfumerie, would be expensive; so, with rancour and haughtiness subdued, Coco Chanel approached Pierre Wertheimer for business advice and capital.[7] Having decided to do business with Coco Chanel, Wertheimers negotiations to fund the resurgence of the House of Chanel, granted him commercial rights to all Chanel-brand products.[7] Despite the past, the re-kindled WertheimerChanel business relationship proved most lucrative, when the sense of style of the culturally perceptive Coco Chanel re-established Chanel as the most prestigious label in the fashion business.[7] In 1953, Chanel hired and collaborated with the jeweler Robert Goossens; he was to design jewelry (bijouterie and gemstone) to complement the coutureand prt--porter fashions of the House of Chanel; notably, long-strand

necklaces of black pearls and of white pearls, which high contrast softened the severe design of the knitted-wool Chanel Suit (skirt abd cardigan jacket).[5] The House of Chanel also presented leather handbags with either gold-colour chains or metal-and-leather chains, which allowed carrying the handbag from the shoulder or in hand. The quilted-leather handbag was presented to the public in February 1955. In-house, the numeric version of the launching date 2.55 for that line of handbags became the internal "appellation" for that model of quilted-leather handbag.[2] Throughout the 1950s, the sense of style of Mlle. Chanel continued undeterred; the firms initial venture into masculine parfumerie, Pour Monsieur which was, and remains, a most successful eau de toilette for men. Chanel and her spring collection received the Fashion Oscar at the 1957 Fashion Awards in Dallas. Pierre Wertheimer bought Bader's 20 per cent share of the Parfums Chanel, which increased the Wertheimer perentage to 90 per cent.[7] Later, in 1965, Pierres son, Jacques Wertheimer, assumed his fathers management of theparfumerie.[7] About the past business relationship, between Pierre Wertheimer and Coco Chanel, the Chanel attorney, Chambrun said that it had been one based on a businessmans passion, despite her misplaced feelings of exploitation . . . [thus] when Pierre returned to Paris, full of pride and excitement [after one of his horses won the 1956 English Derby]. He rushed to Coco, expecting congratulations and praise. But she refused to kiss him. She resented him, you see, all her life.[7][7] Coco Chanel died on 10 January 1971, at the age of 87. [2] She was still "designing, still working" at the time of her death.[2] For example, in the (19661969) period, she designed the air hostess uniforms for Olympic Airways, the designer who followed her was Pierre Cardin. In that time, Olympic Airways was a luxury airline, owned by the transport magnate Aristotle Onassis. After her death, leadership of the company was handed down to Yvonne Dudel, Jean Cazaubon, and Philippe Guibourge.[2] After a period of time, Jacques Wertheimer bought the controlling interest of the House of Chanel.[2][7] Critics stated that during his leadership, he never paid much attention to the company, as he was more interested in horse breeding.[7] In 1974, the House of Chanel launched Cristalle eau de toilette, which was designed when Coco Chanel was alive. 1978 saw the launch of the first non-couture, prt--porter line and worldwide distribution of accessories. Alain Wertheimer, son of Jacques Wertheimer, assumed control of Chanel S.A. in 1974. [2][7] In the U.S., No. 5 de Chanel was perceives as a pass fashion.seen as a passe perfume.[7] Alain revamped Chanel No.5 sales by reducing the number of outlets carrying the fragrance from 18,000 to 12,000. He removed the perfume from drugstore shelves, and invested millions of dollars in advertisement for Chanel cosmetics. This ensured a greater sense of scarcity and exclusivity for No.5, and sales rocketed back up as demand for the fragrance increased.[7] He also used many famous people to endorse the perfume from Marilyn Monroe to Audrey Tautou. Looking for a designer who could bring the label to new heights, he persuaded Karl Lagerfeld to end his contract with fashion house Chlo.

