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TUDESETARTICLES NicolaeURSULESCU,FelixAdrianTENCARIU, Sur le contexte de dcouverte de la plastique anthropomorphe prcucutenienne.LecasdelhabitatdeIsaiia(dp.deIai) Sergiu Constantin ENEA, Some observations on the NeolithicandAeneolithicornamentsintheRomanianarea Ioan IGNAT, Une hachemarteau naviforme en pierre dcouverteReciaVerbia(com.deDimcheni,dp.deBotoani) Ion MARE, Attila LSZL, Bogdan NICULIC, Mircea IGNAT, La plastique zoomorphe et anthropomorhe de lhabitathallstattienanciendeSiret(dp.deSuceava) Iulian MOGA, Le matre dAxiotta, un dieu universel. Polymorphismeetpolyonymie Valentin PIFTOR, Lesprance de vie et la structure dge delapopulationfminineenMsieInfrieure(IerIIIes.ap.J.C.) Lucreiu MIHAILESCUBRLIBA, Lorigine des augustauxetdeleursfamillesenDacieromaine Exhlale DOBRUNASALIHU, Some aspects of Illyrian lifeinDacia Dorel PARASCHIV, Constantin BJENARU, Nouvelles amphores nordafricaines, hispaniques et italiques dcouvertesTomis Adrian PORUCIUC, Historical implications of the romaniantermbanasanoldgermanism COMPTESRENDUS Yanis PIKOULAS (d.), Inscriptions and history of Thessaly: new evidence. Proceedings of the International Symposium in honour of professor Christian Habicht, Volos 2006(L.MIHAILESCUBRLIBA) ..3 25 61 .81 ..113 ..135 ..147 ..157 ..169 ..181

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.224 .225 .227 .228 233 mscara. Arqueologa y etnicidad en el sur de Puebla, InstitutoNacionaldeAntropologaeHistoria.Coleccin cientfica,SerieArqueologa,Mxico,D.F.,2006 236 (MariusALEXIANU) CHRONIQUE RoxanaGabriela CURC, Lucreiu MIHAILESCU BRLIBA,LactivitscientifiquedelaChairedHistoireAncienneet 239 dArchologie(20062007) 264 VictorSPINEI,StagededocumentationBonn(2008) ABRVIATIONS 271

Corpus der rmischen Rechtsquellen zur antiken Sklaverei (CRRS), herausgegeben von Tiziana J. Chiusi, JohannaFilip Frschl, J. Michaeil Rainer, Teil VI. Stellung der Sklaven im Sakralrecht, bearbeitet von Leonhard Schumacher, Franz SteinerVerlag,Stuttgart2006(L.MIHAILESCUBRLIBA) Studiahistoriaeetreligionisdacoromanae.InhonoremSilvii Sanie, ediderunt Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba, Octavian Bounegru, Editura Academiei Romne, Bucarest 2006 (ValentinPIFTOR) Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba, Individu et socit en Dacie romaine. tude de dmographie historique, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden2004(ValentinPIFTOR) D. Benea (ed.), Meteuguri i artizani n Dacia roman / Crafts and artisans in Roman Dacia, Bibliotheca Historica et Archaeologica Universitatis Timisiensis VIII, Timioara 2007 (GeorgeNUU) Norman A. Doenges, Pollentia. A Roman Colony on the Island of Mallorca, BAR International Series 1404, Oxford 2005 (GeorgeNUU) Blas Romn Castelln Huerta, Cuth: el cerro de la

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai SURLECONTEXTEDEDCOUVERTEDELAPLASTIQUE ANTHROPOMORPHEPRCUCUTENIENNE.LECASDELHABITAT DEISAIIA(DP.DEIAI)

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Key words: Ancient Aeneolithic, Romania, Precucuteni Culture, AnthropomorphicFigurines,ArchaeologicalTopography. Rsum.Lesauteursanalysentquelquesaspectsdelaplastiqueanthropomorphetrouve Isaiia (dp. de Iai) et concluent que le caractre utilitaire initial de cette plastique pouvaitdisparatre,maislecaractresacrrestait. Abstract. The authors analyse some aspects of the anthropomorphic statuettes in Isaiia (Iai county) and conclude that the initial utilitary character of that type of plastique coulddissapear,butthesacredcharacterremains. Rezumat. Autorii analizeaz cteva aspecte ale plasticii antropomorfe de la Isaiia (jud. Iai), concluzionnd c un caracter utilitar iniial al acestei plastici poate disprea, nu nsicaracteruleisacru.

Le site de IsaiiaBalta Popii est devenu connu surtout grce la dcouverte de quelques complexes de culte appartenant lhabitat nolithique du type Prcucuteni de cet endroit, encadr dans la deuximephasedecetteculture.Pourtant,pendantlesfouilles(initiesen 1996) des vestiges dautres priodes (la culture de la cramique rubane, Bronzeancien,Hallstattancien,Sarmates,HautMoyengeetlapriode moderne)onttaussisignals.Larcenteapparitiondelamonographie sur le plus important trsor dobjets de culte y trouv (URSULESCU, TENCARIU 2006) monographie o on fait aussi des prcisions sur lensembledesdcouvertesdecettestationnousdispenseprsenterde nouveaudesdonnesgnralessurlhabitatprcucuteniennedeIsaiia;en change,nousnouspouvonsconcentrersurleproblmenonc. Lanalyse des conditions de dcouverte de la plastique anthropomorphe reprsente un problme qui mrite toute lattention

NICOLAE URSULESCU, FELIX-ADRIAN TENCARIU

(BNFFY 19901991, 183249). Ltude pertinente du Dan Monah sur la plastique anthropomorphe cucutenienne a attir aussi lattention, parmi dautres, sur la signification et limportance de la description, le plus exactepossible, du contextede dcouvertede la plastique et,engnral, descomplexesdeculte,afindecomprendrelerlejoudecespiesdans laviedescommunautsdautrefois(MONAH1997,2950).Laconclusion deltudetaitquelesstatuettesapparaissentsurtoutdescontextesnon rituelset,plusrarement,dansdescontextesrituels(MONAH1997,3031) et, dautre part leur distribution dans le cadre des agglomrations est alatoire, en existant des diffrences dune station lautre (MONAH 1997,29). Parsuitedelenregistrementattentifdesconditionsdedcouverte delagrandepartiedesstatuettespendantlesfouillesdeIsaiia,nousnous avons propos raliser cette tude de topographie archologique, afin dtablirquiestlasituationconcrtedanscettestationetenquellemesure les rsultats dici correspondent ou non avec les analyses effectues auparavant en dautres agglomrations. On essaye ainsi saisir le comportement des habitants prcucuteniens de Isaiia visvis de ces objetsdeculte,parunecorrlationdesrsultatsdelanalyseaveclesdates djexistantessurlaviespirituelleetsocialedecettecommunaut. Lanalyse tien compte de quelques exigences mthodologiques, parmi laquelle la plus importante semble tre ltat de conservation des pices. Il est bien connu que, dhabitude, la plus grande partie des statuettes sont, dans le moment de la trouvaille, en tat fragmentaire et seulementtrspeuxsontentiresoupresquecompltes.Lafragmentation est considre par certains spcialistes comme un rsultat dune action rituelle,dedestructionintentionnelledelastatuette,quandonconsidrait que la respective figurine a accompli son rle destin au cadre dune crmonie (CHAPMAN 2000; GHEORGHIU 2005, p. 137144.). Son enterrement (dposition) dans un quelque contexte peut tre regard en tantquunoffrandeddielaGrandeDessedelaTerre,laquelleat aussi, probablement, consacre la crmonie. On rencontre trs rare des

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situationsolespartiesrompuesdelastatuetteonttlaissesensemble 1 . De rgle, les parties fragmentes sont en lieux diffrents (GAYDARSKA, CHAPMAN, ANGELOVA 2005), par suite de la mthode de fragmentation par le coup (GHEORGHIU 2005, 142). De mme, nous ne pouvons exclure ni le cassage accidentel dune statuette, soit par une manipulationinattentive,soitparunaccident,ycomprisdanslemoment deladestructiondelagglomrationosetrouvaitlapice.Ladeuxime situation pourrait expliquer, ventuellement, la prsence de quelques statuettes entre les restes des habitations incendies. Nous tenons en compte sous le terme de statuettes entires les pices qui ont conserv toutes les parties anatomiques du corps, mme sil y a quelques brchements, qui se peuvent expliquer par la manipulation rpte ou pardesdtriorationsprovoquesparlactiondusol. Dans lhabitat de Isaiia on a fouill, en tout, 11 habitations et 64 fosses, dont huit constructions et 47 fosses ont appartenu lhabitat Prcucuteni(fig.1).Danslasurfacefouillejusquprsent(environ1200 m2)(URSULESCU,TENCARIU2006,24)onatrouv59destatuettes,dont 26 entires et 33 fragmentaires. Lune tait en os (une idole du type en violon,presquecomplte,trouvedanslafosseno.16:fig.7/2),lesautres tant en argile. Des 59 de statuettes, deux ont t des trouvailles accidentelles,sansstratigraphie(fig.10/45)ettrois(fig.10/13)ontapparu en couche, en apparence en dehors de quelques structures dhabitat. On observe que toutes les cinque pices trouves en dehors des complexes taientfragmentaires,lunereprsentantlazonesuprieureducorps,avec la tte (fig. 10/4) et les autres quatre seulement le corps. Le reste de 54 statuettes ont t trouves soit en habitations (40: fig. 26), soit en fosses (14:fig.79). Des huit constructions prcucuteniennes, des statuettes on a trouv en six, en manquant seulement dans les deux constructions interprtesentantquannexesutilitaires(habitationsnos.9et11),cequil suggre que la prsence des statuettes tait en relation avec des espaces habits en permanence, tant le rsultat de quelques coutumes sociales
1 Voir le cas de lidole androgyne trouve ltre de lhabitation no. 8 de lhabitat cucuteniennedeMihoveni(URSULESCU,BATARIUC1987,309312).

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(HANSEN 2001, 45), qui dirigeaient la vie quotidienne de la respective famille. La distribution des statuettes par des structures dhabitat et par desfossesatdiffrente(tab.1).
Etatdecon servation Entires Frag.Tte Corps Total Habitations L L L L L 1 3 5 6 7 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 6 4 2 L 8 6 6 Gr 8 1 1 Gr1 6 1 1 1 3 Fosses Gr1 Gr3 7 3 1 1 2 2 2 Gr3 8 5 5 Gr6 0 1 1 To tal 26 5 23 54

Tableau. 1. Isaiia. La distribution par des complexe des statuettes prcucuteniennes. Les plus nombreuses statuettes (22) ont t trouves dans lhabitation no. 1, mais ici leur nombre est augment par une voie exceptionnelle,auregarddesconditionshabituellesdedposition,parle faitque21destatuettesontttrouvesdansunrcipient,deconcertde 13petiteschaises,21cnesttemobileetuncollierde42perlesenargile lestousenformantunimportantcomplexedecult,dnommLetrsor deIsaiia(fig.2);cetrsorattrouventatdeconservation,entredeux crmonies (URSULESCU, TENCARIU 2006, 82122). Il faut mentionn quetouteslespicesdececomplexetaiententires,prsentantseulement de petites dtriorations, dues probablement lutilisation rpte. Le rcipient tait dpos assez proche au regard dtre, aussi bien que, dailleurs, lautre statuette (fragmentaire) de cette maison (fig. 3/1). Dans lammezonesetrouvaientaussilesrestesdetroispetitestablesautel,des fragmentscramiquesprovenantdebotesenargileetdeplusiursvases, aussi bien quune meule bras; tout lensemble formait une agglomration dobjets de culte, ce quil nous a dtermin dinterprter lhabitation no. 1 comme un sanctuaire. Dailleurs, cette construction a connu une rfection majeure; dans lhabitation antrieure on trouvait

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aussidenombreuxobjetscaractredeculte(URSULESCU,TENCARIU 2006,4751,123124). Sionfaitabstractiondes21statuettesentiresdutrsor,alorsdans touteslessixhabitationsonatrouvseulementtroisstatuettescompltes (fig. 4/12; 5/2), au regard de 16 fragmentaires (rapport 1:5,33), ce qui est en concordance avec la situation constate dhabitude et confirme aussi parlaproportionsaisiedanslesfossesdeIsaiia:deuxentiresvisvisde 12fragmentaires(rapport1:6). Encequiconcernelesstatuettesfragmentaires,onremarquelefait quonarestsurtoutdespartiesducorpsetbeaucoupplusrarelapartie suprieure, avec la tte (23 5), ce qui pourrait signifier que lacte de la destruction intentionnelle tait dirig principalement vers la zone de la tte. Unnombreassezgranddestatuettes(six)setrouvedanslesdeux habitations(nos.6et8),quiontconnuuneutilisationpluslongue,mme avecdesrfectionsmajeures(fig.1).Bienquelespicestaientrpandues surtoutelasurfacedesdeuxhabitations,onpeutobserverlaprsencede quelques figurines dans la zone des installations pour le feu (fig. 4/1, 6; 6/1).Onremarqueaussilaprsencedetroisstatuettes(fig.6/34,6)dansla zonedelabanquettedelhabitationno.8,situeprsdefour.Ainsiquil nous montre la situation de Sabatinovka (Ucraine) (MAKAREVI 1960, 290292etfig.1),lesbanquettes,outredeleurutilisationquottidienneen tant quendroit de dormir, elles pouvaient aussi jouer un quelque rle dans le cadre des crmonies de culte, en servant pour lexposition des objetsrituels.Deuxstatuettes(fig.5/2,4)ontapparuentrelesdcombres du four de lhabitation no. 7, en indicant que quelques idoles taient placesauniveaudesinstallationsdefeuouaudessusdecellesci(dans lecasdesfours).Peuttre,cesidolesavaientunrleapotropaque,aussi bienquedautrespicesdeculte,commelestroisplaquesenargileavecla partiesuperieureenselle(enformantdeuxcornes),placesprsdufour et de ltre de la mme habitation no. 7, ou la colonne en argile avec un chapiteau, situe prs de ltre de lhabitation no. 6 (URSULESCU, TENCARIU2004,129/144).

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Outredelazonedestres,desfoursetdesbanquettes,onobservela prsencedesidolesctdesparoisdeshabitationsoummeauxcoinsdes maisons, ce qui suggre que les statuettes taient aussi places au long des murs,probablementaveclemmerledeprotectiondelhabitation.Dansce sens, il semble tre illustrative la situation de lhabitation no. 6, o, apparemment,chaquecoindelamaison(fig.1)ilauraittfragmentune idole. Si dans le cas de lhabitation no. 3 il nest pas surprenante la prsence dune seule idole (fig. 3/2), parce que cette habitation a t coupe et drange, en grande partie, dune construction enfouille de lHallstattancienetduneamnagementdelHautMoyenge(habitation no.2:fig.1),enrevanche,ilsoulvedesquestionslatrouvailleseulement duneidolefragmentaire(fig.3/3)parmilesvestigesdelhabitationno.5, quiaeuunelongueexistence(avecdeuxtapesnettesdeconstruction)et avecuneprsenceconsistantedesstructuresetdamnagementsdeculte (bote portable et des cassettes doffrandes, des tablesautel, etc.: URSULESCU, TENCARIU, SCARLAT 2005). Il est vrai que lidole a t aussi trouv dans une possible zone de culte (fig. 1), savoir une plate forme en argile, amnage prs du four de la maison, audessus dune fosse(no.62)avecuntrsrichecontenu,provenantdesrestesdsaffects delapremireconstruction. Detellessituations(deshabitationsavecuntrsrichemobilierqui contient un petit nombre didoles) pourraient tre ventuellement expliques, Isaiia, par lexistence, en presque toute habitation, dautres formes, originales, de vnration des divinits, en tentant, peuttre, la sortie du strotype des formes de culte standard. Ainsi, en outre damnagements de culte de lhabitation no. 1, considre un sanctuaire, danslhabitationno.6onrencontrelecultedelacolonne(URSULESCU, TENCARIU 2006, pl. VIII/23), dans la maison no. 7 le culte des stellae (plaques en argile: URSULESCU, TENCARIU 2006, pl. VIII/ 79) et dans lhabitationno.5ontrouvedesbotesetdesrcipientsdoffrandesdune forme spciale (URSULESCU, TENCARIU 2006, pl. IX), etc. En fait, cest que la richesse tonnante des formes dexpression constitue laspect

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dominant de la vie spirituelle de la communaut prcucutenienne de Isaiia 2 . Quant aux dpositions de statuettes en fosses (fig. 79), nous mentionnonsdenouveauquelaproportionentrelesstatuettesentireset celles fragmentaires (1:6) est presque le mme comme dans le cas des statuettes trouves aux habitations (1:5,33), si non tient pas en considrationles21figurinesdutrsordobjetsdecultedelhabitationno. 1. Ces rapports montrent que, de rgle, les statuettes taient brises et seulement par hasard quelquesunes restaient compltes, probablement parcequaumomentdeladestructiondelamaisonoellessetrouvaient, lerlemajeurdeleurvientaitencoreachv.Danslessixfossesona trouv entre un et cinq idoles, la frquence habituelle tant dunedeux picesparunefosse(enquatrecas). Parlarichesseducontenu,onremarquelafosseno.16,o,audel de lidole en os du type en violon, presque intacte (fig. 7/2), on a trouv encore deux idoles fragmentaires en argile (fig. 7/34) et de nombreuses vases brises, provenant probablement de lhabitation no. 6A dsaffecte (URSULESCUetalii2003,158). Lasituationlaplusintressante,concernantlaprsenceduneidol dans une fosse, a t constate la fosse no. 17, situe la marge de lhabitation no. 7, qui la couvertait partiellement (fig. 1). Audel dune statuetteentire(fig.7/5),icionatrouvundpt,quipeuttreinterprt comme une offrande de fondation (URSULESCU et alii 2003, 158). Le dpt(fig.8/12)taitdansunpied(avecquatrefentes)dunvasesupport (letypevasefruits),aveclassiettebrise(fig.8/3);levasetaitrenvers aveclassietteenbas,ainsiquelepiedestdevenuunrcipientimprovis. Danscercipientsuigenerisonadposunepetitestatuettefragmentaire (rien que la partie infrieure), entre 42 petits cnes en argile (fig. 8/34). Mme si, la diffrence des cnes du dpt dobjets de culte de lhabitation no. 1, ceuxci navaient pas une tte mobil, pourtant leurs
Selon les caractristiques des objets de culte trouvs aux diffrentes habitations de Isaiia, celles-ci pourraient mme tre dnommes, par exemple: H 1 La Maison du Trsor; H 5 La Maison des Cassettes; H 6 La Maison de la Colonne; H 7 La Maison des Stellae.
2

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bouts taient perfors verticalement, la mme manire; leur forme envoieaussiversuneinterprtationphalliqueetlenombre42(multiplede 7)sinscritdanslammelogiquedelamagiedesnombres(URSULESCU, TENCARIU 2006, pl. VIII/45). Nous considrons que la statuette de ce dpt de culte, par le fait qutait fragmentaire (fig. 8/4), est plus significative que dans le cas o elle ait t entire. Cest, parce quon considre, dhabitude, quun objet de culte dtruit a perdu son utilit, mmesipasaussilecaractresacr.Lastatuettedudptdecultedela fosseno.17nousdmontreexactementlecontraire,savoirquesavie (GAYDARSKA, CHAPMAN, ANGELOVA 2005) a continu. Une pice sacr,mmedtruite,peutdevenirutiledansuncertaincontexterituel.Il faut aussi tenir compte du fait que la partie utilise de la statuette a t celledubassin,lessencedesessencesuneidolefminine,cestdire le symbole de la fcondit. Evidemment, dans ce cas a fonctionn le principe pars pro toto, parce que le caractre sacr et lutilit de culte se sontconservsmmedansunfragmentdelancienobjetdeculte. De mme, on peut faire quelques observations sur les statuettes trouvesdanslacouchearchologique,maisnonauxstructuresdhabitat. On peutvoir,uneanalyse topographique attentive,que lestroispices ont t trouves, en fait, aux environs de quelques structures dhabitat. Ainsi,unestatuette(fig.10/2)auraitpufairepartiedelafosseno.40(at trouvelamargedecelleci)etdautre(fig.10/3)taitsitueaucoinEst de lhabitation no. 9. La position la plus claire a t celle de la statuette trouvedanslasurfaceG(fig.10/1),dansunetrsfaiblecreux,avecune concentration de moulins bras brises et de fragments cramiques. Le caractre part de cette agglomration est dmonstr par la prsence, dans sa partie infrieure, dun petit vase entier, avec un dcor incis inhabituel, qui suggre sept silhouettes humaines, en position orante, extrmement stylises (URSULESCU, TENCARIU 2004a, p. 4152). Nous croyons que lassociation des deux pices, lidole fragmentaire et le petit vase,parledesoimmesurlecaractreritueldececomplexe,quisemble ait t dans une zone dintrt conomique (du type household), situe danslasphredactiondeshabitantsdesmaisonsno.1ou8,quisontles plusproches.

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A la fin de ces succintes considrations sur les conditions de dcouverte des statuettes anthropomorphes du site prcucutenien de IsaiiaBaltaPopiionpeutdtacherquelquesconclusions: latrouvailledesstatuettesauxhabitationsoufossesassureces picesuncontexterituel,mmesicellesciontsouffertdesdestructions dlibresounon; il semble, donc, quil ne sagit pas de dpositions alatoires, maisdedpositionsconscientes,faitesparleshabitantsdusite; les dpositions ont t faites, presque en exclusivit, dans des zones dhabitat, avec une signification rituelle, principalement prs dinstallations pour le feu, de banquettes, de structures ou damnagementsdeculte,deparoisetauxfosses; dans le cas de quelques dcouvertes considres comme provenant de la couche archologique, il sagit plutt soit de dplacements fortuits des pices aprs la dposition, soit dobservations insuffissantesattentivesdelapartdesfouilleurs. Nousavonslaconvictionquaufuretmesuredelaccroissement de lattention mrit visvis de cet aspect important de la recherche archologique, deviendra de plus en plus claire que les pices prhistoriques avec un caractr sacr, comme les statuettes anthropomorphes, ntaient pas abandones au hasard, mais taient dposes en quelques endroits, avec une signification de culte, mme si onttsoumisesunedestructionintentionnelle,aprslapertedelutilit primaire, pour laquelle elles avaient t cres, parce que cellesci pouvaientgagnerunenouvellevaleuredutilisation. Donc, le caractre utilitaire initial pouvait disparaitre, mais le caractre sacr non et ceci peut donner aux restes des statuettes un nouveaurle,biensr,demmedeculte.

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BIBLIOGRAPHIE BNFFYEszter 19901991 CultandarchaeologicalcontextinMiddleandSouthEastEuropein theNeolithicandtheChalcolithic,Antaeus,1920,p.183249. CHAPMANJohn 2000 FragmentationinArchaeology.People,PlacesandBrokenObjectsin theprehistoryofSouthEasternEurope,London. GHEORGHIUDrago 2005 The controlled fragmentation of anthropomorphic figurines, in: Cucuteni 120 ans de recherch. Le temps du bilan (eds. Gh. Dumitroaiaetalii),BMAXVI,PiatraNeam,p.137144. GAYDARSKABisserka,CHAPMANJ.,ANGELOVAIlka 2005 On the tell and off the tell fired clay figurines from Omurtag, in: Scripta praehistorica. Miscellanea in honorem nonagenarii magistri Mircea PetrescuDmbovia oblata (eds. V. Spinei, C.M. Lazarovici,D.Monah),EdituraTrinitas,Iai,p.341385. HANSENSvend 2001 Neolithic Sculpture. Some Remarks on an Old Problem, in: The Archaeology of Cult and Religion (eds. P.F. Biehl et alii), Archaeolingua13,Budapest,p.3752. MAKAREVIM.L. 1960 Ob ideologieskich predstavlenijach u tripolskich plemin, Zapiski Odesskogoarcheologieskogoobestva,I(34),p.290292. MONAHDan 1997 Plastica antropomorf a culturii CucuteniTripolie [La plastique anthropomorphede la culture CucuteniTripolye], BMA III,Piatra Neam. URSULESCUNicolaeetalii 2003 Isaiia, in: Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia. Campania 2002,Bucureti,p.158.

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URSULESCUN.,BATARIUCVictoria 1987 LidoleandrogynedeMihoveni(dp.deSuceava),inLacivilisation deCucuteniencontexteeuropen(ds.M.PetrescuDmboviaet alii),Iai,p.309312. URSULESCUN.,TENCARIUFelixAdrian 2004 Amnagements de culte dans la zone des foyers et des fours de la culturePrcucuteni,MemAnt,XXIII,p.129144. 2004a UnvasneobinuitdinaezareaprecucuteniandelaIsaiia(jud.Iai) [UnvaseinhabitueldelhabitatprcucuteniendeIsaiia(dp.de Iai)],Carpica,XXXIII,p.4152. 2006 Religie i magie la est de Carpai acum 7000 de ani. Tezaurul cu obiectedecultdelaIsaiia[ReligionetmagielestdeCarpatesilya 7000ans],Iai. URSULESCUN.,TENCARIUF.A.,SCARLATLetiia 2005 Isaiia 2005. Noi date privind complexele de cult din cultura Precucuteni[Nouvellesdonnesconcernantlescomplexesdecultede laculturePrcucuteni],Carpica,XXXIV,2005,p.3754.


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Fig.1.PlangnraldesstructuresarchologiquesfouillesIsaiia.

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Fig.2.LetrsordobjetsdecultedeIsaiia:A.Vuedensemble;B.Les21 statuettes.

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Fig.3.Isaiia.Statuettestrouvesdanslhabitationsnos.1(1),3(2)et5(3).

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Fig.4.Isaiia.Statuettestrouvesdanslhabitationno.6.

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Fig.5.Isaiia.Statuettestrouvesdanslhabitationno.7.

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Fig.6.Isaiia.Statuettestrouvesdanslhabitationno.8.

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Fig.7.Isaiia.Statuettestrouvesdanslesfossesnos.8(1),16(24)et17(5).

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Fig. 8. Isaiia. Statuettes trouves dans le complexe de culte (offrande de fondation) de la fosse 17. 1: le complexe in situ; 2: le complexe aprs restauration;3:lercipientetles42cnes;4:lastatuette.

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NICOLAE URSULESCU, FELIX-ADRIAN TENCARIU

Fig.9.Isaiia.Statuettestrouvesdanslesfossesnos.33(12),38(37)et60 (8).

Surlecontextededcouvertedelaplastiqueprcucutenienne

23

Fig.10.Isaiia.Statuettestrouvesdanslacouchearchologique(13)et passim(45).

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai SOMEOBSERVATIONSONTHENEOLITHICANDAENEOLITHIC ORNAMENTSINTHEROMANIANAREA SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

Keywords:ornaments,neoaeneolithic,Romania,prestigegoods. Rsum: Les objets de parure, nimporte la priode historique dans laquelle ils ont t confectionns et tals, ont eu la qualit dattirer immdiatement lattention. Dans ce texte, lauteur sest propos dinventarier les objets de parure nonolithiques confectionnsenor,cuivreetautresmatires,maisaussideparlerdeleurfonctionnalit. Abstract:Theornaments,irrespectiveofthehistoricalperiodwhentheyweremadeand displayed,hadtheroleofincuringinstantlytheattention.Inthistext,theautorintended to make the repertoire of the neoaeneolithic ornaments made in gold, copper and other materialsandtoanalysetheirfunctiontoo. Rezumat: Podoabele, indiferent de perioada istoric n care au fost confecionate i etalate,auavutdarulsatragimediatatenia.ntextuldefa,autoruliapropuss repertorieze podoabele neoeneolitice confecionate din aur, aram i din alte materiale precumisdiscutedesprefuncionalitateaacestora.

In this text, we intend to make some observations concerning the roleandfunctionsoftheNeolithicandAeneolithicornamentsdiscovered in the Romanian area. We must say, right from the beginning, that we didntwanttodiscusshereabouttheproblemsrelatedtothetechnology ofmakingtheseobjects. The classical meaning of the term ornament/ornaments denotes somethingwhichisusedinordertoadornsomeoneorsomething(Micul dicionar academic 2003, 1128), a valuable thing or object (Dicionar enciclopedic2004,403).Theornamentisusedtoadornthehumanbodyand wecantalkaboutthejewelasbeingalanguage.Theuseoftheornament candenotethebelongingtoacertainsocialgroup(tribe,caste,clan)orthe developingstageofaperson(adolescence,maturityetc.).

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SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

Offering a vast registration of statutory marks, the ornament has both the role of setting off the physical traits of a person and the role of displayingthebearersreputation.Eachcommunityselectivelyappealsto its own material resources, first to the local ones and then to the others, whichcomefromexchanges,andthatswhytheornamentconstitutesan extremely diverse aspect of the material culture (BONTE, IZARD 1999, 529530). Considering the raw material they were made of, we can distinguishmanytypesofornamentssuchasthosemadeofgold,copper andothermaterialsthanthepreceedingones.Ifforthefirsttwotypesof ornamentswetriedtoincludethepiecesthathavebeenpublishedsofar inRomania,usingtablesandmaps,thisthingwasimpossibletodoforthe ornaments made of bones, shells, teeth, rocks etc. because of the great numberofdiscoveries 1 . Supplementarydataforstudyingornamentscanbeofferedbythe decorated anthropomorphous representations, especially for those made of clay (for the way the ornaments were worn) (COMA 1995, 94). Regarding their function,besides their role in clothing and displaying of thestatute,there arealsointerpretations which correlatesthe adornment of the statues with gods, resulting the sacred function of the ornaments (GIMBUTAS1991,228;MONAH1997,199). Goldornaments 2 Beingfoundinnatureasanativematerial,goldbeganbeingtooled since the beginning of the Early Aeneolithic.At the beginning it might have been searched on the bottom of the rivers and after then exploited fromthegolddeposits.IfweacceptthefactthatwithintheRomanianarea wecantalkaboutametallurgyofgold,thenithaddevelopedduringthe
Weconsiderthatinordertodosuchathingthesustainedeffortofmoreresearchersfrom different parts of the country is needed. In the present text we mainly classified the ornaments discovered in the Neolithic and Aeneolithic necropoles and the most representativeonesfromsomesites. 2 Because our text addresses especially to the specialists and because the information is takenfromthearchaeologicalliterature,weconsideredthatthereisnoneedofloadingup thetextwithpicturesforanyofthetypesofornaments,andinsteadofthisweusedmaps andappendixes.
1

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27

Aeneolithic,atthesametimewiththemetallurgyofcopperandduetothe progress it recorded. The first gold object known within the Romanian area is a gold wire discovered in 1945, at Glina (the Vidra phase of the Boian culture) (COMA 1974a, 17), but the Aeneolithic goldsmiths craft appearstogetherwiththeornaments.Duetoitsrarityandtothequalities of this material, gold has been used even since its discovery, for making ornamentsandprestigegoods. Regardingthenumberandthedistributionofthegoldornaments (appendix 1, map 1) one may see that the discoveries are reduced and unequal distributed within the area of our country. In all, from the data thatwehave,weknowalmost4550goldobjects 3 ,mostofthembeing ornaments, distributed in three cultural areas: Gumelnia (phases A2 and B2), Cucuteni (phases A and AB) and Bodrogkeresztr, partially contemporary. On the present area of Romania there have been found fewer and less varied gold objects in comparison to the neighbouring areas. Gold ornaments were discovered in different conditions: sites: Gumelnia (COMA 1974a, 15; 1974b, 181), Vidra (COMA 1974a, 15; 1974b,181),Ariud(COMA1974a,16),SultanaMaluRou(ANDREESCU et alii 2004), TraianDealul Fntnilor (H. DUMITRESCU 1961, 70), necropoles: VrtiGrditea Ulmilor (COMA 1995, 75, 91; 1974b, 184), CminPodu Crasnei (NMETI 1988, 123126), Ostrovul Corbului (ROMAN, DODDOPRIESCU 1989, 1718), deposits: Brad (URSACHI 1991, 335386; 1992, 5176) in association with other pieces, Sultana (HLCESCU 1995, 1117) only gold objects, and, possibly, Moigrad (HOREDT 1977, 289293), accidental: Oradea (COMA 1974a, 17), Trgu Mure(COMA1974a,16). It is interesting the discovery of many gold ornaments (beads, plates) in a cave dwelling (Petretii de JosPetera Ungureasc); together with these pieces an oven was also discovered, and this makes the discoverersbelievethat there wasaworkroom where such objects were made(LAZAROVICIetalii2004;2006,259261).
3

The number of the gold objects is higher if we consider the Aeneolithic pieces with doubtfulculturalborderingfromtheMoigradtreasure.

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SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

Themostfrequentornamentsarethependants;eveniftheybelong tosomespecialcultures,theyarerelatedbetweenthemfromatypological point of view, having as an origin the Southern types which come from Anatolia and Greece. The pendants had, most of the times, a magical apotropaic meaning (DUMITRESCU 1974, 268; ANDREESCU 2002, 71), but because of their significant values, we believe that the meaning of somesymbolsofthesocialstatutecannotbeexcluded. The big number of ornaments within Gumelnias area might be explainedthroughtheimportsfromasoutherncentreofgoldprocessing (which would explain the richness of the pieces from the South of Danube) due to the distance relatively reduced from this, but Eugen Coma considered that the respective pieces are of local production (COMA1995,72)4 .Thesameopinionsreferringtotheexchangeortothe localproductionexistinthecaseofisolatedappearancesontheterritory ofMoldavia,intheCucuteniarea,but,ifweacceptthelocalproductionof these pieces, the problem of the gold deposits for their production is questioned (H. DUMITRESCU 1961, 8485); the presence of the big gold idols within the Bodrogkeresztr area may be explained through the monopoly on the gold deposits from Apuseni mountains which was excercised by the bearers of this culture (LUCA 1999, 4); maybe the chemicalanalysesofthegoldpiecesfoundinRomaniawouldexplainthe problemoftheoriginandtheprocessingofthese,but,intheirabsence,we havetobesatisfiedonlywiththeassumptions. Copperornaments The use of copper is certificated in the late Neolithic, but it is possiblethatthismaterialhadbeenusedevenearlier.Wecantalkabouta copper metallurgy only since the early Aeneolithic, when bigger objects whicharemoredifficulttomake,appear(SANGMEISTER1975),suchas the bracelets from Agigea (COMA 1990, 89) (Hamangia culture) or TrguFrumos(URSULESCU,BOGHIAN19971998,1617;URSULESCU, BOGHIAN, COTIUG 2005, 217260) (Precucuteni III). Initially, because
4 An identical piece to that from Vidra (Gumelnia A2) was discovered in the area of Salcuta culture, south from Danube, in the upper level of Danevo Moghila site, many figurinesbeingknownintheareaofTiszapolgrBodrogkeresztr.

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

29

ofitsnovelty,rarityandquality,copperwasconsideredtobeamaterialof great value, comparable to gold, and only towards the end of the Aeneolithicitlostfromitsvalue. Copper ornaments come from: sites (level of culture, dwellings, complexes), a big number of pieces, typologically different, deposits/treasures,tombs(singleorinnecropoles),isolatedfindings. From a typological point of view, one can distinguish more categories 5 : Bracelets:curvedwithsuperimposedends,open,close,whichcan be assembled: Scnteia (MANTU, URCANU 1999, 17), of unknown shapes (in this category there are the bracelets whose type cannot be recognizedanymore)(appendix2).Inmostofthecases,thebraceletsare madeofcopperwires(havingaround/circular,eliptic,planoconvexcut), ofroundbarsorofsheetcopper.Thebigbraceletsmighthavebeenworn bythegrownupsattheirwrists,asitisprovedbysomefindingswithin thefuneraryinventories(Giurgiuleti)(HAHEU,KURCIATOV1993,102), and the small ones were for children. Bracelets were discovered in sites (Scnteia, Trpeti, Cucuteni, Izvoare, Trgu Frumos), deposits (Brad, Ariud,Hbeti)orintombs(Agigea). Chronologicallyspeaking, theearliest bracelets are fromtheearly Aeneolithic(PrecucuteniandHamangia)buttheyappearinAeneolithicin otherculturesorregions(map2) 6 :CucuteniTripolie(indifferentstages), Gumelnia, Petreti, HerculaneCheile Turzii, Coofeni. The biggest concentration of copper bracelets (of different types) can be seen in Cucuteni area, on the eastern side of the Oriental Carpathians, a region which can indicate a production centre (perhaps on the basis of the existence of the deposits from Blan or Sndominic, or of other deposits

5 We use the typology proposed by I. Mare in I. Mare, Metalurgia aramei n neo eneoliticuluiRomniei,Ed.BucovinaIstoric,Suceava,2002,p.124iurm. 6 From our knowledge, during the campaign from 2003 a new spiral bracelet was discoveredintheCucuteniresort,Hoisesti(Iasicounty),butfromdifferentreasonsithas remainedunpublisheduntiltoday.

