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Giao din v tuyn

Mc Lc
................................................................................................ 1 Giao din v tuyn..................................................................3 1. Gii thiu.............................................................3 2. n nh ph tn s GSM.....................................3 3. K thut a truy cp...........................................4 4. Cc knh giao din v tuyn..............................4 4.1 Cc knh vt l.............................................................4 4.2 Cc knh logic..............................................................6 Knh lu lng..............................................................7 Knh iu khin...............................................................7 4.3 Sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh vt l.................8 RACH...............................................................................9 4.4 Cu trc khung, a khung, siu khung v siu siu khung.................................................................................9 4.5 c im ca sng mang BCCH................................9 Cc khe thi gian TS2 TS7 ca sng mang BCCH v cc khe thi gian khc ca cc sng mang khc trong BTS u dnh cho cc knh lu lng v knh iu khin lin kt chm SACCH tng ng.....................10 5. Th tc Tm gi.................................................10 5.1 Cc loi bn tin tm gi.............................................10 5.2 Truyn bn tin tm gi.............................................10 5.3 Tm gi v thu gin on (DRX)..............................10 6. Sm nh thi....................................................11 Trong mt trm, MS c c ly n BTS l khc nhau. Nn thi gian tr truyn dn ca cc cm t cc MS n BTS s khc nhau, c ch "sm nh thi" l b chnh lnh tr ny. Sau khi cuc ni thit lp, BTS lin tc o s lnh nh thi cc cm pht i t MS so vi nh thi gc chun. Trn c s , BSS quy nh sm nh thi cho cc MS 2 ln/1 giy v thng bo bng SACCH. S sm nh thi c gi tr t 0 n 233 s tng ng vi c ly n MS t 0 n 35km (m ho t 0 63). Mi bc trong gi tr sm nh thi tng ng vi khong cch t MS n BST l 550 m..........................................................11 7. o lng knh giao din v tuyn......................11 7.1 Mc ch.................................................................11 7.2 o lng knh ch Idle........................................11 7.3 o lng knh ch Dedicated.............................12
Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn 8. Cell selection/ reselection...................................13 8.1 Cell selection.............................................................13 8.1.1 Danh sch cc sng mang BCCH khng c lu trong SIM_card..............................................................13 8.1.2 Danh sch cc sng mang BCCH c lu trong SIM_card....................................................................... 14 8.2 Cell Reselection.........................................................15 8.2.1 Nguyn nhn.......................................................15 9. Chuyn giao......................................................16 9.1 Mc ch..................................................................16 9.2 Nguyn nhn chuyn giao.......................................16 9.2.1 Cht lng tn hiu ng ln/ ng xung..........17 9.2.2 Mc tn hiu thu c..........................................17 9.2.3 Nhiu...................................................................17 9.2.4 Qu cng sut.....................................................17 9.2.5 Khong cch........................................................17 9.3 Khi u chuyn giao..............................................17 10. iu khin cng sut........................................18 10.1 iu chnh cng sut thch ng.............................18 10.2. Truyn dn gin on (DTX)..................................18 10.3 Thu gin on (DRX)...............................................19 11 Nhy tn...........................................................19

Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn

Giao din v tuyn


1. Gii thiu Giao din v tuyn l giao din gia trm di ng (MS) v trm thu pht gc (BTS). Tn hiu truyn qua giao din ny ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh: gii tn s c hn, kh quyn, khong cch, cng sut pht, mt thu bao trn mt n v tn s trong mt vng,... s dng hiu qu ti nguyn v tuyn v m bo cht lng thng tin, chng ta s tm hiu cc vn giao din v tuyn. Trong phn ny s nghin cu cc ch sau: n nh ph tn s GSM Phng php truy cp v tuyn Cc knh v khung giao din v tuyn Th tc tm gi Sm nh thi o lng knh giao din v tuyn Cell Selection/Reselection Chuyn giao iu khin cng sut Nhy tn 2. n nh ph tn s GSM GSM s dng phng thc song cng FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing), trong ng ln v ng xung ca mi knh hot ng hai di bng tn s khc nhau: GSM 900 s dng: 890 915 MHz cho ng ln 935 960MHz cho ng xung Khong cch gia cc sng mang l 200kHz. C 124 knh mi ng ln v ng xung, khong cch gia hai sng thu v pht l 45MHz. Tn s sng mang ng xung v ng ln c xc nh nh sau: Tn s ng ln: Fu(n) = 890 + 0.2n (MHz) (1 <= n <= 124) Tn s ng xung: Fd(n) = Fu(n) + 45 (MHz)

Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn GSM 1800 s dng: 1710 1785 cho ng ln 1805 1880 cho ng xung. Khong cch gia cc sng mang l 200kHz, nh GSM 900. C 374 knh mi ng ln v ng xung, khong cch gia hai sng thu v pht l 95MHz. Tn s sng mang ng xung v ng ln c xc nh nh sau: Tn s ng ln: Fu(n) = 1710.2 + 0.2(n- 512) (MHz) Tn s ng xung: Fd(n) = Fu(n) +95 (MHz) 3. K thut a truy cp C ba phng php a truy nhp: a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA), a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA), a truy nhp phn chia theo m( CDMA). Phng php FDMA c s dng ch yu trong thng tin di ng th h th nht, mi MS c dnh ring mt knh vi mt cp tn s truy nhp ti trm BTS. c im: tc truyn thp, kh p dng cc dch v phi thoi, hiu qu s dng tn s thp, c bao nhiu knh trong mt cell th phi c by nhiu my thu - pht, kt cu BTS phc tp. Phng php TDMA c s dng hu ht trong h thng di ng th hai, cc MS s dng chung mt knh tn s nhng ch c thm nhp n trm BTS trong cc khong thi gian khc nhau. c im: d dng m cc dch v phi thoi, tc truyn cao, hiu qu s dng tn s cao hn FDMA. GSM s dng kt hp cc phng php FDMA v TDMA. 4. Cc knh giao din v tuyn GSM nh ngha hai loi knh c bn l:

4.1 Cc knh vt l
Mi sng mang c chia nh thnh 8 Timeslot (TS). Mt khung gm 8 TS. Mi TS c pht 156,25 bit bng vi thi gian ca mt TS l 0.577ms. Mi khung TDMA c lp li trong 4.615 ms. Cc TS c gi l cc knh vt l. 26 Training 1 57 gi Bits 3 8.25 3 57 Data Bits 3 1 NB Thng tin c pht i mt TS c Data l mt cm (burst). C Bits 5 loi cm:
3 3 39 Data Bits 3 142 fixed bits 64 Training Bits Sync Sequence 26 Training Bits 36 Data Bits
3

3 39 Data Bits 3 3 68.25

8.25 8.25 8.25

FB SB DB AB

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48 Training Bits 3

Giao din v tuyn

Cm bnh thng (NB): c s dng mang thng tin v cc knh lu lng v cc knh iu khin, tr cc knh RACH, SCH, FCCH. Khi d liu: gm hai khi 57 bit mang thng tin thoi/d liu. Bit ly cp: cho bit cm c b ly cp cho bo hiu FCCH hay khng. Chui hng dn: gm 26 bit c t gia phn nh knh. Bit ui: gm hai khi 3 bt c gi tr bng 0,0,0. Khong bo v: 8.25 bit. S d cn khong bo v v mi mt sng mang c th c s dng cho 8 MS khc nhau, do cn khong bo v m bo thi gian truyn tin trong cc TS khng b chng ln nhau BTS do chnh lnh v khong cch ti MS v do s lnh ng b. Nu ng b hon ho th GP bng 0, nhng khng th t c iu ny do s di chuyn ca MS, nn nht thit cn phi c GP. Cm hiu chnh tn s (FB): c s dng ng b tn s cho MS. Khi cm ny c truyn, n tng ng nh mt sng mang khng b iu ch vi mt dch tn xc nh. S lp li ca cm ny c gi l knh FCCH. Cc MS khi thu knh FCCH s thu c sng mang khng b iu ch v dng n nh tn hiu (quy chiu) iu chnh sng mang ca mnh. Cc bit c nh c gi tr bng 0, v th b iu ch s cho ra mt sng mang khng b iu ch. Cc bit ui v khong bo v nh cm bnh thng. Cm ng b (SB): c s dng ng b thi gian cho MS.

Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn Cc bit d liu gm hai khi 39 bit mang thng tin v v s khung TDMA v BSIC. Chui hng dn: gm 64 bit ng b thi gian gia MS v BTS. Cc bit ui v khong bo v ging nh cm bnh thng. Cm thm nhp (AB): c s dng thm nhp ngu nhin v thm nhp chuyn giao. Khi d liu: gm 36 bit. Thng tin gi trn RACH gm 8 bit. Trong 8 bit ny, 6 bit dnh cho BSIC v mt vi thng tin khc (2 bit), c m ha chng nhiu thnh 36 bit. Khong bo v: gm 68.25 bit phc v vic truyn cm truy cp t MS do khng bit trc thi gian sm nh thi (timing advance) ti ln truy cp u tin ( hay sau chuyn giao). Khi MS xa BTS, c ngha l cm truy cp ny ti BTS s chm, trnh gy nhiu sang TS khc trn cng mt sng mang th GP ca cm ny phi ln hn GP ca cc cm khc. Bn knh ln nht ca mt cell l 35km, thi gian i-v ca mt tn hiu v tuyn MS t ra ca cell n BTS v ngc li s l 0.233ms. Chnh lnh thi gian ti BTS ca cc tn hiu t hai MS ang lm vic trn hai khe thi gian cnh nhau, cng mt sng mang khi mt MS nm ra cell v mt MS nm ngay ti BTS s l 0.233ms. trnh chng thng tin ln nhau gy can nhiu th GP trong cm truy cp c xc nh bng 68.25bit = 0.252ms. Cc bt ui : gm mt khi 3 bit v mt khi 8 bit.
Co Control ntr ffic Cm gi (DB): Cm gi c pht i t BTS trong mt s trng ol
Traffi Tra c TCH hp. Cm khng mang thng tin. BCH

CCCH

DCCH

4.2 Cc knhF logic TCH/


TT TCH/H TC H/ H

FCCH

ttt Gm hai loi: knh lu lng v knh iu khin. RACH


SCH BCCH AGCH CBCH NCH

PCH

SDCCH

SACCH

FACCH

Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn

Knh lu lng - Mt knh vt l ( 1TS ) c th c n nh l TCH/F (Full rate) hoc TCH/H (Half rate). - TCH/H: 13kb/s cho thoi, 9.6kb/s cho d liu - TCH/F: 6.5kb/s cho thoi, 4.8kb/s cho d liu

Knh iu khin
- Knh iu khin chung BCH l knh ng xung v c n nh TS0. Knh BCH gm: FCCH: mang thng tin hiu chnh tn s cho MS. SCH: cha Frame Number (FN) v m nhn dng trm gc (BSIC) BCCH: c s dng ch yu ng xung bo cho MS v cu hnh mng v tuyn (thng tin lin quan n mng nh thng s ca cell, cc bn tin iu khin, m vng nh v,...), do BCCH l knh chun v c duy tr vi mc nhiu thp nht. - Knh iu khin chung CCCH RACH: MS gi yu cu ti nguyn t mng (yu cu knh SDCCH khi to cuc gi) AGCH: c s dng ng xung bo cho MS khi knh SDCCH c n nh cho MS PCH: c s dng ng xung tm gi MS CBCH: c s dng ng xung pht qung b mt bn tin SMS.
Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn NCH: s dng cho ng xung thit lp dch v thoi cho Phase 2 nh Voice Broadcast (VBS) v Voice Group Calling (VGCS). - Knh iu khin ring DCCH SDCCH: c s dng c ng ln v ng xung. ng ln c s dng gi bn tin cp nht v tr, bn tin yu cu dch v, bn tin thit lp cuc gi v bn tin SMS. ng xung c s dng n nh knh lu lng, gi bn tin thit lp cuc gi v SMS. SACCH: hot ng ch Doted v s dng ng ln v ng xung. ng ln c dng gi cc kt qu o lng cc BTS ln cn, BTS ang phc v n. ng xung mang thng tin sm nh thi v lnh iu khin cng sut. FACCH: l knh lin kt vi knh TCH. FACCH lm vic ch ly cp bng cch lm thay i lu lng ting hay s liu bng bo hiu. Trong trng hp, chuyn giao cc bn tin bo hiu c gi trn FACCH.

4.3 Sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh vt l


V mt thi gian cc knh vt l mt knh tn s c t chc theo cu trc khung, a khung, siu a khung v siu siu khung.Cc khung TDMA c nh s FN (Frame Number) trong siu siu khung t 0 n 2715647. Mt siu siu khung c chia thnh 2048 siu khung. Mi siu khung c chia thnh cc a khung. C hai loi a khung: - a khung lu lng: a khung 26 khung (51 siu khung trn mt siu siu khung) c lu 120ms v cha 26 khung. - a khung iu khin: a khung 51 khung (26 siu khung trn mt siu siu khung) c lu 235,4ms v cha 51 khung. a khung lu lng: gm 26 TS, sp xp cc knh logic TCH, SACCH, FACCH, c cu trc nh sau: T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T I T = TCH, S = SACCH, I = Idle.

Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn Khe thi gian I c dng c BSIC ca cc BTS ln cn, phc v qu trnh bo co kt qu o lng . Khe thi gian S gi thng tin v kt qu o gia MS v BTS. FACCH khng c n nh trong a khung, n ly cp Timeslot TCH khi c yu cu bng cch dng c ly cp trong Normal Burst. a khung iu khin TS 0 ca knh iu khin c tp hp thnh cu trc gm 51 TS. Cu trc ca a khung iu khin nh sau: ng xung: F S 4 B ng ln:
RACH

4 C

F S 4 C

4 C

F S 4 C

4 C

F S 4 C

4 C

F S 4 C

4 C

4.4 Cu trc khung, a khung, siu khung v siu siu khung


1 TS = 1 frame = 8 TS =4.615 ms Multirame 0.577 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 =26 TCH Frames (120ms) or = 51 BCCH Frames(235ms) =26 BCCH Frames (6.12s) or = 51 TCH Frames(6.12s) 2048

Superframe

Hyperfram e

Superfr ames 3h28min53.76 s

4.5 c im ca sng mang BCCH


Mi BTS ch s dng mt sng mang cho knh iu khin, sng mang ny c gi l sng mang BCCH. BCCH l sng mang quan trng ca GSM, n phi c pht lin tc pht thng tin v cu hnh mng phc v vic truy cp ngu
Trung tm in thoi Di ng

Giao din v tuyn nhin ca MS v vic o cng tn hiu cc trm BTS ln cn. Khe thi gian TS 0 ca sng mang BCCH, ng xung dnh cho knh iu khin FCCH, SCH, CCCH; ng ln dnh cho knh truy cp ngu nhin RACH. Khe thi gian TS1 ca sng mang BCCH thng dnh cho knh iu khin dnh ring SDCCH v knh iu khin lin kt chp SACCH. ng ln ca knh ny trt chm so vi ng xung 3TS. Cc khe thi gian TS2 TS7 ca sng mang BCCH v cc khe thi gian khc ca cc sng mang khc trong BTS u dnh cho cc knh lu lng v knh iu khin lin kt chm SACCH tng ng. 5. Th tc Tm gi Tm gi l th tc nhn dng v tr cell hin ti ca MS nh tuyn cuc gi ti MS.

5.1 Cc loi bn tin tm gi


Bn tin tm gi c pht trn knh PCH. C ba loi bn tin tm gi: - Loi 1: c th tm gi 2 MS s dng hoc IMSI hoc TMSI. - Loi 2: c th tm gi 3 MS, 1 MS dng IMSI v 2 MS dng TMSI - Loi 3: c th tm gi 4 MS ch dng TMSI.

5.2 Truyn bn tin tm gi


TMSI l do nh cung cp n nh, n c kch thc gm 4 octets. Yu cu tm gi cho mi MS c gi t MSC ti BSS. gim ti trn knh bo hiu, BSS s lu cc yu cu mt cc tm thi cho ti khi c 1, 2 hoc 3 bn tin hoc cho ti khi b ghi thi gian (do nh cung cp t) kt thc. Ni dung ca bn tin tm gi c gi trn knh PCH.

5.3 Tm gi v thu gin on (DRX)


tit kim ngun c th p dng chc nng thu gin on. Trong trng hp ny, MS c n nh mt khi tm gi CCCH ring (trong nhm tm gi) v n c yu cu ch nghe trn khi tm gi ny thay v phi nghe trn c nhm CCCH trong

Trung tm in thoi Di ng

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Giao din v tuyn a khung iu khin. MS ch phi thu v gii m bn tin tm gi trong khi tm gi ca n. 6. Sm nh thi Trong mt trm, MS c c ly n BTS l khc nhau. Nn thi gian tr truyn dn ca cc cm t cc MS n BTS s khc nhau, c ch "sm nh thi" l b chnh lnh tr ny. Sau khi cuc ni thit lp, BTS lin tc o s lnh nh thi cc cm pht i t MS so vi nh thi gc chun. Trn c s , BSS quy nh sm nh thi cho cc MS 2 ln/1 giy v thng bo bng SACCH. S sm nh thi c gi tr t 0 n 233 s tng ng vi c ly n MS t 0 n 35km (m ho t 0 63). Mi bc trong gi tr sm nh thi tng ng vi khong cch t MS n BST l 550 m. 7. o lng knh giao din v tuyn

