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Urs App

Reference Works for Chan Research

In: Cahiers d'Extrme-Asie, Vol. 7, 1993. pp. 357-409.

Citer ce document / Cite this document : App Urs. Reference Works for Chan Research. In: Cahiers d'Extrme-Asie, Vol. 7, 1993. pp. 357-409. doi : 10.3406/asie.1993.1072 http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/asie_0766-1177_1993_num_7_1_1072

REFERENCE WORKS FOR CHAN RESEARCH A Selective Annotated Survey Urs App I. INTRODUCTION II. BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND OTHER INFORMATION ABOUT PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 1. Works in Western Languages 2. Works in Japanese and Chinese III. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS 1. Works in Western Languages 2. Works in Japanese and Chinese 3. Some Other Works Useful for Chan Studies IV. INDICES AND CONCORDANCES V. ELECTRONIC MATERIALS 1. A New Information Carrier 2. Overview of Electronic Buddhist Text Projects 3. Chan Materials and Projects I. INTRODUCTION Ten years ago, in 1982, I wrote a first draft of a bibliography of reference works for Chan research. That list made the round among some friends and colleagues, and the echo proved that it corresponded to a real need. While participating in the study meetings led by Prof. Yanagida Seizan and Prof. Iriya Yoshitaka at Kyoto University's Jinbun kagaku kenkyjo and at the Zenbunka Institute, I studied the reference materials that were used by the participating researchers, and my list quickly grew to such an extent that selection and annotation became essential. In 1987, the portion of that bibliography that dealt with works by Mujaku Dch was published in an article about that patron saint of Chan research ("Chan/Zen's Greatest Encyclopaedist Mujaku Dch *$if}lJ [1653-1744]," Cahiers d'ExtrmeAsie 3, 1987, pp. 155-174). Some of the bibliographical information from that article is included in section III of the present, less specialized bibliography. As the title indicates, this bibliography is rather narrow focused on Chan research. Thus Son and Zen research tools are not specifically targeted; that task is left for specialists in those fields, as is the listing and assessment of Korean works of reference. However, since anyone doing research in Son or Zen will need at least some of the works listed and described here, the present list should be of some use to a rather broad spectrum of students and scholars. Cahiers d'Extrme-Asie 7 (1 993-1994) : 357-409 Introduction 357 359 359 366 372 372 375 383 387 396 396 397 400


Urs App

Since this is a selective list, it goes without saying that no claim is made for completeness. One of the achievements of post-war Chan research spearheaded by Profs. Yanagida and Iriya is the realization that, despite the pressure of a living tradition that has long resisted such attempts, Chan texts (and of course also rituals, etc.) must also be studied in their specific historical, cultural, religious, and linguistic context. Thus many works belonging to general sinology, Chinese Buddhism, Dunhuang studies, linguistics, etc., are important for Chan research. Each of these domains is rich in reference works that are not covered here. In particular, there are many Buddhist dictionaries and other reference works that all researchers of Chinese Buddhism, including Chan researchers, use. Such indispensable reference works are not included here. Researchers invariably classify works of reference by location: frequently used ones are found on or around the working table, less frequently used ones on a bookshelf not too far away, and seldom used ones possibly at a university library or research institute. In this list, a star i indicates reference works that a reasonably polyglot researcher of Chan would be likely to want on (or within arm's length of) the working table. It has to be kept in mind that the frequency of use does not necessarily imply high quality but may be due to a lack of alternatives. Also, the length of the discussion (or its absence) in this list is not indicative of a work's quality. The two talks by Prof. Yanagida and the interview with Prof. Iriya that are translated in this volume of the Cahiers provide some additional information about Chan/Sn/Zen research and research tools as well as their use and history. These two researchers have produced some of the most valuable reference tools now available: the first dictionary of Chan terms (Iriya and Koga's Zengojiten #Hni#:ft) and the first concordance of a Chan text (Yanagida's Concordance to the Zutangji fflJH^jl). Just when Prof. Yanagida was preparing the third volume of that concordance for publication in 1983, I planned the first computer-made concordance of a Zen text and discussed funding with him. Since then, I have been engaged in the development and use of new kinds of reference tools, the subject of the final section. With electronic text, the very categories of "primary source" and "reference work" or "research tool" become blurred. For example, electronic text can without any addition function as a concordance. Therefore it is both "primary source" and "reference work." Though the electronic sphere is presently in a phase of rapid growth and nobody is yet able to grasp its full potential (nor its pitfalls and limits), it is already clear that the electronic medium will in the near future become the primary source and method of reference. Section V gives an outline not only of work that has already been done in this new domain of Chan research but also of some major projects and issues. I'd like to thank all readers of draft versions of this survey; but my special thanks go to Michel Mohr and Kenji Kinugawa who made a number of corrections and valuable suggestions. Introduction

Reference Works for Chan Research


II. BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND OTHER INFORMATION ABOUT PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 1. In Western Languages Addiss, Stephen, and Norman Waddell. Work in progress. Biographical Dictionary ofJapanese Zen Artist-Priests and Calligraphers. This book will include an extensive bibliography by Stephen Addiss on publications on Zen art. App, Urs. 1987. "Chan/Zen's Greatest Encyclopaedist Mujaku Dch MMMfc ( 1 653- 1 744)." Cahiers d'Extrme-Asie 3 : 1 55- 1 74. Includes information on Japanese lists of Mujaku Dch's many works and an annotated bibliography of some of the most important ones. . 1991a. "A Series of Chan Texts Translated into Korean." Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 2: 24-25. List of modern Korean translations of twenty-eight Chan texts, about half of which are yet to be published. . 1991b. "Zen Dictionaries and Reference Works." Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 2: 26-35. Annotated list of some of the most important printed reference works on Chan and Zen. Descriptions are in English and Japanese. . 1993a. "Recent English Publications about Chan, Son, and Zen (1977-1992)." Zenbunka kenkyujo kiyo (Annual Report from the Institute for Zen Studies) 19:1-58. Based partly on Gardner (1991) and Schuhmacher (1992). Unlike in Gardner's bibliography, many fields (such as "Martial Arts, Sport, and Health," "Cuisine," "Buddhist-Christian Dialogue," "Tea Ceremony," etc.) are excluded, and no publications in languages other than English are listed. However, the coverage of publications and translations by specialists is more comprehensive, work in progress is mentioned, and there are fewer misspellings. A selection of scholarly publications from this bibliography is included in the Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 3 (1993). See section V for an electronic version. . 1993b. "Theses, Dissertations, and Scholarly Publications in English about Chan, Son, and Zen (1977-1993)." Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 3. Extract from the same author's comprehensive list published in the Zenbunka kiy (1993a).

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. 1993c. "Buddhist Databases and Input Projects." Electronic Bodhidharma 3. This survey lists databases and input projects in the field of Buddhist studies and includes detailed information on institutions involved in such projects and their activities. It features a list of Chinese Buddhist texts that have so far been input in East Asia. Many Chan and Chan-related texts are listed . 1993d. "Reference Works for Chan Research. A Selective Annotated Survey." Cahiers d'Extrme-Asie 7: 357-409. This is the present survey which includes information on printed and electronic works. App, Urs, Michel Mohr, et al. Work project. Chan, Son, and Zen Texts in Translation. An Annotated Bibliography. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. An offshoot of the more comprehensive survey of primary Chan, Son, and Zen sources, this project aims at listing by text (and partly evaluating) all extant translations of Chan, Son, and Zen texts in as many Oriental and Western languages as we and our collaborators can handle. Will take a number of years. Band, Shjun et al. 1958. A Bibliography on Japanese Buddhism. Tky: Cultural Interchange Institute for Buddhists Press. Bibliographical entries about Zen on pp. 123-151. Beautrix, Pierre. 1969. Bibliographie du Bouddhisme Zen. Bruxelles: Publications de l'Institut Belge des Hautes Etudes Bouddhiques Srie Bibliographie No. 1. Arranged in unlisted chapters (Generalities, Texts and Commentaries, Doctrine and Philosophy, History and Biography, Art, and Comparative Studies), this bibliography covers only 746 works in Occidental languages as well as Japanese and Chinese. Though Gardner (1991) does not include Oriental books and articles, his bibliography would supersede Beautrix's work (including the supplement listed below) for the most part if it did not include so many misprints. . 1975. Bibliographie du Bouddhisme Zen Premier Supplment. Bruxelles: Publications de l'Institut Belge des Hautes Etudes Bouddhiques Srie Bibliographie No. 4. First (and to my knowledge last) supplement to the 1 969 bibliography. Bielefeldt, Carl. Work in progress. Bibliography of Western publications on St Zen. Bielefeldt, Carl, and Lewis R. Lancaster. 1975. "T'an Ching (Platform Scripture)." Philosophy East and West 2:197-212. Sums up scholarship on and translation attempts of the Platform Sutra before 1975. Buswell, Robert E., Jr. 1983. The Korean Approach to Zen: The Collected Works ofChinul. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. This and other books by Buswell feature well-researched and reliable bibliographies which include much Korean scholarship on Chan/Sn/Zen.

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Reference Works for Chan Research


Conze, Edward. 1960. "Recent Work on Tantric and Zen Buddhism." Middle Way 35: 93-98. . 1982. Buddhist Scriptures: A Bibliography. Ed. and rev. by Lewis Lancaster. New York/London: Garland. Demiville, Paul, Hubert Durt and Anna Seidel. 1978. Repertoire du canon bouddhique sino-japonais, dition de Taish f^^f]^iE3:WiM.ffli>M'j\. Paris: A. Maisonneuve/Tky: Maison Franco-japonaise S {L^W>. This revised and augmented second edition is the best repertory to date of the Taish edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon and thus also of the Chan texts found in volumes 48-51 and 85. The French transcription of Chinese adds an exotic touch. A revised edition with Pinyin readings and a number of corrections is now being prepared by the Hbgirin staff. Eastern Buddhist. 1967. "Bibliography [Daisetz T. Suzuki]." Eastern Buddhist (n.s.) 2, 1:216-229. See also under Yokoyama for an additional bibliography. . 1981. "The Writings of Hisamatsu Shin'ichi." The Eastern Buddhist (n.s.) 14, 1: 148-149. Faure, Bernard. 1989. La volont d'orthodoxie dans le bouddhisme chinois. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Contains a detailed bibliography of international scholarship on early Chan. Many references to Japanese scholarship. Faure, Bernard. 1993a. "Bibliographie succincte de Yanagida Seizan". Cahiers d'Extrme-Asie 7: 45-50. Lists a selection of 73 works by Yanagida, including some Chinese text editions and English translations. Faure, Bernard. 1993b. Bibliography in Aperu sur les tudes Ch'an/Zen aux Etats-Unis. Cahiers d'Extrme- Asie 7: 41 1-435. First American Zen Institute in Japan at Rysen-an, Daitokuji. Card catalogues. There is an extensive card catalogue at Mrs. Ruth Fuller Sasaki's former research institute at Rysen-an in Daitokuji, Kyoto, that provides well-classified English descriptions of both primary and secondary Chinese and Japanese literature on Chan and Zen (with keywords for content). The bulk of the work was done by Philip Yampolsky under the direction of Yanagida Seizan and Iriya Yoshitaka. Only some parts related to primary sources were published in Zen Dust. The library card catalogue of the same institute would also be of great value for a bibliography of pre-1965 Western literature on Zen. Gard, Richard A. (ed.). Since 1974. Buddhist Text Information. New York: The Institute for Advanced Studies of World Religions. Irregular publication with a varying degree of coverage. Concentrates on publications in English and includes some information about materials distributed in electronic form. Source information (Western)



Gardner, James L. 1991. Zen Buddhism: A Classified Bibliography of WesternLanguage Publications Through 1990. Salt Lake City: Wings of Fire Press. A list of 283 1 books and articles in Western languages on Zen, arranged according to thirty categories such as "Zen in Japan," "Zen in the West," "Introductory Works on Zen," "Concept of Man," "Zen Classics," "Cuisine," etc. Though many of these concepts overlap and thus undermine the compiler's aim of "facilitating browsing," additional indices of authors and themes make this the most useful overall resource on Western publications on Zen to date. Nevertheless, the coverage is by no means comprehensive; in particular, only some sample publications in European languages other than English are included. The bibliography suffers from hundreds of misspellings and mistakes: D.T. Suzuki is sometimes spelled correctly, sometimes "Susuki," his wife Beatrice Lane "Suzuki," "Susuzki," or "Susuki," Columbia University is mostly "Colombia University," and so on. Often the order of entries is incorrect (Y before W, etc.), so users do indeed need to browse. Some non-English titles are grotesquely misspelled. For English publications by specialists between 1977 and 1992 and work in progress, App's bibliography (1993a) is more comprehensive and precise. Haimes, Norma. 1972. "Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis. A Bibliographic Essay." Psychologia 15, 1: 22-30. See the more comprehensive references given in Muramoto Shoji's fcf^lqWJ articles "Zen e no shinrigaku no kakawari ni tsuite #/\>i>ffl^cD^t) 0 lIoi^T" in Zengaku kenky W^^% nos. 62 (1983: 72-98) and 63 (1984: 69-93). Hanayama, Shinsh TUjfgSi. 1961. Bibliography on Buddhism 3:{A|5cit g %k. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press 4kM^#0. Contains literature only until about 1940. Hervouet, Yves, ed. 1978. A Sung Bibliography (Bibliographie des Song). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. This heavily and competently annotated bibliography consists of detailed French or English descriptions of many Song works. Some Chan or Chan-related texts are discussed in detail, especially on pp. 349-358; most such descriptions are in French. Kabanov, Alexander. 1990. "Soviet Publications on Zen/Ch'an." Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 1 : 10-13. All titles in Kabanov's bibliography are given in romanized Russian, and English and Japanese translations of the titles are added. Kasulis, T. P. 1978. "The Zen Philosopher: A Review Article on Dgen Scholarship in English." Philosophy East and West 28,3: 353-373. Komazawa daigaku nai Zengaku daijiten hensansho %fW'fc pfr. 1977. Zengaku daijiten fP^^ifll. Tokyo: Taishukan shoten. Pp. 84-85 of vol. 3 feature a list of only thirty Western book publications on Zen, and pp. 85-87 list sixty translations of Chinese or Japanese texts. Supposedly literature up to 1976 is covered, but the list is valuable only for very old publications. The pagination of this third volume is possibly a candidate for the Guinness Book of Records: at seven Source information (Western)

Reference Works for Chan Research


different places the pagination starts at page 1 . So be prepared for an amusing search until you find p. 84 (even more so if you use the more recent one-volume edition)! Lancaster, Lewis, and Sung-bae Park. 1979. The Korean Buddhist Canon. A Descriptive Catalogue. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press. The standard catalogue for the Korean Canon, which contains a number of important Chan/Sn texts (for example, no. 1503 Zutangji ffl^H). Includes concordance lists with the Taish canon numbers, Nanj numbers, and Thoku numbers. Voluminous indices (Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese titles, Korean titles, Tibetan, author/translator). The Chinese character indices are not very user-friendly. McRae, John. Forthcoming. "A Bibliography of Recent Secondary Literature on Chinese Buddhism." Journal of Asian Studies. This selective bibliography mentions mostly English secondary literature; in a draft version, only a few French and German articles and books were listed, and no literature at all in other European or in Oriental languages. But since work is still in progress, it may be too early to assess this bibliography. The draft was posted on some electronic bulletin boards in the fall of 1992 and was one of the sources for the more specialized bibliography of works on Chan/Zen/Sn by App (1993a). Mikls, Pl. 1991. "Hungarian Publications on Zen/Ch'an." Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 2: 23. All Hungarian titles are translated into English and Japanese for the poor souls who cannot read this pice de rsistance of Western languages. With short descriptions. Mohr, Michel. 1989. "Les principales publications en langues occidentales sur le Chan/Zen (franais, anglais, allemand)." Unpublished draft. The scope of this small unpublished bibliography is much narrower than its title would suggest: it is a small annotated bibliography of translations of a selection of important Chan and Zen texts into French, English, and German after the model of Sasaki (196061). Mohr's comments are written in French. . 1991. "Recent French Publications on Zen/Ch'an (1984-1990)." Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 2: 19-22. Miura, IsshD, and Fuller Sasaki, Ruth. 1966. Zen Dust. Kyoto: The First Zen Institute of America in Japan. (Out of print) Pioneering English scholarly work on Chan/Zen, which furnishes high quality information on many Chan texts and masters. The bulk of the book is made up of a selection of translated Zen sayings (pp. 79-122), a bibliography of important original and translated Zen texts (pp. 333447) and many erudite notes (pp. 147-329) written by Mrs. Sasaki's research team, which included Profs. Iriya, Yanagida, and Yampolsky. Good, detailed general Hepburn and Wade-Giles index. Because the book was not conceived as a reference work but for various reasons grew into something close to it, its coverage is spotty; but it is an indispensable reference work for any Chan or Zen researcher. An electronic version is planned (see section V). Source information (Western)


Urs App

Pfandt, Peter. 1986. Mahayana Texts Translated into Western Languages. A Bibliographical Guide (revised ed. with supplement). Kln: E.J. Brill. This synoptical bibliography covers 264 Indian Mahayana texts (including Prajnparamit literature) translated into a variety of languages; but it includes neither Vinaya literature (see Yuyama 1979) nor narrative works and Tantric literature. Titles of Chinese translations are given according to the Taish canon with Pinyin and Hepburn transcriptions. Indices of Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese, and Japanese titles are included. The supplement contains additions to texts already listed and an additional twenty-odd texts; two lists with the Taish and Thoku numbers of texts covered in both bibliography and supplement are also included. Sasaki, Ruth Fuller. 1960-61. "A Bibliography of Translations of Zen (Ch'an) Works." Philosophy East and West 10, 3-4: 149-166.

