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GUIDE FOR BLASTING LICENCE EXAMINATION CANDIDATES FOR A Full and Mine Blasting Licence should be able to answer

all questions.

Name the five most common dangerous gases encountered in underground mining Carbon Dioxide (CO), Carbon Monoxide (CO2), Nitrous Fumes (NxOy), and Methane(CH4). Hydrogen Sulphide H2S

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 2. Q. How is carbon Dioxide formed underground? (Sources) Ans. From breathing of persons, decaying of timber, blasting operations, exhaust fumes from diesel operated machineries, and underground fires.

3. Q. Is the gas lighter or heavier than air? Ans. It is heavier than air. Its relative density is 1.53 and it found in low laying areas i.e. Winzes, shafts, gullies and flat ends.

4. Q. What are some of its properties? Ans. It is colourless, odourless, slightly acidic taste due to its solubility in water, it dissolves in saliva to form a mild solution of carbonic acid, it is slightly soluble in water, it does not burn nor it supports combustion and it is not toxic because it gives warning. What is the effect of the gas to persons? It causes deep breathing, panting, mental depression, visual disturbances, shaking, exhaustion, collapse, headaches (often referred to as The miners friend, as it gives a warning) and unconsciousness results as the gas is invariably accompanied by a lack of oxygen. Death can result from carbon dioxide overexposure.

5. Q. Ans.

6. Q. How would you test for the presents of the gas? Ans. By the use of a drager pump & carbon dioxide detector tubes and a candle or safety lamp. The flame will be extinguished.

7. Q. What is its permissible quantitie? Ans. It must not exceed 5000ppm in general air body.

8. Q. How would you clear the gas? Ans. By blowing in fresh air with fans, air hose and auxiliary pipes/means.

Carbon Monoxide (CO) 9. Q. Ans. How is carbon monoxide formed underground? (Sources) By underground fires, fumes from diesel operated machinery, after blasting operations, explosions and from overheated lubricants in air compressors.

10. Q. Is the gas lighter or heavier than air? Ans. It is lighter than air and its relative density is 0.97. It is found in raises, winzes and high places in flat ends (hanging-walls).

11. Q. What are some of its properties? Ans. It is odourless, colourless and tasteless. It is very poisonous, slightly soluble in water and it burns with a blue flame to form carbon dioxide.

12. Q. What is the effect of the gas on person? Ans. This gas does not give warning. The effect is cumulative as the blood goes on absorbing gas faster and more readily than oxygen. As the inhaled gases in the lung alveoli diffuse into the blood plasma, the red blood corpuscles (haemoglobin) absorb these gases at different rates. In the case, of carbon monoxide, carboxyhaemoglobin is formed even when very small quantities of the gas are present. So great is this affinity, that carboxyhaemoglobin is formed about 300 times faster than oxyhaemoglobin under the same conditions. As the human body requires oxygen for survival, so its cells and tissues suffer from progressive oxygen starvation as the level of carbon monoxide saturation raises. This will result into the following: syncope, increased respiratory and pulse, coma with intermittent convulsions, depressed heart action and when the gas is above 70ppm there is weak pulse, slowed respiration, respiratory failure and death.

13. Q. How would you test for the presents of the gas? Ans. By the use of an Electronic gas monitor, Drager pump with carbon monoxide detector tubes. A quick breathing canary bird. The principle behind using small birds is that their respiratory rate is approximately 10 times faster than a human being, and consequently will be much more affected by carbon monoxide than man, thus giving warning symptoms long before man is in danger.

14. Q. What is their permissible quantity? Ans. It must not exceed 100ppm in the general air body.

15. Q. How would you clear the gas? Ans. By blowing in fresh air with fans, air hoses and auxiliary pipes/means.

Nitrous Fumes (NxOy) means various nitrogen oxides)? (Sources) 16. Q. How are nitrous fumes formed underground?


By burning of explosives, blasting operations, fumes from diesel operated machinery and arc welding.

17. Q. Is the gas heavier or lighter than air? Ans. It is heavier than air and its density relative density is plus or minus 1.23. It is found in low laying areas i.e. winzes, flat ends, gullies and shafts.

18.Q. What are some of its properties? Ans. It has a pungent smell, reddish brown in colour, an acidic test highly soluble in water, forming nitric acid and nitrous acids. Does not support combustion, but are strong oxidising agents.

19.Q. What is the effect of the gas on persons? Ans. It causes irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. It is extremely dangerous as there is a delayed action. Pain in the chest may not be severe and may pass off altogether after which the man feels quite well. The fumes may produce acute inflammation of the lungs, which manifests symptoms of shortness of breath, coughing, expectoration of blood stained sputum. It causes fluid in the lungs and a person will be drowning in his own fluids.

20. Q. How do you test for nitrous fumes? Ans. Ferrous sulphate smeared onto litmus paper dipped into clean water and dried turns brown when wetted with nitrous fumes dissolved in water (especially running water from a heap of blasted muck). Use of a dragger pump with nitrous fumes detector tubes.

21. Q. What is its permissible quantity? Ans. It must not exceed 5ppm in general air body.

22. Q. How would you clear the gas? Ans. by using water blast and watering down the area thoroughly. The gas is dense (heavy and low lying) and soluble in water. Where the gas is likely to be present, the area should be well watered down and ventilated.

METHANE (CH4) 24. Q. How is methane formed underground? (Sources) Ans. Methane is formed during the decay of organic matter (vegetation) in the absence of oxygen. Consequently it is given off from most coal and shale deposits, and is also present in varying quantities in many of the gold and platinum mines, and on later mines is normally associated with the intersection of fissures, faults and dykes.

25. Q Is the gas lighter or heavier than air? Ans. It is lighter than air and its relative density is 0.55. It is found in raises and hanging walls/roof.

26. Q. What are some of its properties?


Methane is colourless, odourless, tasteless, and slightly soluble in water, highly flammable when mixed oxygen and it is non-toxic but will not support life.

27. Q. What is the dangers or effects of this gas? Ans. (i) from 1% to 5% methane will burn with the intensity of the flame increasing as the percentage increases. a. Between 5% - 15% methane is explosive. The most ignited mixture is approximately 7,5% whilst the most explosive mixture is 9.8%. Above 15% concentration, the oxygen content in the mixture is too low to support combustion and it displaces oxygen causing death by suffocation.


28. Q. How do you test for the gas? Ans. With an approved methanometer, safety Devys lamp and multi gas electric monitors.

29. Q. What is the permissible quantity of the gas? Ans. It must not exceed 1.25% on an approved methanometer.

30. Q. How do you clear the gas? Ans. By blowing in fresh air using fans, air hoses or any auxiliary means.

SECTION B: INITIAL EXAMINATION 31.Q. What are the essential items of clothing and equipment a person must wear or have before proceeding underground? Ans. Proper laced boots, gumboots, overall, hard hat, cap lamp, cap lamp belt, safety belt, leg guards, goggles/safety glasses, gloves, pinch bar with rubber gasket, 4lbs hammer, gas testing equipment etc.

32.Q. When coming for a shift, do members of the gang go straight to their working places to commence work? Ans. No. They will wait at an approved waiting place which will be marked with a chain barricade, notice board (written WAITING PLACE) until the holder of a blasting licence and a competent assistant have examined the working place and made it safe. The blasting licence holder will then send his competent assistant to call the rest of the gang.

33.Q. Does the holder of a blasting licence go into an area / end which has been previously blasted, on his own? Ans No. He must always take one competent person in with him to assist under his charge to water, bar down, and make the working area safe. When this is complete he send his competent assistant for the remainder of the gang.

34.Q. Why must you never go alone into an area/end, which has been blasted, or into a section of the mine in which operation have ceased? Ans. You must not go alone because one person can always help the other if they get into any trouble e. g. gassing incidents and any mine accident.

35.Q. What do you do if you find persons lashing/working in an end before it

has been made safe by a blasting licence holder? Ans. Withdraw the labour and make sure there are at a fresh air intake base/place. With the help of a competent assistant I will make safe the working place/area (testing for gasses, watering and barring down and checking for misfires), starting from a safe place working towards the unsafe place. After making safe, the gang will resume work and I will write down their names and mine numbers and report them to the Overseer Miner.