7.1 Mc ch
o lng knh phi c thc hin c hai ch Idle v Dedicated. Cc kt qu o ny l tiu chun quyt nh: - ch Idle: cell selection/ reselection - ch tch cc: chuyn giao/ duy tr cuc gi/ iu khin cng sut Khi MS ch Idle di chuyn trong mng, vic la chn cell tip theo di chuyn da trn cng tn hiu trong bn tin o lng t tt c cc cell ln cn. Khi MS ch tch cc, MS phi tip tc o mc cng sut ca cc cell ln cn, mc tn hiu v cht lng tn hiu ca sng mang BCCH v knh lu lng c n nh cell ang phc v n. ch tch cc, BSC a ra quyt nh chuyn giao da trn bo co o lng t MS. 7.2 o lng knh ch Idle - Neighbouring cell MS qut tt c cc sng mang c trong danh sch BCCH v tm ra 6 sng mang mnh nht.

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Giao din v tuyn Sau tnh mc tn hiu trung bnh trong 5 giy v lu trong thng s RxLev(n). MS phi gii m sng mang BCCH ca 6 sng mang mnh nht trong 30 giy. - Serving cell o lng c thc hin trong sut thi gian n nh khi tm gi Kt qu o c tnh trung bnh trong thi gian ca 5 khi tm gi lin tip hoc trong 5 giy. 7.3 o lng knh ch Dedicated - Neighbouring cell Mc tn hiu thu sng mang BCCH c lu trong thng s Rx_Lev(n). - Serving cell Mc tn hiu thu sng mang BCCH c lu trong thng s Rx_Lev_Full. Cht lng tn hiu thu c sng mang BCCH c lu trong thng s Rx_Qual_Full. Mc tn hiu thu Idle TCH c lu trong thng s Rx_Lev_Sub. Cht lng tn hiu thu Idle TCH c lu trong thng s Rx_Qual_Sub. - MS gi bn tin bo co o lng v BSC trn SACCH theo chu k 4 a khung TCH. - BSC o cng tn hiu v cht lng tn hiu ca MS ng ln Rx_Lev v Rx_Qual. Cc mc o lng RxLev v RxQual ch Idle, qu trnh o v bo co kt qu o ch do MS thc hin. ch dedicated, MS v BTS ln lt o RxLev, ng ln v ng xung, RxLev c gi tr trong khong 110dBm ti 48dBm.

Received Signal Level RXLEV_0 RELEV_1 RXLEV_2

From

To -110 dBm -109 dBm

-110 dBm


RXLEV_62 Trung tm in thoi Di ng RXLEV_63


-49 dBm -48 dBm


-48 dBm

12

Giao din v tuyn

RxQual c MS v BTS o ch Dedicated ln lt ng ln v ng xung. RxQual l % t s li bt c gi tr t 0.2 n 12.8 v c chia thnh 8 mc nh sau:
Level RXQUAL_0 REQUAL_1 RXQUAL_2 RXQUAL_3 RXQUAL_4 RXQUAL_5 RXQUAL_6 RXQUAL_7 From To 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.6% 3.2% 6.4% 12.8%

0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.6% 3.2% 6.4% 12.8%

Cc thng s ny chnh l cc gi tr ngng phc v cho qu trnh chuyn giao. 8. Cell selection/ reselection