An annotated list of translations into Western languages of fourteen Chan and six Zen texts. Does not list the many fragments translated in the works of D.T. Suzuki. Though the discussed translations are a bit old, the descriptions and critical comments remain valuable. The approach of discussing translations in conjunction with information about primary source texts is worthy of imitation.

Schuhmacher, Stephan. 1992. "Literaturverzeichnis." Diener, Michael S. (pseud.), Das Lexikon des Zen, 255-264. Ed. by Stephan Schuhmacher and Gert Woerner. Miinchen: Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag. This bibliography features many (primarily German and English) translations of Chan/Zen texts. It is much more comprehensive than that included in Schuhmacher and Woerner (1989) and its copy in the Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen (see Fischer-Schreiber et al. [1991]). Schuhmacher, Stephan, and Gert Woerner, eds. 1989. Rider Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Hinduism. London: Rider. In its various incarnations (see below under "Dictionaries in Western Languages": Fischer-Schreiber et al. [1986, 1991, 1992] and Diener [1992]), this encyclopedia contains a number of bibliographies. The English publications by Rider and Shambhala give just a careless rehash of the original German bibliography and thus contain many German titles, even if these were originally published in English. The most up-to-date bibliography was prepared by Schuhmacher (1992; see above). Schwaller, Dieter, and Urs App. 1990. "Recent Publications about Zen in German." Newsletter of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 1 : 17-18. Lists some German book publications from about 1984 to 1990; no comprehensive coverage. Spae, Joseph J. 1973. "Contents of the Christian-Buddhist Dialogue." Zeitschri fur Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft 57, 3: 87-201. This is a bibliographic essay on Buddhist-Christian dialogue that includes some material about Christianity and Zen.

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Reference Works for Chan Research


Thompson, Laurence G. 1976. Studies of Chinese Religion: A Comprehensive and Classified Bibliography of Publications in English, French, and German Through 1970. Encino, CA: Dickenson Pub. Co. . 1984. Chinese Religion in Western Languages: A Comprehensive and Classified Bibliography of Publications in English, French, and German Through 1980. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. This bibliography is divided into three parts: 1. Bibliography and general studies; 2. Chinese religion exclusive of Buddhism; and 3. Chinese Buddhism. Subsection 9 is devoted to Chan and contains about 300 bibliographical entries, but of course many other subsections are also of import. The author used Vessie' s (1976) and Beautrix's (1969 & 1975) work. Gardner's bibliography (1991) is much more comprehensive but contains also more spelling mistakes. Contains a useful index of author's names. An update by a different author has appeared as an occasional paper at the University of Massachusetts. Ueyama, Daishun. 1983. "The Study of Tibetan Ch'an Manuscripts Recovered from Tun-huang: A Review of the Field and its Prospects." In Lai, Whalen, and Lewis R. Lancaster, eds. Early Ch 'an in China and Tibet, 327-350. Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press. Vessie, Patricia Armstrong. 1 976. Zen Buddhism: A Bibliography of Books and Articles in English, 1892-1975. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International. The 81 -page bibliography has two parts whose vague definition makes locating authors and works difficult (no index). The first (general works, historical development, texts and commentaries, and Zen sects) and second parts (Zen and Archery, Zen and Philosophy, Zen Training, Zen and the West, etc.) contain some valuable information, but it is hard to figure out the thematic logic: why is Broughton's M.A. thesis on Tsung-mi (1970) under "Zen and Philosophy" in the second part? A fair number of the 762 entries of this bibliography are devoted to such things as "Yin, Yang, Macrobiotics and Me" or "This Diet can Kill" (both under Zen and Food, the latter from Reader's Digest). Some entries are commented. Not very useful overall; Gardner (1991) is more comprehensive but uses a similar thematic approach. Watanabe, Manabu. 1985. "The Works of Heinrich Dumoulin: A Select Bibliography." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 12, 2-3: 263-271 . Yokoyama, Wayne. 1992. "D.T. Suzuki's Writings in Japanese: A Descriptive Essay and Chronological Bibliography." The Annual Report of Hanazono College (Hanazono daigaku kenky kiyo) 24: 107-1 1 8. Yoo, Yushin. 1973. Buddhism: A Subject Index to Periodical Articles in English, 1728-1971. Metuchen N.J.: The Scarecrow Press. . 1 976. Books on Buddhism. An Annotated Subject Guide. Metuchen N.J.: The Scarecrow Press.

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Urs App

Yuyama, Akira. 1979. Systematische Obersicht tiber die buddhistische SanskritLiteratur. Erster Teil: Vinaya-Texte. Ed. by Heinz Bechert. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. This Systematic Survey of Buddhist Sanskrit Literature deals exclusively with Vinaya literature and thus supplements Pfandt's 1986 bibliography. This may seem a bit removed from Chan studies, but monastic rules are surprisingly longlived and international. Zeuschner, Robert B. 1976. "A Selected Bibliography on Ch'an Buddhism in China." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 3: 299-31 1. 2. In Japanese or Chinese App, Urs. 1993. "Recent English Publications about Chan, Son, and Zen (19771992)." Zenbunka kenkyjo kiy 19: 1-58. All titles of books and articles in this bibliography have been translated into Japanese by Shun Murakami. This list thus contains Chinese characters for all names, book titles, etc. that appear in titles of English publications on Chan/Sn/Zen over the last fifteen years. It is also available in electronic form (see section V). Bukkygaku kankei zasshi ronbun bunruimokuroku hensh iinkai {LM.^Wi^W lfraX>^^@^li^SM. 1972. Bukkygaku kankei zasshi ronbun bunruimokuroku: Shwa sanjichinen ichigatsu Shwa yonjyonen jnigatsu &&M&&UmjCftmB&-mm\*P\R~m%1444t\2R. Kyoto: Nagata Bunshd Chgoku shis shkyshi kenkykai ^SJSSI^ilt&flr&. 1976. Chgoku shis shky bunka kankei ronbun mokuroku tp\M&M'^%L-XikFM&imJCBB. Tky: Kokusho kankkai @#f!!lfr. Dongguk University Institute of Buddhist Culture MM*<k&1C4tff$Lffi. 1 982. Kankoku bussho kaidai jiten ^-MiL^MMMM. Tky: Kokusho kankkai H# Lists Korean Buddhist works from the Three-Kingdom period until 1 896. Entries are arranged according to period and author, and descriptions of these works provide a great deal of useful information. Each major author is introduced by a short biography. Almost half of the dictionary consists of a "materials" section which lists important sources for biographies, the history of temples, and various other topics (such as 72 works on ritual and many reference works). Includes also indices to authors' s names, book titles, and texts associated with particular sects. A useful and authoritative reference work. Hanazono daigaku yES^C^. 1 977. "Yanagida Seizan sensei chosaku mokuroku lh&tkMftBBr Hanazono daigaku kenky kiy S^flf&iKil 8:1-8. List of Yanagida's publications until 1976. See the more recent list of publications under Thgakuh (1987). Since then, no comprehensive list of publications has been made. Source information (Asian)

Reference Works for Chan Research


Iida, Rigy fiRHfUf. 1942. Gakush Mujaku Dch &WMM&. Tky: Seigod #f^. Reprint with updated comprehensive catalogue of Mujaku's works. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo, 1986. The body of this book provides much information about the circumstances in which Mujaku's works were written. The 1986 reprint includes the latest comprehensive catalogue of Mujaku's works. The list does not contain microfilm and page numbers, and no comments are included. Good for finding unpublished works. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism itMK^MfW^fflffi . Work in progress. Library Catalogue of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. About two-thirds of the basic data have been input, and correction and classification is ongoing. The printed catalogue should be available in 1994, and publication as a computer file is also planned. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ^H^^H^#^if^Fir. Work in progress. Primary Sources of Chan, Son, and Zen. This part of the Zen Knowledgebase project aims at compiling a survey of the major Chan, Son, and Zen primary sources after the model of Prof. Yanagida's Zenseki kaidai (1974) and Zen Dust. Apart from essential information about the various editions, authors, editors, etc., this work will also list references to other sources of information about the work in question as well as available modern translations. Kokusho kankkai HirfJfT. 1983. Bukkygaku kankei zasshi bunken sran \k m&m&W.U1C.WM%. Tokyo: Kokusho kankkai H^fljfr. This fat volume lists, in the form of tables of contents, articles concerning Buddhism that appeared in 288 Japanese journals and research publications from the beginning of Meiji until 1981. An index of all authors' names facilitates finding information. A project of the Indogaku bukkygaku kenkykai (see section V) aims at making this information available in electronic form and with up to five keywords for access to this pool of information by theme. Komazawa daigaku toshokan l&lR^C^HI^It. 1962. Shinsan zenseki mokuroku @isit Tky: Nihon bussho kankkai 0*{A#f'Jff . (Supplement iiM published in 1964). This is one of the best known catalogues of Chan/Son/Zen literature. It is a major overhaul of the older Zenseki mokuroku #$f @& by Takada Yoshimitsu (listed below). It consists of two major parts: part 1 (pp. 1-532) which lists texts up to the end of the Edo period (arranged according to title reading in the Japanese syllabary) and part 2 (pp. 533-612) which lists post-Edo titles arranged according to themes. A "List of Reference Books on Zen" (pp. 56-62 from the back) is really a hodgepodge list of some pre-1962 Western publications on Zen, Buddhism, and associated themes (such as E.J. Harrison's The Fighting Spirit of Japan. London: Fisher Unwin, 1913). Part 1 is an indispensable list which provides details about volume, authorship, publication, place of storage, etc., of a very large number of Chan/Zen texts. It has long been out of print, but as happens often with such indispensable research tools, a possibly illegal yet Source information (Asian)


Urs App very welcome and affordable pirate edition (which includes the 1964 supplement) has appeared in a foreign land (in this case in Korea).

Komazawa daigaku nai zengaku daijiten hensansho l&J'/f ^ 1977. Zengaku daijiten M&j:&&. Tky: Taishkan shoten A handy classified bibliography of reference works, primary Chan/Sn/Zen literature, and general Buddhist texts used in the Chan/Sn/Zen traditions is found on pp. 147-203 of vol. 3. It contains a lot of information, and the arrangement according to themes makes browsing easy. In general, book titles are followed by their number of fascicles, author/editor information, collection information, and the page of the Zengaku daijiten on which the work is described in more detail. Commentaries are also listed. Yanagida's 1 974 list is much more limited in breadth but gives substantially more depth of information. Korean National Library @L^^gI#lt. 1970-1972. Annotated Bibliography of Son Texts W^MM I - III. Seoul: National Library. Kyoto University Jinbun kagaku kenkyjo Mffl^^X^f^f^/f. Tygaku bunken ruimoku ^#^;iSl H . This yearly comprehensive classified bibliography is an important source of information on secondary sources. It also includes many references to Chinese scholarship. Yi, Sn-kn ^jiEfll. Krai daizky smokuroku/sakuinAaidai (Nihongoban M M^mf fBB-m^ -te&(B*mm). Kyoto: Dhsha [W]^#. Contains a sequential list of all texts contained in the Korean canon as well as detailed descriptions of works. Corresponding Taish numbers are added. The descriptions of the texts (including those contained in the additional materials of the canon, for example the Zutangji fi^^l, K 1 503) make this work valuable. A variety of indices make it easier to use than its equivalent by Lancaster: there is, for example, an index to variant names of texts, one to key terms occurring within a text title, and one to names of translators. Mytaku ^4. 1909. "Mujaku osh jisen shomoku." ffiffftjf $!#. Murata, Mud fffl^M (d.), Zenrin shkisen *#l3^. Tky: Baiy shoin M^#ft, 11-18. This is the earliest published list of Mujaku Dch's works; it is mostly of historical interest. Matsugaoka bunko card catalogue. Matsugaoka bunko f^r Sl~%0- Kamakura. This is just one example of a library with important holdings whose contents have not yet been published in a bibliography but need to be. All books and manuscripts left by D.T. Suzuki are stored in this library, among them many valuable woodblock print editions. Komazawa University's Shinsan zenseki mokuroku may include most of them, but nobody is quite sure how much is missing there. Ogawa, Takashi /MHP. Forthcoming (1993). "Zenseki dokukai no tebiki #Hai $0)^31 ." In: Zengaku kenky nymon #3*flf&Fl Tky: Dait shuppansha ^^trJJStt. To judge by the small part I have seen of this forthcoming book written mostly by Source information (Asian)

Reference Works for Chan Research


scholars of Komazawa University, it appears to become a very valuable resource indeed. The part written by Mr. Ogawa deals with all sorts of reference materials and reading aids for Chan texts, from Chinese grammars and introductions to kanbun reading to year-tables and dictionaries. The draft version I have seen deals exclusively with Chinese and Japanese printed works useful for Chan (rather than Son or Zen) research. Descriptions are very brief, but the choice and arrangement by themes will make this article (and probably the whole book) well worth having. Ono, Gemmy /JWfei>. 1933-36/1964-67. Bussho kaisetsu daijiten {% S^jf. Tky: Dait shuppansha ^J^ftJStt. 12 volumes. Supplement by Maruyama Takao %\h^M. Tokyo, 1975-77. A magnum opus of proverbial quality and scope, at least as far as Chinese Buddhist texts are concerned. The entries furnish whatever information is available about the following: the scripture title(s) in Chinese characters and Japanese as well as Chinese reading, number of fascicles, whether it is extant or lost, author and/or translator, year of origin or translation, remarks on content, commentaries and reference works, year of publication, where it is found, and information about the publisher. Many reference works, works by Mujaku Dch, and more modern works are also listed and discussed. Particularly the two supplementary volumes are rich in Chan, Son, and Zen materials, and these articles are generally of high quality. tsuki, Mikio ^^#eP. Work in progress. Bibliography of Publications on baku-Zen. Rykoku daigaku toshokan H^^^EItft. 1973. Bukkygaku kankei zasshi ronbun bunruimokuroku: Meijishoki Shwa gonen \LM.^LtM^MMm'XJ^.^ U-WfWm-mW. Kyoto: Hyaklcaen Hf^B. Lists publications by a variety of categories and includes a useful index to themes. Rykoku daigaku bukkygaku kenkyshitsu f^^^&iC^ftf^L^. 1974. Bukkygaku kankei zasshi ronbun bunrui mokuroku. U. Kyoto: Rykoku daigaku bukkygaku kenkyshitsu Like the earlier Rykoku volume just listed, this useful bibliography includes many articles from the Chgai nipp ff^l-B^ newspaper which tend not to appear in other bibliographies and is indexed by theme. Shboku, Gitai lifliiff , d., Zensekishi #HjS. Included in the Dainihon bukky zensho ^B&iAWLM (Tky: Bussho kankkai iA^Wa, 1980) vol. 1, pp. 271-320. Shinohara, Hisao BWsMf, and Tanaka Rysh ffl^BS, eds. 1980. Tonk butten to Zen WL&{k$kW. Tky: Dait shuppansha jM&M. Contains an enormous amount of information on Dunhuang Chan materials, including lists of such texts and detailed descriptions of their content. Indispensable for students of early Chan, Dunhuang, and Tibet.