36. Q. What parts of the working place must be examined? Ans. All parts where persons are required to work or travel.

37.Q. What is a water blast and what is its function? Ans. A water blast is a device which is connected to the compressed air and water line and when turned on it blows a fine spray of water and air onto the dust and fumes of newly broken rock. The fine spray greatly reduces the dust and fumes after a blast.

38. Q. When is a water blast used? Ans. It must be used when a development end has developed for eight metres. Before the development end is charged up, the water blast must be tested to ensure that it is in working order. It is then turned on before blasting, and if not on, it must be turned on for 15 minutes before reentering the area after a blast at the appointed re-entry time to lash the particular end.

39. Q. When do you expect to find gases in a development end? Ans. At all times, but particularly after a blast and when the fan, auxiliary pipe and water blast ventilating the end are not operating.

40. Q. When and where do you use a safety chain in a mine? Ans. In an area where persons can fall and injure themselves. Such areas are steep raises, winze holings, grizzlies, shrink stopes etc.

41. Q. When you see evidence of a misfired hole, on a lashing shift, what do you do? Ans. Mark it off with a ring around it using white paint. Then write M.F. (misfire) next to the ring. Fold the fuse cord and insert it into the misfired hole and plug it with a recommended plug e.g. wooden plug. If it is not possible to insert the plug, remove one cartridge /stick using an approved copper scraper wire, then fold the fuse cord and insert it into the hole and plug. Make sure the cartridge is placed into the right old explosive box.

Section C: Support of Workings 42. Q. How would you deal with bad hanging whilst examining? Ans. I will ensure my helper is standing in a safe position. Starting from a safe place I will check for any loose rock around the bad hanging before attempting to bar it down. Then I will attempt to bar down the bad hanging using a pinch bar, which will be elevated at 45 degrees. The pinch must have a rubber gasket.

43. Q. If you are unable to bar down the bad hanging, what precautions can

you take? Ans. Place guards around or barricade off the area and then support the bad hanging with a timber prop or cam-lock prop.

44. Q. If there is no timber to support it, what else could you do? Ans. Barricade the area off and put no entry signs up or get permission to blast the bad hanging down at a time suitable for the mine overseer. Procedure for blasting the bad hanging: After being granted permission to blast the bad hanging, I must support the bad hanging with timbers and cause the machine crew to drill some short holes while they are under my direct supervision. Then I am to remove the drilling equipment and every one who will be not part of charging crew or assistants. Barricade the area and put no entry signs or put guards for the safety of other workers. I must make sure that all other employees who will be affected by the exhaust air are removed and they are at a fresh air intake base. Then I will install some barricades and put no entry signs in place. Appoint someone amongst the gang who will be responsible for each gang and give such person instruction not to allow any one to go beyond the barricade and not to resume work before I instruct them to do so. With the assistance of my competent person I will then collect enough cartridges, fuses, ignitor cord and lighting equipment. Remove tapping and insert a new premier. Knowing the burning speed of the fuse and ignitor cord I will put enough length of the cord that will allow me to get to a place of safety before detonation takes place. I will instruct my competent person to help me count the number of shorts and wait for 30mins before re-entering the area. After 30mins I will conduct a proper re-entry. If it is to be blasted at the end of the shift, guards or barricades must be placed during the shift. The area should be examined as soon as possible after it has been blasted. The oncoming shift has to warned that bad hangings has been blasted and why. I will then log/write my instructions in the communication book.

45. Q. If a labourer complains that his working area is unsafe, what would you do? Ans. Withdraw the labour from that area and I will ensure they are at a safe fresh air intake base. With the help of my competent assistant I will reexamine the area i.e. testing for gases, watering and barring down bad hangings and check for misfires. If I am not sure about the area, I would get the opinion of the other blasting licence holder, and we would reexamine the area together.

46. Q. If you found a number of packs blasted out, what would you do? Ans. Starting from a safe place, I will test for gasses, water and bar down a distance of about 2m and install temporary timber props. I will continue repeating the above until I cover the whole area. Matt packs will be replaced after installing temporary timber props.

47. Ans

What is a competent person? A competent person is a person who has had adequate training and experience to enable him to perform that duty or discharge that function without avoidable danger to himself or any other person.

48. Ans 49. Ans 50. Ans

When is a working place safe? Only after it has been examined and made safe by a Blasting Licence Holder. Who may enter a working place first? Only the Holder of a Blasting Licence. How often do you operate a water blast in a development end during a shift? I would operate it 3 times. 2. 3. 4. 15 minutes before re-entry into an end. Immediately prior charging. 15 minutes after a blast.

51. Ans

Where would you install a water blast underground? In all development ends, shafts, winzes, rises, and where there is no thorough ventilation and also where it is of help to allay dust and neutralize fumes. How far must the water blast be from the face? Not more than 15 metres from the face. Your next-door Miner goes off sick, your shift boss tells you to take over his Section. What is your procedure? 1. I would take over full control of the Section as if it were my own. 1. Familiarize myself and examine all working places and make safe. What is direct supervision? A person shall be regarded as being under direct supervision of a Blasting Licence Holder only if he is being supervised by that Holder and is at all times within hearing and under the control of that Holder. You are a night shift Ganger, you come across 2 wires sticking out of the muck pile. What do you do? 1. 2. 3. 4. Short circuit the leads. Roll them on the socket plug. Put red paint on the socket plug. Give instructions to your lashers. a. Not to pull the wires. b. Lash around until you come to their ends.

52. Ans 53. Ans 54. Ans

55. Ans

56. Ans 57. Ans 58.

How long may mining operations be carried out without a Manager? For period not exceeding 7 days. How long be a Manager be absent from a Mine before appointing a Relieving Manager? For a period not exceeding 24 hours. Who appoints the manager of a Mine?

whose benefit the Mine Operations Ans The Manager of the mine shall be appointed. 2. In the case of a Mine which is worked by the registered Holder, thereof either Personal or through a servant or an Agent, by such Registered Holder or his agent. In the case of a Mine which is worked on tribute by the tributor. In the case of a Mine which is worked by or behalf of Partnership or Company by the accredited Agent registered. In the case not falling within paragraph 1,2 and 3 by the person for are conducted.

3. 4.

59. Ans 60. Ans

Who appoints the Miner in Charge?: The Manager of a Mine or Official may appoint a competent person to be a Miner in Charge of a specified Section or part of a Mine. What is a Miner in Charge? He is a person appointed to be a Miner in Charge of a specified Section or part of a Mine. His appointment shall be entered in ink and his particulars shall be entered in a Register kept for the purpose of inspections. What are the responsibilities of a Manager? The Manager of a Mine shall: 1. Comply with and enforce the requirement of these regulations and any lawful order given by the Inspector in the interest of safety and health and ensure that every person employed on the Mine observes them. Appoint such persons in terms of Section 7 and 8 as it may be necessary to assist him in enforcing observance of these regulations. Take all reasonable measures to provide for safety and proper discipline of persons employed at Mine. As soon as is practicable, after the occurrences of a breach: ( i ) Report such breach to an inspector or, ( i i ) Take such displinary steps as may have been directed by the Inspector and entered the particulars of the breach in a register kept for the purpose of Inspection at anytime by the Inspector. Cause the items of working shifts and of blasting operations in every Section of a Mine so that workmen shall not be exposed to fumes and dust from blasting. Provide Waiting Places used by workmen before entering their working places, ensure that such waiting places are clearly marked and ensure the Miner in Charge who is responsible for the safety of those working places are the first to go into such places.

61. Ans


3. 4.




Not allow any: (i) Miner or competent person to be in charge of a complement of workmen if he is unable effectively to supervise the workmen during his working shift. ( i i ) Miner to have more working places or machine drills or persons than may be approved by the Chief Government Mining Engineer. Whenever necessary provided both underground and surface adequate and suitable fire fighting equipment as directed by an Inspector and located at conspicuous places.