30

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

which are still unexplored, map 8), from where, they might have been spreadinotherculturalbackgroundsthroughexchanges(map2) 7 . The bracelets had also a symbolic function, besides the aesthetic function, of displaying the social statute of the bearer, since they had rarelybeenused,andasobjects,theywereconsideredasbeingvaluable, only if we think at the big quantity of material they were made of (for example the bracelet from Brad of 255 g, and one of the pieces from Crbunabeingof266g). Pendants/Amulets: anthropomorphous, with full discs (round, elliptic,convexdiscs),buttondiscs,enviolon,simplependants(apendix3). Copper pendants were mainly found in CucuteniTripolie area (map 3), but these pieces which had gold and bone replicas were spread on a bigger area which included the centre and the south east of Europe. Theywereprobablyusedwithapothropaicfunctions;theyweresewedon clothesortheywerewornattheneck,thusbeingconsiderednecklaces,as itisprovedbythepresenceofholes. Pendants were found: in deposits toghether with other valuable objects (Brad, Crbuna 8 , Hbeti), in sites (Trpeti, Izvoare, Trueti), orintombs(GrletiandOstrovulCorbului). En violon pendants, spread within the Cucuteni A3 i AB Moldovian area, are included in the anthropomorphous art and they are stronglyschematizedfemalerepresentationsinrelationtothefertilityand fecundity practices. Due to the fact that these pendants arent similar to othersfromothercultures,becausetheywerefoundinthePrecucuteniIII CucuteniTripoliearea,onemaysaythattheyarelocalproductionsand can be considered as being types or specific versions of the cultures mentionedabove(MARE2002,133;DERGAEV1998,24). Linksandrings 9 :withsuperimposedends,open,close,curled,of unknowntypes(appendix5).Theyaremadeofcopperwireswitharound
Although it seems hard to believe, we cannot rule out the deficiencies of researches withinthespatialdistributionofthecopperornaments. 8 It seems that the pendants from Carbuna are the earliest appearances of this type of pieces. 9Itisdifficulttoestablishwhichpiecesareringsandwhicharelinks,so,inordernotto commiterrors,wetakethemtogether.
7

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

31

or eliptic cut. In Romania, the oldest samples are those found at Glina (Boian culture, Vidra phase) (NESTOR 1928, 110143), TraianDealul Fntnilor (Precucuteni III) (MARINESCUBLCU 1974, 51) and Trgu Frumos (URSULESCU, BOGHIAN 19971998, 16) (Precucuteni III), but they appear during the whole period of Aeneolithic. On map 5, one can notice three concentrations: in PrecucuteniCucuteni area (on the eastern side of the Oriental Carpathians), in BoianGumelnia and Slcua areas. In most of the cases, the rings appear in association with other copper objectsandtheirconcentrationsseemtoindicatetheproductionareas(or maybe the level of researches?). The rings were found in sites: Malna (MARE 2002, 262), Trgu Frumos (URSULESCU, BOGHIAN 19971998, 16), Hbeti (Vl. DUMITRESCU et alii 1954, 465), Cscioarele (MARE 2002,207),incinerationtombsfromthelateAeneolithic,asafunerarlist: Valea lui Mihai (ROMAN, NMETI 1978, 38), Baden culture, a little deposit of four rings at Moldova Veche (ROMAN 1976, pl 8/19ad; CIUGUDEAN2000,36),Vuedolculture.Thefunctionoftheringswasan ornamentalone. Beads:tubular,round,ringshaped,eliptic,withtheshapeofastag teeth, of unknown shapes (appendix 4). In the shape of necklaces, single orinassociationwithbeadsfromothermaterials,thebeadswerewornat theneckandtheywerefoundmainlyintombs,asfuneraryinventories,in childrens tombs: Glina (COMA 1974, 202), Decea (DODDOPRIESCU 1978, 88), or in grownups tombs: Cernica (COMA, CANTACUZINO 2001,22,27),Andolina(COMA1974b,203206),Popeti(ERBNESCU 1999, 14), Ostrovul Corbului (ROMAN, DODDOPRIESCU 1989, 14, tomb15),Brilia(HARUCHE2002,5556,tomb33),butalsoasalistfor some dwellings: TraianDealul Fntnilor (MARE 2002, 319), Scnteia (MANTU,URCANU1999,17),Vdastra (MARE2002,331/1682),orin deposits: Brad (URSACHI 1990, 339340; 1992, 5556) and Ariud (SZTNCSUJ2005,91). Copper beads had been made beginning with the late Neolithic, the discoveries covering almost the entire present surface of Romania (map4).

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SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

Besides the copper ornaments mentioned above, there are others: buttons, earrings, columns (appendix 6, map 6), which have the same aestheticfunction. Ornamentsfromothermaterials Weonlymakeheresomeobservationsabouttheornamentsmade ofothermaterialsthangoldandcopper,withoutclaimingthefactthatwe wanttorejoinallthediscoveriesofthesametype(appendix7);forsucha measure it is needed the sustained effort of more researchers from more sidesofthecountry. Typologicallyspeaking,weclassifiedtheseornamentsin:bracelets, pendants, rings and beads. The materials used for making these ornamentsarediverse,themostusedonesbeingshells(weidentifiedsix typesofshells),bones,horns,stagandboarteeth,marble,limestoneand othertypesofrocks,plantsseeds(Lithospermumpurpureo)andothers. The bracelets were mainly made of Spondylus shells and not so often of Pectunculus pilosus and Ostrea, of marble: in the Cernavod necropole (BERCIU 1966, 82) and of bone in the Brilia necropole (HARUCHE2002,6970).Usingmapsforplacingtheseartefacts(map7) one may observe their appearance in the area of southern cultures (Hamangia, Boian, Gumelnia and Cernavod I), as a result of their spreadingarea,but,also,asaresultofourresearchdeficiencies. The pendants of many types and shapes are made of more materials (appendix 7), such as: shell (Spondylus, Pectunculus pilosus, Ostrea, Unio crassus), bone, marble, boar and stag teeth,and their copies. Besides the cultures mentioned above, pendants were also found in the areaofotherAeneolithiccultures,suchasTurdaandCucuteni(map7). The rings were found in more areas and cultures, mentionning herethosemadeofbonefromthetombsoftheBoianculturebearers. The beads are the most spread ornaments probably because they were made easily than other ornaments. We can distinguish a great varietyofmaterialswhichthebeadsweremadeof:shells,bones,different rocks (marble, limestone, amber), plantsseeds (true deposits of Lithospermum purpureo), boar and stag teeth. The necklaces were made onlyofbeadsofacertaintypeandshape,orofbeadsdifferentasshape

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

33

andrawmaterial.Thebeadshavethelongestuseandthewidestspread (map7);infact,wedontbelievethatthereisaNeoAeneolithicculturein whichbeadswerentdiscovered. The place of findings is varied, ornaments from other materials thangoldbeingdiscoveredbothinsites:Hrova(GALBENU1963,501 503), Fulgeri (ISTINA 2006, 20/3), necropoles: Cernica (COMA, CANTACUZINO 2001, 169), Sultana (ERBNESCU 2002, 71), deposits: Vldiceasca (ERBNESCU 1987, 3538), Ariud (SZTNCSUJ 2005), Izvoare (MARINESCUBLCU, CRCIUMARU 1992, 355370), and also accidental: Agigea (SLOBOZIANU 1959, 737, 741, fig. 2/35). Even if we didnt make the inventory of all the shell, bone, horn ornaments, hence, wecansaythattheirsharebecomesmoreandmoreimportantastheNeo Aeneolithicculturescomealong.Mostofthesetypesofornamentsareof localproduction(bone, horn),but, theappearanceofshell ornaments(at DeceaMureului,OstrovulCorbului,UrziceniVam(VIRAG2004,4170; VIRAG et alii 2006, 384 (tomb 23) at considerable distances from the source, no matter if these would be the Eastern Mediterrana (Egee and Adriatica) (SIKLSI 2004, 910) or the Black Sea (HAIMOVICI 2008; HODDER 1982, 202) 10 , assumes the existance of some intertribal exchanges with valuable objects. We believe that the function of these pieces, besides the ornamental one, was symbolic too. It seems that the ornamentsmadeofdifferentrawmaterialshadalmostthesamesymbolic value,ifwetakeintoconsiderationtheassociationsofcopperornaments withinthefuneraryinventories,andnotonlythese,withtheonesmadeof shell,bone,hornorrock. In conclusion, we believe that the function of the ornaments (not taking into consideration the raw material they were made of) was double, symbolic, of showing off the social statute but also of adorning, thetworolesbeingcomplementaryandfunctioningatthesametime.
10InformationgivenbySergiuHaimovici.Insomestudiespeopletalkaboutadistanceof over1000Kmfortheexchangeofsuchobjects.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ANDREESCURadianRomus 2002Plasticaantropomorfgumelniean,Bucureti. ANDREESCU RadianRomus, LAZR Alexandru Ctlin, TOPRCEANUAnioara,OANVirginia 2004 Sultana, com Mnstirea, jud. Clrai, Punct: MaluRou, n Cronica.Campania2003,Bucureti, http://www.cimec.ro/Arheologie/cronicaCA2004/cd/index.htm BRCCILAlexandru 1924 Antiquits pr et protohistoriques des environs de TurnuSeverin, Dacia,I,p.280296. BERCIUDumitru 1966CulturaHamangia,Bucureti. BONTEPierre,IZARDMichel 1999Dicionardeetnologieiantropologie,Ed.Polirom,BucuretiIai. BOROFFKANikolaus 1992Consideraiiasupraunorobiceiuridedepunerenepocilepremetalice dinEuropa,SCIVA,43,4,p.341354. CRCIUMARUMarin 1985LecollierdesemencesdUlmeni(culturedeGumelnia),Dacia,N.S., 29,12,p.125127. CHEVALIERJean,GHEERBRANTAlain 1993DicionardeSimboluri,Ed.Artemis,Bucureti,vol.12. 1995DicionardeSimboluri,Ed.Artemis,Bucureti,vol.3. CIUGUDEANHoria 2000 Eneoliticul final n Transilvania i Banat: cultura Coofeni, Timioara. COMAEugen 1973 Parures nolithiques en coquillages marins dcouvertes en territoire roumain,DaciaN.S.,XVII,p.6176.

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HARUCHENicolae 2002ComplexularheologicBrilia. HAOTTIPuiu 1997EpocaneoliticnDobrogea,Constana. HLCESCUCornel 1995 TezauruldelaSultana,CCDJ,XIIIXIV,p.1117. HODDERIan 1982 Symbols in Action. Ethnoachaeological studies of material culture, CambridgeUniversityPress. HOREDTKurt 1977TezauruldeaurdelaMoigrad,Pontica,10,p.289293. ISTINALcrmioaraElena 2006 Ghidul Complexului Muzeal Iulian Antonescu Bacu, Ed. PIM, Iai,p.20. LAZAROVICIGheorghe 1975 DespreeneoliticultimpuriudinBanat,Tibiscus,IV,p.933. 1979 NeoliticulBanatului,ClujNapoca. 1986 NeoliticultrziudinnordvestulRomniei,AMP,X,p.1546. LAZAROVICI Gheorghe, BLTEAN Ionu, BIAGI Paolo, SPATARO Michaela,LAZAROVICIMagda,COLESNIUCSorin,VRNCEANPaul 2004PetretiideJos,com.PetretiideJos,jud.Cluj,punctCheileTurzii, n Cronica. Campania 2003, Bucureti, http://www.cimec.ro/Arheologie/cronicaCA2004/cd/index.htm LAZAROVICI Gheorghe, BIAGI Paolo, SPATARO Michaela, LAZAROVICI Magda, COLESNIUC Sorin, SUCIU Cosmin, ROMAN Cristian,CHITICOleg,SOTEAngeleski,ARPADTatar 2006 PetretiideJos,com.PetretiideJos,jud.Cluj,punctCheileTurziiPetera Ungureasc,nCronica.Campania2005,Bucureti,p.259261. LUCASabinAdrian 1999 SfrituleneoliticuluipeteritoriulintracarpaticalRomniei,cultura Bodrogkeresztr,AlbaIulia.

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MANTUCorneliaMagda,URCANUSenica 1999 Scnteia situl arheologic; catalog, n Scnteia. Cercetare arheologic i restaurare (edit. V. Chirica, C.M. Mantu, S. urcanu),Ed.Helios,Iai. MAREIon 2002 Metalurgia aramei n neoeneoliticului Romniei, Ed. Bucovina Istoric,Suceava. MARINESCUBLCUSilvia 1974 CulturaPrecucutenipeteritoriulRomniei,Bucureti. MARINESCUBLCUSilvia,CRCIUMARUMarin 1992 Coliere de Lithospermum purpureocoeruleum i perle de cerb n neoliticuldinRomniancontextulcentruluiisudestuluiEuropei, SCIVA,43,4,p.355370. ROTEAMihai 1995 Metalurgia neferoaselor n Transilvania preistoric, Expoziia Naional,ClujNapoca,p.146. MOISILConstantin 1911 PrivireasupraantichitilorpreistoricedinRomnia,BCMI,IV,p. 8394. MONAHDan 1982 Oimportantdescoperirearheologic,Arta,78,p.1113. 1997 Plastica antropomorf a culturii CucuteniTripolie, BMA, III, PiatraNeam. 2003 QuelquesrflexionssurlestrsorsdelacultureCucuteni,SAA,IX, p.129140. MONAHDan,CUCOtefan 1985 AezrileculturiiCucutenidinRomnia,Ed.Junimea,Iai. NESTORIon 1928 DerChronologiederrumnischenSteinkupferzeit,PZ,XIX,3/4,p. 110143. 1933 Der Stand der Vorgeschichtsforschung in Rumnien, BerRGK, 22, p.11181.

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

39

NMETIIoan 1988 Noi descoperiri arheologice din eneoliticul trziu din nordvestul Romniei,AMP,XII,p.121145. ROMANPetre 1976 CulturaCoofeni,Bucureti. 1978 Modificri n tabelul sincronismelor privind eneoliticul trziu, SCIVA,29,2,p.215221. ROMANPetre,NMETIIoan 1978 CulturaBadennRomnia,Bucureti. ROMANPetre,DODDOPRIESCUAnn 1989 Interfereneetnoculturale,dinperioadaindoeuropenizrii,reflectate ncimitiruleneoliticdelaOstrovulCorbului,TD,X,12,p.1138. SANGMEISTEREdward 1975 Die Anfnge der Metallurgie in Europa, n Ausgrabungen in Deutschland,Feil3,Mainz,p.297299. SLOBOZIANUHoria 1959 Consideraiiasupra aezrilor antice din jurullacurilor Techirghiol iAgigea,Materiale,V,p.735752. SULIMIRSKITadeusz 1961 Copper Hoard from Horodnica on the Dniester, Mitteilungen des AnthropologischenGesellschaftinWien,XCI,p.9196. SIKLSIZsolt 2004 Prestige Goods in the Neolithic of the Carpathian Basin. Material manifestations of social differentiation, Acta Archaeologica. AcademiaeScientiarumHungaricae,Budapesta,p.162. SZTNCSUJSndorJzsef 2005TheearlycopperagehoardfromAriud(Ersd),nCucuteni.120ans de recherches. Le temps du bilan (Eds. Gh. Dumitroaia, John Chapmanetalii),PiatraNeam,2005,p.85105. ERBNESCUDone 1987 DepozituldemrgeledescoperitntellulneoliticdelaVldiceasca, judeulClrai,CCDJ,IIIIV,p.3538.

40

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

1999 NecropolaneoliticdelaPopeti,comunaVasilai,jud.Clrai,n CivilizaiaBoianpeteritoriulRomniei(ed.M.Neagu),Clrai, p.1416. 2002 Observaii preliminarii asupra necropolei neolitice de la Sultana, jud.Clrai,CCDJ,XIX,p.6986. URSACHIVasile 1990 Le dpt dobjets de parure nolithique de Brad, com. Negri, dp. Bacu, n Le Palolithique et le Nolithique de la Roumanie en contexte europen (ds. Vasile Chirica et Dan Monah), BAI, IV, p.335386. 1992 Depozitul de obiecte de podoab eneolitice de la Brad, Carpica, XXIII/2,p.5176. URSULESCUNicolaeetalii 2004 Hoiseti,com.Dumeti,jud.Iai.,nCronica.Campania2003, www.cimec.ro/Arheologie/cronicaCA2004/cd/index.htm. URSULESCUNicolae,BOGHIANDumitru 19971998 Principalele rezultate ale cercetrilor arheologice din aezarea precucutenian de la Trgu Frumos (jud. Iai), CC, S.N., 34 (13 14),p.1342. URSULESCUNicolae,BOGHIANDumitru,COTIUGVasile 2005 Problmes de la culture Prcucuteni la lumire des recherches de TrguFrumos(dp.deIai),nScriptapraehistorica.Miscellaneain honorem nonagenarii magistri Mircea PetrescuDmbovia oblata (eds. V. Spinei, C. M. Lazarovici, Dan Monah), Ed. Trinitas, Iai,p.217260. URSULESCUNicolae,TENCARIUFelixAdrian 2006 Religie i magie la est de Carpai acum 7000 de ani. Tezaurul cu obiectedecultdelaIsaiia,CasaEditorialDemiurg,Iai. VIRAGCristian 2004 CercetriarheologicelaUrziceniVam,AMP,26,p.4170. VIRAGCristian,MARTALiviu,HAGOAtilla 2006 Urziceni,com.Urziceni,jud.SatuMare,punctVam,nCronica. Campania2005,Bucureti,p.383386.

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

41

Appendix1NeoAeneolithicgoldornaments
Theplaceof discovery
Gumelnia (Oltenia,Ilfov county)

Thetype of discovery
Site

Theshape(type) oftheornament
Horns

Cultural bordering
GumelniaA2

Characteristics
Overheadhornswiththe central part relatively rectangular and the two hornseasilytwisted. A convex piece, round shape having a big hole inthecentre. Made of wire in four edges,withthediameter of1,8cm. Weight22g Three curved statues, convex concave, of a round shape having a bigholeinthecentreand at the edge a trapeze shapedextension. Two discoidal statues, convex concave with twosmallholes. Fourpiecesmadeofgold sheets. Total weight of 7,350g Madeofsevengoldwire links, with a circular cutting. Made of gold sheet with thediametreof0,7cm In the dwelling L2 a small pendant like a flat puncturedtube,madeof gold sheet near the fireplacewasfound Round, with a curved face, a little conic with a small trapeze shaped extension; it has two holes on the horizontal side. It doesnt have a hole in the centre, the diametre of 2,4 cm, weightof1,96g. Cylindrical shape; it has two round opposite holes in the centre; length of 2,1 cm, weight of 1,38 g, diametreof0,9cm Three small beads, weightof0,46g

Figure Link Ingotofgold Pendants

SultanaMalu Rou(Clrai county)

Deposit

GumelniaA2

Pendants Saltaleoni Chain Link Site Pendant

VrtiGrditea Ulmilor (Ialomiacounty)

Necropole

Pendant

GumelniaB1

Tube

Beads

42

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA
Earring? Small dimensions, made of a gold wire with rectangular cutting, bendedtwice. Cuted from gold sheet, round shape, with a big hole in the centre and a trapeze shaped extension; the diametre of2,6cm. Round shape, with a convex front part and with a big hole in the centre. On the upper side, the piece has two small holes on the horizontal. It has a diametreof2,6cm. It has joined ends; the diametre of 1,2 cm, the weightof2,75g.; Of an eliptic shape, madeofgoldsheet,with two holes on the upper side of the piece; the curved middle of the piece is flat, having an unequal hole. The diametreisof6,3cm,the weightof17,5g. Of an eliptic shape, made of gold sheet, thinner than the previous piece. It has two holes on the upper side. The diametre is of 4,8cm,theweightof9g. Both discs are made throughhammering. Made of gold thin and widesheet.Ontheupper side the pendant has a high trapeze shape, and in the bottom it has a narrow ring; the diametre of 2,5 cm, weightof1,16g. Aroundgoldplatehavinga hole in the centre. On the upper side the pendant has fourholes.Thediametreisof 24,1cm,theweightisof750g.

Vidra (Ilfovcounty)

Site

Figure

GumelniaA2

Figure

GumelniaB1

Ariud(Covasna county) Brad (Bacucounty)

Site

Link

CucuteniA

Deposit

Convexdisc

CucuteniA

Convexdisc

TraianDealul Fntnilor (Neamcounty)

Site

Pendant

CucuteniAB

Moigrad 11 (Slajcounty)

Deposit (treasure)

Pendant

Bodrogkeresztr

11

Over105goldbeadsofbitronconicshapesandrarelycylindric,ofdifferentdimensions belongedtothesamerangeofobjects.K.Horedt,TezauruldeaurdelaMoigrad,Pontica,10, 1977,p.290.

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments
Link

43

Idols

Oradea (Bihorcounty)

Accidental

Tube Saltaleon? Pendant Pendant Needle? Bead

Bodrogkeresztr

TrguMure (Murecounty)

Accidental

Pendant

Bodrogkeresztr?

CminPodul Crasnei (SatuMare county) Ostrovul Corbului (Mehedini county)

Necropole

Ornament?

Bodrogkeresztr

Necropole

Buttons

Bodrogkeresztr

PetretiideJos CheileTurzii. Petera Ungureasc (Clujcounty)

Site

Beads,plates

Bodrogkeresztr

Of a round shape, with a trapezeshapedextensionat the upper side and two small holes sideways. The diametreisof2,8cm. Madeofgoldsheetandwith complicated shapes, being cutincross;theseidolswith crossed arms were called pendants because of the shape of some birds with widewings. Madeofthingoldsheet. Lengthof1,6cm Roundshape,madeofgold sheet;lengthof3,3cm Round shape, made of goldsheet Ithasawideandwrapped end,thelengthof7,4cm Extinded form, the middle side is a little curved,lengthof2,1cm Round shape with an unequal hole in the centre.Attheupperside the piece presents a rectangular extension; the diametre of 10,2 cm, weightof82,42g Ornamental object with notched lines, made of gold sheet; length of 4,5 cm Threebuttonsmadeofthin gold table the first has the diametre of 1,7 cm,weight of1,05g,thesecondhasthe diametreof0,7cmandthe weight of 0,55 g, and the thirdhasthediametreof0,8 cmandtheweightof0,46g Many beads were found inside a cave which had different dimensions, and gold plates, smaller or bigger which were probably sewed on clothes.

44

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

Appendix2NeoAeneolithiccopperbracelets(afterI.Mare,completed)
Types of bracelets The place of discovery
Agigea (CT) Curved bracelets (17 samples) Ariud (CV) (5 samples)

The type of discovery


Accidental Site Site Deposit discovery Deposit discovery Deposit discovery Site Deposit Deposit Deposit Site Site Site Site Archaeologic layer Site Site Site Deposit Deposit Site Site Site

Cultural bordering
Hamangia ? Cucuteni A

Diametre (cm)
7,5 8 8,5 6,5 5,5 2,5 6,8 7 Frag. 9 9 Frag. 4 3,9 5,5 4,5 5 6,6 6,2 5,3

Section
Circular

Cilindric Cilindric Rectangular Circular

Cucuteni (IS) Hbeti (IS) (3 samples) Izvoare (NT) (3 samples) Ruginoasa (IS) Scnteia (IS) Trgu Frumos (IS) (2 samples) Bodeti (NT) Brad (BC) (2 samples) Bucureti Poduri (BC) (2 samples) Rogova (MH) Trpeti (NT) Turda (HD) Caa (BV) Open bracelets (9 samples) Curtea (TM) Pecica (AR) (2 samples) Sebe (AB) Trpeti (NT) (2 samples) Traian (NT) Turda (HD) Agigea (CT) Scnteia (IS)

Cucuteni B Cucuteni A3 Cucuteni A3 Cucuteni A3 Cucuteni A3 Precucuteni III Cucuteni A Cucuteni A Gumelnia Cucuteni A2

Circular Circular Circular Circular Rectangular Transversal lenticular Round Rhombus Rhombus Convex Transversal lenticular Transversal lenticular Semicircular Rectangular

Bracelets with superimposed ends (9 samples)

5,3 Cucuteni A Petreti 3,7-4

Site Site Site ? Site

Coofeni ? HerculaneCheile Turzii Coofeni III Cucuteni A2-A3 Cucuteni A-B2 Hamangia? Cucuteni A3 Two plates Letter T shaped Transversal lenticular 5,4 3,3 4,1 3,6 Rectangular Rectangular Rectangular Round Round

Close bracelets (1 sample) Assembled bracelets (1 sample)

Site Site Site Site Tomb ? Site

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments
Bod (BV) Cscioarele (CL) (3 fragments) Cetea (AB) Corneti (CJ) Gneti (MS) Poduri (BC) (2 fragments) Poiana Ampoiului (AB) Scnteia (IS) Trpeti (NT) Trgu Frumos (IS) Traian (NT) Site Archaeologic layer Archaeologic layer Dwelling Accidental Deposit ? Site Site Cucuteni A2 Cucuteni A (or A-B) Coofeni III Cucuteni A Cucuteni A2-A3 Precucuteni III Cucuteni A-B2 Cucuteni A Gumelnia A2 Gumelnia B1

45
Circular Rectangular Rectangular

Unknown shape bracelets (14 fragments) 12

Circular

Archaeologic layer Site Site Site

Double concave

Appendix3NeoAeneolithiccopperpendants/amulets(afterI.Mare, completed)
The type of the pendants / amulets
Anthropomorpho us pendants / amulets with full disc

The place of discovery


Brad (BC)

The type of discovery


Deposit Deposit

Cultural bordering
Cucuteni A4 Aeneolithic? Cucuteni A3 Cucuteni A1-A2 Cucuteni A Cucuteni A4

Characteristics
Convex, round disc made of copper sheet with a diametre of 3,2 cm An eliptic slightly convex disc made of copper sheet with a diametre of 5,3cm Round shape, flat surface with wrinkles and with a hole in the centre Convex disc with a strongly curved centre having the diametre of 9,4 cm Two fragments convex discs made of round sheet Round, convex disc made of copper sheet with a diametre of 2,9 cm. It distinguishes from the othersthrough the existance of a small ear soldered almost in the concave centre of the piece, suggesting a button, but it is possible that it had another use. Made of copper sheet folded twice, the upper end (the head) is rounded and it has a hole for fixing. Made of white metal (silver ?, silver copper ?) and it has the height of 4,3 cm It has an ellipsoidal shape and it has a hole in the upper side. It is of rectangular shape and it has two small holes, assymetrically laid at the upper side. Of small dimensions, having a green colour. Of small dimensions with two holes.

Coldu (BN) Hbeti (IS) Trpeti (NT)

? Deposit Site Deposit

Disc button pendants En violon anthropomorpho us pendants / amulets Simple pendants / amulets Pendants / amulets of unknown shapes

Brad (BC)

Traian (BC) Trueti (BT) Izvoare (NT) Trpeti (NT) Grleti (DJ) Ostrovul Corbului (MH)

Site Site Site Site Tomb Tomb

Cucuteni A-B (or Precucuteni III) Cucuteni A3 Precucuteni III Cucuteni A1 Bodrogkereszt r Bodrogkereszt r

12

The pieces mentioned in the archaeological literature and fragments which cannot be determinedareincludedinthiscategory.

46

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA

Appendix4NeoAeneolithiccopperbeads(afterI.Mare,completed)
The type of the beads
Tubular beads (cylindric) 13

The place of discovery


Ariud (CV) Brad (BC) Cucuteni (IS) Decea (AB) Flciu (VS) Grleti (DJ) Glina (B) Poiana Ampoiului (AB) Sultana (CL) Trgu Frumos (IS) Trpeti (NT) Traian (NT) Bile Herculane (CS) Brad (BC) Cernica (IF) Traian (BC) Ariud (CV) Brad (BC) Decea (AB) Ghirbom (AB) Limanu (CT) Hbeti (IS) Andolina (CL) Traian (NT)

The type of discovery


Deposit Deposit Site Tomb Tomb Tomb Tomb Site Tomb Site Site Site Site Deposit Tomb Site Deposit Deposit Tomb Site Tomb Deposit Tomb Site

Cultural bordering
Cucuteni A Cucuteni A4 Cucuteni B Decea Mureului Cernavod I? Slcua III Boian, faza Vidra Coofeni III Boian, faza Bolintineanu and Giuleti Precucuteni III Cucuteni A Cucuteni A-B Herculane-Cheile Turzii Cucuteni A4 Boian, Bolintineanu phase Cucuteni A-B Cucuteni A Cucuteni A4 Decea Mureului Petreti A-B Hamangia Cucuteni A3 Boian, Vidra phase Cucuteni A-B

Number of beads
12 308-310 3 40-50 2 10-15 1 1 1 15 80

Round beads (pearls) 14

Ring beads (circular) 15

262 308-310 1 aprox. 20 28 1

Eliptic beads Bead with a shape of a stag tooth Beads of unknown shape

Agigea (CT) Baia (TL) Cernavod (CT) Chirnogi (CL) Corneti (CJ) Ostrovul Corbului (MH) Popeti (CL) Scnteia (IS) Sultana (CL) Vdastra (OT)

Accidental Tomb Tomb Tomb ? Tomb Tomb Site Tomb Site

Hamangia Cernavod I Hamangia Gumelnia A2 Bodrogkersztr Boian, Vidra phase Cucuteni A3 Boian, Bolintineanu and Giuleti phase Vdastra II

1 1

26

23 1

13Thedifferencefromthesebeadsandtheringonesstaysonlyindimensions:lesswider arethelastones. 14Betweenthesepiecesandtheelipticbeadstherearenochanges. 15Thebeadsofthistypearesimilartothetubularones,buttheyhavesmallerdimensions.

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

47

Appendix 5 NeoAeneolithic copper links and rings 16 (after I. Mare, completed)


The type of the link / ring
Links with superimposed ends (4 samples) Open links Close links Links of unknown type (5 samples)

The place of discovery


Brad (BC) (2 samples) Malna (CV) Trgu Frumos (IS) Radovanu (CL) Trpeti (NT) Hbeti (IS) Liubcova (CS) Moldova Veche (CS) Trueti (BT) Turda (HD) Valea lui Mihai (BH) Glina (2 ex.) (B) Gumelnia (CL) Moldova Veche (CS) (3 samples) Vdastra (OT) Ariud (CV) Glina (B) Izvoare (NT) Moldova Veche (CS) Pietrele (GR) Trpeti (NT) Traian (NT) Vrti (CL) Vidra (IF) Ruginoasa (IS) Traian (NT) Cscioarele (CL) Glina (B) Hbeti (IS)

The type of discovery


Deposit Deposit Site Site Site Site Site Site Cineration tomb Site Dwelling Cineration tomb Site Site Cineration tomb Cineration tomb Cineration tomb Site Site Site Site Cineration tomb Site Site Site Site Site Site Site Site Site Site Site

Cultural bordering
Cucuteni A Cucuteni A Precucuteni III Boian, Spanov phase Precucuteni III Cucuteni A3 Vina A or B2 Vuedol Cucuteni A3? Petreti A-B Baden Gumelnia A2 Gumelnia A Vuedol Slcua II Cucuteni A Gumelnia A2 Cucuteni A1 Vuedol Gumelnia A2 Cucuteni A2-A3 Cucuteni A Cucuteni A-B Boian, faza Vidra Gumelnia A2 Cucuteni A3 Cucuteni A-B Gumelnia A2 Gumelnia A2 Cucuteni A3

Diametre (cm)
1,4 1,4 1,2 1,5 1,5 1,7

Section
Round Round Round round Rhombic Round Round

Rings with superimposed ends (7 samples)

2,8 3,4 2,6 2 2,8 2 3,8 1 2,4 2 3 1 0,5

Round Round Rectangular Round Round Rhombic Round Round Round Round Round Round

Open rings (10 samples)

Close rings Curled rings (spirals)

16

Between the typological group of the links and of the rings are not significant differences, but differences can be made concerning the use of pieces; the two terms denote, for many times, the same object and they are used in the specialised literature, separatelyortogether.

48

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA
Hrova (CT) (5 ex.) 17 Traian (NT) Glina (B) Pecica (AR) Sultana (CL) Site Dwelling Site 2,3 Gumelnia A1 Precucuteni III Boian, Vidra phase Slcua IVHerculane-Cheile Turzii Gumelnia B1

Rings of unknown shape

Appendix6OtherNeoAeneolithiccopperornaments(afterI.Mare)
The type of the ornament
Buttons

The place of discovery


Hbeti (IS) (2 piese) Izvoare (NT) Suceava (SV)

The type of discovery


Site

Cultural bordering
Cucuteni A3

Characteristics

Made of copper sheet twisted in spiral having the shape of some small discs.

Earrings

Site Tomb Tomb Site Site Site

Precucuteni III (or Cucuteni A1) Three fragments of earrings. Made of copper sheet thicker in the centre and thinner at the ends. Made of copper plates with a rectangular cut The plate samples are made of plates with rectangular cuts.

Necklaces

Decea Mureului (AB) Cscioarele (CL)

Decea Mureului Gumelnia B1 Gumelnia B1 Gumelnia B1

Belts

Cscioarele (CL) Sultana (CL)

17

Indwellingnumber5fivecurledringswerediscovered;tworingsaremadeofwireand threearemadeofthincoppersheet.

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

49

Appendix7NeoAeneolithicornaments 18
The type of the ornament
Bracelets

The place of discovery


Agigea (CT) Ceamurlia de Jos (TL) Hrova (CT) Cernavod (CT)

Material and dimensions


Spondylus shell Spondylus shell Spondylus shell Marble, diameter of 10,5 cm Spondylus shell Spondylus and Pectunculus pilosus shell valves Spondylus, Ostrea, Pectunculus pilosus shell valves Spondylus shell Spondylus shell Spondylus? Pectunculus? Bone, diameter on the interior of 4,5 cm Bone, length of 3,9 cm and 2,9 cm

The type of discovery


Accidental Site Site Tomb

Cultural bordering
Hamangia Hamangia Gumelnia A1 Hamangia (Golovia and Ceamurlia) Boian (Bolintineanu and Giuleti) Boian (Bolintineanu and Giuleti)

Characteristics

Cernica (IF)

Tomb

Three narrow bracelets. Small fragments of bracelets; a small fragment of a dark grey bracelet is interesting. Four undivided bracelets and 26 fragments found in a pot. White marble, worked carefully and very delicatelly Undivided and fragments of bracelets, their exact number is not specified. There have been found 22 bracelets altogether in nine tombs (of children and women). Neither the exact number of found bracelets nor the material the bracelets are made of, is not specified; an oblique, high bracelet of Hamangia type is mentioned from the 2006 campaign. The number of pieces or other details are not specified. A bracelet fragment, being identical to those which have a narrow bar. The number of pieces or other details are not specified. The bracelet is made of a very hard bone, it is dark brown, and round with a semioval profile and more than half of it is preserved. The two pieces are of a triangular shape, with the ends benton a side and punched in order to be hanged. It is made of white, sugary marble; it has marks which show it was polished and it is cruciform. The end of an arm is crushed. The exact number of pieces is not specified. Round with a downward prolongation. Round.

Tomb

Sultana-Valea Orbului (CL)

Cscioarele-DAia Parte (CL) Radovanu (CL) Chirnogi-uvia Iorgulescu (CL) Brilia (BR)

Tomb Site Tomb Tomb

Boian (Spanov) Boian (Spanov) Gumelnia A2 Cernavod I

Site Hamangia Tomb Hamangia (Golovia and Ceamurlia)

Pendants

Ceamurlia de Jos (TL) Cernavod (CT)

Marble, diameter of 3 cm Boar teeth Tomb

Cernica (IF)

Bone

Boian (Bolintineanu

18

Through this table, we want to put together the NeoAeneolithic ornaments made of othermaterialsthancopperandgold,withoutassumingthefactthatwewanttorejoinall thepiecesofthistypediscoveredonthepresentareaofRomania.

50

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA
and Giuleti) With the shape of a link, with a downward, vertical prolongation. With the shape of a link, with a downward, vertical prolongation. With the shape of a semicircle, with an upward prolongation. The exact number of pendants discovered in this area is not specified.