Source information (Asian)


Urs App

Stsh shgaku kenkysho WM^M^W!%yfi . 1990. Stsh kankei bunken mokuroku WM%M&$MB0t. Tky: Stsh shgaku kenkysho Wf*?*?^ A convenient list, arranged according to themes (important figures, such as Dgen, and their life, thought, work; historical topics; doctrinal issues; important texts; monastic codes, etc.). Includes an author index. Stsh zensho kankkai WH^^r^f'Jff. 1978. Stsh zensho kaidai/sakuin Jff*<1MM- M%\. Tky: Stsh zensho kankkai W^^fJf. An extremely useful companion volume to the collection of St materials. A major portion of this fat volume is taken up by an annotated list of all texts which contains very detailed information. The encyclopaedic bent of St scholars carried the day once again: pp. 622 - 653 features a historical table of texts and editions, pp. 654 - 664 lineage tables of authors and editors, a detailed bibliography of related source materials, etc. Indices to temple names, authors, editors, and book titles round off this impressive piece of scholarship. Takada, Yoshimitsu H5ffl&). 1928. Zenseki mokuroku W^BB. Tky: Komazawa daigaku toshokan I^^^^IHtflt. This is the original list that the editors of the Shinsan zenseki mokuroku $ffH^H@^ (see above under Komazawa daigaku) used for their work. It is thus superseded by the latter. Tanaka, Rysh H^J^Hp. 1989. "Tonk zenseki no kenkyjky to sono mondaiten" %LHkW%l(Dtf{$l.M.:<DfML. Komazawa daigaku bukkygakubu ronsh mW*ik&&tmM 20: 41-55 (514-500). Deals with 1) Dunhuang Zen materials and their content, 2) the establishment and development of the Lamp Histories, 3) early Zen records (yulu $$$&), and 4) other Dunhuang Zen materials. Good survey by one of the foremost specialists. Tanaka Rysh fflcM. 1983. Tonk Zensh bunken no kenky %tfW%$:f. . Tokyo: Dait shuppansha jzMitilff:. Though not a reference work, this book is an important source of information for researchers working in this field. Toho gakuh ~%U]^i. 1987. "Yanagida Seizan kyoju chosaku mokuroku" m.\h%mM\tBm. Th gakuh Mfi^n 59: 591-599. To date the most comprehensive list of Prof. Yanagida's publications. For a few more recent works see the bibliography by Faure included in this number of the Cahiers. No list has yet been made of the hundreds of newspaper articles authored by Yanagida. Unesco Higashi Ajia Bunka kenky sent bukky bijutsu chsa senmon iinkai l ZXuMTitriCfttitgLty*- iA&Wfm&W^W>m.. 1973. Bukky bijutsu bunken mokuroku iL^LW^^CM.^^. Tky: Ch kron bijutsu shuppan Lists 4083 publications about Buddhist art that appeared in Japan between 1960 and 1969. Includes a useful list (pp. 255-281) of periodicals that include such articles and an index to authors' names. Source information (Asian)

Reference Works for Chan Research


Yanagida, Seizan #PB^Ul. 1967. Shoki zenshu shisho no kenkyU Qff%. Kyoto: Hzkan fjit. This work, described by John McRae in this issue of the Cahiers, is not a reference work, but it can almost function as such for early Chan since it includes a set of six indices that are exemplary in conception and content (personal names including buddhas and bodihsattvas, place and temple names, themes, expressions, and book titles). Pp. 49-50 and 51-53 contain lists of Chan-related materials in the Quantangwen ^r/S^C and such Dunhuang materials. Indispensable. Yanagida, Seizan fPffl^[il. 1974. "Zenseki kaidai" WWMM. In: Nishitani, Keiji W&W and Yanagida, Seizan fPHMUi, eds.: Zenke goroku W^MU vol. 2, 445-514. Tky: Chikuma Shob ^M^B. While there are longer lists of Zen literature from different traditions (such as that in the third volume of Zengaku daijiten ##^cSA, p. 147 ff., and Komazawa University's excellent Shinsan zenseki mokuroku HfH^^@^ of 1962), Yanagida's list is annotated. Apart from materials, text collections containing Zen texts, Dunhuang Zen materials, etc., it lists Chinese and some Korean Zen texts by Chinese dynastic periods. Authors, editors, etc., of texts are mentioned, and a brief textual history with remarks about different versions, etc., is given for each text. Though in need of some revision and augmentation (particularly with regard to Dunhuang and Korean materials), this list is of singular quality. An electronic version of this list is being planned at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Yoshinaga, Utar ^*5Pi:P. 1942. baku ssho JfUil^. Kyoto: Obaku shmu hon'in HH^H^K. List of Obaku materials, mostly biographical materials, and works by Obaku monks. Yuan Bin %M.. 1991. Zhongguo chanzong yulu daguan ^pMM^M^i^M. Nanchang: Baihuashu wenyi chubanshe lTbMJtlStiiJiStt. Though this book lists about 400 Chan masters and gives some brief excerpts from their records, I hesitate to include it in this list despite its grand title. For biographical information, one better turns to the Zengaku daijiten; in the present book, well-known biographical anecdotes (mostly from the Jingde chuandenglu MWMftfk or Wudeng huiyuan 3l!l#7c) are simply repeated. The Chan records are not described but quoted in small translated sound-bites (mostly from the Taish or Zokuzcky). Zenbunka kenkyjo W3C.ikff%ft. 1965. Mujaku Dch zenji senjutsu shomoku i&WMfcWffWM' (2 mimeographed vols). Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo ffjc 4kffi%PJT, 1965. The two slim volumes have long been out of print but are still the most important and complete catalogues of Mujaku's works. The first volume lists all works from Mujaku's hand that are found in the library of his subtemple (the Ryugein H^^) in Kyoto's Myshinji #P>b^ temple complex. The second volume provides a list of all works found in the Hokuen bunko (itfiiJcW- ) in the Shunkin #t^^ subtemple of Myshinji ^jOtF. An appendix lists all works that are not in the Rygein but are mentioned in Myotaku's W^- Mujaku osh jisen shomoku MMftiflMI^ (see below) and are stored at other locations. This catalogue contains microfilm numbers Source information (Asian)


Urs App and additional information not included in the more recent reprint of Iida's book (1986) by the same institute.

Zenbunka kenkyjo W%VcM%ffs. 1988. "Iriya Yoshitaka kyju ryakunenpu hennen chosaku mokuroku X^^m^Wfe^^ M^itUB" Zenbunka kenkyjo kiyoWXim%MlW: 15: 3-24. Zengaku kenky Wtf\%. 1982. "bakush kankei zasshi ronbun mokuroku." Zengaku kenky #^#f&61: 10-12. A simple and short but helpful list of Japanese journal publications on the baku-Zen tradition; mentions articles from 1895 until 1979. Zengaku kenky Wffli%. Yearly. "Zengaku kankei zasshi ronbun mokuroku W mmmUmX&Ur Zengaku kenky Wffl3l. Useful periodical listings of (mainly but not exclusively) Japanese journal publications. The rubrics are "thought," "China," "Japan," "Korea," "Miscellaneous," and "Book reviews." Articles are listed with journal name, number, and month but unfortunately without page numbers. Zhongguo fojiaohui wenxian weiyuanhui bianjibu tf* HP. 1975. Zhongguo minguo liushinian lai fojiao lunwen rnulu . Taipei: Zhongguo fojiaohui wenxian weiyuanhui Lists Taiwanese publications on Buddhism from 1971 to 1975. Xinwenfeng bianshenbu 0f;il$ifEf qP. 1977. Xuzangjing zongmulu mulu suoyin MMBktBBBBM3\. Taipei: Xinwenfeng chuban ffAllrtJJK. This is a list of all text titles contained in the 150-volume Manji zokuzky collection. There are two parts: one list gives the titles by the number of strokes in their first character, the second by their sequence of appearance in the 150 volumes.

III. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS 1 . Zen Dictionaries in Western Languages Diener, Michael S. (pseud.). 1992. Das Lexikon des Zen. Edited by Stephan Schuhmacher and Gert Woerner. Miinchen: Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag. This lexicon forms part of a miracle of the loaves and fishes in the realm of dictionaries. At the origin stands the Lexikon der o'stlichen Weisheitslehren (FischerSchreiber et al., 1986), which featured entries marked with "B" for Buddhism, "H" for Hinduism, "T" for Daoism, and "Z" for Zen. That lexicon was translated into English (published by Rider as well as Shambhala) and into French (published by Laffont). In 1991, Shambhala left out the "T" and "H" entries and published the result as Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen (Fischer-Schreiber et al., 1991). In 1992, the original

Chan Dictionaries (Western)

Reference Works for Chan Research


German publisher went on to publish the "B" entries (Lexikon des Buddhismus. Mnchen: O.W. Barth Verlag, 1992) and the "Z" entries (the present lexicon) as separate books. The useful and detailed descriptions in fine print that followed the basic entries in the original Lexikon der o'stlichen Weisheitslehren were regrettably omitted in this work, but the bibliography was brought up to date by Stephan Schuhmacher, one of the original editors. See under Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991) for an evaluation of the scope and quality of the entries marked "Zen." Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid (Buddhism); Ehrhard, Franz-Karl (Tibetan Buddhism); Diener, Michael S. (Zen); Friedrichs, Kurt (Hinduism); Schuhmacher, Stephan and Gert Woerner (eds). 1986. Lexikon der o'stlichen Weisheitslehren. Munchen/Bern: Scherz Verlag. This is the original encyclopedia. See Diener (1992) for the history of this encyclopedia and Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991) for an evaluation of the entries marked "Zen." . 1989a. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism. Taoism, Zen, Hinduism. Boston: Shambhala. English translation of the Lexikon der stlichen Weisheitslehren by Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1986). See Diener (1992) for the history of this encyclopedia, and FischerSchreiber et al. (1991) for an evaluation of the entries marked "Zen." . 1989b. Rider Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism. Taoism, Zen, Hinduism. London: Rider. Identical except for the title to Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1989a). . 1989c. Dictionnaire de la sagesse orientale. Paris: Robert Laffont. French translation of Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1986). See Diener (1992) for the history of this encyclopedia and Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991) for an evaluation of the entries marked "Zen." Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid (Buddhism); Ehrhard, Franz-Karl (Tibetan Buddhism); Diener, Michael S. (Zen). 1991. The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen. Boston: Shambhala. Rdition of parts of the encyclopedia by Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1989a); all entries marked "T" (Daoism) and "H" (Hinduism) were omitted. See Diener (1992) for the history of this encyclopedia. The entries marked "Z" (Zen) and these are the only ones discussed here include about 135 general Buddhist terms, about 300 specifically Zen terms, a dozen general Japanese terms (such as "haiku" and "Shinto"), information about 16 Buddhas and bodhisattvas, 24 Indian Zen patriarchs, 140 Chinese Chan masters, 35 Japanese Zen masters, one Korean Son master, 13 Chan texts, 20 Japanese Zen texts, and some surras and place names. The focus of this dictionary lies on present-day Japanese Zen practice, kan collections, and figures appearing in them. Korean Son is practically ignored, and information on texts and other items of interest to students and scholars is very sparse. The author's conscious effort to discuss terms that a Western novice will encounter in a Zen monastic environment makes it much more useful in this respect than Inagaki's (1991) and Yokoi's (1991) works. The author seems just to describe Chan Dictionaries (Western)


Urs App what he is familiar with, and he does so in a very engaged fashion. Unfortunately, this does not quite add up to a "dictionary," but practitioners will find it quite useful. Many cross references, but antiquated Wade-Giles transcriptions for Chinese. The bibliography is a careless rehash of the original German one; it contains many German titles, even if they were originally published in English.

Hcrrigcl, Gustic. St Wo'rterbuch. This work by the wife of Eugen Herrigel is listed (without further information) on p. 14 (at the very back) of the 1964 supplement to Komazawa University's Shinsan zenseki mokuroku $f Hff & @ ft. Hori, Sgen. Work in progress. Annotated English translation of the Zemin kush Wfo^%. The author has spent long years in Japanese Zen monasteries and aims at conveying not only the sources of these sayings but also their usage in modern Zen training. This may finally become an alternative to Shigematsu's "translation" (1981). Inagaki, Hisao MM^KM. 1991. A Glossary of Zen Terms. Kyoto: Nagata Bunshd |(HiIi This dictionary is produced much on the lines of Inagaki's earlier Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms (Kyoto: Nagata Bunshd, 1988 [third ed. with supplement]). Includes seven appendices. Unfortunately, this glossary does not include a characterbased index and thus favors users with a good grasp of Japanese readings of Chinese terms (kanburi). It was compiled by choosing names and terms from a narrow set of sources (essentially a few selected records of Chinese Zen masters, the five major kan collections, and Dgen's Shbgenz). Coverage of Zen terms is thus very much dependent on their occurrence in these texts. As a consequence of this compilation method, even very common terms such as sesshin c>i> or rhatsu I1&A or zazen %Ware not included in this work. The approximately 5,000 entries of this glossary are not well chosen, and the quality of the entries is uneven. The information that one does find in this dictionary is generally reliable. An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Kodansha International. 1983. Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan (nine volumes). Tokyo: Kodansha International. Includes a good number of entries on Zen, some of which also touch on Chan written by Western authorities such as Philip Yampolsky and Martin Collcutt. Rice, Edward E. 1980. Eastern Definitions: A Short Encyclopedia of Religions of the Orient, with Terms from Hinduism, Sufism, Buddhism, Islam, Zen, Tao, the Sikhs. Garden City N.Y.: Anchor Books. Shigematsu, Siku. 1981. A Zen Forest.: Sayings of the Masters. New York/Tky: Weatherhill. This is supposedly a translation of the Zenrin kushii WW^i% collection of sayings and poetry lines. Many have deplored the almost total absence of annotation and the questionable quality not only of the English but also of the translation itself by an author who appears to lack knowledge of classical Chinese. See Hori (work in Chan Dictionaries (Western)

Reference Works for Chan Research


progress) for an attempt at something better. In Japanese, Iriya and Sanae (work in progress) will soon publish an authoritative annotated translation. Shigematsu has also published a translation of the Japanese haiku, dodoitsu and waka poems contained in the Zenrin segosh ##t&apH under the title A Zen Harvest (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1988). Velte, Herbert. 1985. Budo-Weisheiten und kleines Zen-Lexikon. Bad Homburg: Velte. Wood, Ernest. 1957. Zen Dictionary. Harmondsworth/New York: Penguin. Though out of date in much of its historical information, this slim (127 pp.) volume is surprisingly informative in some matters. The author, who spent much of his life in India and died in 1965, was much influenced by D.T. Suzuki's translations and analyses and R.H. Blyth's works. Some of Wood's discussions of Zen masters, their teaching, and certain terms are worth reading (for example, one full page each about karma, prajfi, and seer-seen). However, the narrow coverage, inconsistent spellings (sometimes Japanese, sometimes Chinese, sometimes Sanskrit), and a general unevenness make this book hardly useful as a dictionary. Yokoi, YDh f#l^. 1991. The Japanese-English Zen Buddhist Dictionary B 3*f ISfftll. Tky: Sankib Buddhist Bookstore. The approximately 10,000 entries of this work contain a mixed bag of names of famous masters, titles of Zen texts, kans, Zen terms, place names, objects used in Zen monasteries, functions of monks, Chinese particles, etc. Though the author used Fukami Ygen's Zensh jiten (see below) and the Zengaku daijiten (see below) as his main sources, many famous terms, texts, and persons are not included here. Numerous wrong spellings, cryptic or wrong references, and strange English further diminish the value of this work. Many references to source texts are nowhere explained. Includes indices of Chinese characters arranged by stroke number, Sanskrit terms, and a Wade-style index to some Chinese person, place, and text names. An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. 2. Zen Dictionaries in Japanese and Chinese Aizawa, Ekai ffl#S$S. 1907. Zengaku ykan #^Hi8t. Tky: Segawa shob M Contains a long section (pp. 1-350) on specific Chan/Zen terms and colloquialisms that appear in Chan literature. This section is arranged according to the Japanese syllabary (aiueo) with pre-war conventions (thus modern kd 3!s is listed under kaudau). Finding entries is greatly facilitated by using Shinohara's Zengo kaisetsujiten sakuin (1959). Relies heavily on Mujaku Dch's much more extensive Zenrin shkisen (see below) and Katt gosen (see below) and often quotes Muan's Zuting shiyuan (see below). Does not contain much information that cannot be found, with more precise references to sources, in Zengaku daijiten (see below). An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Chan Dictionaries (Asian)