Not permit any incompetent or inexperienced person to be employed on dangerous work or work upon the proper performance of which the safety of person depends. 10. On taking over a Mine, acquaint himself with such notices as may have been issued to his predecessor by an Inspector who shall on request supply copies of such notices.

62. Ans

What is the clock on the shaft bank for? It is for synchronizing all your watches, so that all persons work at same times and have same times of blasting, so as to safe guard persons from being exposed to fumes and dust from blasting. In the event of an employee deadly injured on a Mine he will be unable to work for two or more weeks, what must the Manager do? He must report to the Inspector of Mines and enter the particulars of the injury in a register in ink, which will be kept for Inspection by the Inspector. What would you do when you have a fatal accident? If you have a fatal accident, or serious accident that should be reported to the Inspector, you must not attempt to remove the dead man or injured person until you are sure that you have made the place safe. You can then remove him by stretcher, barricade the area off and under no circumstances must you interfere with the place where the accident has occurred. Report immediately to the official who will notify the following people; General Manager, Inspector of Mines, Police and any other Senior Official who is concern in that Section by any quickest means e.g. phoning. A man went and work in a raise before it has been made safe and gassed, what do you do? (On the platform) 1. 2. man Blow in as much fresh air as possible. Send one man to an Official send for a stretcher and put another as guard there at the bottom.

63. Ans

64. Ans

65. Ans

2. Then connect a water hose to the air column and slightly open air and then fasten the other end of the water hose to your safety belt as your second auxiliary means. 3. Then you and your competent person, damp clothes and tie around your nose and mouth and then climb up to the platform.where the gassed man is.

4. Pull up stretcher and put the gassed man onto the stretcher and lower him. Then barricade off. 5. Take him to the hospital and give report to the doctor verbally. 66. Ans You find a person gassed in a flat end. What do you do? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Blow in as much fresh air as possible. Send one man to an Official, send for a stretcher and put another at the entrance as a Guard. Then you and your competent person wet clothes and tie around your nose and mouth. Go in and take out the gassed man to fresh air intake, render first aid and put him on a stretcher. Barricade the area off. Accompany the man to hospital including the competent person and all those who were working with him, for medical examination. The gassed man shall be admitted for a period of 48 hours.

6. 67. Ans

What do you know about latrines on surface? There must be one latrine in each level per 50 persons, well ventilated and lighted. Clean at all times.

SECTION C SOPPRT OF WORKINGS 68. Ans How would your test for bad hanging? I would ensure that I am standing on a surface position with my competent person standing on a safe place. I then sound the hanging and sidewall with a pinch bar with safety rubber gasket or you can sound with a 4 lbs hammer. The pinch bar shall be elevated at 45 How would you deal with bad hanging? I would whilst standing in a safe position try to bar down the bad hanging with a pinch bar with rubber gasket. If I am unable to do this I will temporary support the bad hanging with a timber or camlock prop. (Under no circumstance am I allowed to use acrow prop for support). I would then barricade the area off and if possible place guards. I will then inform my shift boss in order to get permission to blast the band hanging down during the shift or at the end of the shift. How would you support the bad hanging? I would use temporary support by means of timber or camlock prop (Under no circumstances am I allowed to use acrow props) or permanent support by means of timber packs or rock blotting. You find some very bad hanging in a busy tramming haulage. What would you do if you cant bar it down? 1. 1. Barricade the area off. Inform the tramming crew of the bad hanging.

69. Ans

70. Ans

71. Ans

2. 3.

Temporary support with timber or camlock prop. I would then inform my shift boss and get permission as to blast it or permanent support the bad hanging, if he tell me that the tramming must continue. I would then rock bolt the bad hanging. If we are to blast it , we shall check the ventilation system with my shift boss, then place Guards and blast it accordingly.



What do you know about Cyanide? Ans 1. At every Mine sufficient supply of antidote approved by the inspector shall be kept conspicuous and convenient places and kept locked. 2. It shall be kept in labeled Cyanide Antidote and inside the box there is an explicit of directions for the use of such antidote. 3. All pipe outlets, cocks and taps shall be painted red.

4. No pipes carrying water shall be connected with water carrying Cyanide. 5. All places where water-containing Cyanide shall be securely fenced and notices shall be placed along the fence. SECTION D DRILLING AND BLASTING 73. Ans How would you prepare and make off a face for drilling? 1. Do waiting place procedure by checking my men for absentees, injuries, drunkenness and their safety equipment. Then tell the rest of the gang instructions for the day. With my competent person go to the storeroom and collect necessary tools such as gas tester and detector tubes, approved blow pipe, pinch bar with rubber gasket, water and air hoses, paint centerlines and grade line strings. Put tools on the trolley and proceed to the cross cut, visual checking for bad hangings along my traveling way ensuring my fan is running. At the entrance to the cross cut, I will open the barricade, go in, open the water blast and check the time and retreat to fresh air intake for 15 minutes and close danger sign Barricade. After 15 minutes, open danger sign Barricade, close water blast. Then test for gas and visual check for bad hanging by sounding with a pinch bar, working towards the face. Do this at interval of 2 metres until you come to the face. At the face test for gas, check for evidence of misfires and visual check for bad hanging. Then tell your competent person to connect your water hose on the water column and turn on water fully and wash down at least 8 metres back form the face and any place that needs washing down.




5. 6.

5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

Then bar down towards the face and bar down the face. Then pick down to solid the footwall, 2 metres back to expose the previous rounds lifters sockets. Then connect your water and air hose to the approved blow pipe and open water fully with a little bit of air, start pumping out sockets starting with the lifters. It is very important that you pump and plug not to miss out any holes. Once the face is examined check your roof and sidewalls 2m back with your approved blowpipe to expose previous round sockets. Then examine your area where you want to drill service pin holes. Attach your lines obtaining the center of your face to your front line and back line pegs. Attach your lines obtaining your grade lines to A grade pegs. In conjunction with your competent person who will sight through the lines, mark off you center line and your grade lines on your face with yellow paint. Scribe the size of your face. Start marling your holes using red paint and ensuring the holes are marked not less than 150mm from the outside of the socket and the paint marks not to be bigger than the jumper head. Mark off your direction lines with yellow paint. Mark off your service pinholes with red paint. Standing back 3 metres form the face with my machine crew present I will then instruct then on how they went wrong in the drilling of yesterdays round. Before leaving the end I would check that all my service requirements are the correct distances form the face. Checks at intervals of drilling time. a. Use of starter jumper. b. Use of cut director c. Length and direction lines are followed d. Do not collar dry e. Trimming of face at intervals f. Use of platform for shoulder holes.

10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15.

16. 17.


19. 20.

g. Safety equipment worn all the times. h. Pump dry all holes when drilling is completed. 74. How far back from a face to be drilled must be washed down?

Ans 75. Ans

for at least 8 metres. What is a socket? A socket is a hole or part of a hole remaining after being charged with explosives and blasted and is not known to be a misfire or contain explosives. What must you know about a socket? Its length, direction and cleanliness (L.D.C). Who may examine and plug sockets? Only a blasting licence holder who has examined that socket can plug it. Who can remove a socket plug? Only the blasting licence holder may examine sockets and the one who has examined the socket can plug it. What is a socket plug? It is an approved wooden or concrete plug or any other suitable material approved by the Inspector of Mines used for plugging sockets and misfired holes. Why do you plug a socket? In order to show that it has been examined and found free of explosives. With what do you mark off holes to be drilled? With paint or chalk to show the exact position and direction of the holes to be drilled. How near a socket can you mark off a hole to be drilled? Not closer than 150mm from the outside perimeter of a socket and the paint mark shall be so placed that when drilling takes place the drill steel shall not come closer than 150mm to a socket and it shall be drilled parallel to the socket. You have long sockets on the face what precaution would you take not to drill into them? Put a charging stick, a blowpipe or any other suitable material into the socket and drill parallel. With what do you pump out sockets? With an approved blowpipe. What is a blowpipe? It is of an approved design made of non-ferrous metal e.g. copper, brass or aluminum. With two connections one for water and the other for air used for pumping out sockets, misfired holes and drilled holes.