Sultana-Valea Orbului (CL) nsurei-Popina II (BR) Ortie Dealul Pemilor (HD) Hbeti (IS) Mrgineni (BC) Cucuteni Cetuie (IS) Brilia (BR) Puleni (HR) Fulgeri (BC)

Spondylus, Ostrea, Pectunculus pilosus shell valves Shell

Tomb

Boian (Bolintineanu and Giuleti) Gumelnia A1

Site

? Unio crassus shell Boar teeth Boar teeth, stag teeth Boar teeth Marble, height of 2,3 cm, wide of 1,7 cm Bone/horn, height of 7,6 cm, wide of 5,3 cm Boar teeth, length of 7,5 cm Bone

Tomb Site

Turda Cucuteni A

A pendant made of a single valve; it has five holes. Taking into consideration its aspect, it seems that the piece had been worn for a long time. Fragment of amulet. Made by punching an Unio crassus valve. Pendant made of a punched boar tooth. Two pendants made of different, punched materials. Fragmental pendant of boar tooth with two holes on the superior side. It is yellow-white with a small grey spot; it looks like a doves head It is oval and it is polished; it has a hole for hanging. Pendant of boar tooth; it has a hole on the superior side. There have been found 11 rings made of bone within the necropole, mainly in the womens tombs. There is no rule concerning the rings arrangements on the hands. The skeleton from M82 had two rings. The exact number of rings found in this necropole is not specified. Only one ring made of bone was found in the necropole. The exact number of pieces is not specified. The number of pieces is not

Site Site Tomb Site Site Tomb

Cucuteni A2 Cucuteni B Cernavod I Ariud-Cucuteni Cucuteni A3 Boian (Bolintineanu and Giuleti)

Rings

Cernica (IF)

Sultana-Valea Orbului (CL) Popeti-Vasilai (CL) Chirnogi-uvia Iorgulescu (CL) Cernavod

Bone Bone Bone Shell

Tomb Tomb Tomb Tomb

Boian (Bolintineanu and Giuleti) Boian (Vidra) Boian (Spanov) Hamangia

19Thebeadsfindingsarenumerous,thatswhywehavetheimpressionthat,inthistable, werejoinallthepublishedpieces.

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments
(CT) Necklaces (beads) 19 Tomb Cernica (B) Bone, shell (Golovia and Ceamurlia) Boian (Bolintineanu and Giuleti) specified.

51

Sultana-Valea Orbului (CL) Popeti-Vasilai (CL) Andolina (CL)

Bone, marble, shell Bone, shell Shell (Spondylus and Dentalium)

Tomb

Boian (Bolintineanu and Giuleti) Boian (Vidra) Boian (Vidra)

Tomb Tomb

Vrti-Boian A (CL) Glina (B) Radovanu (CL)

Tomb Shell Shell (Spondylus?) Shell Plants seeds Lithospermum purpureo Shell (Spondylus i Dentalium) Bone Tomb Tomb Boian (Spanov) Site Tomb Deposit Plants seeds Lithospermum purpureo Boian (Spanov) Boian (Spanov) Boian (Vidra) Boian (Vidra)

There have been found beads of many types and shapes which were mainly in the womens tombs, but also in the men and childrens tombs (for example a string of beads was found in M 75). The number of pieces is not specified., but it is specified that the beads were of different types. The number of pieces is not specified. There have been found 30 bead in a tomb (24 of Spondylus type, the rest of Dentalium type); the first two ones have a rectangular plate shape with round corners but the Dentalium ones are tubular. There have been found two strings of beads, of different sizes in two tombs of women and children. The number of pieces is not specified. A few strings of beads of different sizes found in a childs tomb. Punched beads which formed necklaces. The number of pieces is not specified. 14 pieces of a rectangular plate shape and an oval, half moon piece. 526 full seeds, all of them punched, of an oval shape which formed necklaces; lengths of 2,5-2,8 mm and diameters of 2-2,8 mm

Cscioarele-DAia Parte (CL) Vldiceasca (CL)

Vrti-Grditea Ulmilor (CL) Chirnogi-Terasa Rudarilor (CL) Gumelnia (CL)

Amber Dentalium shell Shell Bone

Tomb Gumelnia A2 Tomb Tomb Gumelnia A2 Gumelnia

Two round beads. The number of pieces is not specified; some beads are black. The number of pieces is not specified Only one bead was found.

52
Ulmeni (CL) Hbeti (IS)

SERGIUCONSTANTINENEA
Lithospermum purpureo Plants seeds Limestone Teeth / eye-teeth Ariud (CV) Limestone Deposit Teeth / eye-teeth Izvoare (NT) Lithospermum purpureo Plants seeds Imitations of stag eye-teeth. Mrgineni (BC) Brad (BC) Teeth Black and glassy paste (?) Stag eye-teeth Site Cucuteni A2 Cucuteni A Site Deposit Gumelnia A1 Cucuteni A There were found 2940 seeds in a pot, 109 being punched. Nine beads of disks shapes, of different thickness which formed a necklace. 22 stag eye-teeth, punched, which formed a necklace. The number of pieces is not specified Stag eye-teeth and teeth, punched, which formed necklaces. Eight thousand calcined seeds, four thousand being punched and which formed necklaces were found in a pot In the same pot, there were also found 13 imitations of stag eye-teeth, punched, which formed necklaces. Two pieces, one made of ox incisor, the second made of stag punched eye-teeth. There were found 15 round beads, and together with the other beads formed necklaces. 190 undivided strings of beads, of different sizes, and fragments from 20 30 eyeteeth. 2 cylindrical beads made of white marble. There were found 75 undivided and fragmental pieces, which formed necklaces. More necklaces found in M 22 made of 310 beads. The number of pieces is not specified Over 800 beads, of different sizes and shapes, which formed more necklaces. Many beads of different sizes and shapes. Of an oval shape with the upper side thinner. Fragment of it.

Deposit

Cucuteni A2

Deposit

Cucuteni A4

Marble Frumuica (NT) Ostrovul Corbului (MH) Urziceni-Vam (SM) Decea Mureului (AB) Brilia (BR) Puleni (HR) Belt Cscioarele-DAia Parte (CL) Lithospermum purpureo Plants seeds Shell Shell Shell Shell (Spondylus, Cardium), rock Stag eye-teeth Bone Site Cucuteni B

Tomb Tomb Tomb Tomb Site Tomb

Bodrogkeresztr Bodrogkeresztr Decea Mureului Cernavod I Ariud-Cucuteni Boian (Spanov)

Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

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Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

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Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

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Observationsontheneolithicandaeneolithicornaments

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StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai UNEHACHEMARTEAUNAVIFORMEENPIERREDCOUVERTE RECIAVERBIA(COM.DEDIMCHENI,DP.DEBOTOANI) IOANIGNAT


Key words: Bronze Age, tumulus, battle hammeraxe, scepter, chief, warrior, craftsman. Abstract:Thisarticlepresentsabattlehammeraxemadeinbasalt,discoveredfortuitous on the surface of a mound. The axe was chemically and mineralogical analysed. The artifactisconsideredtobeanemblemofanimportantpersonageofacommunityofthe Early Bronze Age, belonging to a chief, a warrior or a skilled craftsman in stone manufacturing,beingperhapsdepositedasfuneralinventoryinthemound. Rsum: On prsente une hachemarteau naviforme en basalte trouve par hasard la surfaceduntertre.Lahachebnficieduneanalysechimiqueetminralogique.Lapice est considre un emblme dun personnage important au cadre dune communaut de lgeduBronzeAncien,appartenantunchef,unguerrierouunartisandoudans letravaildelapierre,tantprobablementdposecommeinventairefunraireentumulus. Rezumat:Esteprezentatuntoporciocannaviformdinbazalt,descoperitntmpltorla suprafaauneimovile.Toporulafostanalizatdinpunctdevederechimicimineralogic. Piesa este considerat a fi o emblem a unui personaj important din cadrul unei comunitiaperioadeitimpuriiaEpociiBronzului,aparinndunuilider,unuirzboinic sauunuimeteriscusitnprelucrareapietrei.Toporulafostdepusprobabilcainventar funerarntumul.

Le mois daot 2007, IliePetru Hricu, lve lcole gymnasiale de Dimcheni, a dcouvert accidentellement, sur une colline dans la localitReciaVerbia,unehachemarteau(fig.1),travailledansuneroche de couleur grise foncnoirtre (basalte). Par la bienveillance du professeur dhistoire de cette localit, Mihai Dumitra 1 , la pice nous est parvenu.

quionremercieencoreunefoispourlaidedonn.

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Enralisantuneinvestigationsurlaplacedeladcouverte,lemois doctobrelammeanne,onaconstatquelleattrouvedanslapartie septentrionale dun tertre avec un diamtre denviron 35 mtres et une hauteur de quelques mtres (la hauteur exacte pourra tre bien precise seulement aprs des fouilles stratigraphiques de ce tertre, parcequil se trouve sur une crte de la colline et on ne peut pas preciser exactement quelatlapportanthropique:fig.3). Du point de vue gographique, le lieu de la dcouverte est situ danslaPlainedeJijia,partiecomposantedelaPlainedelaMoldavie,dans le bassin hydrographique de la rivire Jijia, qui traverse cette rgion (TUFESCU 1977, 2728). De la base de la colline, vers la direction nord ouest sudest, part un affluent mineur de Jijia, appel Recia Verbia. Le tertre est situ dans la partie septentrionale de ce plateau, sa pente descendantlentementpourdevenirplusabrupteverslapartieinfrieure. Imposant par ses dimensions et par la domination sur les zones ambiantes, tant visible de plus de trois kilomtres distance, la partie la plushautedutertresetrouvemmeaucentredelacolline. Comme points de rpre supplmentaires, on peut aussi mentionner quil se trouve a environ 700750 mtres nordouest de la maison du dcouvreur, IliePetru Hricu, dans le lieu nomm par les habitantsdecettezoneLaMovilTrandafir(fig.1). unkilomtreverslouestdecetteposition,onapuobserverun autre tertre, avec un diamtre denviron 30 mtres, mais plus applatis (fig.4).Danscettepremireinvestigationsurleterrainonnapasobserv dautres tertres dans la zone voisine. On a fait des recherches de surface aux deux tertres. Aucun deux na prsent des vestiges archologiques. Ayant en vue la trouvaille de la hache en pierre, nous croyons que ces tertres puissent reprsenter des tumulus appartenant lge du Bronze Ancien. Lahacheenpierrementionne(fig.5)alesdimensions:106,18mm de longueur, 51,47 mm largeur maxime, 40,44 mm dhauteur maxime danslazonecentrale,39,20mmhauteurdutranchant,72,17mmlongueur de la ct davant de la hache et 42,68 mm longueur de la ct darrire, 18,43mmdiamtredelarte.

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La section longitudinale de la pice est rhombique, avec les cts ingales, celles postrieures tant plus courtes, la partie oppose au tranchant(lanuque/larte)tantdeformetronconiqueetacheveparun boutsouslaformedunmarteau.Leboutantrieur,pluslongetdeforme triangulaire,estachevparuntranchantbienarrondietaveclescoinsun peuissusverslescts.Lapiceneprsentepasdestracesdusage,mais cetaspectseraanalysplustard. Sur la partie postrieure on observe une bavure (imitation de la couture caractristique aux pices en mtal coules dans des moules bivalves), qui part du coin suprieur du tranchant et se prolonge vers le bord du trou dattachement de la manche. Ce trou a t ralis dune manire intelligente, sa partie suprieure tant plus large, avec un diamtrede22,51mm,etlapartieinfrieureplustroite,avecundiamtre de18,43mm,desortequecetteformetronconiquedelorificeareprsent unlmentsuplmentairepourlafixationlaplussredelamanche. Outre le tranchant avec les coins arrondis et issus en rlief vers lextrieur de la pice et la bavure sur la partie postrieure, on doit mentionneraussilefaitquelobjetalespartieslatrales,lolespetites cts se rencontrent avec celles grandes du rhombe de la forme de la pice, fortement arques, sous la forme dun angle obtus, et assises approximativement la mme distance de ses deux cts. Cet paississement a sert pour une resistence augmente dans la zone dattachementdelamanche(DNIL,MARINESCU1974,24). Quantlaformedela pice,onpeutmentionnerquelesegment darrire de la hache est tronconique et, dans la zone de ce boutl en forme de marteau, a une petite dfection, dans la partie gauche, probablementlersultatduneactionultrieure,dunepriodehistorique plusrcente,parcequilnyapasdautresdtriorationssemblablessurla surfacelustredelapice,exceptantquelquespetitescoupesdanslazone de fixation de la manche et aussi dans la zone du tranchant. Toute la surface de lobjet est fortement lustre, lattention accorde ce dtail dnotant limportance dtenue par son possesseur au cadre de la communaut.

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Toutescesconsidrationssurlaspectetlaformedelapicenous lgitimentdelencadrerdanslacatgoriedeshachesmarteaunaviformes. Du point de vue typologique, les hachesmarteau appartiennent la catgorie des haches de combat en pierre (VULPE 1959, 270; DNIL, MARINESCU1974,2425),aveclartecylindriqueoutronconiqueetavec de la bavure quimite les exemplaires en mtal, couls aux moules bivalves (ISTINA 2005, 289). Ils sont rencontrs dans des complexes archaologiques sur un large espace ds lnolitique jusqu la fin de lgeduBronzeetmmeaudbutdelgeduFer,bienentenduvariant comme formes et aspect. Ainsi, on peut mentionner quelquesuns de ces exemplaires. DansledpartementdeVaslui:lexemplairedelatombeno.1de Flciu (la culture Jamnaja: POPUOI 19871989, 18) et les trois exemplaires de BlteniDeal (lge du Bronze: MAXIMALAIBA, MARIN19871989,226). Dans le dpartement de Neam: ceux de Brcneti, com. de Cndeti (fig. 7/2) et de Chintinici, com. de Roznov (fig.7/3) (la culture Costia: DUMITROAIA 1997, 433), celui de Piatra Neam (lacultureCostia:CAVRUC,DUMITROAIA2001,53),dOglinzi FaaSlatinei(lacultureNoua:DUMITROAIA1992,87). Dans le dpartement de Suceava: ceux dAdncata du tumulus 9 (la culture CostiaKomariv) (NICULIC, BUDUI, MARE 2004, 270), de Hneti (fig. 6/2) (la culture Costia) (CAVRUC, DUMITROAIA 2001, 276), Cajvana (fig 6/1), Liteni (fig. 6/3), Siret (fig.6/4),Solone(fig.6/5)(NICULIC,BUDUI,MARE2004,274, 277,281282). DansledpartementdeBacu:celuideRacova(fig.7/1)(lgedu Bronzemoyen:DUMITROAIA1992,53). Danslespacenordpontique:lestroisexemplairesdeBorodinoet celui de Balabino (la culture Mnogovalikovaya, lge du Bronze moyen:KLOCHKO2001,169171)etdautrespicessemblables. La pice a pu tre seulement loeuvre dun artisan adroit, la perfection avec laquelle elle a t travaille tant un but qui ne pouvait pas tre atteint par nimporte qui. Parce quil sagit dune arme (mme

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symbolique), le plus probablement elle a t lemblme dun chef dune communauthumaine. En gnral, les tombes dhommes sont accompagnes par des lments de mobilier funraire caractristiques. Le mobilier funraire masculin de lge du Bronze dnote le contrle sur le pouvoir social, rflt,spcialement,danslesarmes:haches,hachesdecombat,sceptres, ttes de masses (TUREK 2008), etc. Dans plusieurs cultures de lge du Bronze de lEurope, les armes reprsentaient les emblmes dune socit patriarcale et guerrire. Pourtant, il nest pas exclut que la tombe appartienne une personne de sexe feminin ou un enfant. Dans cette situation, il sagit du lieu denterrement dun membre dune famille avec un statut social privilgi. Dans le cas des femmes, le mobilier funraire caractriscommemasculinpouvaittreprsentdanslasituationquand il a t dpos comme offrande par son pre ou son mari, pour les accompagneretlesdfendredanslaudel.Danslecasdesenfantsaussi. Lesarmesdeleurstombesonttdescadeauxdelapartdesmembresde lafamilleoudelacommunaut(TUREK2008). Maisnimportepasquellesvariantesonacceptera,onnepeutpas nier le fait que cette hache, comme pice de mobilier funraire, ateste le rangsocialprivilgidudfunt,quoiquilsoitunleader,unguerrier,un magicien, une femme ou un enfant ou mme lartisan qui a fait la pice, parce que les artisans de toutes sortes se rjouissaient dune position socialeprivilgieaucadredelasocit.Ilestsulefaitquelesartisansde toutessortesdescommnunautsanciennesavaientunstatutsociallev, tenantcomptedeleurrledecrateursdartefacts. Mme le tertre lev au dessus de la tombe dun personnage indiquelestatutdtenudeceluicidanslecadredelacommunaut.Plus untertreesthaut, plus lestatutdudfunt taitplus grand,lesmembres de la communaut montrant de cette manire leur solidarit et leur hommage ct de celui qui a t leur chef ou, dans des situations diffrentes,unguerrier,unartisanouuncommerant. Cest parce que la pierre a t toujours considre comme un symbole de la solidit, de la constance et de la durabilit (EVSEEV 1999, 368) quon a utilis, pendant lge du Bronze, des rgalia/insignes du

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pouvoir en pierre auprs de celles en mtal. Un objet en pierre pouvait tre, souvent, plus dur que lun en cuivre ou mme en bronze, si la dernirematirenereprsentaitpasunalliagedebonnequalit. En plus, on utilisait des roches dures de provenance volcanique, qui taient difficilement travailles, ce qui augmentait limportance des picesparcequunobjetenpierreaunevaleurplusgrandeaucadredes changessilestobtenudunerocheplusdure.Bienentendu,ilyavaitpeu depersonnesquipouvaientsepermettrelaccumulationdetelssymboles et seulement les personnages qui ont obtenu un statut social part soit hrditairement, soit comme rsultat de ses qualits et de lastuce et qui ont t accepts par les autres membres dun groupe humain campact, avaient cette posibilit. Il est possible que ces pices soient le rsultat dune commande spciale, dans des ateliers spcialiss, de la partie de quelquespersonnesayantunstatutsocialprivilgi.Plusunerochetait procuredunezonelointaine,pluslesymbolismedelapicemodeleen elleaugmentait.CestlecasparticulierdusceptrecruciformedeDumeni (com.deGeorgeEnescu,dp.deBotoani),coupdansunerochedontles analysesminralogiquesontdmontrquelazonedoriginedelamatire premireestCrimeouUrals(NICULICms.). Lanalyseptrographiqueetminralogique,raliseparlingnieur AndreiVictor Sandu du Laborateur dInvestigation Scientifique et de la Conservation du Patrimoine Culturel de lUniversit Alexandru Ioan Cuza Iai et par le Prof. Nicolae Buzgar de la Facult de Gographie GologiedelammeUniversit,le24fvrier2008(lannexe),admontr que la hache en discussion est travaille en basalte de provenance probabledelazonedesCarpathesOrientaux,lesMontsClimani 2 (mme si une composition chimique semblable prsente aussi le basalte de la zonedeCrime).Commeonpeutobserverdanslannexe,lebasaltedont on a fait la pice de ReciaVerbia a une composition diverse, contenant,

Nous voulons remercier aussi aux messieurs ing. Andrei-Victor Sandu, prof. Ioan Sandu et prof. dr. Nicolae Buzgar de l'Universit Alexandru I. Cuza Iai pour ces analyses, mais aussi au monsieur prof. univ. dr. Nicolae Ursulescu qui a facilit la ralisation des analyses.

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danssastructure,diffrentsdlmentschimiques,parmilesquels:O,Fe, Si,Ca,Al,Mg,Na,Ti,Pb,CetK(enordredescendant). Telles analyses, quoi quelles aient un effet destructif pour les picesparcequonprlvelesfragmentsncssaireslasoumissiondes divers tests chimiques et minralogiques, sont importantes et il est regretterquon nelesfait pas souvent, parceque, par leur intermde,on pourrait laborer une statistique ou une base de dates concernant la provenance de la matire premire pour de diffrents types darmes et outils, lexistence de quelques aires de diffusion pour les pices ralises dans une certaine matire, lidentification des zones spcilises dans la production des artefacts ou des itinraires de diffusion de ces artefacts, etc. La distanceentre la place de dcouverte de la pice et la zone de provenancedelamatirepremireestassezgrande.EntrelevillageRecia Verbia et la zone des Monts Climani sont approximativement150 km vol doiseau (fig. 2). La pice ou la matire premire sont y arrives soit directement, soit par quelques intermdiaires. Ce quon peut faire cest seulement de tracer quelques itinraires comerciaux pour tels artefacts, mais cela sera possible aprs la ralisation des nouvelles analyses des picespareilles. La hache en discussion a t apporte ReciaVerbia il y a quelques millnaires soit en tat fini, soit on a apport seulement la matireprimeetcelleciattravailledanslhabitatdotaitledfunt. La plus plausible variante semble tre la premire, parce que tels objets taient travaills par des artisans qualifis, qui, en gnral, dcidaient dhabiter prs de la zone dextraction de la matire premire, car il tait plusfaciledelaprocureret,pendantquelquespriodesdelanne,leplus souvent pendant ou aprs la saison de la moisson, ils ralisaient un commerce itinrant avec les pices produites pendant lanne contre des produitsalimentairesoudautresbiens. Constituantunearme,instrumentdelajustice,deloppression,de ladfense,maisaussidelaconqute(CHEVALIER,GHEERBRANT1993, 143), la hache reprsente un motif en plus lappui de lide que les socits de lge du Bronze, trouves en plein procs de changement,

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taient des socits guerrires patriarcales. Utilise, plutt, comme emblme/insigne du statut social quune arme proprementdite, on peut considrerquelleavaitdesatributionsdesceptre,surtoutqueletranchant nest pas aigu, mais lgrement bomb (BORONEAN, BORONEAN 1992,92). La pice tait fixe dans une manche. La manche mme avait un rle symbolique important. Plusieurs cultures antiques considraient la manche, vue comme batn ou baguette, comme emblme du pouvoir suverainreudesdieuxducieloudesdmonssouterrains.Elleestaussi unsymbolephaliquereprsentantleprincipemasculinactif,fertilisateur, transformateur et ordonnateur (EVSEEV 1999, 53). En plus, la manche appliqueune armesignifielabrgementdela distanceentrelhomme et le gibier, entre lattacant et lattaqu, donc symbole de la suprmatie devantlennemietmotifderespect. Fixe dans la manche, la hachemarteau de Dimcheni pouvait avoiraussidesatributionsdesceptre,lafinessedesasurfaceetlemanque destracesdusagetantdestmoignageslappuidecetteide.Lesceptre estaussiunsymboledeladominationetdupouvoirconfrquelquun paruneinstancesuprme,tantaussiarmedesdieux(EVSEEV1999,422), ctdemarteau.Lobjetcombineexcellemmentlahacheaveclanuque en forme de marteau, les deux symboles masculins. Le marteau est le symbole de la force brute, de la punition, arme des dieux ouraniens, matres de la tempte et du foudre (Thor pour les Scandinaves) ou instrument des dieuxforgerons (Hphaistos aux Grques, Volcan aux Romains)(EVSEEV1999,97). Limitation de la couture sur le dos des exemplaires mtalliques, couls dans des moules bivalves, est aussi charge de significations. cause du manque des pices mtalliques ou mme dans leur prsence, mais cause du dsir de joindre la nouveaut avec les plus vieilles traditions, on est arriv la cration de ces combinations dlments ornementaux. La mise en vidence de cette bavure a ncssit un effort suplmentaire de la part de lartisan, parce que les roches dures se travaillaientdifficilement.

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Cest pourquoi nous considrons cette chose un motif suplmentaire lappui de lide que cette hache a t un lment distinctifdupointdevuesocial,unsceptreappartenantunpersonnage important au cadre de la socit, le plus probable, un chef. Ce chef, dtenteurdelobjet,commesignedupouvoir,seressemblaitsurlaterre certaines divinits clestes ou souterraines (rappeles au dessus), partageantlajusticeetconduisantsessujetssurlabasedudroitdivin,que la pice lui confrait. On nexclut pas la possibilit quun dirigeant politique et militaire soit, en mme temps, un leader rligieux, un magicien,danscettesituationenunissantmieuxlesattributsguerrierset politiquesavecceuxrligieux,attribusauxpicespareilles. Aprs sa mort, les parents ou les autres membres de la communaut ont considr que cette pice doit accompagner le dfunt dans laudel, plusieurs cultures ayant comme tradition lhabitude de dposerdanslatombedudfuntdesobjetsquilontaccompagnpendant lavieetquitaientreprsentatifspoursonstatutsocial. BIBLIOGRAPHIE BORONEANConstana,BORONEANVasile 1992 Consideraii asupra topoarelor sceptre din piatr, Epoca Bronzului, pe baza descoperirilor de la Butimanu, Cercetri arheologicenBucureti,IV,1992,p.91108. CAVRUCValeriu,DUMITROAIAGheorghe(coord.) 2001 Cultura Costia n contextul epocii bronzului din Romnia, PiatraNeam. CHEVALIERJean,GHEERBRANTAlain 19931994 Dicionar de simboluri. Mituri, vise, obiceiuri, gesturi, forme, figuri,culori,numere,vol.III(1993),III(1994),Bucureti.

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DNILtefan,MARINESCUGeorge 1974 Unelte,armeiobiectedepiatrlefuit,descoperitepeteritoriul judeului BistriaNsud, File de istorie, III, Muzeul de IstorieBistria,p.1153. DUMITROAIAGheorghe 1992 MaterialeicercetriarheologicedinnordestuljudeuluiNeam, MemAnt,XVIII,p.63143. 1997CercetrilearheologicedinjudeulNeam(1996),MemAnt,XXI, p.427436. EVSEEVIvan 1999 Enciclopediasemnelorisimbolurilorculturale,Timioara. ISTINALacrmioara 2005 Aperu des outils en pierre polie (nonolithique et lge du Bronze)delacollectionduMuseIulianAntonescudeBacu, SAA,XXI,p.285298. KLOCHKOI.Viktor 2001 Weaponry Of Societies Of The Northern Pontic Culture Circle: 5000700BC,BalticPonticStudies,10. MAXIMALAIBARuxandra,MARINIulia 19871989 Cercetri arheologice de suprafa n comuna Blteni, judeul Vaslui,AMM,IXXI,p.223245. NICULICBogdanPetru Ms. Noi date despre sceptrele cruciforme eneolitice descoperite pe teritoriulMoldovei,ArhMold(souspresse). NICULICBogdanPetru,BUDUIVasile,MAREIon 2004Consideraiiprivinduneletopoaredepiatr,dinepocabronzului, descoperite n Podiul Sucevei, Suceava, XXIXXXX, vol. I, 20022003,p.267315. POPUOIEugenia 19871989 MormintelecuocrudelaFlciu,judeulVaslui,AMM,IXXI,p. 1526. TUFESCUVictor 1977JudeulBotoani,Bucureti.

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TUREKJan 2008 StoneAxesAsTools,ValuablesandSymbols, http://www.kar.zcu.cz/texty/TurekND.htm(09.01.2008). VULPEAlexandru 1959DepozituldelaTufaitopoarelecuceafacilindric,SCIV,X,2, p.265276. ANNEXE Bulletindanalyse(24.02.2008) Hachemarteaunaviforme(ReciaVerbia,com.deDimcheni,dp.de Botoani) LaborateurdInvestigationScientifiqueetdelaConservationdu PatrimoineCulturel delUniversitAlexandruIoanCuzaIai Ing.AndreiVictorSandu Lanalyse a t ffectue laide de SEM (Surface Electron Microscopy)danslelaborateurduprofesseurdr.IoanSandu. Lapartiedeminralogie(interprtation)atfaiteparleprof.dr. Nicolae Buzgar (Facult de GographieGologie de lUniversit AlexandruIoanCuzaIai). Lanalyse a prouv que la pice est travaille en basalte, de provenanceprobabledeCarpathesOrientaux,lesMontsClimani.

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75X 500X

200X 1000X

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Elment Silicium Fer Aluminium Carbone Calcium Magnsium Titanium Potassium Plomb Sodium Oxygne

%masse 17,13613 17,30114 6,214129 0,257111 8,465166 3,319009 1,423693 0,195251 1,177624 1,557602 42,95315 100

%atome 14,14898 7,184053 5,340824 0,496404 4,898061 3,166704 0,689536 0,115806 0,131799 1,571146 62,25669 100

Erreuren% 0,712219 0,427789 0,315591 0,316745 0,254861 0,214141 0,069877 0,03584 0,080575 0,146738 31,47145

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B Fig.1.Lacartetopographique(A)etdesatelliteGoogleEarthavril2008 (B)delazonedouestduvillageReciaVerbia(com.deDimcheni,dp.de Botoani),aveclelieudelatrouvaille.

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Fig.2.Lacartedeladistanceentrelazonededcouvertedelapiceetde la zone probable de provenance de la matire premire (Google Earth avril2008).

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Fig.3.Letertreetlazoneapproximativedelatrouvailledelahache marteau.

Fig.4.Ledeuximetertresitulouestdutertreprcdant.

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Fig.5.HachemarteaunaviformetrouveReciaVerbia(dp.deBotoani).

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Fig.6.LeshachesenpierrenaviformesdeCajvana(1),Hneti(2),Liteni (3),Siret(4)etSolone(5)(selonNiculic,Budui,Mare,2004,307308).

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Fig.7.LeshachesenpierrenaviformesdeRacova,BrcnetietChintinici(selonCavruc, Dumitroaia,2001,pl.63/1,4,3).

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai LAPLASTIQUEZOOMORPHEETANTHROPOMORHEDE LHABITATHALLSTATTIENANCIENDESIRET (DP.DESUCEAVA)

IONMARE,ATTILALSZL,BOGDANNICULIC,MIRCEAIGNAT
Key words: plastique zoomorphe, plastique anthropomorphe, Hallstatt ancien, civilisationdeGvaHolihrady,SiretDealulRuina. Abstract. The authors present the excavations results from the fortified settlement of SiretDealulRuina,belongingtotheGvaHolihradyculture.Theyfocusetheiranalysis onthezoomorphicandanthropomorphicclaystatuettesfoundduringtheexcavations. Rsum. Les auteurs prsentent les rsultats des fouilles dans le site de SiretDealul Ruina, appartenant la civilisation de GvaHolihrady, en analysant les statuettes zoomorphesetanthropomorphesenterrecuite. Rezumat. Autorii prezint rezultatele spturilor arheologice din aezarea de la Siret Dealul Ruina, aparinnd culturii GvaHolihrady, concentrndui analiza asupra statuetelordelutzoomorfeiantropomorfedescoperite.

DanslapartieestdelavilledeSiret,surlarivedroitdelarivire mme nom, se trouve la colline nomm Dealul Ruina (Ruine), un fragment de cuesta, composante du Plateau de Suceava (altitude 398 m, coordonnes gographiques : 47 4 5 lat. N ; 26 0 7 long. E). Sur le plateaudelacollinesetrouveunimportantsitearchologiquequiinclut des traces dhabitat de la culture nolithique de Cucuteni, la phase B, localisesdanslapartienordiquedelacolline,nonrechercheparfouilles archologiques,etunhabitatdelacivilisationdeGvaHolihradydela priode ancienne du Hallstatt. Lhabitat est fortifi, avec deux niveaux dhabitation,occupantunesurfacedapproximatif30ha(carte1). Les investigations archologiques (inities par la Facult dHistoire Gographie de lUniversit Etienne le Grand et le Muse NationaldelaBucovinedeSuceava)ontdbuten1992etontcontinu en 1994, 1995 (de cette anneci date la collaboration avec la Facult

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dHistoiredelUniversitAl.I.CuzadeIai),1998,20002005(IGNAT, MARE 1995; IGNAT, LSZL, MARE 1996; LSZL, MARE, NICULIC1999;LSZL,MARE,NICULIC,IGNAT2001;LSZL, IGNAT, MARE, NICULIC 2002; LSZL, MARE, NICULIC, IGNAT 2003; LSZL, MARE, NICULIC, IGNAT 2004; LSZL, MARE2005;LSZL,MARE2006). A la suite des fouilles archologiques on a prcis que les deux niveaux dhabitation appartiennent la phase ancienne de la culture de GvaHolihrady,phaserepresentedanslargionnordestcarpatiquepar lacoucheMahalaIIIetparlhabitatdeGrniceti,datsdelapriodede Hallstatt A (cf. LSZL 1994, 9195). Le systme de fortification de lhabitat de Siret est compos dun foss de dfense, un vallum et une palissade. On a aussi tudi des habitations de surface et celles creuses dans la terre (prvues avec des installations de chauffage), une construction(deculte?)avecpavageenpierres,lesrestesdunfour,des tresenpleinair,desfossesmnagres. Lematrielarchologiquersultdecesrecherchessystmatiquesest richeetvari:cramique,objetsenbronze,outilsetarmesenos,ensilexeten pierre, statuettes zoomorphes et une statuette anthropomorphe, fusaoles/miniaturesderouesdechar,despoidstronconiquesenterrecuite (massifsoumenus),perforshorizontalement,vasesminiaturaux. LhabitatfortifihallstattienanciendeDealulRuinaestunedes plusgrandesstationsdelaculturedeGvaHolihradydelespacenord estcarpatique.Lesrsultatsdesfouillesarchologiqueseffectuesjusqu ce momentci mettent en relief limportance tout fait particulire dun site habit intensment, rle central dans la rgion, tant par son emplacementgographique,etparlesconditionsenvironnementaux,que parlecontrleexercsurleszonesavoisinantes.Lebutduprsenttravail est la publication dune catgorie dobjets trs caractristique pour la civilisation de GvaHolihrady: la plastique zoomorphe et anthropomorphe. Pendant les campagnes archologiques qui ont eu lieu Siret Dealul Ruina, on a dcouvert, en divers contextes, 38 statuettes

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zoomorphesentiresetfragmentairesetunestatuetteanthropomorphe.A cellesci sajoutent quatre figurines zoomorphes (reprsentations de chevaux),dcouvertesfortuitement. Dupointdevuestatistique,laplastiquedcouverteSiretDealul Ruinacomprend:
Btes cornes (Bovids) 19 Chevaux Porcs Indterminables Statuettes anthropomorphes 1 Total

13

43

Laplastiquezoomorphe.Catgoriesmorphologiques LesstatuetteszoomorphesdeSiretDealulRuinasontrepartiesde lamaniresuivante:


Total Bovi ds 42 19 % 45 Che vaux 13 % 31 1 Porcs % 2,5 Indtermina bles 9 % 21,5

Du tableau cijoint, on remarque que sauf les neuf fragments de figurines zoomorphes (quon ne peut plus dterminer du point de vue typologique), les autres appartiennent certaines catgories danimaux domestiques. La plupartdes statuettesestfragmentaire.Des19figurines reprsentantdesbtescornes(desbovids,cestdirebovins,ovinset caprins) seulement une pice qui reprsente probablement un ovin (blier, chevre?) est complte (no. 17; fig. 5 / 3. NB. Les numros se rfrentauno.duCataloguecidessous).Lattributiondecesfigurinesaux typesmorphologiquesquonvientdementionner,atfaitesurlabasede certainslmentsdidentification:lescornes,lepligloutal,lespieds,les proportions du corps, mais une dtermination absolue ne peut pas tre priseencalcul,soitquilsagissedunmodelageschmatis,soitcausede ltat fragmentaire de la majorit des pices. Le sexe est prcis trois