[edit]The

postCoco era

The couturier Karl Lagerfeld, chief designer at Chanel S.A., and the Bolivian couturire Monica Moss. (Monaco 2005)

Chanel couture by Lagerfeld: the AutumnWinter 20112012 collection

The 1980s Karl Lagerfeld In 1981, Chanel launched a new eau de toilette for men, Antaeus. In 1983, Karl Lagerfeld took over as chief designer for Chanel.[7] He changed Chanel's fashion lines from the old lines to shorter cuts and eye capturing designs. During the 1980s, more than 40 Chanel boutiques were opened up worldwide. [7] By the end of the 1980s, these boutiques sold goods ranging from US$200-per-ounce perfume, US$225 ballerina slippers to US$11,000 dresses and US$2,000 leather handbags.[7] Rights to Chanel cosmetics and fragrances were held by Chanel only and not shared with other beauty producers and distributors.[7] As Lagerfeld took charge as chief designer, other designers and marketers for Chanel worked on keeping the classic Chanel look to maintain the Chanel legend. [7] Chanel marketer Jean Hoehn explained, "We introduce a new fragrance every 10 years, not every three minutes like many competitors. We don't confuse the consumer. With Chanel, people know what to expect. And they keep coming back to us, at all ages, as they enter and leave the market."[7] The launch of a new fragrance in honor of Coco Chanel, Coco, in 1984 maintained success in the perfumery business with Chanel.[7] In 1986, the House of Chanel struck a deal with watchmakers and in 1987, the first Chanel watch made its debut. By the end of the decade, Alain moved the offices to New York City. [7] The 1990s The company became a global leader in fragrance making and marketing in the 1990s. [7] Heavy marketing investment increased revenue.[7]The success of the Maison de Chanel brought the Wertheimer family fortune to $5 billion USD.[7] Product lines such as watches (retailing for as much as $7,000 USD), shoes, high-end clothes, cosmetics, and accessories were expanded.[7] Sales were hurt by the recession of the early 1990s, but Chanel recovered by the mid-1990s with further boutique expansion.[7] 1990 saw the launch of .[7] In 1996, Chanel bought gunmaker Holland & Holland. It attempted to revamp Holland & Holland, but did not succeed.[7] 1996 also greeted the launch of Allure fragrance and due to its immense popularity, a men's version, Allure Homme was launched in 1998. Better success came with the purchase of Eres (a swimwear label). The House of Chanel launched its first skin care line, PRCISION in 1999. That same year, Chanel launched a new travel collection, and under a license contract with Luxottica, introduced a line of sunglasses and eyeglass frames.

The 21st century While Alain Wertheimer remained chairman of Chanel, CEO and President Franoise Montenay was to bring Chanel into the 21st century.[7]2000 saw the launch of the first unisex watch by Chanel, the J12. In 2001, Bell & Ross was purchased (a watchmaker). The same year, Chanel boutiques offering only selections of accessories were opened in the United States.[7] Chanel also launched a small selection of menswear as a part of their runway shows which may be purchased at a few flagship boutiques including Rue Cambon vjk (Paris), Soho (New York), Roberston Blvd (Los Angeles) and the Prince's building (Hong Kong). In 2002, Chanel launched the Chance perfume, a fragrance meant to convey glamour. The House of Chanel also founded the Paraffectioncompany that gathered the five Ateliers dArt: Desrues for ornamentation, Lemari for feathers and camellias, Lesage for embroidery, Massaro for shoemaking, and Michel for millinery. A prt--porter collection leveraging their know-how was designed by Karl Lagerfeld. It is now traditionally presented each December. In July 2002, a jewelry and watch flagship store was opened on the upscale Madison Avenue.[7] Within months, a 1,000sqft shoes and handbag boutique was opened next door to the jewelry and watches flagship. [7] Also in 2002, a rumor suggesting that Chanel was considering a merger with the luxury goods Parisian fashion company Herms circulated.[7] Although such a merger would have produced one of the largest fashion companies in the world, and rival the likes of Mot-Hennessy Louis Vuitton, it was never consummated. Chanel continued to expand in the United States and by December 2002, it operated 25 U.S. boutiques.[7] Chanel stated it would like to open more boutiques in more U.S. cities such as Atlanta and Seattle. In order to please the younger followers, Chanel introduced Coco Mademoiselle and an "In-Between Wear" in 2003. That same year saw such an immense popularity of Chanel haute couture that the company founded a second shop on Rue Cambon. Desiring a presence in the Asian market, the House of Chanel opened a new 2,400 square feet (220 m2) boutique in Hong Kong and paid nearly $50 million USD for a building in Ginza, Tokyo.[2]

[edit]Corporate
The logotype

identity

The Chanel logotype comprises two interlocked, opposed letters-C, one faced forwards, one faced backwards. The logotype was given to Chanel by the Chteau de Crmat, Nice, and was not registered as a trademark until the first Chanel shops were established.[14] Chanel is currently dealing with illegal use of the double-C logotype on cheaper goods, especially counterfeit handbags. The company has stated that it is a top priority of theirs to stop the sale of counterfeit products.[15] Countries said to be producing great numbers of counterfeit Chanel handbags are Vietnam and China. An authentic classic Chanel handbag retails from around US $4,150, while a counterfeit usually costs around $200 USD, creating a demand for the signature style at a cheaper price. Beginning in the 1990s, all authentic Chanel handbags are serialized.