Urs App

Akaji Munesada %<$&? g.. 1918. Zengo Comments on sixty Zen expressions associated with the tea ceremony. Fukui, Masao j#jE8E. 1977. Bukky girei jiten \k$.W3U&$k. Tky: Tkyd shuppan MtH Genky Zenji zBftff. 1908. Zengaku zokugokai. M^i'MM. Tky: Kaiunji ;MM^. More recently published as part of the following work: Zenbunka kenkyjo W~Xi\M%ft. 1991. Zengo jisho ruiju fu sakuin. ft? MffMMM tt^3l. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo ffjtlb${%pft. The first part of this book contains two lectures and a commentary by the author who spent more than twenty years in America, Europe, India, and China. The second part (flaf?) is a dictionary of 771 vernacular expressions found in Chan texts. The arrangement follows the number of characters in the expressions (two to six). This is one of the five books indexed by Shinohara (1959). Usually the author's translation or explanation of an expression is given, sometimes together with a critical appraisal of earlier views. References to works of fiction (such as the Shuihuzhuan 2K?iW and the Xiyuji SjSbB) are quite frequent. The places where the given expressions originated and where they were used in Chan literature often go unmentioned, in spite of the impressive list of 135 Buddhist (mostly Chan) and 13 secular texts that opens the second part of this work. Partly based on Keish Drin liiHiif^'s Shoroku zokugokai Wi%fri$aM. This is one of the five works indexed in Shinohara's Zengo kaisetsu jiten sakuin # MfWftl&M' (1959). The Zenbunka edition features a combined on'yomi index to this and several other similar works (see below in the section on indices and concordances). Iida, Rigy igBWf. 1975. Zenrin meiku jiten ifW*0i*. Tky: Kokusho kankkai HOTJT. Collection of famous phrases of Chinese and Japanese Zen masters, arranged by rhyme and number of characters, with an index following the Japanese pronunciation. Concentrates on phrases used in the Japanese St tradition. Often mentions neither the first nor early occurrences of these phrases but rather refers to later Chinese kan collections, reference works, Japanese sources (especially Dgen) and occasionally even to modern writers (Natsume Sseki). The given interpretations reflect the meaning these phrases have in the Japanese Zen (especially St) tradition today. Iriya, Yoshitaka A^^iS, and Koga, Hidehiko M%B. 1991. Zengo jiten WM SH. Kyoto: Shibunkaku Jg;H. With 5,155 entries, far from being all-encompassing, this work includes a wealth of Zen terms and expressions, defines them concisely, and supplies one (and sometimes several) examples of usage. The whole manuscript was thoroughly supplemented and corrected in several passes over a number of years by Prof. Iriya, who figures as the supervisor of this dictionary. Entries, particularly on colloquial terms, grammatical particles, etc., are far more detailed and reliable than those in other dictionaries. In spite of its overall quality and scope, one would wish that the references to source texts were more precise. An undisguised bias toward Chinese Zen terms and texts and a failure to comment on even very important differences in usage and meaning in Japan or Korea make this dictionary more limited in scope than its title suggests (unless one simply reads it in Chan Dictionaries (Asian)

Reference Works for Chan Research


Chinese as "Chanyu cidian"). Indispensable for students and researchers. An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Iriya, Yoshitaka ^Hfi, and Sanae, Kensei -bII^. Work in progress. Zenrin kushu W^^M. The Zenrin kushu collection has great importance not only in present-day Zen training but also in Zen calligraphy, etc. This work promises not only to explain the meaning of the often puzzling verses but also to trace them to their original context. Jinb, Nyoten ffUn^., and And, Bun'ei %.WX&. [1944] 1958. Zengakujiten W?ft$:. Tky: Nakayama shob ^[ilitM. This dictionary has about 20,000 entries arranged by Japanese pronunciation and includes a stroke-count index. The items include titles of books (Chan and Zen texts, monastic codes, verse-collections, biographies of monks, etc.), place-names (including famous places in India, China, and Japan), names of famous temples, Zen monastic precepts, names of persons, expressions, kung-an, etc. The breadth of included items necessitated rather concise treatment; the more recent Zengaku daijiten (1977) and Iriya/Koga's Zengo jiten (1991) are usually preferable because of their broader coverage and more detailed information. Kajitani, Snin M#^>S. 1982. Shmon kattsh ^FlMW^k. Kyoto: Hzkan mm. Explains some often-used phrases which usually stem from koans used in the Rinzai tradition. The Zengaku daijiten is much more comprehensive in this respect. Keish Drin H#H?Ifi%. 1961. "Shoroku zokugokai MUfMff" Hatano, Tard f. #0>kP, ed. Journal of the Yokohama Municipal University tt^rt^^^fli Series A-22, no. 123. More recently published as part of the following work: Zenbunka kenkyOjo WJC'ikffii&pfT. 1991. Zengo jisho ruiju fii sakuin. If |p|^#^ %k #ff6l. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo WX4t$t%Pft. This book, written by a mid-Edo author, takes up Zen and vernacular expressions that appear in a number of Chan texts (such as the records of Yuanwu, the letters of Dahui, etc.) Though devised as a commentary that deals with expressions in the order of their occurrence in these texts, this book can now be used as a dictionary thanks to Hatano's Pinyin and stroke-count indices. At times only a short, old-style Japanese translation is given; at other times, older explanations and examples from Chan literature are quoted (and occasionally commented upon). The photo-reproduced handwriting is rather difficult to decipher, especially in the second of the two chapters (even more so in the low-contrast Zenbunka edition). Manuscript versions also exist in the Komazawa University library and in the Matsugaoka bunko in Kamakura. The Zenbunka edition features a combined on'yomi index to this and several other similar works (see below in the section on indices and concordances). Koga, Hidehiko ~\%MM. 1985. "Zengoroku o yomu tame no kihon goi shok WMU ZMtJ tzibom^m^WM." Zengaku kenkyU 64: 1 3 1 - 1 70. This and the following article (Koga 1987) are draft versions of the manuscript that later was much enlarged and improved in Iriya/Koga's Zengo jiten W-M&f:. Once Chan Dictionaries (Asian)


Urs App much used by students and researchers alike, they are thus superseded by the dictionary.

Koga, Hidehiko ~&%'&M. 1987. "Zengoroku o yomu tame no kihon goi (zoku) mB*MVtztb<DM%iMM (tit)." Zengaku kenky 66: 35-69. Part II of Koga's 1985 article. Komazawa daigaku nai Zengaku daijiten hensansho ^ pft. 1977. Zengaku daijiten m&Xfftft. Tky: Taishkan shoten In spite of various shortcomings, this dictionary is the most comprehensive to date. In addition to many illustrations and photographs, it contains a good number of maps, historical tables, and the like; all of this makes it indispensable. Some of its weak points are the scant coverage of Zen outside China and Japan, a rather heavy St bias, and a spotty and unreliable treatment of Zen terminology. Such terminology is often seen and judged exclusively through the writings of the Japanese monk Dgen whose creativity did not stop short of redefinitions of traditional concepts. This dictionary is thus a standard source to be consulted for information about most aspects of Chinese and Japanese Zen; for Chinese Zen terms and expressions, however, one better relies on Iriya and Koga's dictionary (see above). An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Masunaga, Reih iH^KilM, and Furuta, Shkin SHlS^. 1957. Zengo shjiten #g/J\3$ft. Special volume of Gendaizen kza MRWMM B'J#. Tokyo: Kadokawa shoten ^JI|#J. Of little more than historical interest after Iriya/Koga's 1991 dictionary. Matsuo, Yoshiki I&M^^. Forthcoming. Tonk henbunsh goi sakuin WMM.'X This index will purportedly include not only references to all occurrences of a term in the collection of bianwen but also cite many specific examples and provide a modern Japanese translation of its meaning, which is why I included it here rather than in the index section. Ming, Fu BJfl. Zhongguo foxue renming cidian tfiMffi^A&f^. Taipei: Fangzhou chubanshe ^f^rttiJStfl. Mujaku DchO ffi^jJ. 1979. Zemin shkisen #$fcii^. Kyoto: Chubun shuppansha ^XfiiJiStt. (Volume 9 _h of the Zengaku ssho iff^iSit, edited by Yanagida Seizan fPHMlij). Older edition: Zenrin shkisen. Kyoto: Seishin shob tfisWtM, 1963. The 1963 printed edition includes kana and Chinese character indices; the 1979 edition is a photo-reproduction of the Myshinji's pp/b^f original manuscripts and does not contain any index. A four-comer index of the 1963 edition forms part of Shinohara's index (1959). Mujaku wrote the preface to this outstanding encyclopedia in 1742 at age 88. This book explains a great number of terms related to the Chan/Zen temple (architecture, organizational structure, utensils, etc.) and monastic life (functions, rules, daily life, ceremonies, calendar, monastic conventions, etc.). The information is drawn from a wealth of sources: Dch lists 488 titles from the Buddhist tradition and 286 titles of Chan Dictionaries (Asian)

Reference Works for Chan Research


Chinese historical, philosophical, and artistic writings. Dch's meticulous analyses and interpretations are the outcome of a well-documented inductive process; they are written in classical Chinese with some aids for kanbun readers and pertain to the nature, origin, history, and function of the various objects, roles, and actions that figure in this monument of scholarship. An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Mujaku Dch UWMfc. 1979. Katt gosen MWM1&. Kyoto: Chubun shuppansha ^Xl^Mt. (pp. 868-1 100 of volume 9 T of the Zengaku ssho MQ W.W edited by Yanagida Seizan flfflUlil). Older edition: Katt gosen MWM1&. Tokyo: Komazawa University's Compiling Office of the Zen Dictionary, 1959. Recent edition with index: Zenbunka kenkyujo WJCfaffi^pft. 1992. Zengo jisho ruiju (ni). m$^mmm (-) . Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo W-3Cltm$LPft. The 1959 printed edition includes stroke-count, Wade, and four-corner indices; Shinohara [1959] indexed the same edition. The 1979 edition is a photographic reproduction of the original manuscript, as is the 1992 edition which includes a combined index to vols. 1 & 2 of the Zengo jisho ruiju. In contrast to other Zenbunka indices, this one includes a radical, stroke count, and pinyin lookup table. This dictionary of difficult words and expressions found in Chan literature is a complement to Dch's Zenrin shkisen. Dch provides one or several good examples for each entry and adds, when necessary, his interpretation. Quite often, he corrects explanations of earlier commentators. An indispensable reading aid from the hand of the 86-year-old Dch (manuscript completed in 1739). An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Mujaku Dch ff^Mfi. Shitsurien I^H^a. Unpublished manuscript (prefaced in 1738) found in the Hokuen bunko AKfXW- of the Zenbunka kenkyjo WXiWt %fft on the campus of Hanazono College TEH^:^, Kyoto. A reference work that lists (and sometimes quotes) occurrences of certain terms and expressions (mostly between two and five characters long) found in Chan literature. These terms are listed under twenty headings ("schools [of Chan]," "Chan sickness," "enlightenment," etc.). Though far from exhaustive in its listing of occurrences of the items, this book is a valuable aid for the reader of Chan texts who seeks to establish meanings in Dch's inductive manner. Copies of a handwritten index (following Japanese pronunciation) prepared by Mr. Nishiguchi Yoshio in 1983 are privately circulated. An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Mujaku Dch M^Mfc. Zenseki jirui ffipii^^C. Unpublished manuscript without date found in the Bungakubu X^nP library of Kyoto University and in the Hokuen bunko RMJCM of the Zenbunka kenkyujo W3C4tffi3lPT, Kyoto. This reference work quotes sentences from the whole range of Chan literature that contain certain words or pertain to certain concepts. These words and concepts are divided in three categories (facts/conditions/living beings ti, objects , and numbers W,). The chapter on numbers has subdivisions corresponding to numbers in which Chan Dictionaries (Asian)


Urs App quotations for "the three kinds of heresies" or "the seven steps," etc., can be found. The three chapters on objects feature subcategories such as "money," "drinks," "oil," "flute," "bridge," "mirror," etc. The five chapters on facts/conditions/living beings list occurrences of terms that fall under the subcategories of, for example, "head monk," "heresy," "robber," "tiger," "dream," "ordination," "doubt," and the like. This work is helpful for establishing the Chan context and significance of a great number of terms.

Mujaku Dch ffWMfo. Zemin kush benmy SPfl^H^ffi. Kyoto: Chbun shuppansha tWtfJJKtt, 1979. (pp. 1100-1221 of volume 9 T of the Zengaku ssho M^WtUt edited by Yanagida Seizan $P H M ill). Recently republished as part of the following work: Zenbunka kenkyjo W-JCitffi^Pft. 1991. Zengojisho ruiju fu sakuin. #mS^#M^f>f^5l. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo W~Xttffi%$ft. A collection of three- to sixteen-character phrases that originate from a variety of sources (Chinese classics, poems, Buddhist sutras, Chan records, etc.) and are used in the Chan/Zen tradition. This work is much shorter than other collections of the kind (just 786 phrases), but its quality is remarkable. Dchu often lists more than five, and sometimes more than ten, places where one finds an expression (inside and outside the Chan literature), and when necessary he adds others' and/or his own commentary pertaining to its meaning(s). This stands in marked contrast to other current Zen phrase collections and to works such as the Zengaku daijiten that usually flatly state one or more meanings of an expression and then either give a reference to the text where it first occurred or provide just one example of its use in the Chan context. The Zenbunka edition contains only an on'yomi index, but the second volume of the same series (see under Mujaku Dch's Katt gosen) features a more convenient index to both volumes. An electronic index to this work is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Mujaku Dch MWM&. Zenrin hgo iji? #7Ha. Handwritten manuscript, prefaced by the author in 1708. Found in the Bungakubu X^pfl library of Kyoto University, and on microfilm (nos. 11-61 and 12-61) in the library of the Zenbunka kenkyjo W%4fcff$lf, Kyoto. This small book contains, according to Dch's preface written in 1 708, 330 expressions that any Zen master ought to know and cannot avoid using. These expressions are listed according to the number of characters they consist of (one to five), and a concise explanation of the meaning is provided. In some cases the source of the expression is noted and a quotation is given. This is but one example of Dch's smaller works in dictionary form; others are listed in the Zenbunka kenkyjo's list. Mujaku Dch M^Mti*. Zenroku ygo J&MfM. Handwritten manuscript, n.d., Hokuen bunko Jb^E^C* of the Zenbunka kenkyjo WXit^%fft, Kyoto. A slim notebook which points to places in the Chan literature where certain prefixes, suffixes, and other particles are found. Taken up here are for example ~M, ~P, ~H, ~ L, ~ife, M~, etc. Competent explanations and translations as well as further examples can be found, for example, in Iriya/Koga (1991) or Ota (1983). Other works by Dch (such as Joshikaku fiilf- and Joji hin'i S^onlt) provide examples for particles that are drawn from a broader literature which includes the Lunyu train, Zhuangzi Wenxuan ~%M, Mengzi ]?, etc. Chan Dictionaries (Asian)

Reference Works for Chan Research


Mujaku Dch f^jtJ. Chokush Hyakuj shingi sakei Kyoto: Chbun shuppansha ^XtfilKtt, 1979. (Volume 8 and part [pp. 6231042] of volume 8 T of the Zengaku ssho fll^Ht collection edited by Yanagida Seizan #P H Hill). This major work of Mujaku is a detailed commentary to terms occurring in the monastic rules that are attributed to Baizhang. The level of detail and competence makes this an indispensable research aid. No index has yet been published, but the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism plans to publish an electronic version of the Baizhang code with tags for terms discussed by Mujaku. Mujaku Dch MWMfc. Daie zenji sho krshu jzMMffWrf'&Bk. Unpublished. Manuscript found at the Bungakubu X^pft library of Kyoto University (copy available at the Zenbunka kenkyjo). Very detailed explanations of terms occurring in the Letters of Dahui. Since these letters contain a wealth of expressions and quotes, Mujaku's comments are a veritable storehouse of reliable information on Chan vocabulary. An electronic version of Dahui's letters with tags for terms commented by Mujaku is being prepared at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Mujaku Dch MMM&. Ninden ganmoku shundkai Unpublished manuscript found in the libraries of Kyoto University and Rykoku University in Kyoto. As usual, Mujaku comments on almost every term of this short and popular Chan text (Taish vol. 48, no. 2006). An electronic version of this text with tags for terms commented by Mujaku is in preparation at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Mujaku Dchu *S^Mi. 1991. Goke shshsan joketsu E*?SOflE (2 vols, with index). Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo WXi\M%ff\. A reproduction of Mujaku Dch's detailed handwritten Chinese comments on the Wujia zhengzongcan, one of the standard compendia on traditional Chan teaching arranged according to the "five houses" 2l^. The Zokuzky text is cut and pasted at the head of each section, but without indication of the original volume, page, and line numbers. The index at the end of volume 2 is arranged according to the on'yomi reading used at the Zenbunka research institute. A table of contents (radicals) makes this work accessible to readers unfamiliar with this sometimes quite peculiar traditional way of reading. This index refers to the lookup words supplied by Mujaku as well as to some important terms inside Mujaku's commentary. Each user will have to number the Zokuzky text by him- or herself to facilitate access and quoting. See also the same institute's 1991 index to the text ( Wujia zhengzongzan S^iE^S) itself. Muan Shanqing HJft. Zuting shiyuan fMMIni (Dainihon zokuzky jzB# vol. 113). Muan's work consists of explanations of difficult terms from a number of Chan texts. For example, the first fascicle deals with terms from a lost edition of the Records of Yunmen. Explanations are often not entirely trustworthy, but the age of these comments (it was first published in 1908) and the variety of materials commented upon and Chan Dictionaries (Asian)


Urs App referred to make this a valuable source of information. This is one of the five works indexed in Shinohara's Zengo kaisetsu jiten sakuin iWan$?lS$ft^e/l (1959).