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figurineszoomorphesquireprsententdesbovids(no.1,16,17;fig.5/2, 3;4/5)etunporc(no.10;fig.6/11).Lesfigurinesdechevaux(no.79,14, 19,20,2731;fig.1/14;2/13;3/13;4/13)sedistinguentparlaprsence delacrinireetlesproportionsducorps,lesexetantreprsentdeux exemplairesquireproduisentdesmles(no.7,31;fig.1/2;2/1). Lecontextedeladcouverte Deshabitationsproviennent28statuetteszoomorphes(no.110, 1214,16,1722,3138),respectivement66,66%dutotaldesfigurines zoomorphesdcouvertesdelamaniresuivante: dixexemplaires(dontcinqbovids,troischevaux,unporcetunpied provenantdunefigurinezoomorphe:no.110;fig.1/1,2,4;5/2,4;6/1,3, 5, 8, 11) ont t dcouvertes dans lhabitation 3/1994, une construction avec pavage en pierres de rivire et un tre circulaire. Linventaire de lhabitation inclut des fragments cramiques de divers types, trois vases miniaturesenterrecuite,uneperleenterrecuiteetunelameensilex; troispices(dontdeuxbovidsetuncheval:no.1214;fig.4/2,4,7) proviennentdelhabitationcreuseenterre1/1995; sixpices(dontunbovid,unecornedebovin,unprotom/ttede cheval, un cheval et deux fragments de figurines zoomorphes quon ne peutplusdterminerdupointdevuetypologique:no.1722;fig.3/3;4/3 ; 5/3 ; 6/2; 7/7), ont t trouvs dans lhabitation 2/2000 (de cet endroitci provientunestatuetteanthropomorphe,aussi:no.43,fig.8). une statuette de bovin/taureau provient du complexe 1/2000, en relationavecuntredelastructureduvallumdedfense(no.16;fig.4/5); huit pices (dont trois chevaux, trois fragments de figurines zoomorphesquonnepeutplusdterminerdupointdevuetypologique, unecorneperforedebovinetunettedebovid(no.3138;fig.2/1,2,3 ; 6/9; 7/2, 5, 6, 8) ont t dcouvertes dans lhabitation 1/2004 ; de linventaire de celleci faisaient partie, aussi, deux vases miniatures (cuelles/bols); Delacouchedecultureproviennent: quatrestatuettesentiresetfragmentairesdebovids(no.11,15,23,26 ;fig.4/6;5/1;6/6,10);

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Delacouchevgtaleproviennent: sixpices(dontdeuxfragmentsdestatuettesdebovids:no.2425; fig.6/4,7etquatre fragmentsdefigurineszoomorphesindterminables: no.3942;fig.7/1,3,4,9). Onremarque,aussi,lesdcouvertesfortuitesdelasurfacedelhabitat: quatrechevaux(no.2730;fig.1/3;3/1,2;4/1). LecontextedeladcouvertedesstatuetteszoomorphesdeSiret DealulRuinaestsynthtisdansletableausuivant:


No. crt. Type (espce) Habitations La couche de culture 4 4 La couche vgtale 2 4 6 Passim Total

1 2 3 4 5

Bovids Chevaux Porcs indtermina bles Total

13 9 1 5 28

4 4

19 13 1 9 42

Matriauxettechniques Les statuettes zoomorphes de Siret Dealul Ruina sont en leur grande majorit confectionnes en pte fine et seulement en deux cas en pte demifine (avec peu de matriaux en mlange: du sable au grain grand, des fragments cramiques broys finement), brles oxydant, rduisantetencertainscas,secondairement,commeonpeutvoirdansle tableaucijoint:

Type/ Pte Pte demi Combustion Combustion Combustion

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catgorie Figurines zoomorphes fine 40 fine 2 oxydante 41 rduisante 1 secondaire 3

Modelage Lespicessontmodelesdiffremment.Certainsexemplairessont excuts dune manire raliste, au plus prs de limage de lanimal reprsent; autrefois, le schmatisme met son empreinte par la maladresse, parfois dformante du modle imit. Tout en comparant les figurineszoomorphes,onpeuttirerlaconclusionquellesonttralises pardesauteursdiffrents. Dcor Les ornements se trouvent sur la surface de deux pices qui reprsentent des chevaux : un protom (no. 19 ; fig. 3/3) et une figurine (no.28;fig.1/3).Ledcordumuseau(no.19)etducoudeschevaux(no. 19,27),semblentindiquerdespicesdeharnachement(no.19:licou?)et probablementdeslmentsdeparure(no.19,27). Conservation Du total de 42 statuettes zoomorphes, un seul exemplaire, qui reprsenteprobablementunblierouchvre,estcompletetbienconserv (no.17;fig.5/3),lesautrespicesontsouffertdesdiffrentesdgradations. Il est possible que leur fragmentation ait eu lieu en mme temps que la destruction de lhabitat, qui a fini la suite dun incendie, les matriaux archologiques (on fait rfrence ceux prissables), qui se trouvaient entre les restes dhabitations et dans les deux couches de culture, tant affects.Encequiconcernelafragmentationdesstatuettes,onnedtient pas des preuves sres de lintentionalit, mais on ne peut pas exclu que certainesstatuettesonttdtruitesintentionnellement,danslecadrede certainespratiquesmagiquesrituelles. Larpartitiontopographique

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Lesstatuetteszoomorphesonttdcouvertesenhabitations,dans lacouchedecultureoufortuitement,seulementdanslazonehabitedes alentoursduvallumdedfense,cestdiredanslapartiemridionalede lhabitat. LesfouillesarchologiqueseffectuesjusqucemomentciSiret Dealul Ruina ont mis en vidence le fait que sur une longueur dapproximativement60mtresduvallumdedfenseverslintrieurdela station, les dpts archologiques des deux niveaux hallstattiens anciens sont consistants ; ensuite, sur une longueur dapproximativement 40 mtres,suitunespacemanqudecomplexesarchologiques,lhabitation tant dense dans le secteur central du site. La zone centrale a t investigue du point de vue archologique, on avait recherch des habitations, des fosses, des complexes archologiques, mais on ny a pas trouvdestatuettes. Dans la station de Grniceti, la rpartition topographique des figurines zoomorphes indique une certaine disposition : du secteur nord delhabitatproviennent30pices(85,71%),dusecteursudproviennent5 pices(14,29%),pendantquedanslazonecentraleavecunnombreplus rduitdedcouvertesellesmanquent(LSZL1994,90). Dans les habitats de la priode du Hallstatt ancien, en particulier danslesstationsdelacivilisationdeGvaHolihrady,onadcouvertdes figurineszoomorphesquireproduisentdesbtescornesgrandsetpetits (bovins, ovins, caprins), des chevaux et des porcs. Les pices ont t analyses en diffrents ouvrages (HOREDT 1963; VASILIEV et alii 1991; GUM 1993; LSZL 1994; LEVIKI 1994; MALEEV 1996; URSACHE 1999; SRBU 2004), mais on considre quil est ncessaire dy revenir. Deux figurines zoomorphes, reprsentant des chevaux de ahnui (La Rpubliquede laMoldavie),attribueslacultureCoziaSaharna,sont illustresdansunouvragercent(KAUBA2003,193,fig.5/5,6). LastatuetteanthropomorphedeSiretDealulRuina(no.43,fig.8) a t dcouverte dans lhabitation 2 / 2000, dont linventaire inclut des figurineszoomorphes,aussi:untaureau,unbovinetdeuxchevaux(no. 1722).

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A lencontre des statuettes anthropomorphes connues du premier gedufer,lapicedeSiretDealulRuinasindividualiseparsaforme,son dcor ressemblant celuici de quelques exemplaires des cultures Gva HolihradyetCorlteniChiinu(LSZL1995;1996;2001;SRBU1999). Surlastatuettenapparataucunindiceencequiconcernesonsexe,eton ne peut pas lattribuer avec certitude une reprsentation fminine, seulementlabaseducollierenperlesdesoncou. *** La signification des figurines zoomorphes et de la statuette anthropomorphe peut tre mise en relation avec certaines pratiques magiquesrituelles,officiesdanslespacedomestique. Dans la srie de figurines zoomorphes de Siret Dealul Ruina onttdcouvertes,jusqucemomentci,seulementdesreprsentations danimaux domestiques. En ce qui concerne leur utilit, lhypothse la plus plausible est que les figurinesont tutilises commeaccessoires danslecadrede certainescrmoniescultuelles,loccasiondecertains rituels domestiques destins assurer la prosprit des troupeaux (reproduction, croissance, protection, sant) qui tait une condition primordialepourlaviedelacommunaut. Dcouvertes en grand nombre dans les habitations ( Siret Dealul Ruina, la proportion est de 66,66 %), les figurines zoomorphes font partie de linventaire domestique, leur liaison avec la vie spirituelle estvidente. Lassociation des types diffrents de figurines zoomorphes de linventairedeshabitationsdeDealulRuina(dansuncasilsagitmme dunestatuetteanthropomorphe,no.43),indiquejustementleurrelation aveccertainespratiquesmagiquesrituelles.Linventairedeshabitations 3/1994 et 1/2004 inclut, auprs des figurines zoomorphes, des vases en miniature, aussi (voir, supra, le contexte de la dcouverte), mais on prcise quelhabitation1/2004,pardesraisonsobjectives,napastdcouverte intgralement, donc le nombre des pices de culte provenant de celleci peuttreplusgrand.

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LesrecherchesarchologiquesdeSiretDealulRuinaontmisen vidence le fait que les matriaux archologiques des complexes dhabitation et de la couche de culture aient souffert des dgradations diffrentes,causesparlesconditionsquiontconduitladisparitiondes habitats hallstattiens anciens. Sans doute, comme on vient de souligner, que la plastique en terre cuite a t dtriore paralllement la destructiondelhabitathallstattien. La mme chose sest passe avec la statuette anthropomorphe manquedette.DanslecasdelaplastiquedeSiretDealulRuinaon ne dtient aucun indice qui prfigure certains rituels de magie noire (SRBU1999),donconneprendraendiscussioncesujet. Des aspects lis de la vie spirituelle du premier ge du fer sont connus des pratiques de rite et de rituel funraire, des dpts votifs caractre sacr et de la plastique zoomorphe et anthropomorphe. La plastique zoomorphe et anthropomorphe de lhabitat de la culture de Gva Holihrady, le groupe Grniceti, de Dealul Ruina sajoute aux dcouvertes similaires du premier ge du fer (LSZL 1994, 90 ; 1995 ; 1996;2001,30;URSACHE1999;SRBU1999;2004). De lanalyse de la plastique zoomorphe et anthropomorphe de Siret Dealul Ruina on constate que le nombre des exemplaires dcouverts sur la surface recherche du point de vue archologique (43 pices rsultes denviron 2000 m2 recherchs du point de vue archologiquedes30haapproximativementdelhabitat)estgrand.Onest sr que les futures dcouvertes archologiques apporteront de nouvelles informationsconcernantlaviespirituelledunhabitathallstattienancien.

CATALOGUE
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IONMARE,ATTILALSZL,BOGDANNICULIC,MIRCEAIGNAT Abrviations cascassette Ccarr Lhabitation(locuin) Ssection Dimensions(enmm) GRgrosseur(paisseur) Hhauteur Llongeur LAlargeur

STATUETTESZOOMORPHES 1.Bovid(blier,chvre?),fragment(fig.5/2),dcouvertedanshabitation 3/1994(cas.4,0,35m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine mle avec du sable, couleur marron, combustion oxydante, le museau est petit et aigu, les cornes sont courtes, le pli gloutalestmarqu,lesexeestprcis. Dimensions:L44;H31. CMB,inv.C/260 2.Bovid,fragment(fig.5/4),dcouvertedanslhabitation3/1994(cas.4, 0,40m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine avec peu dimpurets, couleur gristre / noire, combustion rduisante ; le museau, les cornes et les pieds antrieurs manquent, le pied gauche de derrire et la queue sont rompus, le pli gloutalsestgardsurunepetitesurface. Dimensions:L38,H=21. CMB,inv.C/261. 3.Cornedebovid,fragment(fig.6/8),rompudunestatuettezoomorphe, dcouvertdanslhabitation3/1994(cas.4,0,40m,niveauinfrieur). Description:ptefine,couleurmarron,combustionoxydante. Dimensions:L24. CMB,inv.C/295. 4. Corne de bovid, fragment (fig. 6/3), rompue dune statuette zoomorphe, dcouvert dans lhabitation 3/1994 (cas. 4, 0,35 m, niveau infrieur).

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Description:ptefine;couleurrouge/brique,combustionoxydante. Dimensions:L25. CMB,inv.C/297. 5. Corne de bovid, fragment (fig. 6/1), rompue dune statuette zoomorphe, dcouverte danslhabitation3/1994 (cas.4,0,35m,niveau infrieur). Description: pte fine, couleur rouge / brique, combustion oxydante ; la pointedelacornesestgarde. Dimensions:L7. CMB,inv.C/297. 6. Pied dune statuette zoomorphe, fragment (fig. 6/5), dcouvert dans lhabitation3/1994(cas.4,0,35m,niveauinfrieur);lapicenepeutpas tredterminedupointdevuetypologique. Description:ptefine,couleurbrique,combustionoxydante. Dimensions:H24. CMB,inv.C/297. 7.Cheval,fragment(fig.1/2),dcouvertedanslhabitation3/1994(cas.4, 0,40m,niveauinfrieur). Description:ptefinemledusable,couleurmarron/brique,combustion oxydante;latte,lepieddroitdedevant,ceuxdederrireetunmorceau delahanchesontrompus;lacrinireestmiseenrelief;laqueuecourte, lesexeprcis(mle). Dimensions:L53;H29. CMB,inv.C/267. 8.Cheval,fragment(fig.1/4),dcouvertedanslhabitation3/1994(cas.4, 0,300,45m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine, couleur crme/brique, combustion oxydante ; la moitiantrieuresestgarde;lespiedssontrompus,lecouhaut,latte leve,lemuseaurompu,lacriniremiseenrelief;selonlemodelage,elle sembleindiquerlapositionleve. Dimensions:H41. CMB,inv.C/258. 9.Cheval,fragment(fig.1/1),dcouvertedanslhabitation3/1994(cas.4, 0,45m,niveauinfrieur).

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Description: pte demifine mle avec du sable ayant le grain grand, couleur noire / marron / brique, combustion oxydante et secondaire ; la tte, le pied gauche de devant et ceux de derrire sont rompus ; le cou haut,lacriniremiseenvidence,laqueuecourte. Dimensions:L51;H29. CMB,inv.C/259. 10.Porc,fragment(fig.6/11),dcouvertedanslhabitation3/1994(cas.4, 0,45m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine, mles avec du sable avec le grain petit, couleur rouge/brique/noire,combustionoxydanteetsecondaire;lepiedgauche dedevant,ceuxdederrireetlaqueuesontrompus;lesomoplatessont reprsentes par deux prominences, crte sur la courbe du dos, le museaulongestlev,lesexeestmarqu(mle). Dimensions:L42,H31. CMB,inv.C/262. 11.Bovid,fragment(fig.6/10),dcouvertedanslaSII/1994,C32,0,40 m,niveauinfrieur. Description: ptedemifine avec peudetessonspilsfinementetavecdu sableayantlegraingrand,couleurrouge/brique,combustionoxydante; latteetlepiedgauchededevantsontrompus;lepieddroitdederrire manque;laqueueesquisse;lapiceestmodelengligemment. Dimensions:L39,H(postrieur)17;H(antrieur)21. CMB,inv.C/268. 12.Bovid,fragment(fig.4/7),dcouvertedanslhabitationcreusedans laterre1/1995(SIV/1995,C12,0,50m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine, couleur rouge / brique, combustion oxydante ; les cornes,lahanche,laqueueetlepiedgauchedederriresontrompus,le pligloutalestmarqu. Dimensions:L35,H30. CMB,inv.C/275. 13.Bovid,fragment(fig.4/4),dcouvertedanslhabitationcreusedans laterre1/1995(SIV/1995,C9,0,80m,niveauinfrieur). Description:ptefine,couleurmarron/gristre,combustionpasuniforme etsecondaire;lescornessontrompuespartiellement,lespiedsdedevant, celuidroitdederrireetlaqueuemanquent;lepligloutalestmarqu.

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Dimensions:L45. CMB,inv.C/273. 14.Cheval,fragment(fig.4/2),dcouvertedanslhabitationcreusedans laterre1/1995(SIV,C9,0,65m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine, couleur rouge / brique, combustion oxydante ; la zone de la tte, la crinire mise en relief, les petites oreilles se sont conserves. Dimensions:L29. CMB,inv.C/305. 15.Bovid,fragment(fig.5/1),dcouvertedanslaSIV/1995,C8,0,35m, niveauinfrieur. Description: pte fine, couleur noire/gristre, combustion rduisante; approximativement une moiti de la partie de devant de la pice sest conserve;latteetlespiedssontrompus,lepligloutalestmarqu. Dimensions:L16,H20. CMB,inv.C/309. 16.Bovin/taureau,fragment(fig.4/5),dcouverteencas.1/2000,CB2, 0,50m,enrelationavecundptdetorchiscalcin(lecomplexe1/2000) de la structure du vallum de dfense (LSZL, MARE, NICULIC, IGNAT2001,231). Description:ptefine,couleurmarron,combustionoxydante;lescornes,le pieddroitdedevantetlapartiegaucheinfrieureducorpssontrompus; la tte a une crinire mise en relief sur le front, le museau aigu; le pli gloutalestmisenvidence;lesexeestprcis(mle). Dimensions:L34. CMB,inv.C/401. 17.Bovid(blier,chvre?)(fig.5/3),dcouvertedanslhabitation2/2000 (cas. 2/2000, C A2, 0,40 m, niveau infrieur) (LSZL, MARE, NICULIC,IGNAT2001,231). Description: pte fine, couleur marron ; combustion oxydante ; les cornes courtes sont recourbes en arrire, le museau aigu, la queue courte est rblesabase;lepligloutaletlesexesontmarqus(mle). Dimensions:L30,H28. CMB,inv.C/402.

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18. Corne de bovin, rompue dune statuette (fig. 6/2), dcouvert dans lhabitation2/2000(cas.2/2000,CA2,0,30m,niveauinfrieur). Description:ptefine,couleurbrique,combustionoxydante. Dimensions:L18. CMB,inv.C/408. 19.Protom(ttedecheval)(fig.3/3),dcouvertdanslhabitation2/1998 =L2/2000(SV/1998,C9,0,350,45m,niveauinfrieur). Description:ptefine,couleurrouge/brique;combustionoxydante;surle museau se trouve un ornement compos de deux ranges de points imprims,parallles,horizontaux,sparsparuneligneincise,dcorqui sembleindiquerunlmentdeharnachement(licou?);surlecou,derrire la tte, se trouve un carr incis, lintrieur duquel sont imprimes 16 petitesalvoles;lextrmitducoufinitdroit,cetendroitlsontincises trois lignes courtes, parallles ; il est possible que la pice aittmonte sur un support ; approximativement un tiers dune partie de lobjet est rompue. Dimensions:L58. CMB,inv.C/315. 20. Cheval, fragment (fig. 4/3), dcouverte dans lhabitation 2/2000 (cas. 2/2000,CA2,0,32m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine, couleur marron, combustion oxydante, la partie de devant de la statuette sest garde ; la tte est leve, les oreilles sont courtes,lemuseauestlongetaigu,lacrinireestmiseenrelief,lepiedde droitemanque. Dimensions:L24,H33. CMB,inv.C/406. 21.Statuette,fragment(fig.7/7),dcouvertedanslhabitation2/2000(cas. 2A/2003,CB1,0,35m,niveauinfrieur(LSZL,MARE,NICULIC, IGNAT2004). Description:ptefine,homogne,couleurbrique,combustionoxydante;le pied droite avec un morceau de derrire de la pice sest gard ;ellene peutplustredterminedupointdevuetypologique. Dimensions:L19,H29. CMB:inv.C/474

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22.Statuette,fragment(fig.6/12),dcouvertedanslhabitation2/2000(cas. 2A/2003,CB2,0,35m,niveauinfrieur)(LSZL,MARE,NICULIC, IGNAT2004). Description:ptefine,homogne,couleurbrique,combustionoxydante;la corneetunmorceaudelattedelapicesesontgards. Dimensions:L11. CMB:inv.C/475 23.Bovid,fragment(fig.4/6),dcouvertedanslacas.3/2000(CB1,0,65 m,niveauinfrieur). Description: pte fine, couleur rougetre/brique, combustion oxydante; approximativementunemoitidelapartieinfrieuredroiteestrompue; les cornes sont rompues, le pli gloutal est marqu, la queue courte est tranche,lespiedssontlongs. Dimensions:L31,H30. CMB,inv.C/404. 24.Bovid,fragment(fig.6/7),dcouvertdanslacas.3/2000,0,10m. Description:ptefine,couleurbrique,combustionoxydante;lazonedela tte sest conserve ; les cornes sont rompues plus haut de la base, le museauestaigu,lepligloutalestmarqu. Dimensions:L20. CMB,inv.C/403. 25.Bovid,fragment(fig.6/4),dcouvertedanslacas.3/2000,0,10m, solvgtal. Description: pte fine, couleur rouge/brique, combustion oxydante; la tte est rompue, le cou est court, le pli gloutal est marqu; approximativementunemoitidelapartiedederriremanque. Dimensions:L31,H30. CMB,inv.C/405. 26.Cornedebovin,rompuedunefigurine(fig.6/6),dcouvertdansla cas.3/2000,CB2,0,39m,niveauinfrieur. Description: pte fine, couleur rouge / brique, combustion oxydante ; la cornedroiteavecunmorceaudelattedelastatuettesestconserve. Dimensions:L37. CMB,inv.C/407.

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27. Cheval, fragment (fig. 3/2), dcouverte fortuite de lanne 1986 (trouveparleprofesseurFlorinHu),prsduvallumdedfense. Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur marron/crme, combustion oxydante;lamoitidederriredelastatuetteestrompue;lacrinireest miseenreliefetprsentedeuxpetitesalvoles;lesoreillessontmarques, lemuseauestaigu,lepiedgauchededevantmanque. Dimensions:H47. CMB,inv.C/256. 28.Cheval,fragment(fig.1/3),dcouvertefortuitedelanne1986(trouve parleprofesseurFlorinHu),prsduvallumdedfense. Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur marron/crme, combustion oxydante; le pied droit de devant est rompu du milieu, les pieds de derriremanquent;lacrinireestmiseenrelief,lesoreillessontmarques, lemuseauestaigu;surlecousontimprimsneufpoints,dcorquipeut reprsentersoitunlmentdeparure,soitdeharnachement. Dimensions:L=46;H38. CMB,inv.C/257. 29.Cheval,fragment(fig.4/1),dcouvertefortuitedelanne1998,prs duvallumdedfense. Description: pte fine, couleur brique, combustion oxydante; la tte recourbeetunmorceauducousesontgards;lacrinireestencoche. Dimensions:L13. CMB,inv.C/316. 30. Cheval, fragment (fig. 3/1), dcouverte fortuite, on na pas dautres donnes;initialement,elleatattribuelacultureCucuteni,laphaseB (URSULESCU, ANDRONIC, HU 19861987, 90, pl. IV/3), ultrieurement, elle a t encadre correctement (LSZL 1994, 90, fig. 52/1). 31.Cheval(fig.2/1)dcouvertedanslhabitation1/2004(SVII/2004,C11, 0,41 m, niveau infrieur); la pice se trouvait la base dun fmur danimal,tantpositionneaveclespiedsenhaut. Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur marron/brique, combustion oxydante; les pieds de la partie gauche et la queue sont rompus ds lpoque ancienne, la crinire est mise en relief, le museau est aigu et arrondi,lesexeestmarqu(mle).

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Dimensions:L36,H29. CMB,inv.C/472. 32. Statuette, fragment (fig. 7/6), dcouverte dans lhabitation 1/2004 (S VII/2004,L1/2004,C18,m.26,80,0,40m). Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur brique, combustion oxydante; approximativement une moiti de la partie de derrire de la pice sest conserve;ellenepeutplustredterminedupointdevuetypologique. Dimensions:L18,H21. CMB,inv.C/479. 33. Statuette, fragment (fig. 7/2), dcouverte dans lhabitation 1/2004 (S VII/2004,L1/2004,C14,0,30m). Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur brique, combustion oxydante; un morceau de la partie dorsale de la statuette sest gard; elle ne peut plustredterminedupointdevuetypologique. Dimensions:L15,H=21. CMB,inv.C/481. 34. Statuette, fragment (fig. 7/5), dcouverte dans lhabitation 1/2004 (S VII/2004,C18,0,40m). Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur brique, combustion oxydante; elle est rompue dapproximativement sa moiti, seulement la partie dorsalesestgarde;lespiedsdederriresontcourtsetgros,laqueueest mise en relief; la pice ne peut plus tre encadre du point de vue typologique. CMB,inv.C/480. 35. Corne de bovid, fragment (fig. 7/8), dcouverte dans lhabitation 1/2004(SVII/2004,L1/2004,C16,0,35m). Description:ptefine,homogne,couleurbrique,combustionoxydante;la base de la pice, rompue ds lpoque ancienne, garde la moiti dune perforation;ellepeuttreunobjetdeparure. Dimensions:L24. CMB,inv.C/476. 36.Cheval,fragment(fig.2/2),dcouvertedanslhabitation1/2004(Cas. 1/2005,0,40m).

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Description:ptefine,homogne,couleurmarron;lattealemuseauaigu, lesoreillesetlacriniresontmisesenrelief;laqueue,lespiedsdedevant etceluigauchedederriresontrompus. Dimensions:L46;H34. CMB,inv.C/505. 37. Cheval, fragment (fig. 2/3), dcouverte dans lhabitation 1/2004 (Cas. 1/2005,0,55m). Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur brique; la moiti antrieure manque,latteestrompue;surlecou,lacrinireestmiseenvidence;les piedsdedevantsontrompus. Dimensions:L46;H59. CMB,inv.C/506. 38.Ttedebovid,fragment(fig.6/9),dcouvertedanslhabitation1/2004 (Cas.2/2005,0,50m). Description: pte fine, homogne, couleur rouge; la tte a le museau reprsentschmatiquement;lescornessontrompues. Dimensions:L25. CMB,inv.C/509. 39. Statuette, fragment (fig. 7/4), dcouverte dans la couche arable (S VII/2004,C11,0,15m). Description: pte fine, couleur brique, combustion oxydante; la partie dorsale de la statuette sest garde; sur la queue se trouve un point imprim, le pied gauche est entier, celui droit est rompu presque de sa base;ellenepeutplustredterminedupointdevuetypologique. Dimensions:L19. CMB,inv.C/482. 40. Statuette, fragment (fig. 7/1), dcouverte dans la couche arable (S VII/2004,C6,0,17m). Description:ptemleavecpeudesableaugraingrand,couleurbrique sasurfaceetgristredanslacassure,combustionoxydanteincomplte;la partiedorsaledunestatuettequinepeutplustredterminedupointde vuetypologiquesestgarde. Dimensions:L19. CMB,inv.C/478.

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41. Statuette, fragment (fig. 7/9), dcouverte dans la couche arable (S VII/2004,C13,0,17m). Description:ptefine,homogne,couleurbriquelasurfaceetgrisedans la cassure, combustion oxydante incomplte; approximativement une moitidelapartiedorsaledunestatuettequinepeutplustredtermine dupointdevuetypologique,sestgarde. Dimensions:L18. CMB,inv.C/477. 42. Statuette, fragment (fig. 7/3), dcouverte dans la couche arable (S VII/2004,C.11,0,15m). Description:ptefine,couleurmarron,combustionoxydante;lecorpsdela statuette sest garde, la tte et les pieds sont rompus; elle ne peut plus tredterminedupointdevuetypologique. Dimensions:L33. CMB,inv.C/483. PLASTIQUEANTHROPOMORPHE 43. Lunique statuette anthropomorphe, trouve jusqu prsent Siret (fig. 8) a t dcouverte dans lhabitation 2/2000 (LSZL, MARE, NICULIC, IGNAT 2001, 231), du niveau infrieur dhabitation (cas. 2/2000,0,30m). Description: elle est modele en pte fine, homogne, couleur marron, combustionoxydante;elleauneformerectangulaireaplatie;lecouestmis en vidence par un prolongement rompu auprs de la base; la tte manque;surlapartiededevantdelapicesetrouveundcorralisde lignesincisesetdepointsimprims;soncou,setrouveunerangede pointsimprimsdispossenformedarcade,quisemblentreprsenterun collier (perles ?); sous celuici se trouvent deux lignes incises horizontalement,parallles;approximativementsurlataillesetrouveune range de points imprims qui spare deux ranges de lignes courtes, obliques,parallles,incises;ladispositiondecellesciestsouslaformede labranchedesapin;ilestpossiblequelesornementsquiapparaissentsur letroncreprsententdeslmentsdevtement(ceinture,habits);labase

100 IONMARE,ATTILALSZL,BOGDANNICULIC,MIRCEAIGNAT de lastatuetteest aismentaplatie;surlapartiedederrire,ellenapas dedcor. Dimensions:L41;LA36;GR12. CMB,inv.C/411. BIBLIOGRAPHIE GUMMarian 1993 Civilizaia primei epoci a fierului n sudvestul Romniei. BibliothecaThracologica,IV,Bucureti.

IGNATMircea,MAREIon SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor Campania1994,ClujNapoca,83. IGNATMircea,LSZLAttila,MAREIon SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica Campania1995,Brila,114115. HOREDTKurt 1963 1996 cercetrilor 1995 arheologice.

arheologice.

Hallstttische Tierfiguren aus Lechina de Mure, Rayon Ludu. Dacia,NS,VI,527534.

KAUBAMaia 2003 Periferia de est a complexului hallstattian timpuriu cu ceramic incizat i imprimat (secolele XVIII .e.n. n interfluviul Nistru Siret). Interferene cultural cronologice n spaiul nord pontic(red.EugenSava),Chiinu,183210.

LSZLAttila 1994 nceputurile epocii fierului la est de Carpai. Culturile Gva HolihradyiCorlteniChiinupeteritoriulMoldovei.Bibliotheca ThracologicaVI,Bucureti.

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1995 StatueteleantropomorfealeculturiiGvaHolihrady.MemAnt,XX, 8597. 1996 Sur la plastique antropomorphe de la civilisation GvaHolihrady. Probleme der Bronze und der Frhen Einsenzeit in Mitteleuropa. Festschrift fr Marek Gedl (red. Jan Chochorowski),Krakw,1996,351362..

2001 Prima epoc a fierului. Perioada timpurie. Istoria Romnilor. I. Motenirea timpurilor ndeprtate (coord. M. Petrescu Dmbovia,A.Vulpe),Bucureti,2001,294327. LSZLAttila,MAREIon,NICULICBogdan 1999 SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor Campania1998,Vaslui,107108. arheologice.

LSZLAttila,MAREIon,NICULICBogdan,IGNATMircea 2001 LSZLAttila,IGNATMircea,MAREIon,NICULICBogdan SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia.Campania2001,Buzia,289291. LSZLAttila,MAREIon,NICULICBogdan,IGNATMircea 2003 SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia.Campania2002,Covasna,293295. 2002 SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia.Campania2000,Suceava,230232.

LSZLAttila,MAREIon,NICULICBogdan,IGNATMircea SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia.Campania2003,ClujNapoca,2004,311312. LSZLAttila,MAREIon,NICULICBogdan,IGNATMircea 2005 SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia.Campania2004,Mangalia,348350. 2004

102 IONMARE,ATTILALSZL,BOGDANNICULIC,MIRCEAIGNAT LSZLAttila,MAREIon SiretDealul Ruina. Cronica cercetrilor arheologice din Romnia.Campania2005,Constana,330331. LEVIKIOleg 1994 Cultura hallstattului canelat la rsrit de Carpai. Bibliotheca Thracologica,VII,Bucureti. 2006

MALEEVIurij Nowe znaleziaska Halsztackiej plastiki zoomorficznei z Podniestrza. Probleme der Bronze und der Frhen Einsenzeit in Mitteleuropa. Festschrift fr Marek Gedl (red. Jan Chochorowski),Krakw,363370. SRBUValeriu 1999 2004 URSACHECorinaNicoleta ThezoomorphicfigurinesatthebeginningoftheIronAge.SAA,6, 4160. URSULESCUNicolae,ANDRONICMugur,HUFlorin 19861987 Contribuii la cunoaterea aezrilor de pe teritoriul Siretului naintedeconstituireaorauluimedieval.Suceava,XIIIXIV,85101. VASILIEVValentin,ALDEAIonAlexandru,CIUGUDEANHoria 1991 Civilizaia dacic timpurie n aria intracarpatic a Romniei. Contribuii arheologice: aezarea fortificat de la Teleac, Cluj Napoca. 1999 Figurinele antropomorfe din prima epoc a fierului descoperite n lumeatracic.Istros,IX,4788. Figurinedecaidinepocafieruluilatraciinordici.MemAnt,XXIII, 355367. 1996

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Fig.1.Chevaux.12,4:L3/1994;3:dcouvertefortuite.

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Fig.2.Chevaux.13:L1/2004.

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Fig.3.Chevaux.12:dcouvertesfortuites;3:L2/1998.

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Fig.4.Bovids.1:dcouvertefortuite;2,4,7:L1/1995;3:L2/2000;5:cas 1/2000,CB2;6:cas3/2000,CB1.

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Fig.5.Bovids.1:SIV/1995,C8;24:L3/1994.

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Fig.6.Statuetteszoomorphesfragmentaires.Bovids.1,3,5,811: L3/1994;2,12:L2/2000;4,67:cas3/2000;9:L1/2004;10:SII/1994,C32..

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Fig.7.Statuetteszoomorphesfragmentaires.1,34,9:SVII/2004;2,56:,8: L1/2004;7:L2/2000.

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Fig.8.Statuetteanthropomorphe.L2/2000.

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai LEMATREDAXIOTTA,UNDIEUUNIVERSEL.POLYMORPHISME ETPOLYONYMIE IULIANMOGA


Keywords:Mn,Axiotta,solarcults,polymorphism,polyonymy. Rsum:Entraitantleproblmedelamultiplicitdesaspectssyncrtiquesdeladivinit, cet article montre la persistence des deux types de phnomnes associs aux tendances syncrtiquesdelpoqueimprialelgarddeMn,lepolymorphismeetlapolyonymie, cequiindiquedunepartdenombreusesvarianteslocalesdeladiviniteattestesenmme temps,etduneautre,lamultitudedesattributsdestinsenrichirlespouvoirsdundieu devenuuniversel. Abstract:Theauthorshowsthepersistanceoftwotypesofphenomenaassociatedtothe syncretictendanciesofMn,polymorphismandpolyonymy. Rezumat: Autorul arat persistena, n epoca imperial, a dou tipuri de fenomene asociatetendinelorsincreticeprivitoarelaMn:polimorfismulipolionimia.