76. Ans 77. Ans 78. Ans 79. Ans

80. Ans 81. Ans 82. Ans

83. Ans

84. Ans 85. Ans

86. Ans 87. Ans

Why is it necessary to examine for sockets for the last 2 metres from each hole to be drilled? The reason is you are not allowed to drill not closer than 2 metres from a misfire, so you must ensure that there are no misfires. You are pumping sockets out at the face and you cannot find your cut what do you do? I will treat the cut as frozen holes and as I am the one who marked off the face and knowing where the cut was, I will by means of any approved blowpipe with lots of water and little bit of air continue to examine the area until I locate the cut holes. You have half drilled a round and it is knocking out time. What do you do the next day? 9. The following day I will do complete re-entry. 10. Examine and pump and plug all sockets. 11. I will also pump other half newly drilled holes. 12. Then mark the other half not drilled. When would you know that a machine operator is safe when drilling in a raise? Only when his safety lanyard is secured to the safety eye bolt to prevent him from falling. What is misfire? It is a hole, which have been charged with explosives and failed to explode either in part or wholly. How would you deal with a fuse misfire? 1. Remove the socket plug from the misfire hole. 2. Take an approved blowpipe connect the water and air holes. 3. Turn on water fully and a little bit of air, then begin pumping the misfire gently and slowly under no circumstance must I hummer at the misfire. 4. After pumping out my misfire and feeling my blowpipe taping on solid at one end of the hole and also see water coming out clean. I would then plug the socket. 5. Collect the record explosives and lock them in old expl. and Dete boxes.


89. Ans 90. Ans 91. Ans

92. Ans

How do you do with an electric misfire? 1. Remove socket plug. a. By means of an approved scraper made of wood, brass, copper or aluminum scrape out the tamping exposing as much powder as possible. I would then insert a new primer with a Dete already tested away outside the magazine at a safe place in a 4-inch pipe on a concrete slab see that it directly cones into contact with the old explosives. Then retamp the hole and plug it, then blast at the end of shift with permission.


4. 93.

How far can you drill from a misfire hole in a stope?


You are not allowed to drill within 2 metres of a misfire and must be so drilled in such a direction that the drill hole does not come closer than 2 metres from the misfire and it must be drilled parallel. How far can you drill from a misfired hole in a development end? Under no circumstances may you drill near a mis fire in a Dev. End unless the misfire has been re-primed and blasted or pumped out. How do you deal with a misfire in a quarry? Re-prime the hole and blast it. Why cant you pump out an electric misfire? You are not allowed to pump an electric as an electric detonator is very sensitive and can explode with the slightest tap when mishandled. Can you undercut a Quarry face? No, it is very dangerous as the ground might fall on you. When would you pump out an electric misfire? Only in sinking shaft and that is when we use an inert inverted wax primer. How do you know that your misfire is finished in a hole in a sinking shaft? Because we bottom prime, so when the primer comes out I know my hole is clean, because there is no cushion. How other than pumping or scraping out a misfired hole can you deal it? Re-Prime and blast. Why must a copper blowpipe or scraper be used? Because Iron and Steel give spark.

94. Ans 95. Ans 96. Ans 97. Ans 98 Ans 99. Ans 100. Ans 101. Ans

102. Ans 103. Ans 104.

Why must you use water when collaring? In order to ally dust. Before charging up an end to be blasted, what item of equipment must you check with regard to suppressing dust and fumes? Water blast. At the fix primary blasting time you are a blasting license holder tell me your blasting procedure? a. b. c. d. e. Check time with next-door miner. Sign token book and see Section is clear. Place guards at safe places. Leave your competent person at blasting point as Guard see cable is short circuited and then go and join your steel cable and copper cable to the round. Shout Cheesa, your Guards Shout Cheesa all times.

f. g.

h. i. j. 105. Ans

At blasting point put your copper cables in battery terminals. Take the key out of your pocket and insert it in the key socket on the battery and start to wind until you see a continuous yellow glow then press the firing buttons. (Shout Cheesa) Remove the key and put it in your pocket remove the cable and short circuit. Open water blast and check time and after 15 minutes close water blast and then go and collect your Guards. Give repot to the shift boss.

There is a raise deeping at 60o off a drive and the raise is 12m long, you want to go and drill. What is the procedure of marking off the face? 1. 2.

Do a complete re-entry. Having established my safety and drilling platform and completed the examination of my face I will: A. Open the shutters of my drilling platform. B. Open the shutters of my safety platform. C. Hang my 2 Grade chains from the Survey pegs. D. Inconjuction with my competent persons who will be sighting through the Grade chains washers I will establish and mark off my center line on the face also marking off the grade line which will give me the deep of my raise using yellow paint. Scribe the size of my raise. 2. Scribe the size of my raise. 3. Start marking your holes using red paint and ensuring the holes are marked not less than 150mm from the outside perimeter of the socket and the paint marks not to be bigger than the jumper head. 4. Mark off your direction lines with yellow paint. 5. Mark off your 14 service pin holes with red paint which are: i. 8 pin holes for tomorrows drilling platforms. ii. 2 chain ladders pin holes. iii. Water and air pin hole. iv. Water blast pipe pin hole v. Auxiliary pipe pin hole. vi. Safety eye bolt pin hole. 6. I shall then call up my machine crew and when they come on to the platform they shall secure there lanyards to the safety eye bolt provided 7. With the help of my machine crew and we shall together pull up the chain ladder and place it in todays chain ladder pins. 8. I shall then instruct them on how they went wrong in the drilling of yesterdays round. 9. I shall then instruct them to do the following drilling safety procedures: i. Do not collar dry ii. Use a starter jumper. iii. Deal with bad hangings at intervals. iv. Wear your safety equipment. 10. Before leaving I shall make sure that my drilling crew are securely anchored to the safety eyebolt. 11. At the bottom of the raise I will make sure that my auxiliary air pipe is open. 106. Ans What is secondary blasting? Secondary Blasting is blasting which can be carried out during the shift more than once such as mud blasting on the grizzley level, bad hanging box hang ups. What is re-entry time for secondary blasting?


Ans 108. Ans 109. Ans 110. Ans 111. Ans

10 minutes or until dust and fumes have cleared. You are working on a grizzley level you have a misfire how long will you wait? 1. 2. Electric misfire not less than 10 minutes. Fuse misfire -- not less than 30 minutes.

What is re-entry? Re-entry is the time laid down before persons may enter a working place after a blast. Where do you get your re-entry time from ? You obtain it from the blasting schedules provided. Where are blasting schedules kept? 1. 2. They are kept in the Shift Bosses Office or any other places where blasting operations are carried out conspicuous. They are signed monthly by the miner in charge of the Section and an Official.

112. Ans 113.

What is the purpose of having a re-entry time after blasting? To prevent persons from being exposed from fumes and dust caused by a blast. What is a blasting schedule?

Ans 1. Secondary Blasting: A. Set blasting times and safety procedures. B. Laid down time for re-entry. 2. Primary Blasting: A. Times when blasting may take place. B. Laid down time for re-entry. 114. Ans What is primary blasting? Primary Blasting is main blasting and is carried out since in 24 hours at the end of the shift. Unless the Inspector in writing is satisfied that ventilation is good to remove fumes and dust, he may allow blasting more than once in 24 hours. What is re-entry time for primary blasting? Re-entry time must not be less than 4 hours. Laid down by the inspector of Mine and passed to the Manager of the mine. What is multi-blasting? It is when blasting is done more than once in 24 hours, such as in high speed haulage development in shaft sinking. What is meant by series blasting? Series blasting means that the Dets are so connected up that the electric current from the positive terminal is passed to the first Det