Nakagawa, Ssuke ^JUtfclft. 1935 (8th edition 1981). Zengo jiiUft M&. Tokyo: Hakurinsha shoten fEWiH^, 1935 . This dictionary lists Chan and Zen phrases in the order of their total number of Chinese characters (1 to 20). An index also allows finding phrases by the traditional Zen pronunciation of its first character. This is a Zenrin kushu W^H-type reference work which provides a good survey of the meanings such phrases had in the Japanese Zen tradition. It is often worth consulting, though Iriya/Koga (1991), which reflects post-war Chan scholarship rather than Japanese Zen tradition, is in another league. Nakajima, Ksh tf'lof^. 1993. Bokuj hikkei zen no goroku Mt% U. Tky: Shogeikai #S#. A repertory of Chan phrases found in calligraphy. This book is intended for students of calligraphy rather than scholars. Its main body consists of phrases culled from two major koan collections (the Wumenguan/ Mumonkan Mffiffli and the basic text for the Biyanlul Hekiganroku fljtl^, the Xuetou songgu HSsS). Additionally, there are miscellaneous phrases from the Records ofLinji B^f and the Zenrin kushu Pfl^H. Information on sources of sayings is practically absent, and explanations are geared to amateur calligraphers. Pages 412-590 consist of indices; but one will find more information by simply consulting an edition of the Zenrin kushu ##^^1 and the indices to vols. 1 5 and 1 8 of the Zen no goroku series (Chikuma shob W$-^W) and to Yanagida's Linjilu S^ translation.. Ransuishi fvfc?. 1694. Goroku jigi MU^B. The preface by Ransuishi flmDfc^ was written in July of 1671. This dictionary (which is also called Goroku shinan Ip^Jh^) explains words and compounds (from one to five characters) that are encountered in Chan records. Arranged according to length of phrase. Rusu, Yshin ^WfH. 1958. Zho goroku yakugi (zen) i^mMBsR^ () . Fukuoka: Khan tosho shuppansha JLHSS^tHliStt. Sahashi, Hry ffjf fH, Zengo shjiten WM'^3&. Tky: Shunjsha ##tf, 1978. The author writes in the preface that this dictionary was written for beginners wanting to study Zen and that therefore examples were chosen mainly from famous Chan and Zen texts such as the Record of Linji, Dgen's Shbgenz, the Wumenguan (Mumonkan), etc. The explanations of over 2000 terms are thoroughly in the tradition of Japanese Zen, and most examples stem from the most popular kan collections. For the meaning of such terms in the Chan tradition, Iriya/Koga is much superior. However, this pocket dictionary also includes about 500 short biographies of ancient and modern masters (famous Chinese masters and many Japanese) and very brief descriptions of 50 Chan and 39 Zen texts plus the obligatory lineage charts. Shanjun Hf, Zhijing H?^, Daotai M^z et al. 1307. Chanlin leiju Dainihon zokuzky ^ B &1&MM. vol. 1 1 7 (old ed. 2-22). Chan Dictionaries (Asian)

Reference Works for Chan Research


Shibano, Kyd SggpS^. 1980. Zenroku kan'ygo zokugo yten W& HUJfc. Kyoto: Shibunkaku SX 15. A slim volume with a random choice of expressions picked from 16 different Chan texts. No example phrases are provided, only the expression and the author's guess at its meaning. Iriya/Koga (1991), which was published by the same house, is three times more expensive but a thousand times better. Shibayama Zenkei ^\UM. 1972. Teihon zenrin kushu fe^&U^jM. Kyoto: KichDd ^<4^. This is a standard phrasebook hidden in the sleeve of many a Zen monk. Though it contains over 2700 phrases, this represents Shibayama rshi's selection from a larger collection. The phrases are commonly used as answers and "capping phrases" HIp during kan training at Japanese monasteries. Master Shibayama's pithy comments and explanations elevated this collection to the status of a classic. Yamada, Kd Ojffl#j. [1915] 1975. Zensh jiten iff^H. Tky: Kykan 3fcSft&. Tky: Kokusho kankkai H^fijf. This dictionary includes entries on Chan/Zen expressions, Buddhist expressions used in the Zen tradition, stories, colloquialisms, ceremonies, monks, temples, texts, place names, etc. It is equipped with a stroke count index to the first character of the entries. The reading of entries in the body of the dictionary follows pre-war conventions. Since the appearance of Komazawa University's Zengaku daijiten, this dictionary holds little more than historical interest. Yuan Bin HI5, Chanzong zhuzuo ciyu huishi. #zj?HfBlnBIf?. Shanghai: Jiangsu guji chubanshe ffiBWIftfJJKft, 1990. A useful little (and brittle) softcover book that documents the progress made in modern Chinese Chan studies. Only 2000 copies were produced in the first printing, so it may not be easy to get. It is printed in simplified characters. About 250 expressions used in Chan texts are discussed; usually one or more meanings are briefly defined, and these meanings are then substantiated by a wealth of quotations from a good choice of Chan literature and some additional materials such as Zhuxi's Records. The main strength of this book may lie in the well-chosen examples rather than the definitions; some of the latter (for example, those of ^H on p. 25, of ?# on p. 55, or of % M on p. 249) are questionable. Zenbunka kenkyjo. 1991. Teihon zenrin kushu sakuin Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyuj W3c4\ffl%fx. See the description of this work in section IV below. 3. Some Other Works Useful for Chan Studies Gao, Wenda i^XM. 1991. Jindai hanyu cidian ffMMM$&. Beijing: Zhishi chubanshe fcHBtfiJRtt. The 13,000 expressions featured in this dictionary stem mostly from vernacular literature from the end of the Tang to the Qing period. It describes many expressions Other Useful Works


Urs App used in particular regions and proverbs or standing expressions that are usually not included in dictionaries. Genres of literature that the compilers drew from include Chan records, Dunhuang bianwen WX, novels, and plays. Rich in examples and broad in coverage.

Jiang, Lihong (Chiang, Li-hung) #fli$e. 1962. Dunhuang bianwen ciyi tongshi. SSJtSX^Ijf. Several editions: Beijing (Zhonghua shuju tf^W^ 1959); revised and enlarged edition 1962; fifth revised and enlarged edition Shanghai (Shanghai guji chubanshe ii^S^UHjJiRtt 1988). Taiwan reprints: Taipei: Muduo chubanshe ^^ftjijxti, 1961; Taipei: Guting shuwu ^^#11,1975. Entries are arranged in six chapters according to content or grammatical function; the four-corner index appended, for instance, to the 1961 Taiwan reprint facilitates locating entries considerably (for an introduction to this practical system of classifying characters and expressions, see Electronic Bodhidharma no. 2, pp. 17-26). As Iriya points out in his review (Chiigoku bungakuh ff>@X## 11 [1959.10]), this work is the first research product based on Wang Zhongmin's Bianwenji'%%%. Contains many examples from bianwen %t found in Wang's book but also draws on sources from other literary genres. A valuable reading aid, but the reader is warned by Iriya against uncritical reliance on the author's definitions. Iriya's index of colloquial terms of the B/anwe/y/(1961) supplies many examples of expressions current in Chan texts (such as zhishi D, zaoshi ^-JSk, etc.) that are not found in this book. Liu, Jian fJl et al. 1992. Tangdai shiciyu cidiangu cidian H. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe tt This new dictionary, published by the institution which has already input massive amounts of data (for example, all poems of the official Tang collection as well as the entire Quantangwen -tkMJt), may be one of the first reference works in this field to have been written by people with access to lots of electronic text. This dictionary is arranged by pinyin pronunciation and includes a stroke count index both for expressions and literary allusions. Unfortunately printed in simplified characters, the entries usually give a concise modern Chinese definition of the term in question and support each meaning by at least one quotation from a Tang poem. Liu, Jiexiu fj^0. 1991. Hanyu chengyu gaoshi cidian MMf&t^WM^. Beijing: Shangwu yinshu fflPi^. A useful dictionary by a group of specialists. A particularly welcome and unique feature is the appended four-corner index to similar phrases and sayings; this lists not only variations and sometimes parts of phrases but also all entries of the main body. Lu, Dan'an PS ^. 1979 (1962). Xiaoshuo ciyu huishi 'hWiMMMW. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe #S"fI &!{#:. "This is a phrase dictionary of colloquial expressions used in Chinese novels written from the Yuan to the end of the Ch'ing dynasty. All entries (estimated 8400) are listed at the beginning of the volume, arranged by the number of strokes. Each entry is given a simple definition followed by a quotation, with indication of source." (Teng and Biggerstaff, An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 136). An index of the pinyin pronunciation of the entries was published by Sato (1983; see below). Other Useful Works

Reference Works for Chan Research


Lu, Tanan WlM'U. 1981. Xiqu ciyu huishi S%$iMlmMW. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe fHaiJK*l: Nishiguchi, Yoshio SP^jg. 1974. "Tdai zenja seisotsuhy In: Iriya, Yoshitaka ^lii. Baso no goroku Mffl^ln^. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyujo WJtlkfflUPft. This is a table that indicates the life spans of some of the most noted Tang and Five Dynasties Chan masters. Having them all on one sheet gives an interesting perspective on possible biographical and doctrinal relations. ta, Tatsuo i:ffljg^. 1983 [1958]. Chgokugo rekishi bunp *PMMM.1Cf. Kyoto: Hy shoten JKSii^ (Chinese translation published by Beijing daxue chubanshe #&*.&!&&.). A classic in its field and destined to become a true longseller. Though structured as a grammar with word categories and period indications that are sometimes difficult to follow, this book can be used as a reference work because of its good Pinyin index. Prof. Iriya has pointed out that sometimes the historical change in meaning and usage of terms could be more clearly defined, but overall this book is very useful for any careful reader of Chan texts with an interest in language and its functioning. ta, Tatsuo icffljg^. 1988. Chgokugoshi tsk ^HM^M#. Tokyo: Hakusuisha ffi. (translated into Chinese under the title Hanyushi tongkao yHfn 5&#, published by Zhongqing chubanshe SUttiJtStt). A collection of papers. Of special interest for Chan studies are the "Sodsh goh gaisetsu ffl.^HM?$S;!" and "Chko goh gaisetsu 43"In?#5tI". ta, Tatsuo icfflM^. 1982 [1957]. Chgoku rekidai kgobun tpffMftUMJC. Kyoto: Hy shoten MizMfi. A reader for vernacular Chinese throughout the ages, with extensive notes that are included in the general pinyin index. One chapter is devoted to the Zutangji ffi^HI, another one to Zhuxi's Yulei ^^S. Surprisingly instructive booklet. Qu, Shouyue (Ch'ii, Shou-yueh) ffi^^J. 1968. Zonggu ciyu kaoshi Taipei: Yiwen yinshuguan H^PHg. Similar in content to the second part described in the next entry. Qu, Shouyue (Ch'ii, Shou-yiieh) ffi^$J. 1972. Zhonggu ciyu kaoshi xubian ffti#8lBMl. Taipei: Yiwen yinshuguan SXWS=fil. As the author indicates in the foreword, this book takes up medieval words and expressions that are found in texts of the Chinese Buddhist canon. "Medieval" refers to the period between the Eastern Han and the beginning of the Tang. Occurrences of each item are collected and arranged according to usage, and based on these examples the author interprets its meaning(s). Sometimes earlier meanings, different usages of the period, and later evolutions are taken into account. Useful for the student of Chan texts as a link to earlier usages of terms in Buddhist texts.

Other Usefiil Works


Urs App

Tian, Zongyao (Tien, Tsung-yao) Bzj^. 1984. A Dictionary of Colloquial Terms and Expressions in Chinese Vernacular Fiction ^HtS^^Iftflq^ft. Taipei: Shin Wen Feng Print Co. ]&f:fcfcbJK&3l. This dictionary contains approximately 32,000 colloquial expressions used in Chinese vernacular fiction. "Because it is mainly for the study of Chinese vernacular fictions, the majority of the entries are colloquial. Single-character words and four-character set phrases already available in other dictionaries are generally excluded unless their meaning in vernacular fictions differ from those in everyday use." (The quality of English in this quotation from the preface is typical of the whole work). Entries are arranged by Pinyin transcription (but a radical-based index is included), and all tones are indicated. Where tonal differences affect the meaning of a compound, it is listed separately. Each entry consists of Chinese characters, Pinyin transcription, English rendering or explanation, and source indication. Mr. Tian drew his examples from a large mass of vernacular fiction; he lists seventy works. Unfortunately, they are listed only by title without further details. Wang, Dongming J^BJ et al. 1992. Song yuan ming qing baibu xiaoshuo yuci dacidian %7tW%'ffi'btiiMM*.1$&. Changan: Shanxi Renmin chubanshe The list of often quoted sources (pp. 1362-1366) shows how broadly the editors read to compile this large dictionary. Though no specific Chan literature was used, this dictionary can be useful for occasionally finding a rare expression that found its way into Song or later popular literature. The explanations about expressions are very short, and usually no more than one example is given in support. Wang, Ying &. 1987. Shiciqu yuci jishi BMM^MMW. Beijing: Yuwen chubanshe MX&M. The author's main interest is grammar; this work thus contains not too many vernacular expressions (from the Tang to the Ming periods) but goes into great detail in explaining their grammatical function. The most useful part may well be the index to ten different Chinese books of similar thrust, for example Zhang Xiang's classic work (1953). Wen, Duanzheng m.2i$C. 1989. Zhongguo suyu dacidian ^ Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe .M?$Wt&3ift:. The reference work explains about 15,000 vernacular expressions; many of them are of the kind that was so well known at one point in time that only the first or second part was uttered. The explanations are often very detailed, and many examples are included. A quite useful work; it is a pity that the stroke count index at the end does not list the second parts of phrases. Zhang, Xiang 3lffl. 1980 [1953]. Shi ci qu yu ci huishi mn^MffiUM. Shanghai: Zhonghua shuju ^^PiSM. An extensive collection of colloquial expressions, particles, etc., found in the literary genres of shi il, ci M, and qu ffi. A time-tested reading aid for the student of vernacular and vernacular-influenced literature (such as Chan records). Gives one or several meanings of a given character or expression and provides a profusion of quotations that serve as examples of usage. Prof. Iriya has analysed the author's way of arriving at Other Useful Works

Reference Works for Chan Research


meanings and advises users to have a good look at the plentiful examples rather than blindly trusting the author's definitions. Includes a table of contents of its six fascicles and a stroke-count index. This work is indexed, together with nine other Chinese books of similar thrust, in Wang Ying (1987). Zhu, Juyi ^HJa. 1956. Yuanju suyu fangyan lishi 7CJi!jffIn^f1^H$J. Shanghai: Commercial Press. "This is a dictionary of about one thousand colloquial and slang expressions used in the dramas of the Yuan dynasty. Some two hundred of the items also appear in Chang [Zhang 1980] but with different illustrations. Under each phrase is given a simple definition with its equivalent in literary Chinese, or an explanation followed by a few examples with indication of sources. There is a four-corner index." Teng and Biggerstaff, An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 137. Many other relevant works are mentioned in the survey of Ogawa (see the previous section). IV. INDICES AND CONCORDANCES App, Urs, ed. 1993a. Concordance to the Records of Linji Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism T F/r (vol. 1 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). This computer-generated concordance comes with three tables of content (radicals, strokecount, and four-corner) and contains an edited version of the Taish text with punctuation by Prof. Iriya and page references to four major modern translations of the Record of Linji (Rinzai), namely, those by Iriya, Yanagida, Sasaki (English) and Demiville (French). App, Urs, ed. 1993b. Concordance to the Vajrasamdhi Sutra &H!l B\. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ^ES (vol. 2 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). The Linji concordance was produced on computer but published in conventional printed form. The Vajrasamdhi volume (July 1993) initiates a different approach: a concordance will be published every month and sent to over fifty academic institutions in Japan and elsewhere that engage in research on Buddhism and Chan. Scholars are invited to make their own copy of these concordances; to assist them, we send a bound copy (for the library) and a loose copy (for easy copying) to each institution. Scholars able to use computers can also copy or download the electronic texts themselves which are sent out together with the two copies. This and all subsequent concordances of the Hanazono series include three tables of content (stroke count, radical, and four-corner) as well as a character frequency table. The texts (not included) usually stem from the Taish or Zokuzky collections, and original page, segment, and line numbers are maintained. The text for this volume stems from vol. 9 of the Taish; the punctuation is by Prof. Yanagida Seizan. See below under "International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism" for the titles of concordances in preparation. Indices and Concordances


Urs App

App, Urs, ed. 1993c. Concordance to Huangbo's Chuanxin fayao and Wanlinglu f&fH tfMfi ^MB\. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TES^HRSft^flf&m (vol. 3 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). Appeared in July of 1993. Based on texts no. 2012 A & B of vol. 48 of the Taish collection. The punctuation follows Prof. Iriya's text in vol. 8 of the Zen no goroku series. Daizky gakujutsu ygo kenkykai %MM&fFQMffi$lft. 1940-47, and from 1964. Taish shinsh daizky sakuin j.E%x{&j.MM.MB\ (Index to the Taisho Tripitaka). Tky: Taish shinsh daizky kankkai, 1940-47 and since 1964 (esp. vols. 25-28). Though useful, the quality of this index is very uneven. Much of the work was done by students, and in some cases supervision seems to have been too lax. One would think that persons' names would be easy enough to pick up, but even such coverage is quite incomplete. One can expect that coverage of more complicated topics (such as terms belonging to "doctrine," "arts," etc.) is not better. Nevertheless, this gigantic effort by a consortium of Japanese universities is a useful tool. Fang, Jiliu ^Fffl/\, and Wu Dongxiu ^4^. 1992. Tangwudai wushierzhong biji xiaoshou renming suoyin iSE^-h^S^IS^S^^^I. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju tf^itJIa. Forte, Antonino. 1984. Index des caractres chinois dans les fascicules I - V du Hbgirin. Tky: Maison Franco-japonaise S fAlt. He, Yingqing M^Krf. 1987. Jingangjing yuju suoyin ^WlMm^JM^l. Taipei: Taiwan shangwu yinshuguan fffmiWif. Hirakubo, Akira Xf^. 1979. Shinsan ktei Ingen zensh sakuin ff^flT IS 7tM 5N5I. Tky: Kaimei shoin MfflWtf. This is an index to the eleven-volume collection of materials by and about Chan master Yinyuan Lonqi fit;n:PEfit (Jap. Ingen RyQki; 1592-1673), the founder of the Japanese baku-Zen tradition. It features person's names, place names, temple names, names of buddhas and bodhisattvas, and book titles. Additionally, the index includes phrases found in Yinyuan's poems and some other works. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TEH^^ Forthcoming (August 1993). Concordance to the Platform Sutra rs }[ (vol. 4 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism lMi<:M Forthcoming (September 1993). Concordance to the Lengjia shiziji ^^31 (vol. 5 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism itMJZ^ Forthcoming (October 1993). Concordance to the Jueguanlun (vol. 6 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). Indices and Concordances

Reference Works for Chan Research International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism Forthcoming (November 1993). Concordance to the Wumenguan M (vol. 7 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series).