Divinitdorigineindoiranienne,Mntaittrspopulairesurtout danslesrgionsdelaPisidie,delaPhrygieetdelaLydieorientale(VAN HAEPERENPOURBAIX 1983, 243248; LABARRE, TALALIAN 2002, 257281; DMGR, 543). Bien quil tait connu dans quelques sources anciennes comme une divinit phrygienne par excellence, notamment dans les temoignages de Lucien de Samosate (Zeus tragdien 8, 42), dAthnedeNaucratis 1 etdeStrabon 2 ,cepointdevueatdeplusen plus mis en question par des travaux plus ou moins rcents (HBNER 2003,181;LANE1990,21702171)(v.Tmoignages).Danstoutlemonde anatolien,deCarieetjusquauPont,souscenomtaitvnrundieuqui exerait une action cleste et protectrice, aidant les plantes pousser,
Athne de Naucratis, Les Deipnosophistes, II, 17 (43b) mentionne un village en Phrygie, surleMandre,nommbourgdeMnparcequedanssonterritoirexistaituntemple deMnCarou.Strabon,Gographie,XII,8,20signaledanscetemple,situentreLaodiceet Caroura, lxistence dune cole de mdecine. Voir aussi M. ZSAIT, LABARRE, N. ZSAIT2004,7172. 2 Strabon,Gographie.,XII,3,31;ClmentdAlexandrie,LeProtreptique,II,26,1mentionne ladorationdesPhrygienspourlalune (selene).
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assurantlaprospritdesfoyersetfacilitantlafertilitetlareproduction des animaux. Il tait plus populaire la campagne, o les paysans linvoquaient comme protecteur de leurs fermes et de leurs villages (LEGRAND1963,13921393). Agns van HaeperenPourbaix considerait que la vnration particulire de Mn, surtout dans le milieu phrygien est due aux influences du mazdisme persan de la priode achmnide et la persistanceparmilapopulationlocaledescroyanceslieslaviedelau del,ressurctionetlimmortalitdelme(1983,244247).Toutcommele chercheurmentionn,EugeneN.LaneinsistesurlescomponentsIraniens qui ont influenc fondamentalement lapparition de la perception anatoliennesurlimagedeMn.Cetteralitestrefltesurtout(1)parles similitudes iconographiques entre Mn et son correspondant indo scythique Mao ou Mh, (2) lassociation dans la majorit des cas avec la dessedorigineperseArtemisAnatis(Anahita)(DIAKONOFF1979,139 175;LANE1981,193209;SPEIDEL1984,22322238)etsurtoutlaprsence delauroledivineiranienne,hvaren,enliaisonaveclepontiqueMnde Pharnakes(MnPharnakou)(LANE1990,21702173). Mn tait considr le matre du monde vgtale et animale, une divinit de la fertilit et de la reproduction, un matre des vivants mais aussi des morts (CUMONT 1909, 93). Il avait des attributs thaumaturgiques et oraculaires, avec des significations chthoniennes et ouraniennes en mme temps. Sa souverainet sexerait sur lunivers terrestre, et en mme temps sur le monde souterrain (DGF, 1278; LECHAT1963,17181720). Danslesreprsentationsilestfiguravecuncroissantlunaireses paules meniskos ,probablementcausedelaconfusionentresonnom et un mot grec qui correspondait la lune ou au mois du calendrier (Tmoignages) 3 . Sous une forme ou lautre, le mot est prsent dans
Souslaforme Mn ilestrappelchezLuciendeSamosate,Zeustragdien,8;notreavisil est suggestif le fait que mn avait aussi le sens de mois du calendrier (correspondant au motlatinmensis);cf.DGF,p.1277.Toutefois,commelexpliqueH.Lechat(Meniskos,dans DAGR, III.1, 19632, p. 1718): Les mots mene et meniskos dsigne le croissant de lune, paroppositionselenequidsignelalunepleine.
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presque touts les langues indoeuropennes. Ainsi on a m et msah en sanscrite, mh en avestique et paloperse, m(s) en celtique, amis en armnien,mezneenombrienne,mnsis en latin, mna en anglosaxon ou mseienvieuxslave(CHANTRAINE1981,695696). Selon une autre tymologie, le nom de la divinitMn serait un mot lydien ayant le sens de brillant ou fort (DMG, 357) assez ressemblantlpiclsenaramsit(aveclesensdieubrillantoulumire quimonte)appliqupourledieulunairechaldenSn.FranzCumonta suggr mme quil existait une filiation directe entre Sn de Harran en Osrone et Mn (CUMONT 1913, 449). Cette dnomination a facilit probablementlesmoyenssyncrtiquesultrieurspourlinterprtationde ses attributs. Dans beaucoup de cas, Mn a t considr le compagnon dAttisetquelquefoismmeidentifiavecceluici. Le culte du dieu lunaire a tattest pendant les premiers sicles dans les zones iraniennes et armniennes (MOL 1962, 218229; WIDENGREN 1968, 257, 322, 369372), aussi que dans des rgions lointainesdesmontagnesHindukush,surleterritoiredelempireKushan. La divinit apparat sous les monnayes en bronze du temps des rois kushans Kanishka et Huvishka pendant les III sicles ap. J.C. (LANE 1990,2170).SurunedecesmonnayesappartenantauKanishka,leroiest reprsentdevantlauteletlereversledieulunaireportantsurlespaules un croissant de lune. Cest une iconographie tout fait similaire celle anatolienne(STAWINSKI1979,44).Danslepanthonkushan,ladivinit lunaire avait le nom de Mah/Mao (ROWLAND 2000, 114118) et il tait lquivalent duMn micrasiatique. Dautre part, du point de vue tymologique, les motsmah et mhvvvn provenaient de la mme racine commune*mns,ayantdessenssimilaires:lemoisducalendrieretlastre dunuit.ChezBmiyn,commechezChorasax,Rabatakoudansdautres endroitsdelempireKushanonlesrencontrereprsentsoumentionns Mithra 4 (souventidentifiApolloouHelios),Serapis,Herakles,Ahura MazdaouBuddha(STAWINSKI1979,6465).
IGSK,65,318.SouslastledeRabatakquicontientlaResGestaeduroikushanKanishka (sec. III aprs J. Ch..) apparaissent mentionns Mithra, Nana, Ahura Mazda, Umma, SroshardoetNarasa.
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En ce qui concerne les appelations du Mn quon peut les rencontrer dans les temoignages littraires, on retiens Mn Pharnakou, mentionn par Strabon, rpandu dans les regions de lAlbanie du Caucase,laPhrygie,etPisidie(GographieIII,31),MnPhrygiosmentionn parLuciendeSamosatepourlazonephrygienne(Lucien,Zeustragdien, 8,42)etSabaziosMndansunescholiedeProclustoujourspourlaPhrygie (SANTORO1974,184185;DEBORD2005,1385) 5 .Lesinscriptionsddies au dieu, ainsi que les monnaies, prsentent une varit remarquable, donnant limprsion dune existance en ralit de plusieurs divinits locales vnrs sous le mme nom (par exemple, Mn Labanas, Mn Axiottenos, Mn Tiamou, Mn Tyrannos). Ses pithtes spcifiques peuvent tre divises en plusieurs catgories indiquant le nom du fondateur du sanctuaire (Artemidorou, Apolloniou, Epikratou, Diodotou, ou mme Pharnakou) ou les attributs et les fonctions du dieu (ouranios, katachthonios, phosphoros, epekoos, patrios, soter, ploutodotes, aniketos, tyrannos) (LABARRE, TALIALAN 2002, 273). Lpiclse dorigine lydiennetyrannos,matre,etplustardcelledemenotyrannus(TURCAN 1990, 83) utilises peut tre pour lidentification avec Attis, selon la suggestion de Lane souligne la qualit de dieu Mn comme divinit universelle,toutpuissant,matre du mondecleste (ouranios),terrestre et souterrain (katachthonios), qui donne de la richesse aux communauts humaines(LANE1990,21622163).Danscederniercas,commeprotecteur du monde de laudel, Mn Tymoleites et Mn Katachthonios taient invoqus comme protecteurs des monuments funraires. On utilise souvent dautres formules qui atteste la qualit de dieu invincible: invictus,aneiketos,saxigenusoupetraeites(CNRDMI,21;VANHAEPEREN POURBAIX1983,242)demmequeMithraparexemple.Mntaitencore vu comme un dieu des anctres, fait dmontr aussi par lutilisation de lexpression ho patrios theos dans quelques inscriptions de la colonie romaine de lAntioche de Pisidie ou propator dans une lettre marqu sur pierreSardes(LEVICK1970,3947).

VoiraussiProclus,ScholiainPlatonisTimaeum,IV,251C.

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Plus problmatique est le cas de lpiclse askaenos ou askaios quon trouve partout sur les monnaies de Sardes ou sur les inscriptions pisidiennes et pamphyliennes, et encore dans les tmoignages littraires (Tmoignages) qui peuvent indiquer soit des liaisons avec le monde iranien (VAN HAEPERENPOURBAIX 1983, 239245), soit une certaine intention de propagande faite par les autorits romaines, hypostase soutenue au dbut par Lane et, plus rcemment, par Salzmann (LANE 1990, 21712173; SALZMANN 1980, 261290; contra LABARRE, TALALIAN2002,273).Nousconsidronsqueladeuximevarianteestla plus crdible. Dabord au moins deux autres inscriptions montrent la mmeintention.LinscriptiondcouverteparEski[ehir,surlemplacement delaanciennevillephrygienneDorylaeum,atddieunMnItalikos, uneallusiontrsclairepourlaliaisonentrelemondeanatolienneetcelle romaine (LANE 1975, 235239; LANE 1990, 2171). La deuxime inscription,quimontresurtoutunecertaineliaisonavecleculteimprial, etaussilimplicationdanslorganisationetlefinancementduculteestune lettre adress probablement pendant le rgne du Commode par le prtre Hrmogens, fils de Dmtrios, de Sardes, qui administrait les biensdutempledudieuancestralMnAskenos,appeliciMnAskaenos propator, au gouverneur de la province dAsie, le proconsul Arrius Antoninus.Letextedelinscriptionprsenteuneimportanceconsidrable parce que cest la premier fois quon rencontre Mn comme un dieu mystres. Ici on dcouvre que, en concordance avec le privilges offerts initiallement par les rois normalement les souverains achmenides et attalydes (SYME 1995, 344347; DIGNAS 2002, 225) , et ensuite par les gouverneursromainsetleConseilduPeupledelavillelydienne,ledieu avaitledroitderecevoirparlesmagistratsdelacitunesommedestine selon la coutume et fixe une valeur de 600 dniers, qui devait tre dpenser pour des sacrifices et des libations offertes au dieu, pour la russite et lternit de lempereur et des riches rcoltes. Des rponses trs intressantes sont attaches la fin de la lettre dHrmogens comme tmoignage. Il sagit de celle du procurateur de lempereur Vespasien, VenuleiusValens, causedune pareille interpellation,oilsollicite aux magistratsdecontribuerselonlatraditionpourlaclbrationdesmystresdu

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Mn (MALAY 1999, 119122; CMRDM I, 75=IGSK 17.1, 3252), et celle du proconsulAsprnas,quiconfirmaitlesdispositionsantrieures. Endeuxime lieu,pour revenir au casde lpiclseaskaenos, je ne crois pas que lpithte mentionne est un driv de ashkenaz, malgr les paralllismes avec le monde indoiranienne (VAN HAEPEREN POURBAIX 1983, 239242), et plutt je pense quil fait rfrence lutilisation par les Romains, pour la propagande, du mythe de leurs origines troyennes qui commence tre utilis de plus en plus ds le rgne dAuguste. Ilnestpas le seul casde ce genre.Ontrouve la mme motivationidologiqueparladoptiondesromansducultedelaGrande Mre phrygienne des dieux, Cyble ou Magna deum Mater Idaea. On insistait ainsi sur la parent entre les romans et les populations anatoliennes sur la base de lhypothtique de descendance des Italiques du fils dAeneas, Ascanius (SCHACHERMEYR 1929, 281303; BRIQUEL 1991, 407448, 479488; WAINWRIGHT 1959, 197213; DMGR 107, 468). Cette ralit avait une double finalit: tout dabord de faciliter lintgration et une cooptation des populations locales pour assurer la loyautdeceuxcietensuiteelleconstruisaitunejustificationidologique assez solide pour le droit lgitime des Romains du domination, de gouverner le monde entier comme on trouve de manire explicite dans lneidedeVirgile(GALINSKI1967,619633;NIELS2001,223240;JONES 2001,179186;CHAISEMARTIN2001,187206). Mn est prsent partout dans les inscriptions avec caractre votif, ou sur les autels, les colonnes, bases de statuettes, reliefs rupestres, plaques en bronze, monnaies, etc. dcouvertes partout dans le monde anatolien,aussiquAthnes,Rhodes,Thassos,etenDacie(DMGR,543), maisquelquefoissurlapparencedesvarianteslocales,parexempleMn Pharnakou de Cabira du Pont (SARTRE, 325). Selon Strabon, quelques temples ddis au dieu lunaire taient dresss aussi dans la rgion de lAlbanie enCaucase(Tmoignages) (Gographie XII, 3,31).On sait aussi quAntoninus Caracalla, en installant son campement militaire dhiver EdessaavantdecommencerunecampagnecontrelesParthesilestallen Msopotamie, Carrhae (Karrhai) ou Harran daujourdhui (LLOYD, BRYCE 1951, 77111; GREEN 1992, 2228) pour prier et pour faire des

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offrandes lun des dieux locales, identifi avec Lunus (SHA, Antoninus Caracalla6;Hrodien,IV,13).AeliusSpartianus,leprtenduauteurdela biographiedeCaracalla,ajoutequexistaitchezlespopulationsorientales la croyance que ceux qui appelaient la Lune avec un nom de genre fminin taient domins par des femmes, au contraire, ceux qui attribuaient un nom masculin savaient dominer les femmes et ntaient pas sduits par les charmes trompeuses de cellesci (SHA, Antoninus Caracalla 7). Selon le tmoignage dAmmianus Marcellinus, le temple msopotamien de ce dieu lunaire local existait encore au temps de lempereur Julien lApostate (Tmoignages: Selene) (Ammien Marcellin, ResGestaeXXII,3,2). Quelquefoisledieuprsentaitdesimportantesparticularitslocales. CestlecasdeMnPharnakouquiavaitunimportantlieudadoration Cabira, influent tat sacerdotal du nord de lAnatolie qui entrera avec Zla et Megalopolis en possession de Pythodoris, une reine cliente de Rome (DIGNAS 2002, 226227; SARTRE 325; OLSHAUSEN 1990, 1887 1889).LavilleattransformeenrsidenceroyaleparPompequiluia chang le nom en Diospolis, ensuite la reine Pythodoris a chang encore unefoislenomenAugustaouSbast.Strabonmentionneiciunepetite localit,Amria,situedanslimmdiatevoisinagedeCabira,habitepar des personnes qui tait au service du temple. Celuici bnficiait aussi duncertaindomainesacr,dontlesrevenustaientdestinsauxprtres. Acausedurespectparticulieretdelattentionmanifesteparladynastie localepourledieu,leshabitantsdelargionavaitlhabitudedejurerpar la Fortune du roi et par Mn de Pharnace, ce qui tait trs important parcequedanscescontreslesermenttaitconsidrcommeunlment sacretinviolable(GographieXII,3,31;AuluGelle,Nuitsattiques,XI,6,1 6; Pline lAncien, Naturalis historia, VII, 1, 2). Partant de ce passage de luvredeStrabononttdonnesplusieurshypothsessurloriginede lpiclse associe la divinit et implicitement la nature de sa perception dans le mental collectif. Eckart Olshausen considrait quil provenait du nom du dynaste local Pharnakes. Agns van Haeperen Pourbaix, et ensuite Yulia Ustinova, la mis en relation avec un des concepts les plus importants de lidologie religieuse iranienne: celui de

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hvaren, le feu divin ou laurole qui protgeait les rois lgitimes et qui indique la protection, la faveur, la chance, la brillance, la joie donnes ceuxci par la divinit. Parce que pharnakes est la forme grcise du pharnah, lquivalent en persane du concept avestique hvaren. Dici le rapprochementdupointdevueconceptuelentreMnetMithra,celuiqui possdait par excellence le hvaren (CERFAUX, TONDRIAU 1957, 8990; USTINOVA 149151, 276277; VAN HAEPERENPOURBAIX 1983, 236 242;EHLING2001,128136). Mnestattestsouventdanslemilieumilitaire,maisaussidansles milieux civils des colonies romaines. Un nombre dinscriptions a t dcouvert dans le hieron du Mont Karakuyu, tout prs de la colonie romaine de lAntioche de Pisidie. Cellesci sont ddies au dieu Mn Askaenos, vu comme une divinit locale. Nous avons dj mentionn prestige du dieu parmi laristocratie romaine de la rgion, aristocratie intresselapromotionduculteetdesaccentsdepropagandebasssur un possible affinit ethnique entre les Romains et les indignes. Les premires pigraphes ont t dcouvertes pendant les recherches archologiques coordonnes par William M. Ramsay etre 1911 et 1913 (LEVICK1970,3750;MITCHELL2002,313322).Cequilfautremarquer est le fait que, dune trentaine dinscriptions lies Mn Askaenos mentiones par Barbara Levick dans son tude ddi cette colonie romaine, seulement deux, elles aussi incompltes, sont rdiges en latin. Lepremierdecesfragments,ayantdescontoursirrguliers,reprsentele plus probablement la divinit assise sur un cheval, prs dun autel circulaire. Le nom du ddicant porrait tre reconstitu comme L. FlavoniusPaulinus,quiappartenaitunefamilleinfluentedelamoitidu IIe sicle (LEVICK 1970, 37; LE DINAHET 2002, 201208). Le deuxime monumentcontientlenomdePubl(ius)Kapetolin(us)Stephan(us).Ilfaut remarquer la forme grcise du cognomen Capitolinus, ce quil peut montr le fait que ce citoyen tait grec ou indigne par naissance. Il est possible que le nom ft prcd par la formule L.V.S., formule qui apparat aussi sur dautres inscriptions latines ddie Mn. Eugene N. LanecroitquecetteformulepourraitsignifierLunaevotumsolvit,laccent tait pos dans ce cas sur la divinit laquelle tait ddie linscription.

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Toutaucontraire,M.Hardieconsidraitquonpourraitparlerdunetoute autre abrviation, plus prcisment Li(bens) m(erito) ou M(eni) (LEVICK 1970, 38, 4950), lquivalent du grec Meni euchen qui apparat dans la majorit des inscriptions dAntioche de Pisidie (LEVICK 1970, 3849) et quiavaitttraduitMn,enoffrandevotive.Deuxautrespigraphes enlatinonttrepubliesrecemmentparM.Th.LeDinahet(2002,206.no 7,208,no 9),unequimentionneunFlaviusMusa,etuneautreddiepar deux frres, Patrocls et probablement Callicles ou Pericles, qui prsente lammeabrviation,L.V.S. Quelquefoislapunitiondivinesuivaittousceuxquinaccordaient assezdimportanceauxsollicitationsdudieu.Uneinscriptionquidatede 118119aprsJ.Ch.mentionnelacruellepunitionreueparunecroyante ngligente:Lan 203, le 6 Artmisios. Comme Trophim, fille dArtmidoros fils de Kikinnas avait t appel par le dieu la faveur daccomplir une tche mais navait pas voulu sen occuper rapidement, il la punit en la rendit folle. Elle interrogea donc la Mre Tarsn, Apollon Tarsios et Men dArtemidros Axiottenos, matre de Koresa, et il mordonna de faire inscrire sur une stle leur vengeance (nmsis) et de minscrire moi mme pour le service des dieux (probablement devenir une esclavesacre).(CMRDMI,47;SARTRE326). Mn apparat trs souvent sur les ddicaces accompagn par dautres divinits, quelque fois ayant des attributs ressemblants ou la mmeorigine,commecestlecasdeladesseiranienneAnahita,prsente aussienAnatoliesouslaformehellniseArtemisAnatis.Pourtantilest important de souligner le fait que, toujours, quand Mn est mentionner sur une inscription dans la prsence dune autre divinit, il occupe une positionsecondaire(LEGRAND1963,1397).Surunmonumentdat171172 ap. J.C., lev par une association sacre, Mn de Tiamos et Mn TyrannossontaccompagnsparZeusMasphalatnos,unedivinitlocale adore sous le nom de la divinit grecque, une pratique utilise assez souvent dans la zone micrasiatique. La componence de cette sainte communaut nouvelle est mentione dans une autre stle des mmes provenanceetdatation(SARTRE326).

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Dans deux des ddicaces dAzita, Mn de Tiamos et la desse iranienne sont invoqus comme garants de la justice, pour rsoudre les conflitsentrelesmembresdelacommunaut.Audeldelinvocationdes noms des divinits, il existait aussi les gestes de la leve du sceptre ou la dposedeceluicisurlauteldesrituelsquiaccompagnaientlademandefaite (SARTRE325).Ainsi,surunepigraphequidatede114115aprsJ.Ch., AnatisetMndeTiamossontappelspourrsoudreunconflitentreles villageois pour la proprit sur quelques animaux:La Grande Mre Anatis matre dAzita, Men de Tiamos et leurs puissances. Comme trois porcsdeDmaintosetdePapiosdAzitastaientgarsloindesencloset quilsstaientmlsauxtroupeauxdHrmogensetdApolloniostandis queleuresclavedecinqansfaisaitpatre,HrmogensetApollonios,lesfils dApollonios fils de Midas, de Syros, refusrent daccder la demande deDmaintosetdePapios(!),faisantpreuvedeleurmauvaisegrce.Le sceptredeladesseetdumatredeTiamosfutdoncdpos[surlautel].Etla dessemanifestadoncsespouvoirsceuxquinavaientpasconsentiun accord.AprsquHrmogenssoitmort,safemme,sonfilsetApollonios, le frre dHrmogens se la rendirent propice. Maintenant nous portons tmoignagepourelleetnouschantonsseslouangesavecnosenfants.Lan 199(SARTRE325). Ilexistaitdoncunritueldelalevdusceptre,gestequireprsentaitla liaison par sermon de la personne coupable jusqu lexcution de la punition. Ceux qui voulaient chapper de la maldiction devaient prier pour tre librs par le sceptre [=par le sermon], comme lavait fait les descendants Socrateia, Moschas, Iucundus et Menecrates dune femme,connuesouslenomdeTatias,quiavaitempoisonnsonbeaufils, aprsaellealevlesceptreetaadressdesinjuresetdesmaldictions dans le sanctuaire ddi la Grande Desse Artmis Anatis et Mn Tiamou. Aprs lempoisonnement, Iucundus est tomb dans un tat de folieetensuiteilmoura.MaislapunitionatouchTatie,etparlasuiteses descendants se sont merveills du pouvoir des divinits dAxiotta/Azita:Les dieux lui infligrent une punition laquelle elle nchappa pas. De mme, son fils Sokrats, en passant devant lentre conduisantauboissacr,laissatomberdesamainsurlepiedleserpette

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qui lui servait tailler la vigne, et ainsi le dnouement [survint] par un chtimentenunseuljour.GrandssontdonclesdieuxAzitta.(SARTRE 325326). Mais peut tre laspect le plus important cest linclusion du Mn dans la catgorie de theoi epekooi, cestdire les dieux qui coutent la prire,parce quecest une maniredexprimerle contact directentre le dieu et le ddicant dun faon personnel (LEVICK 1970, 4446). Sur une des inscriptions dcouvertes lAntioche de Pisidie qui contient des ddicacespourMnepekoos, ledieuestreprsentmontsurledosdun animal, probablement un cheval ou un taureau (LEVICK 1970, 45). Dhabitude, lpiclse est accompagne par la reprsentation sur les monumentsdesoreillescequisignifiesoumissiondevantlesordresreus par la divinit ou lattention accorde par la divinit vise face aux demandes de ses adeptes. Dautres organes representes sur les stles (pieds, yeux etc.) signifient les parties du corps miraculeusement guris parladivinit. Mntaitdoncundesdieuxthaumaturgesetoraculairesaussiqui aidaientlescroyants pour la gurison de certaines maladies. Onsaitque danslesanctuaireduMnCarou,quiestsituentreLaodiceetCaroura, on avait organis une cole de mdecine sous la direction du Zeuxis et ensuite sous celle dAlexandros Philalethes. Philalethes tait un mdecin grecquiavcupendantlergneduPtolemaiosLagos(Strabon,Gographie XII,8,20).Certainesliaisonsaveclespratiquesdedivinationnepeuvent pastreexcluesvuqueMacrobeaffirmaitquelamdecineetladivination sont des arts apparents. Le mdecin connat ds le dbut lvolution de ltat physique de lorganisme soit elle bonne ou mauvaise. Ainsi Hippocrate dit que le devoir du mdecine est de montrer au maladece qui a t, ce qui est, et ce qui sera cestdire le prsent, le futur, le pass. Cette dfinition caractrise aussi lart de la divination qui connatleprsent,lepass,lefutur(Macrobe,LesSaturnales,I,20,5). UneinscriptiondcouverteAyasren,prsdeKula,contientdes lments didentification spcifiques pour les deux divinits, soulignant ainsi certaines tendances syncrtiques. Le monument, dat en 235236 aprs J. Ch., est similaire un groupe dinscriptions votives de Kula.

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Linscription peut tre traduite sous la forme: A Mn Axiottenos. Tatiane, la fille dErpos (ou Herpos), a promis un taureau de la part des frres (ou des surs) et tant coute (par le dieu), mais incapable de payer le taureau, elle a consulter le dieu et celuici a t daccord daccepterlastle.Lan320,lediximejourdumoisdePanemos(LANE 1970,5152). Le monument a un fronton cintr qui a une image en relief dun croissant de lune. Malgr le fait que la stle a une forme irrgulire, linscription est complte. Le relief montre Mn debout, habill de son vtement habituel longues manches et chauss de bottes. Sur la tte il porte son bonnet phrygien typique, avec le point tourn un peu vers la gaucheettouchantlectinfrieurdufronton.lamaindroiteMnaun objetrond,difficileidentifier,probablementunpommedepinouunglobe. A la main gauche il a une lance avec une pointe grande et aplatie, qui normalement tait conu comme le scptre du pouvoir de la divinit. Mn estencadrpardeux lions,reprsents frontalement, la mmemanire quonlestrouventnormalementdanslesimagescultuellesdeCyble.Ala gauche de la divinit se trouve un taureau, lanimal sacrificiel par excellencedanslecultedeMnetsymboledeladiviniticipeuttrele taureau promis par Tatiane , montr avec la queue leve et le visage tournfrontalement. Souvent Mn tait identifi avec Attis et reprsent en hypostase de berger (CCCA VI, 484, 582), avec un pomme de pin la main, signe de limmortalit. Le symbole est aussi prsent en relation avec Sabazios et dans le culte mtroaque. Dans dautres occasions, Attis figure sur les monuments avec le symbole du croissant sur ses paules (TURCAN 83). LesreprsentationsdeMndansdemonnaiesdelargionduPontoude la Phrygie montrent une iconographie sililaire celui de Mithra, comme des cavaliers anatoliens (LEGRAND 1963, 1395). Une hypostase unique dans lEmpire Romain spciallement pour Mithra. Aussi comme dieu cavalier Mn est mentionn, parmi les dieux de Motella en Lydie, qui patronnaientlaviesocialeentiredelapetitecommunaut,lesdestines individuels et collctives, un vritable consil des dieux. Limage est typique pour le culte des Dioscures anatoliens et de la soidite desse

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pisidienne, une Artmide locale. Dans le registre suprieur, Mn et probablement lun des nombreux Apollons locaux sont affronts leurs chevaux, avec une DesseMre lunaire qui reste debout en position centrale,peuttreArtmisAnatisoulaMredeMnquonrencontresur lesinscriptions. Attis, Mn, Mithra et les Dadophores (Cautes et Cautopates) apparaissentenhypostasedebergers,habillsdescostumestraditionnels orientales, avec une courte tunique et lomniprsent bonnet phrygien. MnetMithrasontreprsentssousdestaureaux.Certainesressemblances iconographiquesentreMn,AttisetlesDadophorespeuventtrefacilement remarques,mmesilessourcesneparlentpasdemanireexplicitedune ressemblanceentrelespremiersdeuxetletroisime 6 .Endpitdetoutcela on ne peut pas exclure une certaine influence sur les rles spcifiques et les attributs de ces personnages, surtout dans la dernire priode du Principat. On ne connat pas prcisment la manire dans laquelle ces influencesrciproquesontmarqulesformescultuellesetlescrmonies ddies ces dits pendant les dcennies. Pourtant, du point de vue iconographique il existe certaines ressemblances communes qui peuvent dmontrer que ces motifs et symboles bnficiaient dune vaste propagationdanslemondeanatolien. Parmi les symboles utiliss lgard des dieux de lAsie Mineure on peut rappeler le cne de pin (pour Adonis, Attis, Mn, Sabazios et Artemis Pergaia) (FRAZER 1980, 79), le taureau (dans le culte de Mn, IupiterDolichenus(SANIE1981,62,69,7677),Mithra,Cybleetmmedu dieuhittitohurritedelatempteTeshub)(DANIEL1986,109,114115),le serpent (chez Apollon, Asklpios, Glykon, Mn, Artmis dEphse), le coq (Mn,Mithra)etlamandechezAttisdonclenoyautaitconsidrlecentre dumonde.

CUMONT 1896, nos 27, 54, 286, 291, 313, 314, 322. Les principales diffrences iconographiquesentreAttisetlesDadophoressontmentionnesparlesavantbelge:a)les Dadophores ont toujours des torches leurs mains; b) Cautes et Cautopates son reprsents dans une hypostase immobile, ayant les pieds entrecroiss; c) la bonnet frgiennedAttisestquelquefoispareavecdestoiles(CUMONT1896,437).
6

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Pourtant, tout comme Attis, Osiris ou dautres divinits greco orientales, Mn tait un dieu qui triomphe sur la mort, qui descend au monde de lau del, en vainquant les forces hostiles du mal pour ressusciteraprstroisjoursunenouvellevie.GilbertDurandremarque ce quil appele lisomorphisme entre le mythe associ la ressurection dOsiris et le destin de Mn: ()quand le croissant lunaire apparat, le dieuinauguresacarrire,luttecontreledmondestnbresquiadvor lanciennelune,son pre, rgneavecgrandeur lorsdelapleinelune, est dvoretvaincuparlanimaldmoniaque,descendtroisjoursauxenfers, et enfin ressuscite triomphant (DURAND 1992, 352; VON HAEPEREN POURBAIX 1983, 245248). Les lments iconographiques quon constate toujoursparrapportlimaginairedeMnserfrenttoutletempsce symbolisme du cycle lunaire de la rgnration, de la vie fconde et de ressurection,marquchaquefoisparsonmomentdedbut:lecroissant.

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Tmoignages littraires

1. Lucien,Zeustragdien,8 Enfait,Zeus,ilsemblequeseuls lesbarbaresvontsiger au premier rang. Car pour les Grecs, tu vois comme ils sont: gracieux, au visage avenant, artistement figurs, et pourtant tous en marbre ou en bronze, ou pour les plus riches dentre eux en ivoireavecjusteunepetitecouchedorbrillante,seulementpourla couleuretpourlclat,alorsqulintrieurilssonteuxmmesen bois et abrittent des troupeaux entiers de souris, qui y ont tabli leur rpublique. Mais cette Bendis qui voici et cet Anubis que voil, et prs de lui Attis, Mithra, Mn sont en or massif, psent lourdetvalentcher. (Lucien,uvres,III,Opuscules2125,textetabliettraduitpar JacquesBompaire,LesBellesLettres,Paris,2003,p.2728) 2. Lucien,Zeustragdien,42 Tufaisfortbien,Timocls,demerappelerlesusagesdes diverspeuples,quipeuventparfaitementfaireconcevoirquilny a aucune certitude dans les doctrines concernant les dieux. La confusion est grande, les uns ont une croyance, les autres une autre.LesScythessacrifientuncimeterre,lesThracesZamolxis, unesclavefugitifvenudeSamoschezeux.LesPhrygiensMn, lesEthiopiensauJours,lesCyllniensPhals,lesAssyriensune colombe,lesPersesaufeu,lesEgyptiensleau. (Lucien,uvres,III,Opuscules2125,textetabliettraduitpar JacquesBompaire,LesBellesLettres,Paris,2003,p.70)

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3. ClmentdAlexandrie,LeProtreptique,II,26,1 Lesunssgarantdansleurcontemplationduciel,etnese fiant qu leurs yeux, se htrent, ravis quils taient de voir les mouvements des astres, de les divinisr; ils les appelrent theous du mot thein et adorrent le soleil comme les Indiens, et la lune (selene)commelesPhrygiens. (ClmentdAlexandrie,LeProtreptique,introduction,traductionet notesparCl.Mondsert,s.j.,deuximeditionrevueetaugmente dutextegrec,ditionsduCERF,Paris,1949,p.81) 4. AthnedeNaucratis,LesDeipnosophistes,II,17(43b) () Les eaux de Caroure sont sches et fort chaudes. CellesquisetrouventauxenvironsdubourgdeMn(periMenos komen) en Phrygie, sont plutt pres et nitreuses, de mme que celledunelocalitdePhrygie,diteleBourgdeLon. (AthnedeNaucratis,LesDeipnosophistes,livresIetII,textetabli ettraduitparA.M.Desrousseaux,avecleconcoursdeCh.Astruc, LesBellesLettres,Paris,1956,p.105) 5. Strabon,Gographie,XII,3,31 QuantCabira,quePompeavaittransformenvilleet avait appele Diospolis, elle en a fait sa rsidence royale aprs y avoirprocddenouveauxamnagementsetavoirremplacson nom par celui de Sbast. Cabira possde encore le sanctuaire connusouslenomdetempledeMndePharnace,lebourgurbain dAmria,quiabrittelenombreuxpersonnelauservicedudieuet dispose dun territoire sacr dont les revenus sont rservs en permanence au prtre en exercice. Les rois ont accord ce sanctuairedesmarquesdhonneursiexceptionnellesquilsontt

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jusquintroduiredanslaformuledusermentditroyallestermes parlaFortuneduroietparMndePharnace.Cesanctuaireest aussiceluidelaLune(Selene)commelesanctuairedesAlbaniens et comme ceux de Phrygie, savoir le sanctuaire de Mn dans le lieu du mme nom, le sanctuaire dAscos (Askaios) prs dAntioche en Pisidie et le sanctuaire de Mn de la campagne dAntioche. (Strabon,Gographie,IX(livreXII),textetabliettraduitpar FranoisLasserre,LesBellesLettres,Paris,1981,p.98) 6. Strabon,Gographie,XII,8,14 La Parore est parcourue sest en ouest par une sorte dpine dorsale montagneuse au pied de laquelle, sur les deux versants, stale une grande plaine. Non loin de la montagne se trouvent des villes, au nor de Philomlion, sur lautre ct AntiochediteAntiocheenPisidie,lapremiretoutfaitenplaine, la seconde sur une colline. Cette dernire abrite une colonie romaine; elle fut fonde par des ressortissants de Magnsie du Mandre. Les Romains la librnt du joug des rois quand ils remirentEumnetoutlerestedelAsieendeduTaurus.Ony trouvait notamment le sige dune prtrise de Mn Arcos (Arkaios) ayant autorit sur un grand nombre desclaves sacrs et de localits relevant du sanctuaire. Il fut supprim aprs la mort dAmyntaspardesagentsdpchsAntiochepourrecuiellirson hritage. (Strabon,Gographie,IX(livreXII),textetabliettraduitpar FranoisLasserre,LesBellesLettres,Paris,1981,p.141142) 7. Strabon,Gographie,XII,8,20 Entre Laodice et Caroura se trouve un sanctuaire quon appelle le sanctuaire de Mn,objet dune grande vnration. De notre temps, une grande cole destine former des mdecins

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selon la doctrine dHrophile y fut instal par Zeuxis, qui succda Alexandre Philalts, comme avait t ouverte Smyrne par Hicsios, du temps de nos pres, une cole selon la doctrine drasistrate, aujourdhui encore en activit, mais dans dune orientationdiffrente. (Strabon,Gographie,IX(livreXII),textetabliettraduitpar FranoisLasserre,LesBellesLettres,Paris,1981,p.148)

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BIBLIOGRAPHIE ANDERSON,J.G.C. 1913 Festivals of Mn Askanos in the Roman Colonia at Antioch of Pisidia,JRS3,1913,267300. DANIEL,C. 1986 Gndireahittitntexte,Bucureti. DEBORD,P. 2005 Men, dans J. LECLANT (d.), Dictionnaire de lAntiquit, Paris, 2005,13851386. DIAKONOFF,I. 1979 Artemidi Anaeiti anestesen. The Anaitisdedications in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden at Leyden and related Material from EasternLydia,BABesch54,139175. LEDINAHET,M.TH. 2002 LesInscriptionsvotivesaudieuMenAntioche:tatdesrecherches, dansActesIAntiochedePisidie,2002,p.201208. DURUKAN,M. 2001 EineStudienzuKultfigurenundSymboleninOlba,dansLaCilicie: EspaceetPouvoirsLocaux,Istanbul,327340. ERZEN,A. 1953 AytanrsnMeninadivemeneihakknda(=Surlenometlorigine deladivinitlunaireMn),dansBelleten,17(65),114. GOSTAR,N. 1960 MenAneiketosinaBilingualInscriptionfromDacia,DaciaNS,4, 519522. GREEN,T.M. 1992 TheCityoftheMoonGod.ReligiousTraditionsofHarran,Leiden NewYorkKln. VANHAEPERENPOURBAIX,A.

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1983 Recherche sur les origines, la nature et les attributs du dieu Mn, dansMlangesPaulNaster,LouvainLaNeuve,221257. HERRMANN,P. 1962 ErgebnisseeinerReiseinNordostlydien,GrazWienKln. HBNER,S. 2003 Spiegel und soziale Gestaltungskraft alltglicher Lebenswelt: Der Kult des Men in Lydien und Phrygien, dans E. Schwertheim, E. Winter(ds.),AsiaMinorStudien,45,ReligionundRegion.Gtter undKulteausdemstlichenMittelmeerraum,179200. LABARRE,G.,TASLIALAN,M. 2002 La Devotion au dieu Men: Les reliefs Rupestres de la Voie Sacre, dansActesIAntiochedePisidie,257281. LABARRE,G. 2004 LesMenagyrtes,EA37,126128. AJTAR,A.,PETZL,G. 2003 Eine lydische Familie aus der zweiten Hlfte des 3. Jahrhunderts n.Chr.(zuEpigr.Anatol.34,2002,99ff,Nr.3undIGRIV621),EA 36,4549. LANE,E.N. 1964 A Restudy of the God Men, I, The Epigraphic and Sculptural Evidence,Berytus,15,1964,p.558. 19671968ARestudyoftheGodMen,III,Conclusions,Berytus17,81106. 1970 ThreeNewInscriptionsfromAyasren,AS20,5152. 1975 TheItalianConnection:AnAspectoftheCultofMen,Numen22, 235239. 1981 CorpusMonumentorumReligionisDeiMenisAddenda,19711981, JournalofEarlyChristianStudies1,193209. 1990 Men: A Neglected Cult of Roman Asia Minor, dans ANRW, II, 18.3,21612174. LECHAT,H. 1963 Meniskos,dansDAGR,III.1 2,17181720. LEGRAND,A. 1963 Lunus,dansDAGR,III.12,13921398.