8.1 Cell selection


Cell selection c thc hin khi MS ang bt my. C hai phng php la chn cell ph hp vi 'camping-on', s dng thng s C1. 8.1.1 Danh sch cc sng mang BCCH khng c lu trong SIM_card Ln u bt my, MS qut tt c cc tn s GSM, tnh cng trung bnh cho cc tn s v bt u vi tn s mnh nht, kim tra xem c phi sng mang BCCH hay khng, thng qua vic tm burst FCCH. Sau khi tm c burst FCCH trn sng mang ph hp, n ng b vi s khung TDMA bng cch s dng FN v BSIC t knh SCH. Sau tin hnh: - c thng tin ca mng trn BCCH - Nghe cc khi tm gi dnh cho n - Gim st cc sng mang BCCH ca cc cell ln cn chun b cho vic la chn li cell (cell reselection).
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Giao din v tuyn Th tc la chn cell - MS bt my. - MS bt u o mc cng sut thu c ca sng mang BCCH ca cc cell. - MS tnh mc cng sut trung bnh thu c cho mi cell v lu vo thng s RxLev(n). - MS tnh thng s C1 cho mi sng mang o c da trn thng s RxLev(n). - MS so snh cc cell c gi tr C1 > 0 trong 6 cell v camps-on ti cell c gi tr C1 ln nht. 8.1.2 Danh sch cc sng mang BCCH c lu trong SIM_card Khi bt my, MS qut tt c cc sng mang BCCH trong BA list (danh sch cc sng mang BCCH s dng trong mt vng a l) ca n thay v phi qut tt c tn s ca GSM. Khi tm c sng mang BCCH ph hp, MS s camp-on trong cell v thc hin cc th tc miu t trn. Tiu chun la chn cell C1 C1(n) = (RXLEV(n) RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN) max (0,(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P))) Trong : RXLEV(n): Gi tr mc thu trung bnh current cell v neighbouring cell RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN (-98dBm to 106dBm): mc cng sut thu ti thiu MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH (31dBm to 39dBm): mc cng sut cc i cho php pht trn RACH trc khi c lnh sm nh thi. P: cng sut pht cc i ca MS . La chn li cell t c bng cch so snh C1 ca cell hin thi vi C1 ca cell ln cn. - Gia hai cell trong cng LA: C1(new) > C1(old) ( for more than 5 second) - Gia hai cell bin ca LA:
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Giao din v tuyn C1(new) > C1(old) + OFFSET (for more than 5 second) Da trn kt qu tnh ton ny, MS s chn cell tt nht kt ni.

8.2 Cell Reselection


8.2.1 Nguyn nhn Khi ang camp-on trong cell phc v, la chn li cell c kch hot bi bt k cc nguyn nhn no trong cc nguyn nhn di y: - Thng s suy hao ng truyn C1 ch ra rng suy hao ng truyn trong cell qu ln. - C li bo hiu ng xung. - Cell camp-on b chn. - C cell tt hn (da trn thng s C2) trong cng LA hoc LA khc. Sau MS s chn li cell mi. Tiu chun la chn li cell C2 - ngn chn chuyn giao lin tip khi MS di chuyn nhanh. - m bo cho mi MS camps-on trong cell c th trao i thng tin tt nht. Thng s C2 c tnh nh sau:
C2 = C1 + OFFSET TEMPORARY_OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME T))

Nu Penalty_Time <> 1111 th


C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET -TEMPORARY_OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME T))

Nu Penalty_Time = 1111 th
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET

Vi: 0 vi x < 0 H(x) = 1 vi x >= 0


Trung tm in thoi Di ng

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Giao din v tuyn Trong : Cell_Reselection_offset: l thng s tu chn c th dng hoc m, p dng cho mi cell khuyn khch hoc khng khuyn khch MS chn li cell ny. Theo ti liu, ca Nokia Cell_Reselection_offset c gi tr t 0126 dB. Penalty_Time: l thi gian m cell ang cn trong danh sch cc cell c sng mang mnh nht, thi gian ny do nh khai thc t. Theo Nokia, Penalty_Time c gi tr t 20 640s. Khi MS trong cell ny, n bt u khi ng b m thi gian (T) n di chuyn qua cell. Nu thi gian T > Penalty_Time th khng nn chuyn giao sang cell ny. Tempoary_offset: miu t cng trng gim nh th no trong thi gian Penalty_Time, theo Nokia Tempoary_offset c gi tr t 070dB 9. Chuyn giao Chuyn giao c nh ngha l s thay i knh v tuyn hin thi ti knh v tuyn khc trong sut thi gian tn ti v kch hot kt ni gia MS v BTS.

9.1 Mc ch
Chuyn giao trong BSC lin quan ch mt BSC. duy tr dung lng bo hiu, loi chuyn giao ny c qun l bi BSC khng lin quan n MSC, tr vic thng bo cho MSC v chuyn giao thnh cng. Chuyn giao gia hai BSC (hoc intra hoc inter MSC) c iu khin bi MSC lin quan.