The logotype: The House of Chanel is represented by two interlocked letters-C, for Coco Chanel.

Perfume label trademark: The No. 5 de Chanel trademark and font were introduced in 1926.

Couture trademark: The small caps name and font were introduced in 1924.

The trademarks One timeline measurement for Chanel presence in the United States is via trademark registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). On Tuesday, 18 November 1924, Chanel, Inc. filed two trademark applications. One was for the typeset mark Chanel. The second application was for the distinctive interlocking CC design plus word mark. In that time, the Chanel trademarks were registered only for the perfume, toiletry, and cosmetic products in the primary class of common metals and their alloys. Chanel provided the description of face powder, perfume,eau de cologne, toilet water, lip stick, and rouge, to the USPTO.[16] The Chanel and double-C trademarks were awarded on the same date of 24 February 1925 with respective Serial Numbers of 71205468 and 71205469. Their status is registered and renewed and owned by Chanel, Inc. of New York. The earliest trademark application for the inaugural No. 5 perfume is on Thursday, 1 April 1926. Application was filed by Chanel, Inc. and described to the USPTO as perfume and toilet water. First use and commercial use is stated as 1 January 1921. Registration was granted on 20 July 1926 with Serial Number 71229497. No. 5's status is registered, renewed, and owned by Chanel, Inc.

[edit]Products

La nez de Chanel: The perfumer Ernest Beaux (18811961) created No. 5 de Chanel in 1921.

Clothes

Designer

Season

City

Locale

Presentation date

Line

Theme

For sale

Karl Lagefeld

FallWinter 2010

Paris

Grand Palais

6 July 2010

Haute couture

A lion

On order

Karl Lagefeld

Spring Paris Summer 2011

Grand Palais

5 October 2010

Prt-porter

An orchestra

March 2011

Karl Lagefeld

Paris Byzantium

Paris

31 rue Cambon

7 December 2010

Prt-porter

A Byzantine palace May 2011

Karl Lagefeld

Spring Paris Summer 2011

Pavilion Cambon Capucines

25 January 2011

Haute couture

[17][18]

On order

Designer

Season

City

Locale

Presentation date

Line

Theme

For sale

Karl Lagefeld

FallWinter 2011

Paris

Grand Palais

8 March 2011

Prt-porter

A frozen garden

September 2011

Karl Lagefeld

Cruise 2011

Antibes Htel du Cap

5 May 2011

Cruise collection

Outdoors

November 2011

Karl Lagefeld

FallWinter 2011

Paris

Grand Palais

5 July 2011

Haute couture

Night-time Place Vendme[19][20]

On order

Karl Lagefeld

Spring Paris Summer 2012

Grand Palais

4 October 2011

Prt-porter

Under the Sea & Florence

March 2012

Karl Lagefeld

Paris Bombay

Paris

Grand Palais

6 December 2011

Prt-porter

An Indian palace [21]

May 2012

Karl Lagefeld

Spring Paris Summer 2012

Grand Palais

24 January 2012

Haute couture

An aeroplane in flight [22]

On order

Karl Lagefeld
Fragrances

FallWinter 20122013

Paris

Grand Palais

6 March 2012

Prt-porter

An alien world

September 2012

In 1924, Pierre Wertheimer founded Parfums Chanel, to produce and sell perfumes and cosmetics; the parfumerie proved to be the most profitable business division of the Chanel S.A. corporation.[7][23] Since its establishment, parfumerie Chanel has employed three perfumers: 1. Ernest Beaux (19201961) 2. Henri Robert (19581987) 3. Jacques Polge (1978 to date)

Signature fragrance: Chanel presented perfume No. 5 to the market in 1922; Ernest Beaux created it in 1921.

Perfumes

Allure Bois des les Chance Eau Tendre Jacque Polge developed Chance Eau Tendre to feature floral and fruity and notes, among them grapefruit, quince, hyacinth,jasmine, amber, cedar, iris, and white musk.