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LEVICK,B. 1970 DedicationstoMenAskaenos,AS20,3750. 1971 TheTableofMn,JHS91,8084. LLOYD,S.,BRICE,W. 1951Harran,AS1,77111. MALAY,H. 1985 PhiladelphiadaMeterPhileisMenTiamoukombinasyonuvetekousa problemi,AratrmaSonularToplantsIII,133136. 2003 APraiseonMenArtemidorouAxiottenos,EA36,1318. MITCHELL,S. 2002 TheTempleofMenAskaenosatAntioch,dansActesIAntiochede Pisidie,313322. MOLE,M. 1962 LaluneenIranancien,dansLalune,mythesetrites,Paris,218229. NAOUR,CHR. 1981NouvellesinscriptionsduMoyenHermos,EA2,107140. OLSHAUSEN,E. 1990 Gtter,HerroenundihreKulteinPontoseinersterBericht,dans ANRW,II,18.3,18651906. ZSAIT,M.,LABARRE,G.,ZSAIT,N. 2004 Les reliefs rupestres et les inscriptions de KeiliYankta, Anatolia Antiqua/EskiAnadolu12,6182. PARLASCA,K. 19811983 Artemis Ephesia und PseudoMen. Zu zwei Terrakotten in Erlangen,Anadolu/Anatolia22,255259. PERDRIZET,P. 1896 Mn,BCH20,55106. PETZL,G.,MALAY,H. 1987 ANewConfessionInscriptionfromKatakekaumene,GRBS28,459472. PETZL,G. 1994 DieBeichtinschriftenwestkleinasiens,EA22,1175. 1997 Neue Inschriften aus Lydien, II, Addenda und Corrigenda zu Die BeichinschriftenWestkleinasiens(Epigr.Anatol.22,1994),EA,28, 6979.

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2001 Variaepigraphica,EA33,5156. POPA,AL. 1965 NouvellesdonnesconcernantlescultesdeMenetdeJupiterAmmon danslaDaciesuprieure,dansLatomus24,551564. ROBERT,L. 1963 NomsindignesdanslAsieMineuregrcoromaine,Paris. 1976 Monnaiesgrecquesdelpoqueimpriale,Revuenumismatique18,2556. 1987 DocumentsdAsieMineure,Athnes. ROWLAND,B.,JR. 2000 Buddha i Zeul Soare, dans Zalmoxis. Revist de studii religioase. VolumeleIIII(19381942),Iai,114118. SALZMANN,D. 1980 NeueDenkmlerdesMondgottesMn,IstMitt30,261290. SALZMANN,D.,LANE,E.N. 1984 NachlesezumMondgottMn,IstMitt34,355370. SANTORO,M. 1974 Epitheta deorum in Asia Graeca cultorum ex auctoribus Graecis et Latinis,Milano. SPEIDEL,M. 1984 VenusVictrixRomanandOriental,dansANRWII,17.4,22252238. SUMMERER,L. 1995 Das pontische Wappen. Zur Astralsymbolik auf den pontischen Mnzen,Chiron25,305314. THIERRY,N. 2002 LaCappadocedelAntiquitauMoyenge,Turnhout. VERMEULE,C.C. 19811983 Transformations and Survivals of Alexander the Great in Asia Minor,Anadolu/Anatolia22,183185. VOLLKOMMER,R. 1992 Men,dansLIMCVI.1,462473;VI.2,p.239255. WALTEN,F.R. 1970 Men,dansOCD 2,669. WIDENGREN,G. 1968 LesreligionsdelIran,traduitdelallemandparL.Jospin,Paris.

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai LESPRANCEDEVIEETLASTRUCTUREDGEDELA POPULATIONFMININEENMSIEINFRIEURE(IERIIIES.AP.J.C.) VALENTINPIFTOR


Keywords:ancientdemography,lifeexpectancy,agestructure,MoesiaInferior. Rsum. Lauteur calcule lesprance de vie et la structure dge de la population en MsieInfrieureauxpremierstroissicledelarechrtienne.Mmesilchantillonnage manque de reprsentativit, les personnages analyss tant plus aiss que le reste de la population,lesprancedevielanaissanceresteassezbase. Abstract. The author calculates the life expectancy and the age structure of female population in Moesia Inferior (1st3rd c. A. D.). Even the analyzed cohort is composed mostlyfromgenerallywealthywomen,lifeexpectancyatbirthisstillprecarious. Rezumat. Autorul calculeaz sperana de via i structura de vrst a populaiei feminine din Moesia Inferior (sec. IIII p. Chr.). Chiar dac eantionul studiat este mai puinreprezentativ,fiindcompusdinpersoanenstrite,speranadevialanatereeste totuisczut.

1.Prcisionsmthodologiques Calculer lesprance de vie et la structure dge dans lAntquit romaine reprsente toujours une dmarche difficile, si on prend en comptequelesseulessourcesdisponibles(saufquelquescasparticuliers) sont les inscriptions (SCHEIDEL 1999, 245281; SCHEIDEL 2001a, 16; MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2003, 7895; MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2004, 910). Cestpourquoilescalculseffectussurunchantillonnageassezrestreint de population ne fournissent pas un tableau dmographique complet, mme du point de vue de lesprance de vie, cause du manque de reprsentativit de la population mentionne dans les inscriptions (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2004, 10). En calculant lesprance de vie et la structure dge de la population fminine en Msie Infrieure, nous essayonsdevrifiersi,mmedanslecasdunsegmentdepopulationplus aissquelerestedeshabitants,lesprancedevieetbaseou,aucontraire, leve.Notrechantillonnageatconstitupar87personnes,auxquelles

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on ajoute encore 10 dont le sexe na pas pu tre dtermin. Nous avons utilislestableauxmodernesdeCoaleetDemeny(1983,20,22,24). 2. Le calcul de lesprance de vie et de la structure dge de la populationfminineenMsieInfrieure(IerIIIes.ap.J.C.) PourcalculerlesprancedevieenDacieromaine,sauflestableaux de Coale et de Demeny, nous avons utilis les tableaux de Bagnall et de FrierpourlEgypteromaine(BAGNALL,FRIER1994,77).Lesparamtres de mon tableau ont les mmes sigles que les paramtres trouvs dans le tableau de Bagnall et de Frier: l(x) reprsente le nombre des survivants dune cohorte imaginaire de 100 000 nouveauxns. L(x) est la somme entrel(x)etl(xn),multiplieparuncoefficientvariable,situentre1,5et 2,5. Pour les ges jusqu 75 ans, Bagnall et Frier ont choisi 2,5 pour lEgypte,ensoulignantquelespersonnesquivivententre21et25ans,par exemple, ont une chance moyenne de 2,5 ans pour survivre. Ils se sont inspirs,leurtour,destableauxpourlespopulationsstablesdelEurope, publis par Coale et Demeny (COALE, DEMENY 1983, 20, 22, 24). Ce cofficient a t calcul par Coale et Demeny avec plus de prcision que par Bagnall et Frier, parce quils ont pris en compte le fait que les personnesgesde30ans,parexemple,ontunemortalitmoyenneplus basse que les personnes de 31 ans. Pour les ges avancs, le cofficient diminue.Nousavonschoisicecofficient1,5pourlesgespluslevsque 80,2pourlesgesde6575anset2,5pourlereste.Celacorrespond,en grand,auxvaleursattribuescecoefficientparBagnalletFrier.T(x)est la somme de l(x) et L(x+n): e(x) reprsente lesprance de vie lge x, tandis que q(x) est la probabilit quune personne dun ge exact x sera morte avant lge indiqu aprs x+n. m(x) est le nombre des dfunts par annespersonne vcus entre lge x et lge x+n, obtenu par lopration l(x)l(x+n)/L(x).Nousavonsgalementchoisicommemodleletableau de vie Model West, Level 2, Females, par Coale et Demeny (COALE; DEMENY1983,20,22,24). Nousavonsaboutiauxrsultatssuivants:

LesprancedevieenMsieInfrieure ge 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 l(x) 100000 100000 100000 86206 78161 74713 67816 52874 42529 33333 27586 25287 18391 16092 6897 6897 2299 2299 L(x) 78290 500000 465515 410917,5 382185 356322,5 301725 238507,5 189655 152297,5 132185,5 109195 86207,5 57472,5 34485 18392 9168 2299 T(x) 3524819,5 3446529,5 2946529,5 2481014,5 2070097 1687912 1331589,5 1029864,5 791357 601702 449404,5 317219 208024 121816,5 64344 29859 11467 2299 e(x) 35,248 34,465 29,462 28,780 26,485 22,591 19,635 19,477 18,607 18,051 16,291 12,544 11,311 7,570 9,329 4,329 4,987 1.000 q(x) 0,00468 0,00324 0,00166 0,00408 0,01122 0,01004 0,01162 0,00955 0,00511 0,02173 0,01105 0,07548 0,15539 1,00000

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m(x)

Tableauno1 Si on ajoute les 10 personnes dont le sexe na pas pu tre dtermin,nousobtenonslesvaleurssuivantes:


ge 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 l(x) 100000 100000 100000 86598 77320 73196 65979 52577 43299 34021 27835 25773 L(x) 78290 500000 466495 409795 376290 347973.5 296390 239690 193300 154640 134020 113402.5 T(x) 3655736,5 3577446,5 3077446,5 2610951,5 2201156,5 1824866,5 1476893 1180503 940813 631533 476893 342873 e(x) 36,557 35,774 30,774 30,150 28,486 24931 22,384 22,452 21,728 18,563 17,132 13,303 q(x) 0.00435 0.00355 0.00187 0.00395 0.00907 0.00785 0.00986 0.00979 0.00432 0.01803 m(x)

138
55 60 65 70 75 80 19588 17526 8247 8247 2062 2062

VALENTINPIFTOR 92785 64432.5 41325 20618 8248 2062 229470,5 136685,5 72253 30928 10310 2062 11,714 7,799 8,761 3,750 5,000 1,000 0.00898 0.06788 0.19998 1,00000

Tableauno2 Lchantillonnage fminin de Msie Infrieure, de 87 personnes, est le moins nombreux de toutes les provinces danubiennes recherches jusqu prsent. En Dacie, lchantillonnage est de 160 personnes (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2004, 35), en Pannonie Suprieure, lchantillonnageestde255personnes(MIHAILESCUBRLIBA,PIFTOR, COZMA 2007, 11), et en Pannonie Infrieure, de 159 personnes (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA, PIFTOR, COZMA 2007, 43). Il faut galement observerunmanquedereprsentationchezlesgesjeunes.Laplusjeune personnedcdedenotrechantillonnageestdunanet11mois,maisil est sr quelle nest pas la seule morte dans lenfance prcoce. Les catgories dge de 25 ans, 610 ans et 1115 ans sont aussi sous reprsentes. notre avis, les catgories de 65 et 75 ans sont sous reprsentes,pusiquelesprancedeviepourcesgesestplusleveque chezlacatgoriedgeprcdente. Lesprance de vie la naissance et de 35,248 ans. En tenant compte de la sousreprsentation des ges jeunes, nous oserons mme affirmerquelesprancedevielanaissanceestplusbase,environ3233 ans. Une comparaison de ce paramtre avec lesprance de vie la naissance en Egypte (BAGNALL, FRIER 1994, 77), en Dacie (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2004, 2627) et en Pannonies (MIHAILESCU BRLIBA, PIFTOR, COZMA 2007, 1112, 4344) sera plus difiant. La diffrenceduclimatgnraldeDacieetceluidelEgypteestmontrpar L. MihailescuBrliba (2004, 27). En Egypte, Bagnall et Frier ont travaill sur un chantillonnage provenant en plupart dune zone avec un climat maladif (1994, 77 sqq.; SCHEIDEL 2001a, 16; SCHEIDEL 2001b, 78, 83 89; MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2004, 4). Lchantillonnage des provinces danubiennesprovientdeszonesdontleclimatatplusquilibrquen

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139

Egypte (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2004, 27; MIHAILESCUBRLIBA, PIFTOR, COZMA 2007, 1112). Ces raisons nous font supposer que lesprance de vie de la population fminine de Msie Infrieure est environ3233ans. Catgorie Esprancedevie
dge 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Msie Infrieure 35,248 34,465 29,462 28,780 26,485 22,591 19,635 19,477 18,607 18,051 16,291 12,544 11,311 7,570 9,329 4,329 4,987 1.000 Dacie 33,037 32,244 31,021 27,270 23,423 23,907 20,957 21,936 19,062 17,499 14,062 12,499 10,228 11,562 8,653 8,928 6,499 4,165 Egypte 22,500 32,608 38,346 35,290 32,750 29,930 27,431 24,998 22,942 20,249 17,708 14,959 12,404 9,943 7,964 6,130 4,640 3,398 Pannonie Suprieure 35,325 34,954 31,451 28,102 24,777 23,551 22,515 22,765 19,974 19,594 16,090 16,914 13,644 13,888 9,600 9,503 6,882 9,335 Pannonie Infrieure 35,002 34,219 29,625 25,889 23,296 19,596 18,954 18,220 18,723 16,586 15,460 13,212 11,096 8,142 9,351 7,285 10,333 6,333

Tableauno3 Lesprance die vie la naissance a des valeurs proches dans les deux Pannonies, mais dans toutes les provinces danubiennes ces valeurs dpassent 35 ans. Les valeurs de lesprance de vie jusqu 15 ans sont prochesdanslesquatreprovincesanalyses.15ans,lesprancedevie en Msie Infrieure est la plus leve parmi toutes les provinces danubiennes. Si en Pannonie Suprieure seulement 11,37% des femmes sont dcdes de 2 15 ans, en Msie Infrieure ces catgories sont reprsentes en proportion de 25,28%, tandis la catgorie de 2 5 ans

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reprsente 13,79% de lchantillonnage. Lchantillonage de Msie Infrieure comprend les personnes les moins ges; la plus ge, conformment cet chantillonnage, est dcd 80 ans. En Msie Infrieurelescatgoriessouseprsentessontcellesde65etde75ans,o lesprance de vie est plus leve que chez les catgories dge prcdentes.Mmesirduitdupointdevuequantitatif,lchantillonnage delapopulationfminineenMsieInfrieuresembleplushomogneque lemmechantillonnagedanslesautresprovincesdanubiennesanalyses jusquprsent. Pourunregardcomparatifonpeutgalementutiliserleparamtre q(x),laprobabilitquunepersonnedungexsoitmortejusqulgex +n,commeilrsultedutableausuivant:
Catgorie dge 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 q(x)Msie Infrieure 0,00468 0,00324 0,00166 0,00408 0,01122 0,01004 0,01162 0,00955 0,00511 0,02173 0,01105 0,07548 0,15539 1,00000 q(x) Dacie 0,11250 0,04225 0,04411 0,20769 0,08737 0,24468 0,09859 0,17187 0,09433 0,22916 0,21621 0,44827 0,18750 0,46153 0,28571 0,40000 0,66666 q(x) Egypte 0,33399 0,23760 0,06657 0,05205 0,06744 0,08389 0,09369 0,10558 0,11511 0,12227 0,12967 0,16518 0,20571 0,29144 0,37188 0,49858 0,63720 0,75601 q(x)Pannonie Suprieure 0,01177 0,04356 0,05394 0,06140 0,14486 0,15846 0,20779 0,09836 0,20910 0,08099 0,30001 0,10714 0,31998 0,05880 0,04092 0,021046 0,60013 0,16666 q(x)Pannonie Infrieure 0,01258 0,04458 0,09333 0,05852 0,20312 0,20588 0,25925 0,15001 0,21568 0,17498 0,21214 0,19227 0,52384 0,29988 0,57142 0,33333

Tableauno4

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141

La structure dge de la population fminine en Msie Infrieure estprsentedansletableauno5etdanslegraphiqueno1:


Catgoriedge(ans) 01 25 610 1115 1620 2125 2630 3135 3640 4145 4650 5155 5660 6165 6670 7175 7680 Nombredesurvivants (pourcents) 100 100 86,20 78,16 74,71 67,81 52,87 42,52 33,33 27,58 25,28 18,39 16,09 6,89 6,89 2,29 2,29

120 pourcentages survivants 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4

Tableauno5 Graphique no 1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

catgorie d'ge

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Si on regarde le tableau et le graphique, on peut observer le manquedereprsentationdesgesjeunesetdescatgoriesde65etde75 ans,olesindividusmanquent. En ce qui concerne les ges arrondis, on remarque le mme processusrencontrdanstouteslesprovincesdanubiennes.37personnes duntotalde87nontpaslechiffrefinaldelgeaudcs0ou5(cequi signifie 42% du total). Le pourcentage de personnes fminines avec les gesexactementindiqusestplusbasquenPannonieInfrieure(44%) (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA, PIFTOR, COZMA 2007, 4950), ou en Dacie (47%) (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA 2004, 3334), mais plus lev quen PannonieSuprieure(34,6%)(MIHAILESCUBRLIBA,PIFTOR,COZMA 2007,5758). Graphique no 2 36% 42% 22% 1 2 3 Lgende:1.gedontlechiffrefinalest0;2.gesdontlechiffrefinalest5; 3.gesprcismentindiqus Encequiconcernelarepartitiondesgesprcismentindiqus surcatgoriedge,elleestmontredansletableausuivant:

LesprancedevieenMsieInfrieure Catgoriadge(ans) 01 25 610 1115 1620 2125 2630 3135 3640 4145 4650 5155 5660 6165 6670 7175 7680 Nombredgesexacts 0 8 5 3 5 6 2 2 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 0 1

143

Tableauno6 27 personnes duntotal de 37 ont vcu jusqu 25 ans, 31 de 37 jusqu35ans,cequiconfirmequelesagesjeunestaientmmorsavec plus de precision. Nous mentionnons quelques personnes dont lge au dcsestindiquprcisment:AureliaSambatis,morte25ans,5moiset 12jours(ISMII,367),Veturia24anset2mois(ISMV,35),UlpiaFlavia 18 ans et 6 mois (ISM V, 39), Aurelia Melete 60 ans, 2 mois et 7 jours (ISMV,42),ValeriaMatrona1anet11mois(ISMV,104),Iuliana9ans et 2 mois (CIL III 12357), Cornelia Alexandra 23 ans et 3 mois (CIL III 12452), Iulia Valentina 11 ans et 59 jours (CIL III 12478a) et Antonia Aprulla9anset6mois(ILB313=IGLNovae93).Nousobservonsquune seulepersonnedontlgeestprcismentindiquavcuaudessusde25 ans En ce qui concerne la repartition des ges arrondis sur catgorie dge,nousavonsaboutiautableausuivant:

144

VALENTINPIFTOR Catgoriedge(ans) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Nombredgesarrondis 4 1 1 1 6 8 6 5 1 6 1 6 0 3 0 1

Tableauno7 Silaplupartdesgesexactementindiqustaientjusqu25ans, la plupart des ges arrondis sont audessus de 25 ans, cestdire 42 personnes dun total de 50. Les ges arrondi le mieux reprsents sont ceux de 25 ans (6 personnes), de 30 ans (8 personnes), de 35 ans (8 personnes),de50ans(6personnes)etde60ans(6personnes). En ce qui concerne le statut juridique des femmes de notre chantillonnage, nous disponsons de la situation suivante: 61 personnes (70,11%) taient citoyennes, 17 (19,54%) taient prgrinnes, 3 (3,44%) taient affranchies et 6 (6,89%) ont un statut incertain. Toutes les affranchiesontlgearrondi,tandisque59%desprgrinnessontdansla mme situation. Le rapport ge arrondige prcisment indiqu est plusquilibrchezlescitoyennes(54%46%.Lasituationestplusproche de celle rencontr en Pannonie Infrieure, dont le pourcentage des citoyennes dont lge est prcisment indiqu est plus proche de 50 (MIHAILESCUBRLIBA,PIFTOR,COZMA2007,53).

LesprancedevieenMsieInfrieure

145

BIBLIOGRAPHIE BAGNALLRogerS.,FRIERBruceW. 1994 ThedemographyofRomanEgypt,Cambridge. COALEAnsley,J.DEMENYPeter 1983 Regionalmodellifetablesandstablepopulations2,Princeton. MIHAILESCUBRLIBALucreiu 2003 Ltudedmographiquesurlesfamillesdesmagistratsmunicipauxen Dacie romaine une demarche impossible?, Ancient West & East 2.1.,7895. 2004 Individu et socit en Dacie romaine. tude de dmographie historique,Wiesbaden. MIHAILESCUBRLIBALucreiu,PIFTORValentin,COZMARzvan 2007 Lesprancedevie,lastructuredgeetlamortalitenPannonie(Ier IIIes.ap.J.C.),Iai. SCHEIDELWalter 1999 Emperors, aristocrats and the grim reaper: towards a demographic profileoftheRomanelite,CQ49,245281. 2001a Progress and problems in Roman demography, dans Scheidel, Walter(d.),DebatingRomandemography,Leyde. 2001b DeathontheNile.DiseaseanddemographyofRomanEgypt,Leyde.

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai LORIGINEDESAUGUSTAUXETDELEURSFAMILLESENDACIE ROMAINE LUCREIUMIHAILESCUBRLIBA


Keywords:augustaux,Dacieromaine,population. Rsum.Lauteuressaye,pardestableauxprosopographique,defaireuntatdequestion sur lorigine des augustaux et de leurs familles en Dacie romaine. La plupart des inscriptions ne peut pas fournir, malheureusement, des donnes certes sur leur origine, mais tous les augustaux mentionns dans les inscriptions de Dacie proviennent de lextrieurdelaprovince.SeulementquelquesenfantssontprobablementnsenDacie,vu leurgetrsjeuneaudcs. Abstract.Theauthortriestorealizeastudyconcerningtheoriginoftheaugustalesand their families in Roman Dacia, using prossopographic tables. Unfortunately, the inscriptionscannotofferprecisedataontheirorigin,butalltheaugustalesmentionedin theinscriptionscomefromoutsidetheprovince.Onlyafewchildrenareprobablybornin Dacia,judgingaftertheiryoungageatdeath. Rezumat. Autorul ncearc, pe baza unor tabele prosopografice, s stabileasc originea augustaliloriafamiliilorlordinDaciaroman.Majoritateainscripiilornufurnizeaz, din nefericire, date precise cu privire la aceast origine, dar e sigur c toi augustalii provin din afara provinciei. Doar civa copii sunt probabil nscui n Dacia, judecnd dupvrstafrageddeladeces.

Les augustaux constituent un groupe social particulier de llite municipale: mme si certains membres de cet ordo ont une certaine aisance, leur statut juridique (ils sont trs souvent affranchis) est en contradiction leur situation matrielle 1 . Je me propose desquisser une imageconcernantleurorigineoupluttdemieuxmettreenvidenceles problmesmthodologiquesconcernantcettequestion.Dansletableauno

Sur les augustaux, voir surtout DUTHOY 1974, 134-54; DUTHOY 1978, 1254-1309; ABRAMENKO 1993,1-15. En ce qui concene les augustaux en Dacie, voir ARDEVAN 1998, 241-269; MIHAILESCU-BRLIBA 1999, 393-398; MIHAILESCU-BRLIBA 2006a, 61, 102-107; MIHAILESCU-BRLIBA 2006b, 126-136.
1

148

LUCREIUMIHAILESCUBRLIBA

1,lasigleUTSestutiliseaulieudUlpiaTraianaSarmizegetusa,Apulum I au lieu de la colonie Apulensis et Apulum II au lieu du municipium Apulense.


Nom 1)Iul.PaetinusValerius 2)IuliaKalligenia 3)M.MiniciusSimphorus 4)Minicia[] 5) M. Lucius Romanus Ma rinus 6)Q.VibiusAmillus 7)Q.VibiusIulianus 8) D. Baebatius Chrysan thus 9)BaebatiaGamice 10)C.CaeciliusFelix 11)ValeriaCrescentilla 12)[]er 13) M. Veponius Maximi nus 14)T.ClaudiusIanuarius 15)ClaudiusVerus 16)Sex.AttiusSecundus 17)Ulp.DomitiusHermes 18)Ulp.DomitiusHermes 19)Ulp.DomitiusHipponi cus 20)Ulp.DomitiusRegulus 21) Ulp. Domitius Onesi mus 22)ValeriusThreptus Cit Drobeta Drobeta Drobeta Drobeta Drobeta UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS Source IDRII,50 IDRII,50 IDRII,52 IDRII,52 PETOLESCU 1986,347 IDRIII/1,64 IDRIII/1,64 IDRIII/1,89 IDRIII/1,89 IDRIII/1,171 IDRIII/1,171 IDRIII/2,5 IDRIII/2,12 IDRIII/2,13 IDRIII/2,13 IDR III/2, 105, 385 IDRIII/2,121, 219,271 IDR III/2, 219, 271 IDR III/2, 219, 271 IDR III/2, 219, 271 IDR III/2, 219, 271 IDR III/2, 219, Datation aprs193 aprs193 117193 117193 IIIes. IIes. IIes. ? ? IIes. IIes. aprs222 ? IIIes.? IIIes.? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Origine celte ? ? ? ? italien? ? ? ? ? ? ? celte ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

LoriginedesaugustauxetdeleursfamillesenDacieromaine 271 IDRIII/2,165 IDRIII/2,185

149

23)C.TitiusAgathopus 24)Q.AttiusAnthimus

UTS UTS

25) M. Procilius Aphrodi sius 26)SeximiaHermione

UTS

UTS

27)Procilia[]

UTS

28)AureliusPriscianus 29)AureliaFortunata 30)[]Chrys[] 31)CassiusMaximus 32)C.SpediusValerianus

UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS

33)ClaudiusAnicetus 34)Anonyme 35)SeptimiusAsclepiades 36) Ael. Macrinius Epidi anus 37)AeliaAndena 38)MacriniaMarcia 39) Sex. Annius? Pannoni us? 40)AnniusMacrinus 41)Anonyme(femme) 42)Q.AureliusSaturninus 43)T.AureliusVitalis 44)L.CassiusMarcio

UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS

? fin du IIe s.dbut duIIIes. IDRIII/2,190 fin du IIe s.dbut duIIIes. IDRIII/2,190 fin du IIe s.dbut duIIIes. IDRIII/2,190 fin du IIe s.dbut duIIIes. IDRIII/2,228 aprs222 IDRIII/2,228 aprs222 IDRIII/2,252 ? IDRIII/2,278 aprs222 IDR III/2, 291, fin du IIe 319 s.dbut duIIIes. IDRIII/2,330, aprs222 III/5,191 IDRIII/2,355 ? IDRIII/2,366 IDR III/2, 368, 372 IDRIII/2,372 IDRIII/2,372 IDRIII/2,374 IDRIII/2,374 IDRIII/2,374 IDRIII/2,388 IDRIII/2,389 IDRIII/2,398 III s.
e

? syrien?

syrien?

oriental? ? ? ?

? ? ? illyrien
illyrienne illyrienne Pannonie? ? ? ? ? ?

IIIes.(?) IIIes.(?) IIIes.(?) ? ? ? moiti du IIes. aprs222 ?

150

LUCREIUMIHAILESCUBRLIBA UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS IDRIII/2,398 IDRIII/2,398 IDRIII/2,404 IDRIII/2,404 IDRIII/2,409 IDRIII/2,421 IDRIII/2,421 IDRIII/2,431 IDRIII/2,431 IDRIII/2,443 IDRIII/2,443 IDRIII/2,443 IDRIII/2,443 IDRIII/2,443 IDRIII/2,444 IDRIII/2,444 IDRIII/2,459 IDRIII/2,459 IDRIII/3,1 IDRIII/3,1 IDRIII/3,1 IDRIII/3,1 IDRIII/3,37 IDR III/3, 71, 72 IDRIII/3,142 IDRIII/3,171 IDRIII/3,242 IDRIII/3,242 IDRIII/3,333 ? ? ? ? ? aprs222 aprs222 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? aprs222 aprs222 aprs222 aprs222 ? ? ? ? 212217 fin du IIe s.dbut duIIIes. ? ? ? ? fin du IIe s.dbut duIIIes. aprs197 aprs197 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? celte celte? illyrien? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

45)CassiaCassiana 46)CassiaRufina 47)M.CorneliusPrimus 48)CorneliaVictoria 49)FlaviusFortunatus 50)M.IuliusVictor 51)IuliaMaxima 52)[]Marcio 53)Anonyme(femme) 54)M.SuroniusAdrastus 55)ServiliaPrimitiva 56)M.SuroniusAdrastus 57)M.SuroniusMarcus 58)M.SuroniusTitianus 59)C.TogerniusIngenuus 60)PetiliaVictoria 61)C.VenetiusPrivatus 62)UlpiaPatricia 63)Anonyme 64)Germanus 65)Cornelius[] 66)CalpurniusClaudianus 67)FlaviusSotericus 68) M. Cornelius Stratoni cus 69)Terentius[] 70)C.BoviusSymphorus 71)M.LuciliusLucilianus 72)L.AntistiusOnesimus 73)Apollonius?

UTS UTS UTS UTS UTS

? ? italien? ? syrien?

74)P.AeliusSyrus 75)ValeriaSevera

Apulum II Apulum

IDRIII/5,7 IDRIII/5,7

syrien? ?

LoriginedesaugustauxetdeleursfamillesenDacieromaine II Apulum II 77)M.GalliusEpictetus ApulumI 78)GalliaSeverina ApulumI 79)GalliusSurus ApulumI 80)GalliusSeverinus ApulumI 81)GalliusSeverianus ApulumI 82)C.IuliusDius Apulum II 83)C.IuliusFarnax Apulum II 84)C.IuliusIrenicus Apulum II 85)AeliusIulianus ApulumI 86)M.AureliusTimon ApulumI 87)T.AeliusOnesimus ApulumI 88)M.IuliusQuirinus ApulumI 89) Septimius Asclepius ApulumI Hermes 90)T.FlaviusFlavianus Apulum II 91)AeliaVindia Apulum II 92)FlaviusRestutus Apulum II 93)FlaviusFlavinus Apulum II 94)FlaviusIanuarius Apulum II 95)FlaviusFlavianus Apulum II 96)G.AtiliusEutyches ApulumI 97)L.AntoniusSecundus ApulumI 98)AntoniaCelsina ApulumI 99)ClaudiusMarcellus ApulumI 76)AeliaSyra

151

IDRIII/5,7 IDRIII/5,13 IDRIII/5,13 IDRIII/5,13 IDRIII/5,13 IDRIII/5,13 IDRIII/5,20 IDRIII/5,20 IDRIII/5,20 IDRIII/5,58 IDRIII/5,80 IDRIII/5,127 IDRIII/5,153 IDRIII/5,199 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 iDRIII/5,206 IDRIII/5,211 IDRIII/5,211 IDRIII/5,296

aprs197 aprs180 aprs180 aprs180 aprs180 aprs180 aprs197 aprs197 aprs197 aprs180 198211 aprs180 196197 aprs193 aprs197 aprs197 aprs197 aprs197 aprs197 aprs197 aprs180 aprs180 aprs180 fin du IIe s.dbut

syrienne? celte celte celte? celte? celte? oriental? oriental? oriental? ? ? ? ? ? syrien celte? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

152

LUCREIUMIHAILESCUBRLIBA duIIIes. IDR III/5, 363, aprs180 527 IDRIII/5,396 aprs180 IDRIII/5,396 aprs180 IDRIII/5,397 aprs180 IDRIII/5,397 aprs180 IDRIII/5,397 aprs180 IDRIII/5,518 aprs180 IDR III/5, 525, aprs197 534 IDRIII/5,534 aprs197 IDRIII/5,670 CILIII862 CILIII862 CILIII992 CILIII992 CILIII6254 CILIII7665 CILIII7665 AE 1934, 17, 17bis CILIII7709 PISO 1995, 83 86 aprs197 IIIes. IIIes. IIIes. IIIes. 118180 IIIes. IIIes. aprs193

100)FabiusPulcher 101)Tutor 102)Atticus 103)C.ValeriusSalvius 104)FlaviaSyra 105)C.ValeriusFlavianus 106)CocceiaValeria 107)DomitiusEufras

ApulumI

? ? grec? ? syrienne? ? ? ? italienne? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

ApulumI ApulumI ApulumI ApulumI ApulumI ApulumI Apulum II 108)GelliaVita Apulum II 109)Anonyme Apulum II 110) M. Ulpius Caecilius Napoca Bassianus 111) M. Ulpius Caecilius Napoca Callisthenes 112)AureliusSecundus(?) Napoca 113)AureliaFelicissima Napoca 114)M.Iulius(H)arpochras Napoca 115)M.AureliusPapia Napoca 116)AureliaBona Napoca 117)AeliusSuper Potaissa 118)M.AureliusAvitus 119)Euryma(?) Potaissa UTS

dbut du ? IIIes. ?

Tableauno1 Dabord,ilfautfairequelquesprcisionsaproposdeloriginedes augustauxdeSarmizegetusa,daprsltudedA.Paki(1990,149163).Par exemple, il est difficile dattribuer une origine italienne L. Antistius Onesimus(IDRIII/3,242),ClaudiusAnicetus(IDRIII/2,330;III/5,191),M.

LoriginedesaugustauxetdeleursfamillesenDacieromaine

153

CorneliusPrimus(IDRIII/2,404),M.IuliusVictor(IDRIII/2,421),ouD. Baebatius Chrysanthus (IDR III/1, 89). Mme si ces gentilices sont italiennes,rienneprouvequecesaugustaux,dautantplusquilssontex esclaves,sontoriginairesenItalie.Enoutre,lesnominaCorneliusetIulius sont frquents lextrieur de lItalie. A. Paki suppose que M. Cornelius Stratonicus, qui appartient la mme branche des Cornelii Sarmizegetusa, est dorigine grecque selon son surnom. Primo, les surnoms grecs sont habituelles chez les affranchis; secundo, un surnom grecnestpasunindicateursrdelorigine(PAKI1990,155).Danscecas, loriginedelaugustalreste,monavis,incertaine.A.Pakiconsidreque M.ProciliusAphrodisiusestoriginairedelItalie,entantquaffranchides Procilii (1990, 155). Dabord, on ne connat pas le moment o le patron dAphrodisius (qui nest pas forcment M. Procilius Niceta ou M. ProciliusRegulus)sontvenusenDacie.Ensecondlieu,saddicaceDeus Aeternusprouvesonoriginesyrienne.Ilesttrsprobablequilsoitvenu dItalie,maissonlieudenaissanceestenSyrie.Cestpourquoijaiprfr, pourtouslesaugustauxdontjaisupposuneorigineitaliennelesVibii (IDRIII/1,64),LuciliusLucilianus(IDRIII/3,242)ouGelliaVita(IDRIII/5, 534), donc des affranchis qui portent galement des surnoms latins de marquerleurorigineparunesignedinterrogation. Les trois Iulii (Dius, Farnax et Irenicus) portent de noms grco orientaux. Dius et Irenicus sont assez rpandus dans le monde hellnophone (SOLIN 1982, 651, 710), tandis que Farnax a une origine iranniene,maiscesurnomatsouventutilisenAsieMineure(ZGUSTA 1955, 157160; ROBERT 1963, 390, 519). Cest pourquoi je pense que ces troisaugustauxontleurorigineenAsieMineure. Lorigine occidentale attribue par A. Paki Q. Attius Anthimus (1990,155,tableau8,no3)estdiscutable,sionremarquequelaugustala consacr un autel pour Jupiter Aeternus. La nomenclature nest pas relvante ni dans le cas de C. Caecilius Felix (considr africain par A. Paki)(1990,155,tableau8,no10),nidanslescasdeL.CassiusMarcio(IDR III/2,398),CassiusMaximus(IDRIII/2,278),FlaviusFortunatus(IDRIII/2, 409),FlaviusSotericus(IDRIII/3,37)ouValeriusThreptus(IDRIII/2,219, 271).C.TitiusAgathopus,augustalSarmizegetusaetSiscia(IDRIII/2,

154

LUCREIUMIHAILESCUBRLIBA

165), est probablement laffranchi de Titii Siscia, mais il est difficile de direquilestoriginairedeDalmatie(PAKI1990,155,tableau8,no30). En ce qui concerne la repartition chronologique des augustaux dontloriginepeuttredtermine,lesdonnessonttrspeunombreuses pourquellessoientrelvantes.LesitalienssontmentionnsauxIIeetaux IIIe sicles les Vibii (IDR III/1, 64)et Gellia Vita (IDR III/5, 534) tandis que la plupart des augustaux dorigine celte ou de leurs parents ont t enregistrsenDacielafinduIIesicleetaudbutduIIIe(IDRIII/2,444; III/5, 13, 203), ainsi que les Illyriens et leurs familles (IDR III/2, 368, 372, 459). Les augustaux dorigine syrienne ou orientale et les membres de leursfamillessontmentionnsparlestextesdanslammepriode(findu IIes.premiremoitiduIIIe s.)(IDRIII/2,185,190,228,291,319;III/3,333; III/5,7,203,397). Il y a aussi la possibilit que certains des enfants daugustaux soient ns en Dacie; le manque des informations concernant lge des enfantsrendcedmarchedifficile.Letableausuivantprsentecesenfants, dontlesgesaudcssontsrs.
Membres des familles appartenant aux augustauxdeDacie,probablementnsenDacie 1)Q.VibiusIulianus 2)ClaudiusVerus 3)Procilia[] 4)AnniusMacrinus 5)CassiaCassiana 6)CorneliaVictorina 7)FlaviusRestutus 8)Flavius[] 9)FlaviusIanuarius 10)FlaviusFlavianus 11)C.ValeriusSalvius

Source
IDRIII/1,64 IDRIII/2,13 IDRIII/2,190 IDRIII/2,374 IDRIII/2,398 IDRIII/2,404 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,203 IDRIII/5,397

Tableauno2

LoriginedesaugustauxetdeleursfamillesenDacieromaine

155

BIBLIOGRAPHIE ABRAMENKOAndrik 1993 Die munizipale Mittelschicht im kaiserzeitlichen Italien. Zu einem neuenVerstndnisvonSeviratundAugustalitt,Francfort. ARDEVANRadu 1998 ViaamunicipalnDaciaroman,Timioara. DUTHOYRobert 1974 Lafonctionsocialedelaugustalit,Epigraphica36,134154. 1978 LesAugustales,dansANRW,II,16,2,12541309. MIHAILESCUBRLIBALucreiu 1999 LesaffranchisetlaugustalitenDacieromaine,SAA6,393398. 2006a Les affranchis dans les provinces romaines de lIllyricum, Wiesbaden. 2006b Les augustaux* en Pannonie et en Dacie: statut juridique et social, Classica&Christiana2,115137. PAKIAdela 1990 PopulaiaUlpieiTraianaSarmizegetusa(II),SCIVA41,149163. PETOLESCUConstantinC. 1986 CronicaepigraficaRomniei(V),SCIVA37,1986,345359. PISOIoan 1995 EineVotivinschriftausCaransebe,EphemerisNapocensis5,8386. ROBERTLouis 1963 NomsindignesdanslAsieMineuregrcoromaine,I,Paris. SOLINHeikki 1982 Die griechischen Personennamen im antiken Rom: ein Namenbuch, BerlinNewYork. ZGUSTAL. 1955 Die Personennamen griechischer Stdte in der nrdlichen Schwarzmeerkste,Prague.