9.2 Nguyn nhn chuyn giao


C mt s l do gy ra chuyn giao trong GSM, chng c gi l cc loi chuyn giao. Mi loi chuyn giao c khi u khi cc thng s c trng vt gi tr ngng. Cc loi chuyn giao: - Chuyn giao c th c kch hot bi MS hoc MSC - Quyt nh chuyn giao da trn cc thng s sau: Cht lng tn hiu ng ln/ ng xung
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Giao din v tuyn Mc tn hiu ng ln/ ng xung Nhiu Qu cng sut Khong cch t MS n BTS - Mi thng s c nh khai thc xc nh trc mt gi tr ngng - Quyt nh chuyn giao c th da trn mt hay kt hp cc thng s. Ti liu ny ch nghin cu chuyn giao kha cnh v tuyn, cc qu trnh bo hiu c th khng xt ay. 9.2.1 Cht lng tn hiu ng ln/ ng xung Nu cht lng tn hiu o c trn knh hin thi gim di gi tr ngng xc nh trc th loi chuyn giao do cht lng tn hiu s c kch hot.Trng hp ny thng do s tc ng ca nhiu trn knh v tuyn l cao. 9.2.2 Mc tn hiu thu c Nu cng (mc) tn hiu o c trn cell hin thi gim di gi tr ngng xc nh trc th loi chuyn giao do cng tn hiu s c kch hot. 9.2.3 Nhiu Nhiu t bn ngoi tc ng ln cell ang phc v v MS c th kch hot chuyn giao n cell c cht lng tt hn cell ang phc v. 9.2.4 Qu cng sut Chuyn giao do qu cng sut xy ra khi cng tn hiu ca cell phc v vt qu ngng qu cng sut ti thiu. 9.2.5 Khong cch Chuyn giao do khong cch c khi u bi k thut nh thi sm (Timing Advance TA) b cho tr truyn dn.

9.3 Khi u chuyn giao


Trong ch Dedicate, MS lin tc gim st cht lng tn hiu thu (BER) v cng tn hiu (dBm) ca knh lu lng c n nh trn BTS ang phc v. N cng gim st cng tn hiu ca cc cell ln cn. Sau bo co kt qu ny cho BTS ang phc v n theo chu k.
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Giao din v tuyn C BTS v MS so snh kt qu o lng vi gi tr ngng c lu trong c s d liu, nu c gi tr no vt ngng th chuyn giao c kch hot. 10. iu khin cng sut - Hn ch vic pht cng sut khng cn thit : Tng tui th ca ngun Gim nhiu - Cn bng mc cng sut thu ti BTS - Hiu chnh vng ph ca cell - Gm: iu chnh cng sut thch ng Truyn dn gin on Thu gin on

10.1 iu chnh cng sut thch ng


iu chnh cng sut thch ng dng cc tiu ho cng sut yu cu bi MS hoc BTS trong khi vn duy tr cht lng ng v tuyn. Bng cch gim mc cng sut pht, nhiu ng knh cng gim. Ngoi ra, bng cch iu khin cng sut pht ca thit b di ng, cng sut tiu th c th gim v do tng tui th ca pin. iu chnh cng sut thch ng cng bc cho tt c MS b cho hiu ng 'xa- gn'. iu chnh cng sut ca BTS l tu chn. Sng mang BCCH vn phi c duy tr mc cng sut khng i o lng cng sut ca cell ln cn. iu khin cng sut ca MS Cng sut pht ca MS c iu khin thnh cc mc, mi mc l 2dBm. MS o mc tn hiu thu c RxLEv v bo co kt qu ny cho BTS BTS chuyn n BSC. MS cng gim st cng sut ca cell ln cn nhng ch sng mang BCCH ca cc cell ny. BTS gi lnh thay i mc cng sut ti MS trn SACCH.

10.2. Truyn dn gin on (DTX)

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Giao din v tuyn Trong ch thoi, hai ngi ni chuyn lun phin nhau, v vy mi pha ch chim truyn dn 50%. DTX cho php ch bt my pht cho cc khung cha thng tin c ch. DTX c thc hin cc b iu khin DTX, gm cc chc nng sau: - B pht hin tch cc thoi VAD (Voice Activity Detector) pha pht. - nh gi tp m nn pha pht gi cc thng s c trng n pha thu. - To tp m d chu pha thu khi ngng pht. VAD xc nh cc khi 20ms t b m ho ting c cha ting hay khng. Nu VAD pht hin khng c ting MS (hoc BTS) s pht i cc thng s tp m d chu dng khung SID (Silence Descriptor Flag). ng xung, thng bo l khung c phi l khung ting hay khng, c ting (SF Speech Flag) c gi t BSC n BTS.