Coco Mademoiselle British actress Keira Knightley, current spokeswoman for the Coco Mademoiselle fragrance, portrayed young Coco Chanel in a short film advert directed by Joe Wright. (see: Coco Mademoiselle)

Cristalle No. 5 No. 5 The Film, is about the most famous woman in the world (Nicole Kidman), with whom an anonymous aspiring writer (Rodrigo Santoro) becomes enamoured; afterwards, a fragrant memory is all he retains of her.[24] In 2008, the French actress Audrey Tautou became the visage of perfume No. 5 de Chanel.

No. 19 No. 22

Cuir de Russie Colognes

Allure pour Homme Antaeus Bleu de Chanel goste Pour Monsieur Handbags At the commercial presentation of the Chanel handbag of classic design (and greatest popularity), the press mistakenly identified it as the 2.55 handbag, instead of having identified it as theTimeless CC handbag. The differences in product design, materuals, and manufacture, between the 2.55 and the Timeless CC handbags, are different locks and leathers; the 2.55 handbag is made of creased leather, whilst the Timeless CC handbag is made of smooth leather. Moreover, the carrying chain of the 2.55 handbag is made of links of matte-finish metal, whilst the chain of the Timeless CC handbag is made of gloss-finish metal links through which a leather strap is interlaced. The Timeless CC handbag is available in four sizes, the most popular is the second size of the range.

The Chanel Handbag: The model 2.55, in quilted-leather, has adjustable double-chains, to wear it on the arm or at the shoulder.

The Chanel Handbag: Sporting a quilted-leather handbag, the Belgian Queen Fabiola, and her husband, King Baudouin, visited the Nixon White House, in 1969.

Wristwatches

The unisex design of the Chanel J12 wristwatches suits men and women.

The Chanel wristwatch division was established in 1987, to coincide with the dbut presentation of the Premire wristwatch.[25] In 1995, wristwatch division presented a second design, the Matelass.[25] Although the Premire and Matelass wristwatches were successful products, the presentation, in 2000, of theChanel J12 line of unisex style wristwatches, made of ceramic materials, established Chanel wristwatches as a recognised Chanel marque.[25] To

date the J12 line of wristwatches features models in four dial-face sizes: (i) 33mm., (ii) 38mm., (iii) 41mm., and (iv) 42mm.; the available features include the whirlwindtourbillon mechanism that counters Earthly gravity; chronographs certified by the Contrle Officiel Suisse des Chronomtres, and the usual bejewelled versions.[25][26] In 2008, Chanel S.A. and Audemars Piguet developed the ceramic Chanel AP-3125 clockwork, exclusive to the House of Chanel.[27]

[edit]The

shops

Worldwide, Chanel S.A. operates some 310 Chanel boutiques; 94 shops in Asia, 70 shops in Europe, 10 shops in the Middle East, 128 shops in North America, 2 shops in South America, and 6 shops in Oceania.[7] The shops are located in wealthy communities, usually in department stores, shopping districts, and inside airports.[7] In Japan, the Chanel flagship store is in the Ginza district, on the corner of 3-5-3 Ginza Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1040061; the other three corners of the square are occupied by Louis Vuitton, Bulgari, and Cartier shops.[28]

Asia The Chanel shop at the Prince Building, Hong Kong.

Europe The Chanel jouaillerie, Place Vendme, Paris.

North America The Chanel shop, Rodeo Drive, Beverly Hills.

Oceania The Chanel shop at QueensPlaza, Brisbane.

[edit]The

Chanel Girl
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help toimprove this article by introducing mor e precise citations. (July 2012)

Model

Nationality

Stella Tennant

United Kingdom

Devon Aoki

United States

Ines de la Fressange

France

Claudia Schiffer

Germany

Arizona Muse

United States

Abbey Lee Kershaw

Australia

Freja Beha Erichsen

Denmark

Audrey Tautou

France

Saskia de Brauw

Netherlands

Anja Rubik

Poland

Sasha Pivovarova

Russia

Siri Tollerod

Norway

Heidi Mount

United States

Model

Nationality

Sigrid Agren

France

Tati Cotliar

Argentina

Karmen Pedaru

Estonia

Karlie Kloss

United States

Baptiste Giabiconi

France

Kasia Struss

Poland

Natasha Poly

Russia

Denisa Dvorakova

Czech Republic

Joan Smalls

Puerto Rico

Bianca Balti

Italy

Magdalena Frackowiak

Poland

Toni Garrn

Germany

Monika Jagaciak

Poland

Model

Nationality

Julia Nobis

Australia

Lily Donaldson

United Kingdom

Miranda Kerr

Australia

Lindsey Wixson

United States