115. Ans 116. Ans 117. Ans

leading on from one to another all the way to the negative terminal of the exploder. 118. Ans What is meant by series parallel blasting? Series parallel blasting is where your Dets are connected up in series and one lead of the Det to the positive and the other to the negative back to the exploder. What is a Beethoven? It is an approved battery which detonates the explosions by means of an electric current. It has two terminals for connecting blasting cables, a hole. Provided for a key and button which is pressed to pass the electric current to the detonators. Do the same Regulations apply to surface drilling as for underground drilling with regard to plugging sockets? Yes. The same Regulations do apply only difference is that on surface drilling is done dry. You want to blast 50 large rocks in a quarry by pop-holes, charged with fuse. What is your procedure? The most important point about this is that during blasting you and one other person must whilst standing in a safe place count all shorts. If one counts 49 out of 50 shorts you must treat it as a misfire and wait for 30 minutes. What do you know about storm warning in a quarry? On the approach of a storm all charging will cease. Remove all explosives to a safe place barricade off the charge area. Remove all personnel within the area, sound the siren and place guards. Charging may only commence when you have been authorized by the person in charge. What do you know about storm warning when working underground? A person specially authorized on storm watching on surface will send down the Mine a written notification Storm warning which states all charging operations and blasting to stop. This must be signed and acknowledged by every miner in charge and returned to surface. When this notification has been received all charging will cease, person removed, explosives not used to be removed to safe places and barricade the area off. Charging and blasting may commence only when an all clear notification has been sent down to all miners in charge and is signed. If all your holes electrical charged in Dev. End is a complete misfire. What do you do next day? 1. In a small working and if it was the only end, I would remove the key, short circuit the cable, wait for ten minutes and rectified the fault and blast it the same day. In a large Mine I would remove the key, short circuit the cable and barricade off. Go to surface and give report to the shift boss. To log for night lashers that X/C No 4 is a misfire. Under no circumstances would they reprime and blast that end as I have adhered to blasting schedules.

119. Ans

120. Ans 121. Ans

122. Ans

123. Ans




Explosives are transported from the surface magazine to the shaft head by means of the vehicle which: a) Runs on 4 wheels. b) Efficient brakes. c) Serviceable condition. d) Rubber lined. e) To be provided with a tarpaulin to cover explosives. Section 1 Diesel. At what intervals do you test for in general body of the air?


At intervals not exceeding 1 month whilst the engine running and at representable times and places laid down by the underground manager. At what intervals do you test for gas and where from mobile diesel units underground?


At intervals not exceeding 3 months from the exhaust, whilst the engine is idling and at full revs. What gas do you test for?


Nitrous fumes and carbon monoxide. What do you do with results of the test?


You make a record of the results and enter them in a book provided for this purposes. How much diesel can you store underground?


Not more than 3 days supply unless exemption from an inspector. What do you know about the construction of a diesel-refueling bay?


All diesel refueling bays must be:a) Be adequate ventilated. b) Be constructed of non-inflammable material and have a concrete impervious floor kept clean at all times. c) Have suitable fire fighting equipment. d) Have suitable fire fighting facilities. e) No smoking signs. f) No unauthorized entry signs. g) Must be kept locked. h) Taps must be provided. How do you deal with diesel fumes?


The operator must ensure that the water box is at all times operating and maintained in good order. What is water box?


It is an appliance attached to the exhaust that the air entering the engine is cleaned, exhaust fumes cooled, amount of toxic gas in exhaust fumes is reduced and the emission of sparks and flames prevented. Who will decide the place for diesel refueling bays underground?


The manager in conjunction with the inspector.

Procedure to charge a raise. 1. 2. After the machine crew has finished drilling I shall go and check the drilled holes for (L.D.C) length direction and cleanliness and count them. There are four different methods of charging the holes as follows. a) b) c) d) Using a charging stick with a pin (copper, brass or aluminium at one end). Using a charging stick with A1 air hose 6 long inserted into one end of the stick. Using omega clip. Using copper wire, 1/8 thick and 1.5 meter long.

Secondary blasting procedure on grizzley level with electrically Dets. 1. At the start of shift after collecting my lamp etc. I will sign on and collect from the shift boss instructions as to draw control which draw point to work that day. Proceed down the mine to my waiting place where I would check my labour for, presence, injuries, drunkenness and safety equipment and give them instructions for the days work. After the waiting place procedure, I will then take my charges and proceed to the explosives underground storage chambers. Outside the storage chambers we shall remove our contraband and put into the contraband box provided. I shall then take the keys from my pocket and open the explosives magazine, go in and collect the estimated amount of explosives for the day, enter in the issue and receive book and then lock the magazine, leave the guard. I shall then go to the detonator magazine and collect the estimated number of detonators for a day, enter in the issue and receive book and lock the magazine. Proceed to my grizzley level, making sure that explosives and detonators are carried two meters apart where I will put my explosives and detonators in approved boxes made of wood, kept locked all the time, painted red, written on top of the boxes (EXPLOSIVES AND DETONATORS) and should be placed not closer than 2 meters apart. We shall then with my charges collect 2 approved containers one for dets, and then collect 2 packets of explosives, 1 packet of dets, 1 reel of rocktex, the exploder and a reel of copper cable and proceed to the blasting point, testing for gas and visually checking for bad hanging. At blasting point I will leave my men and one charger guarding my explosives and dets being 2 meters apart, and proceed to the working place with the rest of the chargers. At the grizzley x/out I will unlock my safety door and then send one man to the level above where they may be charging rings, and send another man to the haulage for them to listen while I test whistle. With a competent person I will then proceed along grizzley X/Cut and carry out the following duties:1) 2) 3) Test for gas. Check for bad hanging. Check steel cable is not damaged.


3. 4. 5.






4) 11. 12.

Check grizzley bars and grizzley brows.

At the end of the grizzley cross cut I will check my return airway safety door to see if not damaged. I will then send for my men and we shall start working, putting the two approved explosives and dets containers on their appropriate hooks, which are two metres apart.

Describe a portable magazine? 1. Sides top and bottom shall be made of steel plate not less than 5mm thick and lined with tongued grooved matchboard 15mm thick with an air space of 35mm. Ventilation is provided by 4 openings either side of the magazine. The windows shall be covered outside by louvers, and inside covered with wire gauze. The door shall flush with the sides when covered. There are 2 doors and the door for explosives must meet the requirements of an 1mm magazine. The detonator door if less than 500mm sq it shall have one deadlock and 3 dog bolts. There shall be an air space of 220mm between the dets and explosives.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Blast in built up area. 1. 2. Blasting shall not take place during public holidays and Sundays. Blasting may only be carried out during the following hours Monday to Friday 7:15am 12:30pm 2:15pm 5:00pm. Saturday 7:15am 12:00 noon. Prior warning shall be given to all residents with 300meters radius of the site intention to carry out blasting operations. This information shall also be given to the nearest Police station. At least three minutes before the blast warning shall be given by hooter, siren or other means with a distinct sound sufficient to alert all persons in the area. Guards shall be placed at a safe distance with red flags of at least 450mmsq at each avenue of approach. They will also display a large board on which is written in bold letters BLASTING OPERATIONS IN PROGRESS Not more than 3 holes, not more than 1 meter deep shall be fired at one time. No hole shall contain more than 200mm of explosives. The blaster shall record in his log book his examinations of his working places and in accordance with section 45 and 46 misfired holes shall be dealt with as laid out in section 40 (6). For electricity fired holes. Drilling of holes or the use of Pneumatic pricks within 4 metres of a misfire holes is not permitted until the M/F hole has been dealt with. The 4 metre distance from a misfire hole shall be clearly marked off, in the case of trenching by paint or chalk marks down the sides and across the bottom.



5. 6. 7.

8. 9.


Charge shall be fired electrically from a safe place so as to allow the blaster to determine the amount of initiation except under or close proximity of over head power lines when safety fuse or a combination of cordtex and safety fuse is to be used. Adequate provision shall be made to prevent fly dirt. Then go to the underground storage chambers to collect perforated explosives (Dynagel) and detonators. Before entering the magazine with my competent person, we shall put all our contraband in the contraband box outside the magazine. Take the keys from my pocket and open the explosives magazine, go in take the required amount of explosives (Perforated Dynagel), enter into the issue and receive book and lock the magazine. Then outside the magazine place your explosives in approved containers and leave your competent person as guard. Proceed to the detonator magazine making sure all your contraband is in contraband box outside the magazine. Take the key from your pocket open the magazine go in and collect enough number of detonators, put them in approved container and enter into the issue and receive book and the lock. The magazine, then outside the magazine, at a safe distance away from the magazine, in a 4 pipe on a concrete slab test your detonators and shortcircuit the leads. Then proceed to the working place making sure the detonators and explosives are 2 metres apart. On arriving at the raise I shall:a) b) c) d) e) Test my water blast and make sure it is in order. At a safe clean dry place make up my primers. Put up my primers into an approved container, and see they are 2 metres apart. See my auxiliary is blowing. Take a long hook and stand at a safe place shake the chain ladder to remove loose rock which might have been caused during drilling.