10.3 Thu gin on (DRX)


- Cho php MS gim phn cng sut pht trong ch idle - MS trong mt vng nh v c chia thnh cc nhm tm gi - MS ch cn nghe yu cu tm gi trong nhm tm gi ca n v v vy ko di thi gian sng ca pin. 11 Nhy tn Truyn dn a ng v fading a ng ph thuc vo tn s. m bo cht lng tn hiu ca cc knh truyn l nh nhau, ngi ta a ra khi nim nhy tn. Nhy tn l thay i tn s sng mang trong sut qu trnh kt ni. Nhy tn trong GSM l nhy tn chm, c ngha l MS pht trn mt tn s trong thi TS ginh cho n, sau nhy n tn s khc pht trn cng TS . Tc nhy tn l 217 ln/ giy (1/4,616 = 217). Cc tn s pht v thu lun lun song cng ( cch nhau 45MHz), ngha l ng v ln ng xung s dng cng mt chui nhy tn. Chui nhy tn c MS tnh ton trn cc thng s nhn c t BTS mi khi thay i knh nh sau: - n nh cell (CA: Cell Allocation): danh sch cc knh v tuyn ri trong cell
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Giao din v tuyn - n nh di ng ( MA: Mobile Allocation): danh sch cc cell dnh cho MS nhy tn. MA l tp con ca CA; trng hp khng nhy tn danh sch ny ch c mt tn s. - Ch s dch tn s di ng (MAIO): 6 bit s liu c trng cho nhy tn i vi MS. Tt c cc knh v tuyn u c th nhy tn (TCH/SACCH/FACCH, SDCCH/SACCH), tr BCCH, SCH, FCCH. C hai liu nhy tn l nhy tn bng gc (Baseband Hopping) v nhy tn tng hp ( Synthesizer Hopping). - Baseband Hopping Khi Baseband Hopping s dng trong cell, tt c cc Timeslot u nhy tn tr Timeslot BCCH. S chui nhy tn HSN1 (TS0) c gi tr 0... 63; ( 0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom), HSN2 (TS 1..7) c gi tr 0 ...63; (0 = cyclic, 1...63 = pseudorandom).

RTSL

TRX1

0 B

7
f1

TRX2 f2

TRX3 TRX4

f3

f4

TS0 ca TRX 2-3-4 nhy tn trn MA(f2,f3,f4). Nhm nhy tn s dng HSN1

TS 1..7 ca tt c TRX nhy tn trn MA ( f1,f2,f3,f4). Nhm nhy tn s dng HSN2

- Synthesizer Hopping Khi Synthesizer Hopping s dng trong cell, ch c cc Timeslot trn cc TRX khng cha BCCH nhy tn. Loi ny ch c mt nhm nhy tn duy nht l HSN1.
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Giao din v tuyn


TRX 1

TRX khng nhy tn

TRX 2

TRX khng cha BCCH nhy tn trn MA (f1,...,fn)

TRX 3

Mc ch chnh ca nhy tn l m bo s phn tp tn s ( fading Reilay) v phn tp nhiu, nhy tn cng lm gim nh hng ca nhiu ng knh, v vy ci thin cht lng v dung lng trong mng di ng; tuy nhin, n cn tng vng ph ca cell. Phn tp v tn s: Nhy tn gim nh hng ca fading nhiu tia, v fading nhiu tia gy ra cc ch trng fading m cc ch trng fading i vi hai tn s khc nhau l khc nhau s thay i tn s tn hiu v tuyn khi cuc gi ang tin hnh lm cho khng th mt nhiu bit tin. Phn tp v nhiu: Nhiu th tu thuc vo thi gian, tn s v v tr ca my di ng. Vi vic s dng nhy tn th nhiu trn mt tn s s tri ra cho nhiu MS, dn n trung bnh ho t s tn hiu trn nhiu C/I m bo t s ny ln hn mc ngng. Nhy trn nhiu tn s th t c gi tr trung bnh nhiu v phn tp tn s tt hn so vi nhy trn t tn s.

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Giao din v tuyn

Ti liu tham kho


1. Thng tin di ng V c Th- NXB Bu in 1999 2. GSM Technology for Engineering Aircom International

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