International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism Forthcoming (December 1993). Concordance to Famous Chan Poems afilE #l3lg SiH^ -f-^HH^f^l (vol. 8 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TElil^^lSI&fflM Forthcoming (January 1994). Concordance to the Record ofNanquan ^a ^^61 (vol. 9 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 7bB;*;^H^I# Forthcoming (February 1994). Concordance to the Record ofZhaozhou MB\ (vol. 10 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism Forthcoming (March 1994). Concordance to Zongmi's ^^51 (vol. 1 1 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism flsH^^II Forthcoming (April 1994). Concordance to the Changuan cejin ll (vol. 12 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism lM^\M Forthcoming (May 1994). Concordance to the 51 (vol. 13 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 4tM Forthcoming (June 1994). Concordance to the Records ofCaoshan 51 (vol. 14 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ^M'X^ Forthcoming (July 1994). Concordance to the Record ofYunmen 51 (vol. 15 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism fgl^^ Forthcoming (August 1994). Concordance to Zen Master Trei's Shmon mujintron 'M^MWiii (vol. 16 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism Forthcoming (September 1994). Concordance to Dahui's (vol. 17 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TE Forthcoming (October 1994). Concordance to the Record ofXuefeng W^II^ ^^51 (vol. 18 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). Indices and Concordances


Urs App

International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ^hM'k^M^W Forthcoming (November 1994). Concordance to the Record ofXuansha -^^M^\ (vol. 19 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TS^SI&fl Forthcoming (December 1994). Concordance to the Record ofMazu JS ^^31 (vol. 20 of the Hanazono University Concordance Series). Iriya, Yoshitaka ^Urfi. 1961. Tonk henbunsh kgo goi sakuin WL'&^JtMd loin Hi^!!l. Kyoto: mimeograph. This little book enables the student of late T'ang and Five Dynasties colloquialisms to locate colloquial words and expressions in the collection of Dunhuang bianwen (Dunhuang bianwen &&&$:. Kyoto: ChQbun shuppansha ipifciBJKtt, 1978). Classification follows the Zhuyin fuhao system; a Wade-Zhuyin fuhao conversion table is appended (pp. 33-34). The author carefully notes discrepancies between Wang's compilation and the original Tunhuang manuscripts: wrong readings, inappropriate corrections, omitted necessary corrections, wrong punctuation, etc. Some crossreferences and indications of the grammatical position of an entry make this work even more valuable. Iriya has since 1961 made a number of corrections and added some items; many of these are included in Matsuo (1985) Ishii, Shd J=\$ri$M. 1984-85. "Jisshu sdai zenmon zuihitsushu jinmei sakuin" -h^S^^PPIPlitlI^i^^l. In Komazawa daigaku bukkygakubu kenky kiy mm *3M&iC^P#r %UW: 42 & 43. It Ryju &W$k^t. 1985. Jron ichijisakuin SH^^^SI. Tky: Jishin E= Concordance of the Zhaolun, based on the Taish text, with stroke count and four corner table of contents and an additional table that lists textual differences in four additional editions. The character order follows the Japanese on'yomi reading, but with the help of the indices any character can be found easily. Gives the Taish page/line numbering. Komazawa daigaku nai Zengaku daijiten hensansho $&W JfW flfr. 1977. Zengaku daijiten fu shikaku gma sakuin #^^g$H ft Tky: Taishkan shoten ^{i^ttH^. Primitive four-corner index which, instead of including all entries of the dictionary, simply gives page numbers of the third volume where the first character of what one is looking for is used. Since the third volume has a messy pagination (seven different pages bear the number 1), this index is not too helpful unless one has trouble with Japanese readings. Kyoto daigaku jinbun kagaku kenkyjo genkyokusho kenkyuhan ffi%ffi jK$M-%%tyL. 1961. Genkyokusho sakuin ko (yonhen). Wi. Kyoto: Jinbun kagaku kenkyujo. Makita, Tairy ftCfflifcf et al. 1973. T ksden sakuin J&itMiffgiJI. 3 vols. Kyoto: Heirakuji shoten ^F^^fSt. Indices and Concordances

Reference Works for Chan Research Makita, Tairy cffljfftjfc et al. 1976-1978. S ksden sakuin 5fc^fif 3 vols. Kyoto: Heirakuji shoten ^P^^Sj^ (vol. 3 including Daimin ksden sakuin).


Matsuo, Yoshiki fMJUst 1985. Tonk henbunsh kgo goi sakuin fu hoi |'M ^JC^kRoaMilkM^l Pftftf. Kyoto: Privately circulated copy of a handwritten manuscript. A welcome work based on Iriya's 1961 booklet. Unlike Iriya's booklet, Matsuo also lists the examples themselves, together with their page and line numbers in Dunhuang bianwenji 1$.lfM~%^. Hanazono University library has a bound copy of this handwritten manuscript. A revised edition may form the body of Matsuo's forthcoming Tonk henbunsh goi sakuin W^'fMXWtWiikM^ . Matsuo, Yoshiki #*M Jlfif. Work in progress. Glossary of Vernacular in Chinese Buddhist Texts. I hear that this work of a disciple of Prof. Iriya will be published in 1993-94. Drafts of various parts dealing with specific Buddhist texts have been passed around for a while, and Prof. Iriya is examining the entire manuscript. This work may prove valuable not only for Chan studies but also for Chinese linguistics in general as it will index many terms used by Chinese translators of Indian Buddhist texts. Morino, Shigeo 3&l?$l^. 1989. Rikuch koshsetsu goish Kyoto: Hy shoten SHS#JE. Osaka Municipal University Chinese Literature Research Office ^gP^M^H^ff^. 1970. Chgoku koten gikyoku goshaku sakuin ^ H^UjDtffiMIKf^l. Nagoya: Saika shorin 3^**. This index lists in Pinyin order about 28,000 words and expressions that are explained in the text or footnotes of 34 publications. These publications appeared between 1 929 and 1963 and stem for the most part from China; but some are Japanese editions of Chinese texts. There is no character index; thus users unfamiliar with Pinyin or unsure about a reading must first consult a dictionary. shima, Akira j<.h% et al. 1980. Shshi bunsh koymeishi sakuin fcrJcMWl ^MMd\. Tky: Th shoten JjCM^. ta, Tatsuo XBWzjz. Sodsh kgo goi sakuin ffl^UPHniol^BI. Kyoto: mimeograph, 1962. Though there is now Yanagida's Concordance of the Zutangji, this index is still of value for people interested in colloquialisms in Chan literature. In this respect, too, the Zutangji is one of the most interesting and least studied texts. ta, Tatsuo icfflJg^. 1982. Ts zokuji fu [Sodsh no bu] Jt^f^ft [ffl^SI 2.3]. Tky: Kyko shoin $t#K. This is an index of some variant forms of Chinese characters found in the Zutangji. Indispensable for students of that text. Indices and Concordances


Urs App

Sat, Haruhiko fj^Htjf . 1983. Lu Dan'an hencho "Xiaoshuo ciyu huishi," "Xiqu ciyu huishi" hatsuon sakuin A Pinyin index to the two works mentioned in the title. Shji, Kakuitsu ttWJf . 1983. "Keitoku dentroku smei sakuin" ^l. Yamagata daigaku kiy (Jinbunkagaku) [Uft^^fW: 10,2: 163-208. This index of names in the Jingde chuandenglu is keyed to two editions: the Sibu congkan HftflfJ edition and the widely used 1967 Taiwanese Zhenshanmeishe M#H tt edition. See Suzuki (1975) for an index to the Taish edition of this text. Superseded by the same author's more comprehensive and better indexed 1988 publication. Shji, Kakuitsu Itqjf-^. 1988. Keitoku dentroku koymeishi sakuin This index of personal names, place names, temple names, and buddhas/bodhisattvas in the Jingde chuandenglu is keyed to two editions: the Sibu congkan HflUfiJ edition and the widely used 1967 Taiwanese Zhenshanmeishe jBLltlltt edition. It is a reproduction of a handwritten manuscript and features lookup tables by stroke count, four-corner number, and pinyin reading. Pp. 327 - 365 list masters and disciples in the order of their appearance in the Jingde chuandenglu. See also Suzuki (1975) and Zenbunka kenkyjo (planned index to the Jingde chuandenglu). Stsh shgaku kenkyjo Wfl^^^^f^fjf. 1993. Shinji shbgenz sanbyakusoku goi sakuin M^JEfff.MELSiJlWikM'jl. Tky: Stsh shgaku kenkyjo Wmmmffl%ffi. This is the first of a planned series of indices published by the Shgaku kenkyjo. Pages 1-72 from the back contain a well-annotated and valuable critical edition of the text, pp. 1 -30 from the front two lookup tables (by radical and Japanese pronunciation), and (to keep the tradition of Komazawa's multiple first pages) pp. 1-160 contain the index. Characters are in general simplified Japanese ones. The index was first created as a machine-generated concordance from which subsequently most entries were deleted based on the editors' choice of expressions. Suzuki, Tetsuo ffcfc^fH. 1975. Chiigoku zenshU jinmei sakuin ^MW Nagoya: Kikd KI&1 The standard work for looking up names of Chan masters. It supplies variant names, as well as information about biographies in the Taish and Zokuzky canons. Tables for Pinyin, radicals, and on'yomi. The appendix lists names that occur in the Taish edition of the Jingde chuandenglu. Suzuki, Tetsuo tfrfc*!. 1984. Tgodai no ZenshU JSft<D#a?. Tky: Dait shuppansha ;^ftH%t. Though this is no reference work, it can function as such for a particular purpose: its place name index (pp. 23-37) lists many temple and place names in the two regions of China which are examined, namely, Hunan MW and Jiangxi rljS. Additionally, the list of events with import to Chan history in these two regions (pp. 297-341) and the survey of historical sources from which the information was culled (pp. 293-296) is of interest. Indices and Concordances

Reference Works for Chan Research


Shinohara, Hisao HJ^#$i. 1959. Zengo kaisetsujiten sakuin Tky: Komazawa daigaku Zenshjiten hensansho ffatilX This mimeographed index is arranged according to the four-corner system but also includes Zhuyin fuhao ( i=ff!j|), Wade-Giles, and stroke count indices. It is a useful but seldom found combined index to the following works: 1. Zuting shiyvan fflji^B, a collection of early twelfth-century commentaries to Chan texts authored by Muan Shanqing Bi$lt!SP (Zokuzky vol. 113). 2. Mujaku Dch's Zemin shkisen ipfW^tHrll. 3. Mujaku Dch's Katt gosen Mffa^. 4. Aizawa Ekai's fjyiSftl Zengaku ykan #<Pil$!ni. 5. Genky Zenji's jzfMffi Zengaku Shiomi, Kunihiko MM^Pi^. 1992. Shushi gorui kgo goi sakuin 5fc? in SI Pin In Hi^3l. Kyoto: Chubun shuppansha ^XftJtStt. Yanagida, Seizan fPffl^Uj ed. 1980-84. Sodsh sakuin ffl^f^3l (3 vols.). Kyoto: Kyoto daigaku jinbun kagaku kenkyujo MtP^C^X^^^f^/5/?. This is the yardstick of Chan concordances, an indispensable reference tool for any Chan, Son, or Zen researcher. Contains in volume 3 a conveniently numbered reducedsize reproduction of the original text and an important study of the text by Yanagida. The concordance is arranged according to radical/stroke order and contains a very detailed Japanese on'yomi lookup table. With its many variant character forms, this text has still not moved into the age of movable type. This concordance is the access gate to this invaluable and still much too little studied major source of Chan teaching and history. Specialists can order it at the Jinbun kagaku kenkyujo in Kyoto which should provide it free of charge to persons able to document their need; but those left out may come across a very fat one-volume Korean edition whose legal status does not in any way diminish its scholarly value. Yanagida, Seizan $P EH Hill ed. 1980. Keitoku dentroku dainijky/sanjukkan sakuin ko M'iM&ftm ^29-30#f83|;fg. Unpublished draft. Features the text from Taish vol. 51 and a handwritten index. Zenbunka kenkyujo WJCiktftRpft ed. 1988. Hekiganroku teish sakuin Hjgli^it Dif^ai (1 vol.). Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyujo WXitWKffi. An index to the Biyanlu (Hekiganroku, Blue Cliff Records) rUKgf^jl M^\, volume 10 of Yamada Mumon's lectures on this text published by the same institute. Since the in dex refers to the pages of the whole series, one needs to buy the whole set to make use of this index. However, a new three-volume index is planned (see below). Zenbunka kenkyujo W1C4ktft$lPft. 1 990. Kid osh goroku (with index) dg Mt fa83l. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyujo WX4tffi$Lpft. Includes a reproduction of the Zokuzky text with handwritten variants in the margins and no line numbers. The original page numbers of the Zokuzky have for unknown reasons been replaced by Zenbunka numbers starting at I . Researchers wanting to cite the text with Zokuzky page numbers are thus required to add the magic number 657 to the Zenbunka page. The index is arranged according to the on'yomi reading used at the Zenbunka research institute with a table of contents according to radicals. Indices and Concordances


Urs App

Zenbunka kenkyujo WXftffi%?ft. 1990. Tdzenjiban keitoku dentroku . MMWMmU (2 vols.). Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyujo WX4kffi$tpft. This book contains the Dongchansi 3S## edition of the Jingde chuandenglu in repro duction and a slim index of names of persons. This edition has important variants and is worth consulting. Zenbunka kenkyujo WXttffi%fft. 1991. Kanzanshi kan'i sakuin. M\UMffi%M 31. Unpublished research material. Primitive index without table of contents, arranged in Zenbunka kenkyusho fashion according to Japanese on'yomi reading. See under Zhonghua for a published concordance. Zenbunka kenkyujo W%ik^{%W\. 1991. Teihon zenrin kushii sakuin f^ijiflfr ^&f3l. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyujo WXiW(%Pft. A reproduction of the text used for this index, the 1882 Zho tsho zenrinkush itffif M ##^^jft edited by Ty Eich 1%M1%M, is included. Characters can be found by radical only; but the radical table in this expensive book gives wrong page references; the correct page numbers are supplied in a loose pamphlet that comes with the index. Zenbunka kenkyujo WJCfcffi^PJr. 1991. Tshisen santaishi sg sakuin M1&M Hfif#^3l. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyujo ftXikfit$lpft. Author's names and expressions from two collections of poems that are sometimes cited in Chan and Zen texts are indexed in this work. Poems from the two collections (the Tshisen kokujikai '^MM^-M and the ZochO santaishi JtflH'ffcgt) are included. Characters can be found by radical only. Zenbunka kenkyujo W%i\ff$LF. 1991. Kaian kokugo sakuin tt$|g|iSff3l. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo WJtfkffi %ft. The Kaian kokugo consists of comments, capping phrases, and sermons by the Japanese Zen master Hakuin Ekaku BIlti on the Records of Dait J<L'fMffWi$&. This text is one of the most important texts of the Japanese Rinzai tradition; it includes voluminous comments on 58 traditional Chinese kans. This volume features a reproduction of a 1750 edition of the text (with some variants added by the Zenbunka in the margins) and an index arranged according to the on'yomi reading used at the Zenbunka research institute with a table of contents according to radicals. Zenbunka kenkyujo WJClkffi^lpJT. 1991. Goke shshsan (fu sakuin) S (ftf^3l). Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo WJt4k%ft3lpft. The original manuscript, which is photo-reproduced in this edition, stems from the Ryugein H^ft subtemple in the Myshinji &!>>[>#, Kyoto. The Wujia zhengzongzan S^iE^M (Zokuzky vol. 135) of which this is a detailed commentary is a compendium of essential teachings from the "five houses" of Chan. It thus covers a broad spectrum of terms and is a useful research aid. Zenbunka kenkyjo W^C.\YM%ff\ . 1991. Zengojisho ruiju fu sakuin. WMfflWtM f tt%5\. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo W3tWi\%ft. A convenient collection of some smaller Chan reference works with an index. The works included in more or less readable reproduction are: Shmon hgo ^ Indices and Concordances