11. 3.


5. 6. 7.

Before climbing up raise I will leave guards and give specific instructions. Once on the drilling platform, I will secure myself to he safety eye bolt. I will then pull my explosives and start charging by:a) Putting a cushion at the end of the hole and pressing the perforated explosive until I feel the stick of explosive is secure, this is followed by primer and one stick again pressing the stick until I feel it secured followed by 2 or more sticks according to standards, and then charge all hole like this. When charging is completed I will now join and test my round with wachesa or continuity tester and shortcircuit the round. I will then temp the holes. I will test my round again to see if there is no wire which might have knifed when putting temping on. Shortcircuit my round. Then remove my safety lanyard from the safety eye bold and secure it to the chain ladder. Place the safety eye bolt into tomorrows positions. Pull up my steel cable and test it before connecting to the two terminals of my face and shortcircuit the other end.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18.

Wrap the steel cable 3 or more times on the eye bolt. I will derig the safety and drilling platform taking care not to throw the shutters down but lower them. Put my arm through loop of the steel cable and proceed carefully down the chain ladder. At the bottom check for loose explosives fallen during charging. Procedure of transporting explosives from station to underground distribution chamber.


I will send my competent person to the tramming crew and inform them that we want to transport explosives and at the same time we want a loco with a toe-bar. When the loco comes I will ensure that the explosive cars are attached behind the loco on down grade side so that if uncoupled they wont run-away down the track. Ensure explosives are not transported at a faster pace than a walking pace and ensure the cars are still locked. Guards are to walk for metres behind, carrying red danger lights, until we come to the underground distribution chamber. At the magazine, I shall unlock the cars and unload the explosives and at the same time the Miner in charge shall cjeck and count his order against the order form. Then the miner in charge shall sign his signature on the order form as evidenced of receipt of his order. The miner shall unlock his distribution chamber and put his explosives inside, according to the correct rotation. What happens to the Magazine keys at the end of shift?


3. 4. 5.

6. 7.


They are securely locked away in a safe in the shift-bosss office. Ho would you dispose off small quantities of old explosives?


I would destroy them in a mud blast, such as in Grizzley level. By making a new primer place it on the rock and place old explosives around the primer and the cover with mud or tamping and blast it in conjunction with my round. How would you destroy or dispose large quantities of old explosives.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Inform the official who shall get permission from the inspector to destroy the explosives. Ensure that it is a clear day and no sign of rain. Select my site ensuring that it is on level ground and free of large rocks. e.g. old mine workings, a dump etc. I shall then place guards at safe distances at all avenues approaching the area. Leaving my competent person guarding the explosives. I shall give specific instructions to my guards such as:a) Do not let anyone pass your guard point.

b) c) d) 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Do not leave the area until I come and take you. Shout cheesa all the times. I shall provide them with red flags.

I will then come back and check the flow of the wind. I shall then lay down sawdust with wind and top of sawdust place explosives in a herring bone pattern. I will then pour paraffin on top of the old explosives. I will make a tail of a long fuse or strap of cloth dipped into paraffin at the down wind side. Then light up against the wind and go to a safe place shouting cheesa. We shall wait until the flame goes off and I shall go and examine area thoroughly. I shall then go and collect my guards. When can you transport material on the ladder way of an inclined shaft?


If steeply inclined no material is allowed to be carried on it, unless the material affects repairs or maintenance. If not steeply inclined any material may be carried. What do you know about ladder ways in a vertical shaft?


Ladder ways in a vertical shaft shall not exceed 80o and not less than 76o at an inclination to these horizontal. The ladders must be separated by platform every 10 metres and protrude 1 meter above the platform unless strong handrails are provided. They must be a strong construction and free from obstruction so that when climbing up or down your feet do not come in contact with the footwall. They must be maintained in good repair and securely fixed. Must not be fixed in an overhanging position and must overlap the manhole of the platform. Must be securely practiced off from haulage compartments. What do you know about ladder sways of at an inclination between 350o and 70o to the horizontal?


The ladders must be separated by platforms every 20 meters and protrude 1 meter above the platforms. Must be of strong construction, free from obstruction, maintained in good repair and firmly fixed. Must be provided with handrails at the top and bottom so that when climbing up or down you do not go directly into the haulage way. They must be bratticed off from the haulage compartments. What do you know about ladder ways of 35o or less at an inclination to the horizontal?


They shall be made of steps constructed of concretes, wood or any other suitable material strong handrails must be provided to brattice you off from haulage compartments and to prevent inadvertent slipping or falling. What do you know about lighting around the shaft?


The area surround the shaft must be adequately lighted due to operations being carried out during hours of darkness and any place where daylight is inadequate to perform the work safely.

What is a Galloway stage and how far must it be from the bottom of a vertical shaft? Ans A Galloway stage is a protective covering protecting persons working at the bottom of a sinking shaft. It must not be less than 25 meters from the bottom of a sinking shaft. What is a penthouse and how far must it be from the bottom of a vertical and incline sinking shaft? Ans A penthouse is a fixed protective covering, protecting persons working at the bottom of a sinking shaft. It must be:a) In a vertical not more than 25m from the bottom of the shaft. b) In an incline not more than 30m from the bottom of the shaft. What safety advice do you have on a penthouse for electric blasting? Ans You have a millers plug. What is a fuse? Ans It is a fuse used for blasting, which burns, but does not explode or contains its means of ignition. You are collecting explosives from Shabanie what do you require? Ans 1. I require a requisition from the Mine stores authorized by the inspector of mines to the Magazine master of Shabanie Mine, stating amount and type of explosives to be collected. Then I will require the times of travel and the route which I will obtain from the Government Gazette. If no government gazette, you can obtain it from the nearest police station from the member in charge. I will require the vehicle which:a) Runs on 4 wheels. b) With efficient brakes. c) In serviceable condition. d) Rubber lined. e) Provided with a tarpaulin. f) Provide with a 4 x450mmsq red flags, displayed on all 4 corners of the vehicle seen from back, sides and front. I am not allowed to stop on the way unless in an emergency. I am not allowed to travel at a speed exceeding 35km/h and you must keep a distance of not less than 45m behind other vehicles. What do you know about Old explosive boxes? 1. 2. They are made of wood approved by the Inspector of Mines. The boxes are: a) Painted red. b) Kept locked. c) Written in bold letters. OLD EXPLOSIVES AND OLD DETONATOR BOXES. d) Provided with holes on top of the size of an explosive or a detonator. They shall be kept on a clean dry place being metres apart.

2. 3.

4. 5.


How long may you keep the Old explosives and old detonators in the boxes? Ans They must be cleared daily by a blasting licence holder at the end of a shift and be destroyed in a mud blast in grizzley level. You have no watch, how can you safeguard yourself when lighting up fuse charges? Ans 1. 2. 3. I would take a spare piece of fuse half the length of my shortest fuse in the round and light it. When it burns out I will know I have another half of my shortest fuse left. Then I will go to a safe place. I can safeguard myself by a burning cheesa stick as half minute before burning out the flame changes from Yellow to Blue. What length of fuse would you use in a development that you have drilled a 1.4 meter jumper? Ans I would use a length approximately 1.8 metres. You have a bomb misfire up in a draw point what would you do. Ans I would make up a new primary and push it up by means of a bomb pipe to the bomb which has misfired and during that it is in close contact with the bomb. Then I would burn it. How do you recognize weeping powder? Ans When nitro-glycerine starts to leak from the explosive through their covers you know it is now weeping explosives. How do you cap a fuse? Ans I would select a clean dry place as level as a flat table. Then I shall cut from the reel a testing piece and burn it to see if the reel is not damp. I would then cut three pieces of equal length, and lay them next to each other and burn them one after the other and timing each one then work out the average speed. Then cut from the reel the required length. Take a detonator from the detonator by gentle tapping it on your palm; under no ways must you blow out the saw dust. I shall visual check to ensure that there is no saw dust in the detonator. Then take the safety fuse and insert it into the detonator and make sure it contacts with the detonator with then by means of an approved crimping priers crimp once. What is very important about capping a fuse? Ans You must ensure there is no saw dust in the detonator. How many fuses do you know? Ans You have 4 types:a) Plain fuse. b) Capped fuse. c) Capped fuse with ignitor cord connector. d) Capped ignitor cord connector with a safety clip. What is Primer? Ans A primer is a stick of explosives with a detonator inserted in it.