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai SOMEASPECTSOFILLYRIANLIFEINDACIA EXHLALEDOBRUNASALIHU


Key words: Dacia, Illyrian emigration, epigraphic sources and necropolises, peregrinestatus,nativetraditions Abstract.Onthebasisofepigraphicsources(cerates,tombstoneandmonumentsofcult) and archaeological (necropolises), the author treats some aspects of Illyrians in Dacia, pointingoutthescaleofemigrationandlevelofRomanising,aswellasthewayoftheir life in general. From data of these sources, it comes out that Illyrians in this province, despite their socialeconomic achievements, appear to be quite traditional, respectively theypreservedtheiridentity,andthisisinfacttheirmaincharacteristic.Thisisseenin the preservation of elements of material culture, respecting the forms of autochthonous dwellingswithformsofIllyriangoverning,aswellaselementsofspiritualculture,what isnoticedinthespecificwayofburialsandbearingandrespectingcultsofautochthonous gods.Therefore,Illyriansthatemigratedtothisprovincepresentthemselvesasaspecific element,differentfromtheothers. Rsum.LauteurparledequelquesaspectsdeviequotidiennedesIllyriensenDacie,en partantdessourcespigraphiquesetarchologiques. Rezumat. Autoarea trateaz cteva aspecte ale vieii cotidiene ale illyrilor n Dacia roman,pebazaizvoarelorepigraficeiarheologice.

For the fact that emigration, respectively Illyrian colonisation to Daciaisstillasphereofscholarsinterest,weshallgiveageneralsurvey on thisquestion,bytreating various aspects. We will basethissurvey of oursontwokindsofsources:1.Epigraphic,whicharethemainonesand theyaremadeatthefirstplacefromtabulaecerataefromAntiquecentreof AlburnusMaior(RoiaMontanofnowadays),whichtakeaspecialplace,

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andthesepulchralandcultmonuments 1 ;and,2.Necropoleisandagroup oftombswithaspecificwayofburying 2 . Starting from the first half of 2nd century AD, a great number of Romancitizens,aswellasofnonRomanisednativesperegrinesfrom theprovinceofDalmatiaandotherancientIllyrianareas,inanorganised form, mainly as groups, as a planned action of the Roman state, fled to minebasinsandothereconomicallywellknownregionsofRomanDacia. Most of them were settled on Transylvania, mainly on rich region with gold of Apusen Mountains, on the area between the centres of Apulum (nowadays Alba Iulia), of Alburnus Maior, with a greater concentration onthelastone,andofAmpelum(nowadaysZlatna).Inthiscaseaboveall, weshouldconsiderspecialisedminers,wholivedintheseregionsasreal colonists and they left their everlasting traces, for this reason it was writtenmanyatimeaboutthem,withinframeworkofdiscussionsonthe mines in general or in particular (DAICOVICIU 1958, 259 ff.; MROZEK 1968,307ff.;GARAANIN1968,2627;SNTIMBREANU,WOLLMANN 1974,240ff.;RENDIMIOEVI1989,751ff.). Epigraphic material about this problem under discussion is of an outstanding importance, for the fact that data in them are linked with Illyrian anthroponomy, which shows scale of migration, level of Romanising and arriving of colonists, they offer significant information aboutthewayoflifeingeneral,includingthetypeofsettlements,aswell associal,economicalandspiritualstate. About the level of Illyrian emigration to Dacia, the linguistic and onomasticdatashow,asA.Sntimbreanu,V.Wollmanhavepointedout, that these provincial elements of colonisation into this province, besides

Cerates were especially published in complete in CIL III 924959, and then in Series in RumanianeditedbyI.I.Russu(IDRI):IVTblielecerateDacice.Whileotherepigraphic materialpublishedbydifferentauthorsispublishedinreviews. 2 DAICOVICIU 1958, 260, where the author deals only with necropolises of Pirusts and Baridusts found in mining region between antique centres of Apulum and Alburnus Maior;GARAANIN1968,1113,speaksaboutallthecasesfoundinTransilvania.
1

SomeaspectsofIllyrianlifeinDacia

159

GreekOrientalelement,weremorenumerous.AccordingtothemIllyrian anthroponyms are 120 in total and 70 of them are from Alburnus (SNTIMBREANU, WOLLMANN 1974, 241), and among them 4042 havetodowithnamesthatwecomeacrossincerates,whileotherswith stone monuments (DAICOVICIU 1958, 260; SNTIMBREANU, WOLLMANN 1974, 245). S. Mrozek points out that among these 70 names, even 65 certainly are Illyrian, while 5 others are doubtful (MROZEK 1968, 311312). This fund of Illyrian names from Alburnus Maiormeansthat62%ofthesenameshavebeenfoundinDacia,andthis shows that this was the greatest Illyrian centre of this province (DAICOVICIU1958,260;MROZEK1968,312).Ontheotherhandthetotal number of Illyrian names found in the entire province, according to the authorMacreais4%whatisverysmallone,andherebyallmeansshould consider Romanisation of Illyrianperegrine names, respectively spreadingoutandappropriationofRomannames,whichhasresultedthe percentage of Illyrian names and together with them, number of emigrants,andthisshouldbemuchgreater 3 . AsfarastheoriginofIllyriancolonistsisconcerned,theproblemcan betreated,forthetimebeingonlyinoutlines,asonepartofthesepersons andgroupsstillremainunknown.Butfromtheotherside,thegreaterpart has been documented with the name of appropriate tribe or of the town theyemigratedfrom.Henceforth,intheminezones,firstofallhavebeen mentionedPirustaeetBaridustae,andthelatteroneswhotookacastellum emigratedfromthetownofBaridumofDalmatia(DAICOVICIU1958,260 261, nt. 14; MROZEK 1968, 313; SNTINBREANUWOLLMANN 1974, 246, nt. 9). They were followed by the others, like Sardeates and a populationfromthetownofAequum(itluk,closetonowadaysSinj)and Splonum (certainly Komin, close to nowadays Plevlje) of Dalmatia (DAICOVICIU 1958, 262, n. 25, 264, n. 28; MROZEK 1968, 313, n. 2930). According to hypothesis of the scholar R. Vulpe some emigrants should have been from Scirtones tribe as well (MROZEK 1968, 313, n. 30.) And
3

GARAANIN 1958, 27, nt. 33; SNTIMMBREANU, WOLLMANN 1974, 245. While aboutspreadingofRomannamescf.RENDIMIOEVI1989,757;idem1989a,771,777, 784.

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amongallthese,itseemsthatinminingzoneofAlburnusMaior,Pirustae were those that made the most important group of Illyrian population, becausetheirnamewasalsoidentifiedintheirtwotraditionalsettlements, of one fortress and one suburb socalled Vicus Pirustarum, founder and inhabitants of which were they themselves (DAICOVICIU 1958 260263; MROZEK 1968, 312313).. In the last one according to S. Mrozek only earliesttimesoftheactivityofminesthispopulationwasalone,whilein the year 159 of our era it was also inhabited by a Latin population (MROZEK1968,313) For this Illyrian population, known in the first place for its great miningskills,itisveryinterestingthatitisstilldisputabletheirspreading territoryinIllyrida,andaboutthisthereexistvariousopinions.Thisway, C. Patsch locates them in Northern part of Albania, in the area around LezhaandDukagjinregionandthatofMirdita,whereG.Alfldylocates them as well (DAICOVICIU 1858, 260, n. 5; ALFLDY 1965, 57). At the same time A. J. Evans thinks that they spread out in northern part of Montenegro, around Plevlje (Municipium S...), and the same thinks M. Garaaninaswell(EVANS,1883,38ff;GARAANIN,GARAANIN1967, 97).Whereas,S.Mrozekpointsoutthatthispopulationundoubtedlyisof Dardanian origin, which in ancient times was known as a place rich in gold, and which according to Plinius records Darda is rich in gold 4 . Perhapsevenitsnamecomesfromtheworddardh(pear=Lat.pirum)( GEORGIEV 1957, 160; RUSSU 1960, 479; MROZEK 1968, 313, nt. 27). As farasthisisconcerned,weshouldpointoutthosetombstones(stelaeand cippi) of Dardanias territory and of Municipium S... (where are located Pirustae) according to the stylistic aspect of treatment of relief which clearly bears lines of autochthonous art, are very close to each other (Cf. CERMANOVIKUZMANOVI 1978, 325330; DOBRUNASALIHU 1987, 200202), and this goes in favour of the abovementioned thesis. Otherwise, in Dacia in quite another centre, called RomulaMalva (nowadaysReca)inOltenia,afterfindingtwomonumentsofcult,isalso
4MROZEK1968,312313,nt.27;cf.Plinius,Nat.hist.,V,19PertilissimisuntauriDardae and gold with Dardanian origin is wellknown as far as in Rome, points out further this author,cf.XXXIII,39.

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proved presence of this great IllyrianDardanian population. We have to do with two votive plaques with figural presentation on relief and inscription:oneofthemisdedicatedtotwopersonsofDardanianorigin, with civility, but with unknown anthroponomy because of damages of inscription; the second one, another person also with civility (TUDOR, VLADESCU 1972, 183 ff), who, what is more important, as a cognomen bearstheIllyriannameDardanus 5 ,whichiscomposedbyethnonymand thisalsoshowshisethnicbelonging 6 .Aswecansee,thesetwofragments also document emigration, respectively Dardanian colonisation in Dacia, whereundoubtedlytheycameintothiscentreingreatergroupsandwho were attracted by mining riches (TUDOR, VLADESCU 1972, 188). The timewhentheemigrationtookplacewedonotknowforcertain,butwe cansupposethatitwasdoneduringfirstyearsofRomaninvasioninthe north of Danube, when in Dacia took place a strong overflowing of emigrantscolonistswhoarrivedfromIllyrianareas.Itisveryprobable that in this centre in parallel with Dardanian group, emigrated other Illyrianpopulation,aswell(TUDOR,VLADESCU1972,189). Onomasticanalysis,respectivelyanthroponomyshowsthatIllyrians whoarrivedintothisprovincewereRomanisedabit,whereaccordingto S.Mrozek,only13peoplecomeouttoberomanisedinthecentrewhere was present a greater number of these names Alburnus Maior what means that 1/5 of the fund of this group of names (MROZEK 1968, 214). We understand from this that we have to do with persons who had the statusofperegrine,whosenamesappearwithIllyrianonomasticformula, consisted by personal name and fathers name (patronymic), which also presentonomasticformulamosttypicalforperegrinepopulation 7 . From these inscriptions it is clearly seen that Illyrians in these new areasoftheirsettlementbyconfrontingRomanisationbesidesonomastics (anthroponymy)preservedverywelltheancientwayoflifeaswell,what isreflectedintheirformerorganisation.Henceforth,theirfurtherlivingas peregrines they respected and bear formats and dwellings of theirs
TUDOR,VLADESCU1972,186.foranthroponymDardanuscf.RUSSU1969,192. ForIllyriannamesmadeupfromethnonymsinDaciacf.RENDIMIOEVI1989,756. 7Cf.RENDIMIOEVI1989,756758,thisauthorpointsoutothercasetoo:758759.
5 6

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traditional epichoric closed socalled castella, as we have seen before, as: K(astellum) Baridusta(rum), K. Ansum, K. Avieretium, K. Artum etc. 8 , and also other types of dwellings formed according to the model from their fatherlandaswell,asitisthecasewithVicusPirustarummentionedearlier formed as a suburb of Alburnus or as a village close to this town 9 . All these dwellings have a great importance because they speak for strong connectionsofIllyriancolonistswiththeirfatherlandevenafterarrivalin Dacia 10 . This is also documented by the presence of socalled principes dalmati,whichisanoldformofIllyriangoverning,wheretheypresented leadersoftribeswhichstoodonheadofabovementioneddwellings 11 . Hence, it is obvious that both these elements indicate very well common points of Illyrian colonists in mining region of Ampelum Alburnus in Dacia and Central and Southern Dalmatia where from arrived the emigrants. In this case it is important to point out that organisationaswellascontrolofexploitationofmineswasdonemainly according to Dalmatian model, where the first procurator goldsmith (procuratoraurariarum)asearlyasinthetimeofTraianwastransferredto DaciaandDalmatia.This,inparallelwithgreatnumberofIllyrianminers who emigrated in this region, speaks about the level of preservation of Dalmatian tradition in exploitation of gold mines, where surely existed ironmines,aswell(DAICOVICIU1958,260,ntt.910;SNTIMBREANU, WOLLMANN 1974, 246). Preservation of integral ethnic Illyrian unity is alsoseeninunitingmembersofcertaintribeinsocalledcollegia,asisthe case of community of Baridusts (collegium Baridustarum), which was organisedonlybyinhabitantsofthetownofBaridum,who,aswestated, were dwelling in the castellum with the same name in mining zone of Alburnus (Cf. DAICOVICIU 1958, 261; MROZEK 1968, 316317, nt. 42).
AboutthishewritesmoreDAICOVICIU1958,261263,whorevisedformerinterpretation ofabbreviationK(astrum)nK(astellum). 9 DAICOVICIU 1958, 260, nt.11, 264, nt. 31,this author points out that Youngs opinion, whoVicusPirustarum,presentsasasecondnameofAlburnus,isnotreasonable. 10Foridentification,localizationandlanguagebelongingofthesedwellingsandtoponyms cf.DAICOVICIU1958,262263,ntt.26,28;SNTIMBREANU,WOLLMANN1974,246. 11 DAICOVICIU 1958, 261, nt. 12; SNTIMBREANU, WOLLMANN 1974, 246. For these functionariesmorecf.RENDIMIOEVI1962,315.
8

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Otherwise,collegiawerecorporateofdifferentcharacter,atthefirstplace professional,whichusuallywereincludedsmallconcessionaires,andthen funeralswhobesidesunitingofinhabitantswithLatinnames,inparallel with those Illyrians and Greeks, they included those emigrants from a certain place. Besides our case, there appears the socalled collegium Galatorum composed by emigrants of Asia Minor. This way, emigrants from different countries formed certain communities 12 .In certain communitiesshouldhavebeenunitedeventhosewhocultivatedreligious cultsofacertainarea 13 . About the cults and religion it is of interest the fact that among inscriptionsofthisprovincewecomeacrosssuchones,whichdocument bearing and respecting of certain Illyrian gods from the fatherland of dedicator, and this speaks about preservation of native tradition in this field of spiritual culture. We have to do with two votive plaques from abovementioned RomulaMalva on which are carved goddesses. Nevertheless, as on thefirst plaque, relief is damaged, we cant say who the Goddess is. While,as far asthe second one is concerned, for the fact that Goddess relief is preserved very well, of great help is dedication Dardanicae on her head, in tympanum. This inscription shows that the plaque is dedicated to a syncretic Goddess who personifies dedicators fatherlandDardania.Thus,wehavetodoherewiththeGoddessoftheir fatherland Goddess Dardania (Dea Dardanica) (TUDOR, VLADESCU 1972, 183 ff., figs. 12), which even in Dardania has been documented iconographically and epigraphically 14 . With this feature, this Goddess is

Forcollegiainbriefcf.DAICOVICIU1958,262,nt.22;widercf.MROZEK1968,316317, nt.42. 13Cf.MROZEK1968,313,ntt.3235,317,wheretheauthorpointsoutthat,forthisspeaks presenceofOrientalgodsinmineswhichwerecultivatedbyemigrantsfromAsiaMinor, because altars dedicated to typical gods of this area held Greek and Oriental names originallyfromAsiaMinor,andperhapswiththishadtodoGaeliccommunityfromthis area. 14 Iconographically we come across one case from Mediana (Brzi Brod), where it is presentedinfullsculpture,inaformofastatue,cf.JOVANOVI1980,5360,fig.1.While epigraphicallyhasbeenproveninsomecases:fromAquaeBass(BanjaeKurshumlis),cf. VULI 194148, 101, nr. 221; from Vendenis (Gllamnik bei Podujeva), cf. DOBRUNA
12

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part of socalled Gods of Fatherland (Deae Dii Patriae) (TUDOR, VLADESCU 1972, 188, ntt. 713). This exvoto which belongs to the first part of 3rd century was found in an important place of cult, like temple, chapel etc., andthisspeaksabout theimportance ofthis Goddessin this centre, where were also formed communities (collegia) divided with professionalorreligiouscharacter,atthefirstplaceintendingtopreserve theirethnicalbeing(TUDOR,VLADESCU1972,189).Undoubtedly,there shouldhavebeen,atleastanotheroneDardanianwithreligiouscharacter, andevidenceforthiscouldbethisplaque. Besides epigraphic material, for preserving Illyrian traditions in Dacia in the field of spiritual culture speak certain type of necropolises andgroupoftombsinaspecificwayofburying,foundinseveralcentres of Transilvania, where Illyrians emigrated, and which M. Garaanin locates in the necropolises of the type of Mala KopanicaSase found in certain areas ofwideIllyrianterritory, andwhich belongonlyto Illyrian ethnos 15 . Among these tombs, the greatest is necropolis of the mountain Corabia between centres of Ampleum and Alburnus Maior, which entirely belong to this type 16 . This speaks of great role that emigrants wereplayinginthisregion,atthefirstplaceasspecialisedminers,whatis documented with epigraphic material as well, where on inscriptions of thesetwocentredonotappearThracianDaciannames,butoncontrary, to a great extent appear Illyrian names (DAICOVICIU 1958, 265; MROZEK 1968, 311). These data undoubtedly prove the existence of a separate colony in this region and which was connected with this necropolis (GARAANIN 1968, 25). Similarly to this, is the necropolis Cinci in the region of the Iron mine of Teluic, where all tombs, besides one, belong to this type, and this shows that even here the Illyrians
SALIHU20032005,832,nr.354(51),Pl.163,fig.304;fromSmirabeiVitia,cf.DOBRUNA SALIHU20032005,839840,nr.368(65),Pl.170171,figs.316AC. 15 GARAANIN 1968, 5 ff. On the contrary, Rumanian archeologists put these tombs in connectionwithautochthonouspopulationofDacia,cf.1113. 16GARAANIN1968,11,ntt.40,41.EvenforthistombRumanianarcheologists,beginning from DAICOVICIU, besides MACREAs and to some extent MORINTZ without detailed arguments,thinkthattherewereburiednatives(Dacians),cf.DAICOVICIU1958,265,nt. 38.

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formed a special group (GARAANIN 1968, 11, 12, 25). Whilst, on the contraryinbothnecropolisesofApulum;CeleiandStradaBiilor,aswell asofUrsoieofAntiquecentrePorolissum(Miogradofnowadays)tombsof this type do not present the only one type, but there are present other types as well. And among them the most interesting is necropolis Celei, wheretombsofthistypearedividedinaspecialplaceofnecropolisand they present clearly a divided group, which can be explained only as a result of presence of various ethnic elements, also of the Illyrian, who made up the population of this centre. This is present in Porolissum as well(GARAANIN1968,26). Such results has also reached D. Protase, who points out that in tombs of places Bote and Vulcoi, which are between centre Zlatna and RoiaMontan,atthefirstplaceareburiedIllyriansDalmats(PROTASE 1971,107). As far as juridicalsocial state from these inscriptions is seen as S. Mrozek points out that they undoubtedly were peregrines who won the right of trading (Ius commercii) who as such they formed a group of free inhabitants,whobesidesdwellingintheregionofmines,theypossessed slavesaswell(MROZEK1968,315).Thisfactshowsthattheyappearasa slaveholdingstratumaswell,andwhatismostinteresting,asD.Rendi Mioevi points out, even despite peregrine status, which they had for a longtime(RENDIMIOEVI1989,760761).Andinrelationwiththis, wecomeacrosscaseswhenevenaslavebearsanIllyrianname,andthis showsthattheymightbelongedeventothatsocialstratum.Thiswaywe have to dowith a part, which, aswe are informed by C.Daicoviciu, did hardlabourasslavesorcommonworkers, andas such, by livingapoor life,theydidnotleave anyinscriptions(DAICOVICIU1958,265).Inthis case, we should point out the case of a cerate, where three mentioned persons: seller, buyer and slave, as to their anthroponomy they are Illyrians 17 ,whatspeaksclearlythattheymighthavebelongedtodifferent social strata. Some of them who belonged to higher stratum became importantpersonsinpoliticaloradministrativelifeofprovinceofDacia,
17

RENDIMIOEVI1989,761,nt.86,wheretheauthorpointsoutthatsuchacasewe havealsooninscriptionsofDalmatia.

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astheyappearashighofficials,forinstanceasdecuriones,whorepresented membersoftowncouncil.InonecasewehavetodowithdecurioDelmat or Pirust from the Antique centre of Sarmizegetusa (Ulpa Traiana of nowadays) who, besides his Romanised name, he does not have whole civility, and this shows that besides the fact of being an official, he still held a peregrine status (DAICOVICIU 1958, 265, nt. 34; SNTIMBREANU, WOLLMANN 1974, 245). In the other case from RomulaMalva both of decuriones (dedicators of Dardanica Goddess) who are of Dardanian origin, they have whole civility (TUDOR, VLADESCU 1972, 186). This high position that they took in society speaks at the same time about their economical situation, respectively about their economical prosperity; some of inscriptions document about their economical and financialprosperity,andinthiscasesomeIllyrianleadersofsmallenterprises hadworkerswhowerepaidfortheirwork(Cf.MROZEK1968,315). Thisstructureofsociopoliticalandeconomicalactivityspeaksinfavour ofthestatementofS.Mrozek,accordingwhomthatallcolonistswhoarrived onminingzones,theIllyriansaswell,werenotminers,buttheywerepersons whocarriedoutvariousactivities.Inthisway,aswehaveseensofar,wecome across businessmen who did financialbanking business, trading with slaves etc., while for a part of them we do not know about their qualifications (MROZEK1968,311;SNTIMBREANU,WOLLMANN1974,246). Taking into consideration all we have said so far, we can conclude that from these immense valuable data, we can draw significant results abouttheIllyriansinDacia,pointingoutnotonlythelevelofemigration and scale of Romanising, but also their way of life there, in general. Starting from socialeconomic situation of individuals and groups who emigrated, as an important component of outliving, from these inscriptions,aswehaveseen,they(wehavetodowiththeelementwhich is dealt in these materials) were well accommodated in a new area and theyeventookandheldsolidpositionsinthesociety.Someofthemeven weretakingpartinpoliticallifeashighfunctionaries,andsomeothers,by actively taking part in different profiles of mining works, became managers of enterprises, what also enabled them to have economic welfareandwiththisaprestigeinthemilieuwheretheylived.Thiswas

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of influence that, despite preserving the status of peregrine for a long time, they appear as a slaveholding stratum as well. Nevertheless, in spiteallthesesocialeconomicachievements,whatismoreimportant,they present themselves to be quite traditional, respectively they strongly preservedtheiridentity.Thisisseenintheirpreservingtheancientwayof life, as by respecting forms of autochthonous settlements with forms of Illyriangoverning,aswellaselementsofspiritualculture,whatisseenin the specific way of burying and bearing and respecting cults of autochthonousgods.Therefore,wecanstatethatwithemigration,which they did it mainly in an organised way, in groups, Illyrians in this province present themselves as a specific element, different from the others. BIBLIOGRAPHY ALFLDYA. 1965 BevlkerungundGesellschaftderrmischenProvinzDalmatien,Budapest. CERMANOVIKUZMANOVIA. 1978 Rimskoilirska plastika u Kominima, Akta prvog naunog skupa Antikaiantikonasledjekodnas(OhridBitolj,2528september 1977),A,28/12,325330. LesCastellaDalmatorumdeDacie.Unaspectselacolonisationet delaromanisationdelaprovincedeDacie,Dacia,N.S.,II,259266. DOBRUNASALIHUE. 1987 Nadgrobne stele rimskog doba s podruja Kosova. Arhitektonika i plastika,AV38,Ljubljana,193205. 20032005PlastikadekorativedhefigurativeeguritnDardanigjatkohs romakeSepulkraledheekultit12(DecorativeandFigurativeStone SculptureinDardaniaduringtheRomanPeriodFuneraryandCult Sculpture12,Prishtin. EVANSA.J. 1883 AntiquarianresearchesinIllyricumIIIIV,Westminster. 1958

DAICOVICIUC.

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GARAANIND.,GARAANINM. I967IstorijaCrneGore1,Titograd. GARAANINM. 1968 Razmatranja o nekropolama tipa Mala KopanicaSase, GCBI, ANUBiH,VI/4,Sarajevo,534. GEORGIEVV. 1957 Trakiskijatezik,Sofia. JOVANOVIA. 1980PrilogprouavanjuskulpturesaMedijaneNZ9,Ni,5360. MROZEKS. 1968 Aspectssociauxet administratifs des mines dorromainesde Dacie, ApulumVII/1,307,307326.

PROTASED.
1971 Riturilefunerareladaciiladacoromani,Bucureti. RENDIMIOEVID. 1962 Princeps municipi Riditaru. Uz novi epigrafski nalaz u Danilu, ARR,II,Zagreb,315334. 1989 DacicoIllyrica. Neki aspekti ilirske kolonizacije Dacije u svjetlu natpisa naceratamaizAlburnusa,in:Iliriiantikisvijet,Split,751767. 1989a Ilirske onomastike studije I. Porodina i rodovska imena u onomastici Balkanskih Ilira II. Imena Firmus, Valens, Maximus u procesu romani zacijeilirskogonomastikona,in:Iliriiantikisvijet,Split,769784. RUSSUI.I. 1960 StudiiIlliriceII,inOmagiuluiConstatinDaicoviciu,Bucureti. 1969Ilirii.IstoriaLimbaionomasticaRomanizarea,Bucureti.

SNTIMBREANUA.,WOLLMANN,V.
1974 Aspecte technice ale axploatarii aurului n perioda roman la AlburnusMaior(RoiaMontan),Apulum12,240279.

TUDORD.,VLADESCUC.
1972 DaradniilaRomulaMalva,Apulum10,183189. VULIN. 19411948Antikispomenicinaezemlje,Spomenik98,Beograd.

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai NOUVELLESAMPHORESNORDAFRICAINES,HISPANIQUESET ITALIQUESDCOUVERTESTOMIS DORELPARASCHIV,CONSTANTINBJENARU


Keywords:amphorae,Tomis,Italy,Africa,Spain,Romancommerce. Abstract:TheauthorspresenttheprincipalimportsofRomanamphoraeinTomis.They establishatypologyandtrytodistinguishachronologyoftheseexchanges. Rsum: Lesauteurs prsentent les principaux importsdamphores Tomis lpoque romaine.Ils font unetypologie de ces amphores et essayent dtablir une chronologiede ceschanges. Rezumat: Autorii prezint principalele importuri de amfore la Tomis n perioada roman. Ei realizeaz o tipologie a acestui tip de descoperire i ncearc s stabileasc o cronologieaschimbuluintreTomis,pedeoparte,Italia,AfricadeNordiHispania,de cealaltparte.

Suite aux recherches archologiques dveloppes Tomis au parcours de plusieurs dcennies, on constate la provenance de plusieurs amphores romaines et romanobyzantines produites dans le bassin occidental de la Mer Mditerranenne, spcialement dans la province AfricalactuelleTunisie(OPAI1996,7887,pl.2333;OPAI1997 1998; OPAI 2004, 33 30, pl. 21 31). Dans ce qui suit nous allons prsenter dautres quatre rcipients pour le transport, toutes tant fragmentaires, dcouvertes au dbut de lactuelle dcennie, loccasion desfouillesdesauvetageralisespourlebtimentdusigedelabanque TurqueRoumaine. Deux pices ont la provenance nordafricaine (no 1 2), une autre hispanique (no 3) et une autre italique (no 4). Nous allons considrer comme ncessaire la prsentation des amphores rappeles suiteaufaitquecellescisontassezraresenScytiaMinor. Lapremirepice(no1)peuttreencadretypologiquementdela manire suivante: LAfricaine II (Grande); KEAY 1984, les types IV

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VII;BELTRNLLORIS1970,laforme56;PEACOCK1984,lesformes45 et46;PEACOCK,WILLIAMS1986,letype34. Les amphores ou on encadre notre pice ont la bouche de dimensions moyennes, la lvre presque verticale, le corps cylindrique, troit vers la base qui finit avec un pied conique, les anses ovales en section. En fonction des dimensions, ces rcipients ont t groupes en quatrevariantes(lavarianteAlahauteurlaplusrduiteetlediamtrele pluspetitetlavarianteDlahauteurlaplusgrandeetlediamtremaxime lepluspetit),quecertainsspcialistesconsidrentdestypesspars. Lesdimensionsdesamphoressontlessuivantes:hauteur95120 cm;diamtredelabouche1314cm;diamtremaxime3540cm. Lacapacitestcompriseentre65et80l. DanslazoneistropontiquelesamphoresAfricaineIIsontattestes aTomisdanslesfouillesplusanciennes(RDULESCU1976,104,pl.V/ 1;OPAI1996,78,pl.23/12;OPAI19971998,50/cat.no12,pl.1), Ibida (OPAI 1991 C, 37 / cat. no 86, fig. 10), Babadag Topraichioi (OPAI1991B,214215,pl.16/4;OPAI1996,82,pl.27/23;OPAI 19971998,67/cat.no4950,pl.16),Halmyris(OPAI1991A,143/cat. no8586,pl.15;OPAI1996,88,pl.34/3);OPAI19971998,62/cat. no 39, pl. 15; TOPOLEANU 2000 A, 148 / cat. no 382, pl. XLII; TOPOLEANU2000B,271272/cat.no43,pl.V),Niculiel(BAUMANN 1991,pl.5/10;OPAI1996,8283,pl.27/6;OPAI19971998,70/cat. no59,pl.17),NicopolisadIstrum(FALKNER1999,254/cat.no.1074,fig. 5.53)etNovae(DYCZEC1996,28,fig.5,18). Les vaisseauxrappelssontprsents dansles mmes rgionsque les vaisseaux lAfricaine I, dans une plus grande mesure au nord de lAfrique(RILEY1979,203/cat.no.277,fig.86;PEACOCK1984,130,fig. 39/5660;PEACOCK,WILLIAMS1986,fig.82;PEACOCK,BEJAOUI, BELAZREG 1986 (1989), passim; PEACOCK, BEJAOUI, BEN LAZREG 1990,64,fig.3/610;OPAI1998,24/cat.no21,pl.1),alestdelaMer Mditerrane (PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, fig. 82) et en Occident en Hispania (BELTRN LLORIS 1970, 549 556; KEAY 1984, 110 126; PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, fig. 82), Gallia (TCHERNIA 1969, passim; LEQUMENT1976,179181,fig.35;PEACOCK,WILLIAMS1986,fig.

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82; LAUBENHEIMER 1990, 138 140; BEN LAZREG et alii 1993 (1995), 120121),Italia(ZEVI1969,175179,fig.15;PANELLA1972,passim; KAPITN1972,248,fig.3;LUSUARDISIENA1974(1977),214215,fig. 2931;PEACOCK,WILLIAMS1986,156157,fig.82;MANCONI1986 (1989), 590, pl. III / 9; CARIGNANI, PACETTI 1986 (1989); PASQUINUCCIetalii1986(1989);PALLARS1987,282283/cat.no3, fig.11;MACKENSEN1987,252,fig.45/7),Dalmatia(CAMBI1986(1989), 329,fig.30),Britannia(PEACOCK1974(1977),271,fig.1/6,5;PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, fig. 82), dans les contextes dates entre la fin du IIme sicleaprsJ.C.etlafinduIVmesicle(lesvariantesCetDapparaissent a partir de la fin du IIIme sicle). La plus rpandue des variantes est D (lAfricaineGrandeclassique). AlasuitedesanalysesralisessurplusieursamphoreslAfricaine II,dcouvertesdanslespavesdelacotefranaisedelaMditerrane,on a constat que les principaux produits transportes dans cellesci taient ceuxdepoissonslaplupartdesexemplairestaientpoisseuxet,deplus, certaines contenaient des restes de poisson (BEN LAZREG et alii 1993 [1995],120121,fig.8,10). La pice no 2, gyptienne, fait partie dune typologie de vaisseauxaveclabouchededimensionsmoyennes,lecoucylindrique,le corps allonge, la base pointue et les anses ovales en section et qui reprsententlapremiredcouvertedecegenredelazoneistropontique. Les dimensions des rcipients sont: hauteur environ 100 cm; diamtredelaboucheenviron10cm;diamtremaxime2530cm. Les amphores gyptiennes ont tproduites en Nubia ou dans la zonedelAlexandrieetellesontcircule,outreleurzonedeproductionen Crte, Sicile et Gallia, au Ier IVme sicles aprs J.C. (SCIALLANO, SIBELLA1991,87;ROMITO1986[1989],627). Lesvaisseauxontservipourtransporterlevin. La suivante pice (no 3) est encadre typologiquement de la manire suivante: DRESSEL 23; KEAY 1984, le type XIII; PEACOCK, WILLIAMS1986,letype29;BJELAJAC1996,letypeIX.