Reference Works for Chan Research


Zenrin hgo #f^ffn (in Mujaku Dch's handwriting); Mujaku Dch's Zenrin hgo ffjfajjan; the Hekigansh hgokai UI^II^Hof?; Genky Zenji's izlfcWffi Zengaku zokugokai. #^faof?; and finally Mujaku Dch's Zenrin kush benmy Wfl^HP S. The index is arranged according to (the often non-standard Zen) on'yomi readings, and there is no stroke-count or radical table. Chinese, Koreans, and Westerners unfamiliar with on'yomi readings will thus not be able to use this index. Zenbunka kenkyujo WJCitffi^pft. 1991. Hekiganroku shudensh, sakuin tsuki Zenbunka kenkyjo W-JCltffi^PJ. 1992. Hyakuj koroku ichiji sakuin ^^^31. Unpublished research material. Primitive concordance without table of contents, arranged in Zenbunka kenkysho fashion according to Japanese on'yomi reading. Based on a copy of the Tiansheng guangdenglu ;HJa W^; (juan 9); but page numbers start at 1 . Characters that are not in the Japanese JIS character set are replaced by two letters of the alphabet. Zenbunka kenkyjo W%iM%fi. 1993. Shyroku sakuin Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo WXitffi^lPft. This is an index to one of the major kan collections. A woodblock print edition is indexed in this work. Zenbunka kenkyjo W3C.i\M%ft. 1993. Hekiganroku Funish sakuin. F^ilkU ^fr.01 m$\. Kyoto: Zenbunka kenkyjo WXitB^Pfx. Index to an important edition of a major kan collection. A woodblock print edition is indexed in this work. Stroke count, radical, and Pinyin lookup tables facilitate access. Zenbunka kenkyjo ffJC'it'ft%ff. Work in progress. Keitoku dentroku sakuin. Zen no goroku series general index WO^M^ &t n'^51 . Unpublished. This anonymous index is a simple collation of the indices found at the back of each volume of the Zen no goroku series. They were copied by someone and simply pasted together. One still has to look up names or terms nineteen times, but instead of pulling out nineteen volumes time after time, one can leaf through a few pages of this index, which is widely used by Japanese researchers and their disciples. Zhang, Chenshi litt et al. 1982. Tang wudai renwu zhuanji ziliao zonghe suoyin JS^fttlfiliS^Mt-^l. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju ^MM. A useful work for finding secular biographical sources of Chan monks and their sponsors as well as editors and writers of prefaces. Zhongguo shehui kexue yuan ^Ulttf^^fn:. 1993. Quantangshi soyin: Hanshan Shide juan :r/ir#^ij|3|?iL|f##. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe &MWX.%k&m. Concordance to the Hanshan poems, keyed to the Zhonghua shuju flfjj edition. Like the other volumes of this large series of poem concordances, this is a computergenerated concordance arranged according to four-corner numbers and equipped with a Indices and Concordances

396 stroke count lookup table.

Urs App

Apart from these works, there is of course a multitude of other works of help to Chan researchers, for example, the excellent Tang poetry concordances by the Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe tte^f^XSKftJiS^i in Beijing, the concordances of Chinese classics by Commercial Press in Hong Kong (made at the Chinese University of Hong Kong), the concordances published at Oslo University, and various indices and other reference materials to bianwen W% literature, early vernacular sources, Chinese novels, etc.

V. ELECTRONIC MATERIALS 1. A New Information Carrier It is already generally agreed that the advent of electronic text will transform scholarship even more radically than the invention of movable type printing. The new medium is of a much simpler nature than that of letters printed on paper: Basically, it consists of nothing other than a string of "offs" and "ons." The simple nature of digital information and the ease of storing, copying, retrieving, and displaying it will radically change the production and management of knowledge. The new information carrier is much more flexible than ink and paper, which can only display visible and static information. It can carry any combination of audible and visible information, moving or static, and can be "displayed" through loudspeakers, television screens, video equipment, printing machines, telephone lines, etc. Just ten years after the first efforts to transfer Chan texts to the electronic medium, it is still impossible to grasp the potential of the electronic revolution for this and related fields. However, it has already become clear that this revolution affects even bedrock concepts of scholarship such as "primary source" and "reference work" and that many established scholarly categories do not apply to electronic information. For example: the electronic source text usually is its own work of reference. The inherent reference potential of electronic text can be substantially improved by hidden tags and embedded links. Tags (which can mark, for example, grammatical particles or plant names) permit sophisticated queries for whole classes of textual objects, and embedded links permit immediate access to alternative primary or secondary sources as well as non-textual information (such as maps, mandalas, architectural plans, video sequences, works of art, etc.). The meaning of "primary source" and "reference work" is thus likely to undergo radical change. This part of my survey must thus go beyond the "reference work" boundaries that are customary for printed works. Various projects are now under way to create a basic stock of electronic text for Buddhist studies as well as software to support innovative and intelligent use of Electronic Materials

Reference Works for Chan Research


such text. We can expect to have the major Buddhist canons (including the majority of texts for Chan studies) available in electronic form around the year 2000. At present, I am aware of the following projects (more detailed information about these and smaller projects as well as addresses etc. is found in the Electronic Bodhidharma 3 (1993). 2. Overview of Electronic Buddhist Text Projects The Thai Buddhist Canon Project This database established by Mahidol University contains the entire Siam edition of the Pali canon (45 vols.; over 30 million characters), both in Thai and romanized Pali script. Additionally, 70 volumes of commentary and textbook information as well as the proprietary Buddhist Scripture Information Retrieval (BUDSIR) software (version IV) is included on a CD-ROM for use on IBM compatible PCs. Release of the CD is planned for autumn of 1993. Distribution in Thailand by Mahidol University, in other countries by the American Academy of Religion (AAR). Approx. price: US $ 500 for institutions, US $ 300 for individuals. The Burmese Buddhist Canon Nearly all of the Burmese tipitaka plus commentaries and some sub-commentaries has been input in India by Mr. S.N. Goenka for a printed devanagari edition. The input was based on the work of the Rangoon Council (1954-56). Completion date and release are not yet known. Another input project with the same objective is planned by Rev. U. Silananda (San Francisco). The Pali Text Society Database The Dhammakaya Foundation in Bangkok has reportedly input almost all of the Pali materials and also the English translations of the Pali Text Society series. The data is now being proofread; no completion date has been announced. Tibetan Buddhist Database The initial goal of the "Asian Classics Input Project" is the input of the 4,500 works of the Kangyur and Tengyur collections (Tibetan translations of Sanskrit Buddhist texts). Along with electronic texts, other research tools (dictionaries, bibliographies) are to published in electronic form. The database now contains about 40 megabytes of data, some of it uncorrected. Corrected are over fifty Tibetan Buddhist texts and many lists and catalogues as well as some text books. Texts already input are listed in the documentation to Release 3 of the ACIP. The Korean Buddhist Canon Project The input of the first two volumes was organized by Prof. Lancaster of Berkeley with the support of Mr. Park Wan-il, the former president of the Lay Buddhist Association of the Chogye Order of Korea. When the Haein monastery decided to take over the project, all input data were handed over. Input of the entire Chinese Buddhist canon stored on more than 80,000 wooden plates at Haein monastery in Korea is now planned. Electronic Materials


Urs App

The Beihai Chinese Sutra Database Foguangshan {$ti1| novice monks at the Beihai itM monastery at the northern tip of Taiwan have so far input a catalogue of all titles of texts contained in the Taish edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon and about forty stras (among them the Lotus, Vimalakirti, Diamond, and ramgama stras as well as some major Mdhyamika and Tiantai texts). Texts already input are listed in the Electronic Bodhidharma 3. The Taish Buddhist Canon The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing plans the input of the entire Taish edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon. In May of 1993, the first ten volumes were allegedly already input. Jinbun Kagaku Kenkyjo Database The Institute for Humanistic Studies, Kyoto University, has long been involved in bibliographies of East Asian studies, but they were usually produced on a mainframe computer. Now some researchers are inputting volumes 49 to 52 (historical section) of the Taish edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon. Texts already input are listed in the Electronic Bodhidharma 3. Zenbunka Kenkyjo Database Since around 1986, this institute had many texts, mainly Zen texts, input by companies in Japan and China (see list below). Only data of which indices were produced are proofread. Additionally, some indices of reference works and Chan repertories were input. Academia Sinica Database The Academia Sinica, best known for its 25-history database (40 million characters), is also inputting vast amounts of other data, for example nine million characters worth of classics, Dunhuang materials collections, and Chinese stone inscriptions. Many Buddhist works such as the Gaosengzhuan fiififl? and Xugaosengzhuan fliMW and other works of interest for Chan researchers (Zhuxi's Yulei MM, the Dunhuang Bianwen Collection, the Forty-two Chapter Sutra, etc.) have also been input and are being proofread. Buddhist texts already input are listed in the Electronic Bodhidharma 3. Chinese University of Hong Kong Database The Chinese University of Hong Kong's Institute of Chinese Studies which is now involved in a major concordance project of Chinese classics has plans to input a large number of religious texts from the Six Dynasties. Between 1993 and 1995, 36 Daoist texts (ca. 500,000 characters) from the Six Dynasties will be input, among many other materials, and in a subsequent stage (starting in 1 995) 47 Buddhist texts (ca. 4.2 million characters). Buddhist texts whose input is planned are listed in the Electronic Bodhidharma 3. The Zen Knowledgebase Founded in 1990 at the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism at Hanazono University, this project aims at the creation of an encyclopaedic knowledge base for Chan/Son/Zen research centering on primary source materials. Software products and input texts are listed below.

Electronic Materials

Reference Works for Chan Research


The Shiigaku Kenkyiijo Database This St research institution situated in Komazawa University (Tokyo) has begun input of various St Zen related texts. Already input are Dgen's collection of 300 kans (Sanbyakusoku HejJKJ), the twelve-fascicle edition of Dgen's Shbgenz JEftfkW,, and the first three fascicles of the same author's Eihei kroku The Sangha Database This database is associated with members of the Nishi honganji's Kygaku kenkyjo and with Rykoku University (Kyoto). It contains a good number of Pure Land Buddhist texts, a few in Chinese (listed in App [1993c]) and some more in Japanese yomikudashi reading. Subscribers can copy these input materials over a modem. Korean Buddhist Texts A group of monks from the Haein monastery in Korea has begun input of various texts from the Collection of Korean Buddhist Texts ^Mib&'ik^ such as the complete works of Wnhyo 7t;g|. Input of the works of Chinul flifi and other major Korean Buddhist teachers is also planned. The Rissh Nichiren Database Rissh University has produced a CD with a photographic reproduction of a Kamakura edition of Nichiren shnin ibun. Text is stored as graphic information, but a dictionary is included which contains references. This is not a database in the conventional sense but rather something like a turbo microfilm which requires dedicated Hitachi machinery. Hbgirin Database Driven by the foresight of the late Anna Seidel, the Hbgirin research institute has since the late eighties continuously expanded its computer-related activities. An electronic edition of the supplement of the Hbgirin Catalogue of the Taish Canon is now being prepared and will be used for printing a revised edition. There are also plans for other electronic tools such as multilingual electronic indices to the Hbgirin encyclopedia. Taish Texts on Japanese Electronic Bulletin Boards Instead of copying surras with a writing brush on paper, some Japanese monks and laypersons have begun to input texts on computers and posting them on electronic bulletin boards. Texts posted on Nifty-Serve, section "Vihara" and PC-VAN (section "Orient") include the Shengmanjing fH^, the Vimalakirti Sutra $IJS$1, the Abhidharmakosa-sstra {^1?fm, part of the Wuliangshou jing M1WM, and the Awakening of Faith ^ Various other Buddhism-related materials (texts, translations, bibliographies, discussions, papers, etc.) are posted on electronic bulletin boards around the world. For lists of input texts, electronic addresses, and information about the scope and history of these projects see the Electronic Bodhidharma 3.

Electronic Materials


Urs App 3. Chan Materials and Projects

The last decade has seen a variety of efforts to take advantage of the electronic medium for Chan studies. These efforts can be divided into five categories: 1. Typing. Since 1983, a number of (at the outset mostly Western) individual researchers struggled with the limitations of Japanese personal computers and Japanese character code standards in order to type mixed-language dissciUuiuua un Ciau ui Zen. A few texts and programs were exchanged among users of the same machinery; the exchanged data were generally good enough for individual efforts but not of a quality suited for wider distribution. Even today, researchers in East and West still use their computers or word-processors predominantly for typing papers or books. 2. Generating indices and concordances: Since about 1986, personal computers and electronic Chan texts are used for producing computer-generated printed products, especially concordances and indices. The structure and coding of data fits this task; Chinese characters not present in the Japanese code are usually custom-created for a specific printer. If software is developed at all, it is also limited to the production of printed materials. In the field of Chan, the Institute for Zen Studies (Zenbunka kenkyjo W3ti\L$\%?fi;) in Kyoto is most active in this respect; since the late eighties, it had paid Japanese companies to input a substantial number of Chan and Zen texts (see list below). The quality of such input was quite poor, and the institute's staff spent much time and effort correcting the data for their printed indices (see above). The high cost and relatively low quality of input in Japan made the Zenbunka institute explore input in mainland China; several large texts were input in simplified characters and then converted to JIS code for use on Japanese personal computers. The emphasis on printing also accounts for the fact that no electronic text is made available by the Zenbunka; the institute fears that this would undercut its publication business. The Shgaku kenkyjo at Komazawa University in Tokyo has just started a major input project whose primary aim is also the production of Zenbunka-style printed indices of St-Zen materials. The first index (to Dgen's Sanbyakusoku) has just appeared. The International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism (Hanazono University, Kyoto) has begun a series of computergenerated concordances of Chan materials (see above), but these are essentially by products of electronic texts that are distributed at the same time. 3. Using electronic Chan texts for research: Around 1984, the first Chan texts were input by myself and then by a small group of Western students, most of them using my four-corner character conversion dictionary which allowed easy input of full-form Chinese characters on Japanese equipment. Some years later, a substantial number of texts was input at various institutions by the scanning method described in the Electronic Bodhidharma 2. The primary objective of such input is not printing but rather electronic search of characters or terms within texts. Data retrieval was and is mostly carried out by fast line-based full-text search ("Find.exe" and variations of grep and fgrep) of electronic text structured according to App's text file format Electronic Materials

Reference Works for Chan Research


(described in the Electronic Bodhidharma 2). Electronic text can be put in that format by programs (Shimizu [1990], Wittern [1993]). This text file format and search method is used a number of researchers and institutions. Since 1992, the researchers at the Zenbunka kenkyjo and interested visitors can also search Chan data. Apart from Chan texts, a variety of electronic Chan reference materials (see list below) were input by individual researchers and institutions (primarily Zenbunka and International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism). At present, the use of such electronic materials is still young and primitive; but the enormous potential is already apparent. 4. Creating high-quality electronic text: So far, all efforts to create electronic Chan or Zen texts were heavily hardware- and software-dependent. Almost all such text was created in Japanese JIS code for Japanese computing equipment, and the many characters that do not exist in the Japanese code were dealt with by using a variety of tricks. Such electronic text has a non-standard character and is hardly fit for publication (which is a major reason why no electronic Chan texts have been published so far). Moreover, its dependency on a character code with only 6,353 characters, a mishmash of full and simplified forms, and bad convertibility into other national codes makes such electronic text unlikely to survive for more than a few years. In the course of work on the International Research Institute's Zen Knowledgebase, I realized that for East Asian electronic text one must make a basic distinction between primary or "master" electronic text and secondary or "user" text. The "master" text functions like the master tape in music recording, i.e. it should faithfully reproduce the original text (including variant forms of characters). This electronic master text must be automatically convertible into various "user" formats that require specific hardware and software configurations or serve, for example, certain search procedures. The electronic master text should be useful for decades or centuries to come, while the user format depends on sometimes shortlived circumstances (national character codes, etc.).1 At present, the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism appears to be the only institution involved in the creation of such electronic Chan texts. Its data is being input in China using Taiwanese Big-5 code, then mastered at the institute in CCCII code (which contains over 33,000 characters and many variant forms), and finally machine-converted into a variety of national character codes (Taiwanese, Korean, Japanese, Unicode). The institute has begun publishing a series of electronic Chan texts and other research materials on floppies in various user formats and national codes. The first such text is an electronic version of the Records ofLinji (in Taiwanese Big-5 code and Japanese JIS code), and other texts used for the institute's concordance series will follow. In the last part of this section, all Chan-related materials that I am aware of having been input are listed, regardless of whether publication or distribution is planned or not. 1) For more information on basic issues concerning electronic East Asian text see the Electronic Bodhidharma 3. Electronic Materials