How do you make a fuse primer without a clip? Ans Take a stick of explosives, and by means of an approved pricker open the 4 flaps on the end of the explosive. Then prick a hole into the explosive the size of a detonator and gently insert the capped fuse into the explosives. Then tie the 4 flaps around the fuse with a string. How do you make an electric primer? Ans Take a stick of explosive and by means of an approved pricker made of nonferrous material e.g. wood, copper etc. Prick a hole at one end of the explosive, the size of a detonator. Gently insert the detonator and loop the lead wires around the explosives to prevent it from pulling out when charging. How are explosives conveyed from the storage boxes to the working face at charging up time underground? Ans In approved containers, under the direct supervision of a blasting licence holder. What is a Cheesa stick? Ans A cheesa stick is a fuse ignitor. How long does an ordinary cheesa stick burn? Ans For a minimum of 4 minutes and a minute before burning out the yellow flame changes to a blue flame. Where do you store cheesa sticks? Ans 13. You store cheesa sticks in the detonator magazine. Then I will prepare to charge my hang up: 1) 2) 3) 14. By attaching my safely lanyard to my anchor chain. First prod my hang up. If the hang up is secure I will cover my grizzley.

I shall then make up my bomb and with the aid of the bomb pipe. I shall measure the length of rocktex. I would like to use then cut it or I can use a primed bomb with steel cable. I would then place the bomb against the hang up by means of a bomb placer and bomb pipe. Then I will remove the bomb pipe and the shutting and remove all the labourers from the X/Cut, leaving me with one charger. I will then lock safety door at the return airway, short circuit my steel cable, join my bomb leads to the steel cable, and then test my circuit. Proceed to the blasting point shouting cheesa, then open whistle, lock the safety door, put one guard on one side of the grizzley X/Cut giving him specific instructions. Shout cheesa all the time. Collect my reel of copper cable and join my copper cable to the steel cable, then go to the blasting point. Before connecting my copper cable to my battery I will shout cheesa, at the same time my guard will also shout cheesa.

15. 16. 17.

18. 19.


Then join my copper cable to the battery, take the key from my pocket, insert it into the key socket on the battery, and start winding until I see a continuous yellow glow on the battery, shout cheesa and then press the firing button. Remove the key from the battery first and put it in my pocket, disconnect my copper cable leads from the battery and short circuit them, and then go and disconnect the copper from steel cable and short circuit both cables. Then wait for 10 minutes or until the smoke clears. What instructions do you give your men when cleaning after an electric blast?




I would inform them if they see any lead wires protruding from the muck pile to contact me immediately as it could be a misfire. What is the minimum length of fuse you can use?


At least 2 fit. (600mm). If they were a lot of big rocks on a grizzley level, how would you time 10. I shall then take the key from my pocket and open the explosives Magazine. We shall go in and collect enough powder and anfex and rock tex, then enter into the issue and receive book, and lock the magazine. I would send the other charger to go and collect the Anfex loader. We shall the proceed to the stope, and on arriving open and close danger sign barricade. Then secure ourselves immediately, and place the Anfex loader on level ground and earth it to the footwall not pipes or tracks. I would then check my men are not wearing nylon clothing or waterproof nylon equipment and they are wearing long rubber gloves and goggles. I would then ensure that the air column is blown out and install a pressure reducing valve that has been preset at 40 1bs in 2 or 76m/pascals. Take a stick of explosive, put a hole through it using an approved pricker, put rocktex through tie a double knot at the top, and press home that stick with Rocktex, cutting the Rocktex at the collar. Before charging commences, I would put a collar size mark on the polythene hose by means of a tap. What is the difference between an inert inverted wax primer and an inert wax primer? Ans An inert inverted wax primer is used in a shaft sinking, specially designed for this with the detonator being inverted. The inert wax primer is used in flat ends and the detonator is not inverted. You have a hangup in a box what would you do? 1. First test the hang up by prodding it ensuring that I do not go beyond this brow.

11. 12.





2. 3. 4. 5.

Warn the persons on the Grizzley level above, and barricade it off with DANGER SIGNS. I will make up my bomb and attach rocktex on it, cutting off the length I need from reel. Place guards before you put the bomb. When placing the bomb in the box I will ensure that I am secured with my safety and that I do not go beyond the brow. After blasting electrically what is your first duty?


Remove the key and put it in your pocket. Then disconnect your blasting cables from the battery terminals and short circuit.

Why do you use 15m of steel cable? For contamination reasons. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. We shall securely cover them with a tarpaulin. The driver shall drive the vehicle to the shaft head at a speed not more than 35 KMH. When we arrive at the shaft head, I shall place NO ENTRY SIGNS EXPLOSIVES around the shaft. Then we shall unload from the vehicle all the explosives. Then load them into approved transport explosive cars which are:a) b) c) d) 10. 11. Painted red. Rubber lined. Kept locked. With the words explosives written in bold letters on all sides of car.

Then I shall lock the explosive cars, and the keys shall remain on my possession. Then they are ready to be delivered underground. Procedure of transporting explosives from the shaft head to the underground stations.

1. 2.

Check to ensure that the area is barricaded off with NO ENTRY SIGNS EXPLOSIVES. Ring to the driver 5 pause 5 explosives about to be loaded in the conveyance, and the driver shall reply by ringing 5 pauses which means explosives may be loaded in the conveyance. I shall check in the conveyance to see and ensure there are no other materials inside. Then I shall check that the conveyance level to flag, so that when I am pushing in the explosives car it shall not pause undue shock. Push in the explosives cars into the conveyance and secure them.

3. 4. 5.


The onsetter will then ring to the driver 3 rings persons about to travel meaning only those involved in the transportation of the explosives and the driver will reply by ringing 3 rings persons may enter. The onsetter will ring, the station number to the driver where we want to deliver the explosives, and the driver will reply same. O arrival at the station, we shall then wait for the drivers signal which is 3 rings before leaving the conveyance. I shall then get out and place NO ENTRY SIGNS EXPLOSIVES and then push out the explosives cars. The onsetter will ring to the driver 5 pauses, 5 pauses which means explosives removed from the conveyance and the driver will reply 5 pause 5 pause 5. I shall then send for the loco and at the same time inform the tramming crew. How much explosives and detonators are you allowed to carry together?

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.


They are not allowed to be carried together unless:a) Detonators do not exceed 2 000 in number, b) Explosives do not exceed 500kg in weight. c) They are in separate compartments with an air space of not less than 750mm. What is an approved container?


It is a stout canvas bag or other suitable container approved by an Inspector. What instructions do you give to our guards when you place them?


I will give them the following instructions:a) b) c) d) e) Do not let anyone pass you even the ambulance or police giving an emergency signal. Shout cheesa all the time. Do not leave this point until I come and take you by myself. Keep the danger sign on even shots go off. I will then provide them with red flags.

What do you know about frozen explosives? 1. 2. 3. 4. They are very sensitive to normal shock or friction conditions. Frozen explosives can be recognized by abnormal hardness. Under no circumstances must you break a stick of explosives into halves. They must be thawed before use for 24 hours under 55OF (15%). After thawing they are to be used immediately, nitro-glycerine tends to exude readily after thawing. You cannot thaw frozen explosives infront of fire. When and where are you likely to find ammonia gas? Ans Where you use Ammonium blasting agents. How do you get rid of ammonia gas?



