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Appendix table 5-2

Support for academic R&D, by sector: 1972–2003

Federal State/local Academic All other


Year All sources government government Industry institutions sources
Millions of current dollars
1972 2,630 1,795 270 74 305 187
1973 2,884 1,985 295 84 318 202
1974 3,023 2,032 307 96 370 218
1975 3,409 2,288 332 113 417 259
1976 3,729 2,512 364 123 446 285
1977 4,067 2,726 374 139 514 314
1978 4,625 3,059 414 170 623 359
1979 5,366 3,598 472 193 735 368
1980 6,063 4,098 491 236 835 403
1981 6,847 4,571 546 291 1,004 435
1982 7,324 4,768 616 337 1,111 491
1983 7,882 4,989 626 389 1,302 576
1984 8,620 5,431 690 475 1,411 613
1985 9,687 6,064 752 560 1,617 694
1986 10,928 6,712 915 700 1,869 732
1987 12,153 7,343 1,023 790 2,168 828
1988 13,463 8,193 1,106 872 2,356 935
1989 14,977 8,991 1,224 994 2,698 1,071
1990 16,286 9,638 1,324 1,127 3,006 1,191
1991 17,585 10,234 1,474 1,204 3,367 1,307
1992 18,818 11,093 1,491 1,279 3,547 1,409
1993 19,951 11,957 1,559 1,360 3,589 1,486
1994 21,027 12,649 1,554 1,422 3,827 1,574
1995 22,170 13,332 1,689 1,489 4,047 1,613
1996 23,046 13,840 1,811 1,605 4,170 1,619
1997 24,370 14,314 1,909 1,737 4,698 1,712
1998 25,855 15,150 1,944 1,888 5,002 1,870
1999 27,530 16,101 2,021 2,033 5,380 1,994
2000 30,067 17,535 2,200 2,156 5,923 2,254
2001 32,797 19,223 2,321 2,220 6,607 2,426
2002 36,370 21,860 2,506 2,187 7,128 2,689
2003 40,077 24,734 2,653 2,162 7,683 2,845
Millions of constant 2000 dollars
1972 8,854 6,042 907 250 1,026 628
1973 9,297 6,400 950 271 1,026 650
1974 9,088 6,110 923 289 1,112 655
1975 9,283 6,231 903 308 1,137 704
1976 9,472 6,381 924 313 1,132 723
1977 9,611 6,442 884 328 1,215 742
1978 10,239 6,772 917 376 1,379 795
1979 10,995 7,373 967 396 1,506 754
1980 11,421 7,720 925 444 1,574 759
1981 11,748 7,844 936 500 1,722 746
1982 11,761 7,657 990 541 1,784 789
1983 12,122 7,674 963 598 2,002 886
1984 12,787 8,055 1,024 705 2,092 910
1985 13,917 8,712 1,080 804 2,323 997
1986 15,342 9,423 1,285 982 2,624 1,028
1987 16,628 10,047 1,400 1,081 2,967 1,133
1988 17,859 10,868 1,467 1,157 3,125 1,241
1989 19,124 11,480 1,562 1,269 3,445 1,367
1990 20,051 11,866 1,630 1,387 3,701 1,467
1991 20,867 12,144 1,749 1,429 3,995 1,550
1992 21,783 12,840 1,725 1,480 4,106 1,630
1993 22,590 13,538 1,765 1,540 4,064 1,683
1994 23,303 14,018 1,722 1,576 4,242 1,745
1995 24,054 14,464 1,833 1,615 4,391 1,750
1996 24,544 14,740 1,929 1,710 4,442 1,724
1997 25,508 14,983 1,999 1,818 4,917 1,792
1998 26,726 15,661 2,009 1,952 5,171 1,933
1999 28,090 16,429 2,062 2,074 5,490 2,035
2000 30,067 17,535 2,200 2,156 5,923 2,254
2001 32,058 18,790 2,268 2,170 6,458 2,372
2002 34,882 20,965 2,403 2,098 6,836 2,579
2003 37,762 23,305 2,500 2,037 7,240 2,680
Percent distribution
1972 100.0 68.2 10.2 2.8 11.6 7.1
1973 100.0 68.8 10.2 2.9 11.0 7.0
1974 100.0 67.2 10.2 3.2 12.2 7.2
1975 100.0 67.1 9.7 3.3 12.2 7.6
1976 100.0 67.4 9.8 3.3 11.9 7.6
1977 100.0 67.0 9.2 3.4 12.6 7.7
1978 100.0 66.1 9.0 3.7 13.5 7.8
1979 100.0 67.1 8.8 3.6 13.7 6.9
1980 100.0 67.6 8.1 3.9 13.8 6.6
1981 100.0 66.8 8.0 4.3 14.7 6.4
1982 100.0 65.1 8.4 4.6 15.2 6.7
1983 100.0 63.3 7.9 4.9 16.5 7.3
1984 100.0 63.0 8.0 5.5 16.4 7.1
1985 100.0 62.6 7.8 5.8 16.7 7.2
1986 100.0 61.4 8.4 6.4 17.1 6.7
1987 100.0 60.4 8.4 6.5 17.8 6.8
1988 100.0 60.9 8.2 6.5 17.5 6.9
1989 100.0 60.0 8.2 6.6 18.0 7.1
1990 100.0 59.2 8.1 6.9 18.5 7.3
1991 100.0 58.2 8.4 6.8 19.1 7.4
1992 100.0 58.9 7.9 6.8 18.9 7.5
1993 100.0 59.9 7.8 6.8 18.0 7.4
1994 100.0 60.2 7.4 6.8 18.2 7.5
1995 100.0 60.1 7.6 6.7 18.3 7.3
1996 100.0 60.1 7.9 7.0 18.1 7.0
1997 100.0 58.7 7.8 7.1 19.3 7.0
1998 100.0 58.6 7.5 7.3 19.3 7.2
1999 100.0 58.5 7.3 7.4 19.5 7.2
2000 100.0 58.3 7.3 7.2 19.7 7.5
2001 100.0 58.6 7.1 6.8 20.1 7.4
2002 100.0 60.1 6.9 6.0 19.6 7.4
2003 100.0 61.7 6.6 5.4 19.2 7.1

NOTE: See appendix table 4-1 for gross domestic product implicit price deflators used to convert current
dollars to constant 2000 dollars.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research
and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2003 (forthcoming); and Integrated Science and Engineering
Resources Data System (WebCASPAR), http://webcaspar.nsf.gov.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2006