Urs App

5. Creating Intelligent Electronic Text: Electronic text created so far is still primitive. Its value and function can be very much enhanced by appropriate tagging and other techniques (linking of variant character forms, linking of different versions of texts, etc.). Such studies have begun in the framework of the Zen Knowledgebase project. A. Electronic Texts Published or Prepared for Publication International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ^H^^S^J^^f^uF/f. 1993. The Records ofLinji Bs$|f^ (electronic version). Data input by Urs App (manual) in 1986, data correction by the publishing institute in 1992-3. The text is taken from Taishd vol. 47, but the punctuation is by Prof. Iriya. Formats: JIS code, KS code, and Big-5 code; IBM, Macintosh, NEC-9801 type equipment. Published in conjunction with a printed concordance based on these data (App [1993]) and with an electronic toolset for automatic creation of such concordances from text files. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TES^^ Forthcoming. All twenty electronic texts of the institute's Hanazono University Concordance Series (see above in the index section) . Formats: JIS code and Big-5 code; IBM, Macintosh, NEC-9801 type equipment. These texts can be copied at over fifty universities all over the world which also receive the concordances. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism fM$:MffM Work in progress. Guzunsu yulu ^W-fnf (electronic version). Formats: JIS code and Big-5 code; IBM, Macintosh, NEC-9801 type equipment. The text follows Zokuzky vol. 1 18. Punctuation of the forty-eight fascicles may partly be done in mainland China. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ^E Work in progress. Dahui's Zhengfa yanzang ^SETBJliic (electronic version). Formats: JIS code and Big-5 code; IBM, Macintosh, NEC-9801 type equipment. This six-fascicle text is the first we had input in mainland China in Taiwanese Big-5 code. The text follows Zokuzky vol. 118, and the punctuation is by members of the research group on this text headed by Profs. Iriya and Yanagida. B. Reference Work Information: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TES^H^^ffl^Jr. Work in progress. Electronic Edition of Zen Dust. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. This work, long out of print, is one of the most valuable reference tools for Western Chan, Zen, and Son researchers. The advantages of an electronic version are evident: one will be able to look for any character of word in both text and notes. Data input of Electronic Materials

Reference Works for Chan Research


large parts are finished. IBM and Macintosh versions should be ready for publication around the end of 1993. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism lM^Mf%W$ft%Pft . Work in progress. Electronic Index to Major Zen Reference Works. Since 1989 we have been inputting the lookup words of some major works of reference used by Zen researchers (Zengaku daijiten, Zengo jiten, Zenrin shkisen, Katt gosen, Japanese-English Zen Buddhist Dictionary, Zen Glossary, etc.). Much of the input work for this index was done in Japan, and the correction process is rather labor-intensive because of the "gaiji" problem. We aim for a release date in late 1993. Format: Big-5 code or JIS, for use on IBMs, Macintoshes, and NECs. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ?E|g;^S^#^Jf $tfft. Work in progress. Electronic Version ofYanagida 's Zenseki kaidai W^MjSL. The data correction process of the data (input in 1990) is ongoing; a HyperCard version for Macintoshes as well as a text file version for IBMs and NECs should be published in 1994. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 7EH*S^###f^F/r. Work in progress. Electronic Footnote Index to Major Japanese Translations of Chan Texts. Data input of the lookup words of Zen no goroku footnotes is finished, but footnotes to other Japanese translations of Chan texts (such as those to the Records ofMazu and the Records of Xuansha by Iriya and the Zutangji translations by Yanagida) must still be input and corrected. Publication possibly in 1994. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TS^SRStf^flf&flfr. Work in progress. Electronic Chan Lineage Charts. These lineage charts will allow users to search for names and to copy and paste whatever parts they need for their purpose. Since the graphic environment on personal computers is being rapidly developed, we will only publish these charts when a standard evolves which can be used in different hardware and software configurations. So far we have made only a HyperCard demonstration model. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TbH^^IIIIn^^T %fft. Work in progress. Electronic Chan, Zen, and Son Maps. Electronic maps with information of interest to researchers. We took the first steps in creating model maps that are freely scalable, but further work will only be done when such maps can be used independent of one's particular hardware configuration. C. Bibliographical Information App, Urs. 1993. Recent English Publications about Chan, Son, and Zen (19771992) Electronic Version. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism ttm*mmmffl$Lpjr. There are two versions of this electronic bibliography: one contains only alphabetical information, the other also Japanese translations by Shun Murakami of all book and Electronic Materials


Urs App article titles. The former is distributed as a Microsoft Word file (IBM or Macintosh), the latter as a Solo Writer file (Macintosh) or text file (Macintosh, IBM, NEC). The mixed-language version makes it possible to search for persons' names, book titles, etc. through Chinese characters.

App, Urs, Michel Mohr, et al. Work in progress. Chan, Son, and Zen Texts in Translation. A Database. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Planning has begun for a database giving basic information about primary source texts and their translations. The coverage should be as broad as possible. Hbgirin Research Institute TEjeil^. Work in progress. Electronic Catalogue of the Taish Canon. Indogaku bukkygaku kenkykai. 1988-?. Index to Japanese Journal articles on Buddhism since 1868. The Indogaku bukkygaku kenkykai has since 1988 been compiling a database on Japanese secondary literature on Buddhism. The information will cover all articles published in 85 scholarly journals since 1868. Input of titles, authors, journal information, and keywords is in progress at twenty-six Japanese universities, and a first set of data (articles that appeared in Indogaku bukkygaku kenky) has been on sale since 1989. McRae, John. 1992. Bibliography of recent Western works on Chinese Buddhism. This is a draft version of a bibliography posted on a variety of electronic bulletin boards, for example, the Coombspaperss database of the Australian National University. International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism TES^^HB&ft^flf&flfr. Work in progress. Library Data of the International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. After the publication of the Library catalogue, the institute plans to make the data available in text file form. Included is not only the basic information (author, title, publisher, place, time, etc.) but also their pronunciation (thoroughly checked) as well as an authoritative classification code which will allow searches by theme. Publication planned for 1994. D. Electronic Tools App, Urs. 1991. VJE Four-Corner Kanji Conversion Dictionary. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Versions: VJE for NEC 9801, Mac- VJE, VJE for DOS/V. Data were all input by Urs App and contain also "wrong" numbers to facilitate input for people with an insufficient grasp of this system. Can be merged with other dictionaries. Features fourdigit and five-digit four-corner numbers which allow speedy input of characters whose pronunciation one ignores. App, Urs, and Murakami Shun. 1991 . VJE Kana-Kanji Conversion Dictionary for Zen Terms. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Versions: VJE for NEC 9801, Mac-VJE, VJE for DOS/V. Can be merged with other Electronic Materials

Reference Works for Chan Research


dictionaries. Using this dictionary, one can input the Hepburn transcription of most Zen terms, names, places, and book titles and get instantaneously the corresponding Kanji characters on screen (both full and simplified forms are included). App, Urs, C. Wittern, M. Mohr, and S. Murakami. Work in progress. Electronic Index to Major Chan/Zen Dictionaries. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. App, Urs, and K. Fujimoto. Forthcoming. Zen Gaiji. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Japanese operating systems contain too few characters for handling Chan and Zen materials. The number of missing characters is large, but most of them are rarely found. We created about 100 of the most frequently occurring characters for use on Postscript printers or any printer which can handle True Type characters. Release in late 1993. For use on any Macintosh with a Japanese system or Japanese Windows 3. 1 on IBMs or NECs. Shimizu, Mitsuyuki, and Urs App. 1991. Taish OCR Toolset. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism 1t\MJMfkW%ft3lPfi. Only for NECs. Consists of an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) kanji file, an automatic concordance program, a program which arranges data for electronic search, and fast text search software. The hardware and software setup is discussed in the Electronic Bodhidharma 2. Produces JIS data of a quality acceptable only to individual researchers willing to correct them. Not useful for large-scale input of Chinese text data because of insufficient JIS kanji codes and the related gaiji problem. Wittern, Christian. Forthcoming. Concordance Toolset. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. Versions: for JIS kanji on NECs or JIS/Big-5 on IBMs. Programs contained in this toolset permit fully automatic creation of a printed text concordance from a Chinese text file in JIS code. The resulting concordance is complete with three tables of content (stroke count, radical, and four-corner) and page numbers and can without further formatting be printed by a simple type command. A Macintosh version is planned. Wittern, Christian, U. App, and K. Fujimoto. Work in progress. Chinese Character Conversion Toolset. Kyoto: International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism. This toolset for Chinese character data will mainly consist of programs written by C. Wittern and code tables established and corrected at our institute. It allows conversion of Japanese text files into to Taiwanese or Korean text files and vice-versa. It will be available for IBMs, Apples, and NEC-9801 type machines. E. List of Already Input Chan and Zen Texts See the more comprehensive list of Buddhist texts already input in the Electronic Bodhidharma 3. Here, only specific Chan/Zen texts or texts often quoted in such texts are listed. Electronic Materials


Urs App

Already Input Chan and Zen Texts (incl. some other texts) June 1993 Text Title 08/0235 08/0251 09/0262 09/0273 09/0273 1 4/0474 1 4/0475 14/0475 16/0670 17/0784 17/0784 24/1484 25/1509 30/1564 30/1568 30/1569 30/1579 31/1585 32/1666 32/1666 32/1666 45/1857 45/1880 45/1881 46/1915 47/1985 47/1985 47/1986A 47/1986B 03 -K 001 001 007 001 001 002 003 003 004 001 001 002 100 004 001 002 100 010 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 nbunka iriz Beihai nbunka Sangha database Hanazono U. Sangha database Beihai Mr. Nnin fStl Beihai Beihai Beihai Beihai anazono U. Acad. sinica Beihai 4 Hanazono U. Sangha database Beihai Beihai TEH {/*! Hanazono U. Institution Code/ Correction Big-5,bas. corr., punct. Big-5,bas. corr., punct. Big-5,bas. corr., punct. JIS, n.a. CCCII/Big-5/JIS, corr.,punct. JIS,corrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected Big-5,bas. corr., punct. JIS,n.a. Big-5, corr. ongoing Big-5,bas. corr., punct. JlS.n.a. JIS, OCR, not corrected Big-5,bas. corr., punct. Big-5,bas. corr., punct. Big-5,bas. corr., punct. JIS, corrected? JIS, uncorrected? JIS, corrected JIS,corrected Big-5,bas. corr., punct. JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, no correction JIS, OCR, uncorrected Big-5,bas. corr., punct. CCCII/Big-5/JIS, corr. punct. JIS, no correction JIS, basic correction JIS, basic correction

Reference Works for Chan Research


47/ 1987 A 47/1987B 47/1988 47/1991 47/1997 47/ 1998 A 47/2000 48/2003 48/2004 48/2004 48/2005 48/2005 48/2007 48/2009 48/2010 48/2010 48/201 2A 48/20 12B 48/2013 48/2014 48/2015 48/2015 48/2016 48/2017 48/2017 48/2018 48/201 9 A 48/2021 48/2022 48/2023 48/2024 48/2025 48/2025 ULH

001 002 003 001 020 030 010 010 006 006 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 004 004 100 003 003 001 001 001 004 010 001 010 010 IRIZ iriz nbunka Beihai iriz # XibW&fft Zenbunka nbunka iriz

JIS, basic correction JIS, basic correction JIS, basic correction JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, corrected JIS, corrected JIS, OCR, basic corr. JIS, corrected JIS, basic correction JIS, correction? JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected CCCII/Big-5/JIS, corr.,punct. Big-5,bas. corr., punct. CCCII/Big-5/JIS, corr.,punct. CCCII/Big-5/JIS, corr.,punct. JIS, OCR, uncorrected CCCII/Big-5/JIS, corr.,punct. JIS, OCR, basic corr. JIS, no correction JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, no correction JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, basic corr. JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, correction?

408 50/2059 50/2059 50/2059 50/2060 50/2060 50/2061 50/2062 51/2085 51/2092 51/2092 80/2548 80/2551 81/2566 81/2574 85/2831 85/2832 85/2833 85/2834 85/2835 85/2836 85/2837 85/2883 85/2887 85/2901 85/2901 ZZ 113 ZZ 117 ZZ 118 ZZ118 ZZ 118 ZZ119 ZZ 119 ZZ119 mmm smmm m*im mamxn mum xm&mm %ME mm^mmmtm wmmmmu *mmmtm mzmm nmmmm KffflMI m&mm |p|j 1e p5r 014 014 014 030 030 030 008 001 005 005 002 002 003 007 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 006 020 048 006 048 001 003 001

Urs App JIS, OCR, basic corr. W~$ti^M%Pft Zenbunka Ef^^ff^bfT; Acad. sinica Wi'fb^f^F/f Zenbunka t'^^ff^K Acad. sinica W^'fkW^f/r Zenbunka ^i'fb^f^fif Zenbunka JIS, no correction Big-5, corr. ongoing JIS, no correction Big-5, corr. ongoing JIS, no correction JIS, no correction JIS, OCR, basic corr. JIS, OCR, basic corr. ^^W^^ Acad. sinica -W^'fbW^F/f Zenbunka ^X^bW^F/f Zenbunka W~X\^M1R>Pft Zenbunka MCitmXm Zenbunka BIB#W3riRiz H^ff^w^iiW IRIZ ^|^^^Jf^J0^ IRIZ IsHwfT^Wj^Vi/TT 1K1Z. r^TI^Xiffi'^Jtff ?? aft- idtv mmmmiRJz mmmxmnuz 7bH{/\^4 Hanazono U. HI^#^#f =&#? IRIZ ?blSi/\l4 Hanazono U. ff XYbSf ^0? Zenbunka W%W$%PF( Zenbunka I^X'fb^ff^F/f Zenbunka ?H*^BIRfl^W^ Big-5, corr. ongoing JIS, no correction JIS, no correction JIS, no correction JIS, corrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, OCR, uncorrected CCCII/Big-5/JIS, corr. JlS.n.a. JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS,n.a. JIS, OCR, uncorrected JIS, not corrected JIS, not corrected JIS, first corr. Big-5, first corr. Big-5, first corr. JIS, Big-5, first corr. JIS, Big-5, no corr. JIS, no corr.

Reference Works for Chan Research


ZZ 119 ZZ 120 ZZ126 ZZ135 ZZ 137 ZZ 138 ZZ 142 ZZ142 ZZ148 ZZ148 ZZ148 ZZ148 ZZ148

001 003 003 004 030 020 002 001 002 002 003 002 003 nbunka nbunka nbunka nbunka nbunka Zenbunka nbunka nbunka nbunka

JIS, no corr. JIS, Big-5, first corr. JIS, Big-5, no corr. JIS, corrected JIS, first corr., new punct. JIS, corrected? JIS, not corrected JIS, not corrected JIS, not corrected JIS, not corrected JIS, not corrected JIS, not corrected JIS, not corrected

Last Minute Supplement Just before this issue of the Cahiers went to press, I received the following new and important publication which needs to be added to the bibliography section: Shiina, Ky V&&W&. 1993. Sgenban zenseki no kenkyu 5+:7tJ{$M>#f^. Tky: Dait shuppansha ^^tfjJiSli. This brand-new voluminous book (635 pp. text and 100 pp. indices) is the fruit of over thirty years of meticulous work on the history of specific Chan texts and the filiations of their extant and lost manuscripts. Since many of the most interesting and well-known Chan texts were first printed during the Song or Yuan periods and since the information furnished about these texts is solid, this work is likely to become a constant companion to many Chan researchers. Shiina's detailed tracing of Chan texts through different editions of the Chinese Buddhist canon and his information both about source texts and secondary literature is almost as accessible as a reference work because of the excellent indices (text titles, names of persons, place names, and titles of Japanese and Chinese secondary literature listed by author).