By means of good ventilation, water blast and thoroughly watering the muck pile. When using Ammonium Nitrate as a blasting agent what must you do to prevent misfires?


The holes must be pumped dry by compressed air. Are Ammonium Nitrate blasting agents dangerous to handle?


Yes. You must treat them like other explosives. When may no mining operations be conducted due to the presence of gas?


When the volumes of Co2, Co and not exceeds 5 000, 100, and 5 parts per million respectively. What is Rocktex?


It is a cord like device used in blasting, which contains an explosive, which explodes at high velocity when suitable initiated by a detonators. SECTION C SHAFTS AND WINZES What do you do before entering a winding compartment of a shaft to effect repairs or other works?


I would firstly verbally warn the winding engine driver and then enter the reasons, time in the drivers log book and sign it. The driver will counter sign my entry. What safety devices are there to arrest trucks moving out of control in an incline shaft?


They are:a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Stop block. Drop rail. Drag bar. Cut out. Safety slings. Blair devices. Marshalling devices. Drop sets. Heel block.

What safety devices are there on all shaft stations protecting cars from running down? Ans They are:a) Drop sets b) Heel block. c) Drop rails. d) Sprags. e) Barricades. f) Gates. g) Arddlane sprag. What do you know about the sinker sketch in a vertical shaft or winze?


On receiving the sinker sketch from my official the sinkers signature and date should in ink and the position of hole on the sketch in ink. I would then sign my name in ink and fill in todays date in ink as evidence of receipt of the sinker sketch and that I have understood it. After lashing I would pump and plug sockets and on the sketch tick off sockets in ink and mark off misfires in red ink. At the end of the shift I will hand it to the official for a period of not less than 7 days or a longer period. If sinking operations have ceased temporarily. Why does the going down kibble stop before the bottom in a sinking shaft?


To prevent the kibble from striking persons at the bottom of the shaft. What must you be sure of before ringing away a loaded kibble from the bottom of a sinking shaft?


It must not be over filled and must be steadied. How do you examine sockets in a vertical sinking shaft after exposing them?


By means of an approved copper blowpipe. Where may holes be drilled in a vertical sinking shaft?

Ans 12. 13. 14.

Only where indicated by the sinker. Making sure my copper cable is short-circuited at the blasting point. I will then test my cable from the raise towards the blasting point. Close my auxiliary and barricade off. ONLY at blasting time when section is clear, I will then test my complete circuit from my blasting point. Charging up with fuses and ignitor cord.

1. 2.

As above making sure you back prime, center prime or collar prime in conjunction with length of fuse. When I have completed charging, tamp and less my ignitor corn through the ignitor connectors of each fuse, ensuring I tie my cut together first then easers. The rest of the procedure is above. Bring ignitor cord down the raise to a safe lighting up distance approximately two x/cut away, at blasting time when section is clear light up with or matches. Procedure for Primary Blasting

3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Check watch with next door miner. Sign token book. See section is clear. Place danger sign barricade with No Unauthorised Entry. To all entrances leading to the working place. Go to blasting point with your competent person and check the blasting copper cable is shortcicuited. Leave your competent person as guard at blasting point, then proceed to the face and join your steel cable to the round.

Proceed towards the blasting point and join your copper and steel cables together. 6. 7. 8. Proceed to the blasting point shouting cheesa. At blasting time, when section is clear I will then test my complete circuit from the blasting point with a davis onmeter. I shall then connect my copper cables to the battery terminals, take the key from my pocket insert it into the key socket on the battery (shouting cheesa) and wind until you see a continuous yellow glow on the battery and press the firing button. Then remove the key and put it in your pocket, remove the cable from the battery terminals and short circuit and roll them neatly and hang them. Open water blast and check time and close after 15 minutes. Then go to surface and give report to your shift boss at end of shift. Then lock shaft by ringing 6 pause6 What must you do when you have completed the work? Ans I would verbally inform the winding engine driver and enter the results of my examination into the drivers log book and sign it. The driver will counter sign, I will then tell the driver to give one test trip of the conveyance without any persons on board. I will then unlock the shaft by ringing 6 pause 6. What must you have in sinking a shaft or winze regarding the movement of persons? Ans in every shaft or winze in the course of sinking must have a safe ladder way, steel rope ladder or a chain ladder leading to the collar. Where would you find the code of bell signals for a shaft? Ans At each station, at the shaft collar and in the hoist room. How deep may you sink, using verbally communication? Ans Not more than 35 meters. How long is a person operating a hoist permitted to work? Ans Not more than 10 hours in a 24-hour period. What do you know about the connection between the rope and cage or skip? Ans It shall be of such a nature that no accidental disconnection can take place. How many persons are permitted to travel in a cage? Ans A notice showing the maximum number of persons permitted to travel in such a cage must be displayed at each station and at the shaft bank. How often must a hoist be recapped? Ans Once every six months. When are guides required in a shaft?

9. 10. 11.


All shafts and winzes exceeding 30 meters in depth shall be provided with guides. How far must the guides be from the bottom of shaft?


Not for more than 25 meters from the bottom of the shaft. How many coils of rope must still be left on the drum when the conveyance is at the bottom of the shaft?

1. 2.

On a windlass not less than 4 coils. On an electric hoist not less than 3 coils. What is a contraband box?


It is a box placed outside the magazine for you to put in it all your contraband e.g. cigarettes, lights and matches before entering the magazine. What is meant by magazine master?


He is the person who has been put in full control of a magazine and he is responsible for the receiving and issuing of explosives. How would you open a case of explosives in a magazine/


Not in side the magazine but out side the magazine with bronze or wooden wedges. What is meant by weeping explosives?


It is when Nitro-glycerine inside the explosives begins leaking. Why do mounds overlap the entrance to the magazine?


This allows for extra protecting for the door in the event of an explosion. Where is a portable magazine used?


This is used on small workings, building sites and construction. How is your electric cable for blasting protected in a sinking shaft?


By means of an armoured cable (lined with lead). What do you about the movement of the bucket or kibble in a vertical sinking shaft?


When kibbe is being lowered down I shall stop it at approximately 4 meters from the bottom of a sinking shaft by ringing 1 ring to the driver. Then I shall ring 4 pause 4 to the driver which is the Marl Signal and it is at this point the driver will stop at all times during lashing when the kibble is lowered. I shall then ring it down by ringing 2 pause 2 lower slowly. We shall then fill the kibble and not overfill, trim the brim and clear the sides. I shall ring the ring 3 pause 3 raise slowly and at about 2 meters from the bottom I shall ring 1 stop the kibble and clean the bottom and at the same time steadied it and then ring 1 raise to the drivers direction. This is the movement of the kibble in a vertical shaft. What is the accident signal in a shaft?


1 long ring or knock.

What is the accident signal to persons? Ans 7 rings or knocks followed by station. How do you fasten your safety slings when transporting a heavily loaded scotch car in an incline shaft? Ans What is the minimum water pressure to be used underground/ Ans Not less than 100 kilopascals. What is very dangerous when pumping water in a winze? Ans The danger is that it might cause nitrious fumes and carbon dioxide, which is likely to be trapped under escape. If a man came and told you that he has breathed a lot of fumes from a blast what would you do? Ans Render first aid and put him on a stretcher and send him to hospital with a letter or accompany him to the hospital and give verbal report. SECTION F EXPLOSIVES Where would you store explosives underground? Ans In approved locked blocked boxed or locked underground distribution chamber. How must explosives be stored near working place? Ans In approved locked boxes. Who would keep the key to the underground locked distribution chamber? Ans Only the miner in charger Overseer Miner. What type of explosives can be stored together? Why are dates stamped on explosives cartons? Ans In order to show the date of manufacture and date or expiry as the explosives are very dangerous to handle when they start sweat and must be used in the correct rotation. What do you do with explosives when they are not actually in use? Ans Lock them in approved underground distribution chambers or in approved locked boxes or under direct supervision of a blasting holder.