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Lesamphoresontlabouchedroite,lalvretriangulaireensection, lecoucourt,lecorpsglobulaire,labaseaigu,lesansesrondesouovales ensection. Lesdimensionsdesvaisseauxsontlessuivantes:hauteur6070 cm; diamtre de la bouche 10 11 cm; diamtre maxime environ 40 cm. Lacapacitestdenviron30l. Dans la rgion istropontique le type Dressel 23 est atteste a Halmyris(OPAI1991A,144145/cat.no9495,pl.16;OPAI1996,89 90, pl. 34 / 1; OPAI 1997 1998, 64 / cat. no 45, pl. 15; TOPOLEANU 2000A,131/cat.no322,pl.XXXIX),BabadagTopraichioi(OPAI1991 B,pl.16/10;OPAI1996,89,pl.34/2;OPAI19971998,68/cat.no55, pl. 17) et Nicopolis ad Istrum (FALKNER 1999, 255 / cat. no 1086, 1088, fig. 9.53). Un exemplaire a t trouve aussi dans la Moesia Prima, a Viminacium(BJELAJAC1996,3536/cat.no47,fig.10). Les vaisseaux en discussion sont rencontres dans les provinces: Hispania (BELTRN LLORIS 1970, 514 517; KEAY 1984, 140 146; PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, 141), Gallia (PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, 141;BONIFAY1986,272,275;BECKER,CONSTANTIN,VILLEDIEU1986 [1989],657659;BONIFAY,CONGRS, LEGUILLOUX1986 [1989],660, fig. 1 2; LAUBENHEIMER 1990, 137; CONGRS, LEGUILLOUX 1991, 222, fig. 9 / 41; BONIFAY, PIRI 1995, 118 119), Italia (PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, 141), Germania (PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, 141) et dans le nord de lAfrique (PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1986, 141), dans des contextes dates dans la deuxime moitie du IIIme sicle aprs J.C. et le dbutduVmesicle. LesamphoresDressel23onttproduitesenBeticaetellesontt utilises premirement pour le transport de lhuile. Un autre produit de cellesci tait constitue par les olives, conserves dans leau marine ou dans la saumure, fait prouve par plusieurs inscriptions dcouvertes a Rome, qui contenaient les termes OLIVAS COLONBARES ou OLIVAS SA[LI]TAS(BELTRNLLORIS1970,516517).

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La dernire amphore (cat. no 4) est encadre dans un type moins connuenScythiaMinorROBINSON1959,M302;KEAY1984,letypeLII. Les vaisseaux avec la bouche vase, la lvre triangulaire en section,le coucylindrique,lecorpstronque,la base avec umbo,les anses ovalesensection. Lesdimensionsdespicessont:hauteurenviron45cm;diamtre de la bouche 8 9 cm; diamtre maxime 22 23 cm; diamtre de la base56cm. Lacapacitestdenviron56l. Danslargionistropontique,letypeKeayLIIestaussiattestedans unseulexemplaireaHalmyris,surunniveaudelamoitieduVImesicle (PARASCHIV,BJENARU2003,233,234/cat.no2,fig.1/2). Letypeestrpanduprpondrantdanslesprovincesoccidentales de lEmpire Gallia (BONIFAY 1986, 282, 284, fig. 2, 3, 8, 17 / 30; BONIFAY, CONGRS, LEGUILLOUX 1986 [1989], 661, fig. 1 2; BONIFAY, VILLEDIEU 1987 [1989], 33, 35, fig. 1 3, 11 / 11 12; SCIALLANO, SIBELLA 1991, 106; CONGRS, LEGUILLOUX 1991, 222; BONIFAY,PIRI1995,114116,fig.12/7679),Italia(KEAY1984,268; BONIFAY1986,284),Hispania(KEAY1984,267268,fig.114),Dalmatia (CAMBI1986[1989],332,fig.37;MARDEI1994,294295/cat.no3,4) apartirduIVmesiclejusquauVImesicle,maisaussidanslOrient aAthnes,dateauIVmesicle(ROBINSON1959,105106,112,114,pl. 28,31,32)etdanslenorddelAfriqueaCarthagine,dansdescontextes duIImetiersduVmesicle,jusquaumilieuduVImesicle(KEAY1984, 267 268). Des vaisseaux en discussion ont t dcouverts aussi sur les pavesYassiAdaetDramontF,datesauIVmeVmesicles(BONIFAY, VILLEDIEU1987[1989],35). Mme si, jusqu la dernire dcennie, tous les spcialistes soutenaientquelesamphoresKeayLIIonttproduitesenGrcesuitea laprsencedecellescisurlesniveauxdeagoraathniennedatesauIVme sicle,alaressemblancedeleurpteaveccellesdesvaisseauxLR1etala prsence de certaines inscriptions en grec, on affirme a prsent que loriginedespicesendiscussiondoittrechercheenItalieenCalabrie (SCIALLANO, SIBELLA 1991, 106; BONIFAY, PIRI 1995, 114 115).

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Pour lorigine suditalique des amphores Keay LII cest la prsence de cellescidansdescontextesdatesdanslapremiremoitieduIVmesicle dans cette rgion et le grand nombre dexemplaires dcouvertes en Occident, spcialement en Gallia, dans la priode ou elles ne sont plusrencontresaAthnes. Les vaisseaux Keay LII sont les seuls rcipients italiques dpoque romainebyzantine pour le transport attests jusquau prsent en Scythia Minor. Comme toutes les picestudiesdans au laboratoire prsentent destracesdepoix,onpeutconclurequeleproduittransportetaitlevin. Avec les pices prsentes cidessus, le nombre des amphores nordafricaines,hispaniquesetitaliquesdeTomisestarrive41. Le tableau no I. Les amphores nordafricaines, hispaniques et italiquesdeTomis,concernantlestypesetlenombredexemplaires(apud SCORPAN 1976 et OPAI 1997 1998, auxquelles on ajoute les pices inditesdcouvertesdanslesrecherchesrcentes). Typesdamphores Nombredexemplaires AfricanaII 2 KeayVIII 11 KeayXI 1 KeayXXVII+XXVI 2 KeayXXXV 3 KeayXL 2 KeayLV 4 KeayLVII 3 KeayLVII 2 KeayLXILXII 6 Amphoresgyptiennes 1 Spatheia 2 Dressel23 1 KeayLII 1 Total 41

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BIBLIOGRAPHIE BAUMANNV.H. 1991 Cercetrirecentelabasilicapaleocretindincom.Niculiel(jud. Tulcea),Peuce10,I,121126,II,145156. BECKERC.,CONSTANTINC.,VILLEDIEUF. 1989 Types damphores en usage Lugdunum du Ier au VIe sicle, dans Amphoresromainesethistoireconomique:dixansderecherche.Actes du colloque de Sienne (2224 mai 1986) organise par lUniversit degliStudideSiena,lUniversitadegliStudidiRomaLaSapienza,le centre national de la recherche scientifique (RCP 403) et lcole Franaise de Rome, Collection de lcole Franaise de Rome 114, Rome,656659. BELTRNLLORIS,M.1970,LasanforasromanasenEspaa,Zaragoza. BENLAZREG,N.,BONIFAY,M.,DRINE,A.,TROUSSET,P. 1995 Production et commercialisarion des salsamenta de lAfrique ancienne, en LAfrique du nord antique et medievale. VI e colloque international (Pau, octobre 1993 118 e congrs). Productions et exportations africaines. Actualits archologiques,AixenProvence,103142. BJELAJAC,L. 1996 AmforegornjomezijskogPodunavia,Beograd. BONIFAYM. 1986 Observations sur les amphores tardives Marseilles daprs lesfouillesdelaBourse(19801984),RANarb19,269305. BONIFAYM.,CONGRSG.,LEGUILLOUXM. 1989 Amphores tardives (V e VII e sicle) Arles et Marseille, dansAmphoresromainesethistoireconomique...,660663. BONIFAYM.,PIRID. 1995 Amphores du V e au VII e s. Marseille: nouvelles donns sur latypologieetlecontenu,JRA8,94120.

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BONIFAYM.,VILLEDIEUF. 1989 Importations damphores orientales en Gaule (V e VII e sicle), dans Recherches sur la cramique byzantine. Actes du colloque organis par lcole Franaise dAthnes et lUniversit StrasbourgII,Athnes,BCHSuppl.XVII,1989,2136. CAMBI,N. 1989 Anfore romane in Dalmazia, dans Amphores romaines et histoireconomique...,311337. CARIGNANIA.,PACETTIP. 1989 Anfore tardoantiche dagli scavi del Palatino, dans Amphores romainesethistoireconomique...,610615. CONGRSG.,LEGUILLOUXM. 1991 Un dpotoir de lantiquit tardive dans le quartier de lEsplanadeArles,RANarb24,201234. DYCZEKP. 1996 Novae. Une forteresse de la Premire Lgion Italique. Remarques concernant les amphores romaines aux Ier IIIe sicles ap. J.C., Revue des archologues et historiens dart de Louvain, 29, LouvainlaNeuve,2340. FALKNERR.K. 1999 Thepottery,dansPoulter,A.G.,Falkner,R.K.,Shepherd, J. D., Nicopolis ad Istrum: A Roman to Early Byzantine city. Thepotteryandglass,London,55296. KAPITNG. 1972 Le amfore del relitto romano di capo Ognina (Siracusa), dans Recherches sur les amphores romaines, Collection de lcole FranaisedeRome10,Rome,1972,243252. KEAYS.J. 1984 Late Roman Amphorae in the Western Mediterranean. A typology andeconomicstudy:theCatalanevidence,part(i),BARI.S.196(i), Oxford. LAUBENHEIMERF. 1990 Le temps des amphores en Gaule. Vins, huiles, et sauces, Paris.

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LEQUMENTR. 1976 Une pave du BasEmpire dans la Baie de Pampelonne (presquledeSaintTropez),RANarb9,175188. LUSUARDISIENAS. 1977 Appunti su alcune tipi di anfore lunensi, dans Mthodes classiques et mthodes formelles dans ltude des amphores. Actes du colloque de Rome, 22 29 mai 1974, Collection de lcoleFranaisedeRome32,Rome,207230. MACKENSENM. 1987 MediterraneSigillata,LampenundAmphoren,dansBierbrauer,V. (ed.), InvillinoIbligo in Friaul I. Die rmische Siedlung und das sptantikfrhmittelalterlicheCastrum,Mnchen,229265. MANCONID. 1989 Anfore romane in Umbria alla sinistra del Tevere, dans Amphoresromainesethistoireconomique...,590593. MARDEIJ. 1994 Amfore,dansMarin,E.(ed.),SalonaChristiana,Split,293296. OPAIA. 1991a Ceramica din aezarea i cetatea de la Independena (Murighiol) secoleleV.e.n.VIIe.n.,Peuce10,I,133180,II,165216. 1991b Ceramica, dans Opai A., Zahariade M., PoenaruBordea Gh., Opai C., Fortificaia i aezarea roman trzie de Babadag Topraichioi,Peuce10,I,211260,II,230283. 1991c OspturdesalvarenoraulanticIbida,SCIVA42,12,2156. 1996 AspectealevieiieconomicedinprovinciaScythiaMinor(secoleleIV VI p. Ch). Producia ceramicii locale i de import, Bibliotheca ThracologicaXVI,Bucureti. 19971998NorthAfricanandSpanishamphoraeinScythiaMinor,IlMar Nero3,4795. 1998 New pottery from the circular harbour of Carthage, CEDAC CarthageBulletin18,2135. 2004 LocalandImportedCeramicsintheRomanProvinceofScythia(4 th 6th centuries AD). Aspects of economic life in the Province of Scythia),BARI.S.1274,Oxford.

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PALLARSF. 1987 Alcune considerazioni sulle anfore del Battistero di Albenga, RivStLig53,269306. PANELLAC. 1972 Annotazioni in margine alle stratigrafie delle terme ostiensi delNuotatore,dansRecherchessurlesamphoresromaines..., 69106. PARASCHIVD.,BJENARUC. 2003 Dou amfore italice romanobizantine descoperite n Dobrogea, PeuceS.N.1(14),233236. PASQUINUCCI M., CHERUBINI L., DEL RIO A., MENCHELLI S., STORTIS.,VAGGIOLIL.A. 1989 Ricerche archeologicotopografiche nella fascia costiera tirrenica (ager pisamus e volaterranus occidentale): risultati preliminari, dans Amphores romaines et histoire conomique ...,620625. PEACOCK,D.P.S. 1977 Roman amphorae: typology, fabric and origins, n Mthodes classiquesetmthodesformelles,261278. 1984 The Amphorae: Typology and Chronology, dans Fulford, M. G., Peacock, D. P. S. (eds.), Excavations at Carthage: The BritishMission,I,2,Sheffield,117139. PEACOCKD.P.S.,BEJAOUIF.,BELAZREGN. 1989 Roman amphora production in the Sahel region of Tunisia, dansAmphoresromainesethistoireconomique...,179222. 1990 RomanPotteryproductioninCentralTunisia,JRA3,5985. PEACOCKD.P.S.,WILLIAMSD.F. 1986 AmphoraeandtheRomaneconomy.Anintroductoryguide,London NewYork. RDULESCU,A. 1976 Amfore romane i romanobizantine din Scythia Minor, Pontica9,99114.

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RILEYJ.A. 1979 The coarse pottery from Benghazi, dans Lloyd, J. A. (ed.), Sidi KhrebishexcavationsBenghazi(Berenice),II,Tripoli,91467. ROBINSONH.S. 1959 The Athenian Agora V. Pottery of the Roman period, Princeton. ROMITOM. 1989 Il commercio anforiario in et romana sulla costiera amalfitana, n Amphores romaines et histoire conomique ..., 626628. SCIALLANOM.,SIBELLAP. 1991 Amphores.Commentlesidentifier?,AixenProvence. TCHERNIAA. 1969 Amphores de Byzycne sur les ctes de Provence et de Corse, dans Zevi F., Tchernia A., Amphores de Byzycne au Bas Empire,AntiquitsAfricaines3,197214. TOPOLEANUF. 2000a Ceramica roman i romanobizantin de la Halmyris (sec. I VIId.Ch.),Tulcea. 2000b Roman and RomanBizantine Pottery from Halmyris. North Africa Impotrations and Local Imitations, n IstroPontica. Muzeultulceanlaa50aaniversare,Tulcea,257294. ZEVIF. 1969 Due tipi danfora africani, dans Zevi F., Tchernia A., AmphoresdeByzycneauBasEmpire,AntiquitsAfricaines 3,173195.

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StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai HISTORICALIMPLICATIONSOFTHEROMANIANTERMBANAS ANOLDGERMANISM

ADRIANPORUCIUC
Keywords:(proto)feudaltitle,Avars,Gepids,Goths,archaiccustoms,onomastic evidence. Rsum: Lauteur dmontre linconsistance des opinions selon lesquelles (1) le terme hongroisbnestloriginedunefamillelexicaledeslanguessudesteuropenneset(2)le termeauraitcommefondementlenomdeBaian,khagandesAvares(VIes.).Enfait,on napasobservjusquprsentqueletermeroumaindebanetsescorrespondantssudest europens (avec des sens politiques et juridiques archaques) sexpliquent aussi bien par lancienne langue germanique, ainsi comme leurs correspondants des langues romanes occidentales, et lorigine ancienne germanique de ceux derniers termes a t depuis longtempstablie. Rezumat:Articoluldefa,intitulatImplicaiiistoricealetermenuluiromnescbanca vechi germanism demonstreaz, n primul rnd, lipsa de temei a opiniilor tradiionale potrivitcrora(1)termenulmaghiarbnarstalaorigineaunorntregifamiliilexicaledin limbileEuropeisudestice,iar(2)respectivultermenmaghiararavealabaznumelelui Baian, khagan al avarilor (sec. VI). De fapt, n mod surprinztor, nu sa observat pn acum c romnescul ban i corespondenii si sudest europeni (cu arhaice sensuri politicojuridice)seexpliclafeldebinepringermanicavechecaicorespondeniilordin romanicavestic,iarorigineavechegermanicacelordinurmafostdemultstabilit.

Introductoryremarks Onecanrarelyfindaseriesofcognatesassignificant,forboththe Old Germanic domain 1 and for the postancient history of Southeast Central Europe, as the ban family of cognates, to be found in Romanian

I will apply the label Old Germanic (O.Gmc.) to idioms spoken during a period of about one millennium, that is, approximately the period between the motionoftheBastarnaetowardstheLowerDanube(3rd2ndcenturiesBC)andthe eventual disappearance, by assimilation, of Gothic, Gepidic, and Langobard identitynuclei(7th8thcenturies).
1

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and in several neighbouring languages. 2 It may now appear as quite surprising that (as far as I know) no one has at least suggested an Old Germanic origin for those ban cognates. 3 Such a situation was, in my opinion, caused by the fact that some earlier etymological explanations regarding the ban family were considered to be definitive solutions, so theybecameakindofetymologicallegendstransmittedfromauthorto authoruntilthepresentday. 4 Thoselegendsencouragedaperpetuationof confusingreferencesandmissinglinks,whichcouldhavebeensolvedby newapproachestootherwisewellrecordedlexicalmaterials. ViewsonthepositionandoriginofRomanianban The most important facts about the Romanian terms ban feudal titleofnobilityandbancoin,moneyaretobefoundinthefirstvolume of Micul dicionar academic (MDA 2001, s.v. ban), in Ciornescus etymological dictionary of Romanian (2001, s.v. ban), and especially in Schuberts book on Hungarian loans in neighbouring languages (1982). TheauthorsofMDAcautiouslypresentRmn.banasawordofunknown etymology, and they only compare it to obvious relatives in neighbouring languages. 5 Most other authors indicate borrowing from those languages into Romanian, an idea that is untenable, as I will demonstratebelow.Toaddtotheetymologicalconfusion,authorssuchas Tiktin (1903, s.v. ban) and Rosetti (1986, 384) unhesitatingly indicate a Hungarian origin for Rmn. ban feudal title. In his turn, Ivnescu (2000, 429) first states that the Romanian term under discussion stands for a SerbianCroatian element adopted by all speakers of DacoRomanian,
IplacedRomanianfirstforreasonsthatwillbecomeapparentinthefollowing demonstration. 3 The only exception I know about is Ciornescus proposal (not exactly acceptableseebelow)ofaGermanoriginonlyforRmn.bancoin,money,not forthewholefamilyofwordsunderdiscussion. 4 In regard to Romanian etymologists, for much too long they have focused almost exclusively on the Latin heritage of their own language, and have been quitecarelessaboutRomanianwordsofnonLatinorigins. 5MDA(loc.cit.)givescf.Hung.bn,Serb.ban(and,Imayadd,cf.Bulg.ban).
2

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then he considers (IVNESCU 2000, 429) that ban feudal title has a double origin: Hungarian and Serbian. 6 In regard to generally accepted views on the primary source of ban, most significant details are to be foundwithCiornescuandSchubert. Ciornescu (2001, s.v. ban) takes into consideration the fact the SoutheastCentral European term ban (Latinized in medieval documents as banus) was known especially as title of a count who acted as a representative of kingly power in southern areas of the kingdom of Hungary(namelyinareasdesignatedasbanatusinHungariandocuments in Latin). Subsequently, in the mid14th century, Romanian princes of Wallachia (ara Romneasc the Romanian Country) often added the title of ban of Severin, of Mehedini, of Oltenia, or of Craiova to their owntitleofdomn(<Lat.dominus).Asanillustrationofapeculiarsituation, I will mention that, in a Wallachian document of 1486 (in Old Church Slavonic), published by Hasdeu (1983, 161), two coexistent bani of Craiova are recorded (upan Dimitru and upan Djatko); and an identical situation(ofparallelbani)isreflectedinanotherWallachiandocument, in Romanian, issued in 1602 (HASDEU 1983, 160). 7 Romanian historians commonly mention the title of ban as borne by the boyar who acted as governor of Oltenia, and finally by the one who had the highest rank at theprincelycourtofWallachia. In regard to the primary source of the term ban, Ciornescu (loc.cit.)adoptsageneralizedopinionofhistime(thefourthfifthdecades ofthe20thcentury):ItappearstobeaMongolicword,probablyAvaric. Cf.Mongolbajanrich,wealthy.Thesameauthorgoesonbymentioning that the term under discussion was first recorded in tenthcentury Byzantine Greek, as , and that Hungarians appear to have take over (from whom?) both title and institution, and to have transmitted them to Romanians and Slavs. Although Ciornescus views, in the case
Inthisarticle,alltranslationsofquotationsintoEnglisharemine. For the time being, I do not know whether that situation (in a Romanian area that had been controlled by Germanics during the 4th6th centuries) could be referredtothearchaicGermanicdoublekingsituations(seeHengestandHorsa oftheAngloSaxoninvaders).
6 7

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underdiscussion,didnotaddmuchtothe(mistaken)traditionalones,at least as regards Rmn. ban money, coin he had his own idea about a possibleGermanorigin(asIwillpointoutsomewherebelow). GabriellaSchubertsassumptions NumerousandvaluabledetailsaretobefoundinSchubert(1982, 252257). Schubert (like Ciornescu and others) assumes that both Slavs andRomaniansborrowedbanfromtheHungarians;buttheverymaterial given by her (loc.cit.) makes that direction of borrowing appear as doubtful. Schubert(1982,252)presents Hung. bn ascomingfromtheOld Croatian bn master, 8 first recorded in 1063, in a document of King Kreimir. Then she takes into consideration (SCHUBERT 1982, 256) the possibility that the function of banus (a Latinized variant) may have existedwithCroatiansbeforethecomingoftheHungarians;however,she assumesthatitwasasdesignationofaHungarianVerwalterthattheterm ban subsequently spread to South Slavs and to Romanians. That may be true, regionally, but it does not explain the whole spreading (and productivity)ofbaninSoutheastEurope;nordoesithelponeverymuch in establishing the actual age of ban in that area. In regard to the etymology of the term under discussion, Schubert, like others, wrongly assumes that Old Croatian bn comes from Baian, the name of an Avaric ruler of the latter half of the 6th century (SCHUBERT 1982, 252), thenshedecisivelyproposesthefollowingevolution:Avar.Baian>Croat. ban>Hung.bn(thisspreadthenintheBalkans,asnameofabearerof royal authority and as designation of an official position) (SCHUBERT 1982, 257). Schubert does not explain by what kind of shift a name of a khagan of the Avars came to produce a term meaning master (in Croatian), and royaladministrator(in Hungarian andother languages),
Schubert(1982,252)justmentions,andimplicitlyrejectsanetymology(Dcsys) according to which Hung. bn comes directly from Altaic bajan. Even less credible than that Altaic solution is the one that supposes a derivation of Serb. Croat. ban (and, ultimately, of Hung. bn) from Turk. bay rich man, an etymologyassumedbyDeutschesUniversalwrterbuch(DUW),2001,s.v.Ban.
8

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nor by what phonetic alterations /bajan/ became /ba:n/ or /ban/. Also, there is an etymologically and chronologically confusing aspect in Schubertspresentationofafurtherdevelopmentofban.Shefirstpresents (SCHUBERT 1982, 253) Bulg. ban as one word with two meanings: 1. Banus,Statthalter,Frst;LeiterderVerwaltungeinesbestimmtenGebietes in der Zeit des Feudalismus auf dem Balkan; 2. Kleine Kupfermnze, neuerdings ein Hundertstel des rum. Lej[actually, leu]. To the latter she immediately adds that, as name of currency, O.Bulg. (frequently occurringinBulgarianfolklore),wasfirstrecordedinthe10thcentury(that is, about one century before Old Croatian bn). But as designation of currency, Schubert believes, the Old Bulgarian word under discussion must have come from the language of the 7thcentury Turkic Bulgars (jedoch wohl aus der Sprache der Bolgarotrken). After that assumption, in subsequent passages (1982, 255 and 256257) Schubert rathersurprisinglyindicatesthatbancoinfirstreferredtoatypeoflocal currency issued bythe banus ofSeverin (in todaysSouthwest Romania), andthatitbecameausualterminRomanian,throughwhichitpartially (teilweise) entered Bulgarian too. I consider that it would be less confusingtoassumethattheabovementionedtenthcenturyO.Bulg.ban (> todays Bulg. ban small coin) had one and the same ultimate (non Turkic) source as Rmn. ban small coin, money and as the latters correspondents in other Southeast European languages. Along the same line, if we accept Schuberts assumption that ban coin derives from the titleofacertainbanus(seealsobelow),wemustalsoassumethatsucha derivationtookplacebeforethe10thcentury,whensmallcoincame to be recorded in Old Bulgarian. Under such circumstances, on the one hand (etymologically) we must definitely reject the idea that ban may derive from the Avaric anthroponym Baian; but on the other hand (historically)weareforcedtogoasfarbackbackintimeastheperiodin which exactly the abovementioned khagan ruled over Avars, Slavs and marginalRomans(or,already,Romanics).

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Historyandlanguage AroundAD562BaianandhisAvarshadcometohavecommand
over a conglomerate of Iranian, Gothic and Slavic tribes (cf. MADGEARU 2005, 107) in regions of todays Ukraine and Southeast Romania.EmperorJustiniandidnotallowtheAvarstopenetratesouthof theDanube,butafterhim,duringthedecade577587,boththeAvarsand theSlavsmobilizedbytheformerinvadedSouthDanubianregionsofthe Empire,andConstantinoplehadtopaypeacesubsidies.Inthemeantime, BaiansAvarshadcomeintotouchwithOldGermanicswhohadsettled tothewestofwhatwasstillrememberedasAncientDacia(Daciaantiqua). Amongotherthings,the566567alliancebetweentheAvarsandtheWest Germanic tribe of the Langobards led to the destruction of one of the earliest Germanic states, namely the Gepidic kingdom ruled by King Kunimund (cf. DICULESCU 1922, 160162). The existence of that kingdom, at that time (over territories now belonging to Croatia, Serbia, HungaryandRomania), 9 isasimportantforthisdiscussionastheparallel existence of Goths east of the Carpathians. The historical position and dating of the Gepidic state suggest that sixthcentury Old Germanic institutional terms could be imposed on a local (partially Romanized) populationoftheMiddleDanubebeforethecomingoftheAvarsandthe Slavs, then of the Hungarians. From a geohistorical standpoint, it is not surprisingthatitismainly in LatinwrittenHungarian documentsof the Middle Ages where we can find banus and banatus side by side (for instance,withmyitalics:eodemEmerico de Zapolya, Dalmatie, Croatie et Sclavonie regnorum nostrorum et prefato Nicolao de Wylak, Machovensi banis, honore banatus Zeuriensis vacante, in a document issuedbyMathiasrexin1466asgiveninRUSU1989,268).Also,itisnot surprisingthattheLatinsuffixedbanatussurvivedasnameofaprovince (Banat, now divided between Serbia and Romania) in an area that once was a central part of Gepidia, whose powercentre was Sirmium (todays SremskaMitrovica).

SeemapentitledGepidiennach454inDICULESCU1922,76).

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There hardly is anything written in Gepidic. 10 As for Gothic, 11 it left at least one element that indicates the existence of an Old East Germanicpredecessorofban(asajuridicaladministrativeterm),namely a West Romance echo of a Gothic compound *bannwda. That term appears to have been used in the language of the Visigoths who, after havingmovedwest,establishedtheirownstateformationinthesouthof todaysFrance,aroundTolosa(Toulouse),intheearly5thcentury.Outofa placename recorded (in the 12th century) as Banoida in that region, Gamillscheg (1934, I, 352) credibly reconstructed Goth. *bannwda, whose meaningherenderedbyacorrespondingGermancompound,Bannweite. We can easily compare the latter to Germ. Bannmeile nhere Umgebung einer Stadt, in der besondere Vorschriften galten (see Fr. banlieu below), as well as to other German compounds with the same initial element: Bannfluch mit einer Verfluchung verbundener Kirchenbann, Bannkreis Einflussbereich, or Bannwald (Schutz)wald (gegen Lawinen), in dem kein Holz geschlagen werden darf (all extracted from Deutsches Universalwrterbuch,2001).Moreover,itisalsoO.Gmc.bannthataccounts notonlyforamultitudeofderivativesandcompoundsinWestRomance languages (see below), but also, in my opinion, for the whole Southeast Europeanbanfamilyof words that hasbeen untenablyreferredeither to thenameofKhaganBaian,ortovariousAltaicorTurkicterms. 12 WhenGamillschegreconstructedGoth*bannwda,hediditonthe basis of wellrecorded Old Germanic terms, such as O. Norse bann (verbot,bann,verbannunginthelowercasetranscriptionofDEVRIES

At the end of Kblers Gothic dictionary there is a onepage glossary entitled Gepidisch, but it contains only reconstructed terms (the only exceptions are threewordsrecordedinLatinizedforms). 11 Worth observing is that Gothic was an East Germanic language closely relatedtoGepidic,butbetterknown,duetoWulfilasfourthcenturytranslation oftheBible. 12ThenameofKhaganBaianmaybereferredtotheTurkicmaterialinvokedby someinterpretersofthelegendaryRussiannameBoyan.Inthepresentationofthe latter,VasmermentionsetymologicalopinionsthatcenteronMongolbajanrich, AltaicBajan,ornamesthatwerecommonwithAvarsandBulgars.
10

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1961, s.v. bann), or O. H. Germ. ban (Gebot unter Strafdrohung, Acht, Bann in the glossary of WALDNER 1970). The solid position of that term on Germanic ground is proved by the fact that it still occurs in practically all modern Germanic languages. 13 Also, at times of Germanic domination, the same term (together with some of its derivatives) was imposed on speakers of Romance and it became part of their usual vocabulary. (We can also imagine numerous contexts in which, while being gradually assimilated by Romance majorities, Germanic communities continued to use some of their own terminology.) Gamillscheg(1935,279)mentionsawholeseriesoftermsofOldGermanic origin, among which outstanding are Alpenromanisch bannir 14 and Galloromanisch bannire (gerichtlich vorladen), both from a Frankish verb*bannjan. In his panRomance dictionary, MeyerLbke included an article (1935, 933a) on Romance terms based on bann (frnk.) Befehl unter Strafdrohung.AccordingtoMeyerLbke,thatFrankishtermrepresents the origin of the French and Provenal ban (therefrom borrowed in Old Italian and Old Spanish, as bano). Fr./Prov. ban preserved the archaic meaningofpublicannouncement(ffentlicheVerkndigungcf.Eng. banns), but it also acquired secondary meanings such as district (Bezirk), confiscation (Beschlagnahmung), or prohibition of harvesting(Verbotzuernten).MeyerLbke(1935,933a)mentionssome derivativestoo,suchasbanalwhoseinitialsemanticsphereisstillvisible inO.Fr.fourbanalcommunityoven(Gemeindeofen),andProv.band

GermanhasBann,andawholeseriesofcompoundsandderivativesfromit(see above).Swedishhasbannexcommunication,bannatoscold,frbannatocurse (cf.Germ.verbannen);frbannelsecurse.AsforEng.ban,itdefinitelycomesfrom Old English (cf. O.Eng. bannan to summon and geban command, ordinance, decree,proclamation,intheBosworthdictionary),whereasEng.bannsandbanish are based on Germanisms from Norman French. Also, modern Germanic languages (like most modern European languages) have adopted banal from French. 14Besidesbannir,Gamillscheg(1935,279)alsomentionsAlpineRomancerelated termssuchasbandire(ffentlichbekanntmachen),orbandischar(verbannen).
13

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permission (Erlaubnis). The last term should be viewed in connection with a certain conflation observed by Gamillscheg (loc.cit.), namely the one that brought together the Latinized Germanic terms bannum Bann and bandum Fahne (cf. Goth. bandwa sign, token in Kblers dictionary). 15 Themostvisibleresultoftheconflationunderdiscussionisaseries of Romance terms of Old Germanic origin, such as the ones included in Battisti/ Alessio 195057. That dictionary gives the Italian terms bannire and banno separately, as dialectal variants of the betterknown bandire (annunciare pubblicamente e solennemente) and bando (decreto, condanna, esilio). Worth mentioning is that, besides bando/ banno and bandire/ bannire, the same Italian dictionary includes bano governatore dun banato, a SerbianCroatian loan that also occurs as title in front of personnames (as in ban Sansovino, or bam Sanudo). Battisti and Alessio (19501957) indicate no Germanic origin for the SerbianCroatian source wordofIt.bano,andnoetymologicalrelationshipbetweenbanoandbanno. However, the meeting of bano (which I consider to be based on an Old Germanism of SerbianCroatian) and the Germanism banno in Italian is significantinitself.Alsosignificantis,inthesamerespect,theabundance ofbann/bandtermsinAlpineRomance.Formyownpurposes,Iwillkeep inmindthatAlpenromanischisthebranchofWestRomanceclosestto the area where Gepids, Goths, Langobards and speakers of late Balkan VulgarLatin(or,already,protoRomanian)usedtolivesidebysidefora significantperiodoftime.

Phonologicalandsemanticaspects Since my intention is to demonstrate that a word like ban could exist in Romanian practically from its very beginnings as a distinct
See Corominas on Span. bandido proscrito < It. bandito < bandire proscribir, which, in its turn, appears to derive from both Frankish *bannjan and Goth. bandwjan; see also Bernardi/ Decurtins on Alpine Romance bandiar verbannen, ausweisen,ofthesamedoubleorigin(theGothicsourcebeingindicatedfirst).In thesamerespect,theCorominesdictionaryofCatalan(1983)presentsanobsolete banerasreplacedbybander.
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Romancelanguage,Iwillpreventapossibleobjectionofaphoneticorder at this point. One might be tempted to say thatRmn. ban can be only as old in Romanian as Slavic loans such as hran and ran, since, like the latter, ban does not show a change typical of certain words inherited by Romanian from Latin. It is generally known that the sequence /an/, in a stressedposition,became/n/(later/n/)intheverypassagefromVulgar Latin to Romanian (see IVNESCU 2000, 206). Thus Romanian has ln wool from Lat. lna, and it has pgn pagan from Lat. pagnus). However, as Ivnescu shows (loc.cit.), a Latin word like annus year produced Romanian an (not *n or *n), since in the period in which Romanian was in the making, Latin double consonants were still double. 16 Therefore, if during the same period (approximately between the 5th century and the 7th) an Old Germanic bann with a vowel /a/ followedbyanemphatic(double)nasalenteredthelanguageofproto Romanians, that loan could remain with the form ban (not *bn or *bn), justasLat.annusremainedwiththeforman. The long vowel of Hung. bn deserves at least a short comment, sinceitsquantityisobviouslydifferentfromthatoftheshortvowelofO. Gmc. bann. In my opinion, the very quantity of Hung. bn indicates that thetermwasnotborrowedbynativespeakersofHungariandirectlyfrom a Germanic idiom, but through the intermediation of a language (either
ImustobservethatalthoughIvnescuobservestheruleinthecaseofLat.annus >Rmn.an,hedoesnotdothesamethinginacasethat,inmyopinion,shouldbe presentedsimplyasLat.cannakindofvaseorpot>Rmn.cancup,jug.About thelatter,Ivnescu(2000:507)sayscanKanne,Krug,pot,cruche(<Germ. Kanne,butalsoHung.kanna),whereasMDApresentsRmncan(recordedinthe 17th century) as coming from Bulg. kana, Germ. Kanne. In fact, the wrong etymological interpretation of Rmn. can appears to be part of a more general confusion. Thus, the Ernout/ Meillet dictionary of Latin presents canna as mot germanique,whereastheKlugedictionarypresentsGerm.Kanneasassumedly borrowedfromM.Lat.canna(althoughtheotherdirectionofborrowingisnot excluded), and the Pfeifer dictionary presents the same German word as possiblyofGalloromanorigin.Anyway,whatIseeascertainaboutRmn.can isthat,initscase,wearenotinneedofanyintermediaryinordertodemonstrate itsdirectdescentfromLat.canna.
16

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Slavic or Romance) whose phonology was indifferent to vowel quantity, 17 thatis,alanguagewithnofunctionalphonemicoppositionof longandshortvowels.Or,moresimplythanthat,Hungariansmusthave heardawordwhosevoweltheyfelttobeofaqualityclosertotheirlong /a:/thantotheirshort/a/(whichwassubsequentlylabialized). 18 Semantically speaking, in order to understand what happened to O. Gmc. bann (and, implicitly, to understand why that term may be labeled as protofeudal), we should pay some more attention to the abovementionedFrank.*bannjanandtoitscognate,Frank.*ban(loi,ordre dont la nonobservance entrane une peine), 19 which account for a significant family of Old Germanisms perpetuated in French. Of those I will mention the most important ones, with meanings as given in Petit LarousseandinBaumgartner,Mnard(1996):(1)banpouvoir,ordresous menace;ensembledesvassauxdirectsdusuzerain;convocationdeceux ci; jugement qui interdit ou assigne certaines rsidences un condamn aprs sa liberation; proclamation officielle et publique; promesse de marriage publie lglise; juridiction; (2) banal lusage de tous, commun; 20 (3) banlieue (< Frank. ban + Lat locus place) ensemble des
In connection with the undeniable existence of bann terms in Frankish (from whichFrenchinheriteditsrichbanfamilyofwords),Iwilltakeintoaccountthe historicalfactthatin796Charlemagnesson,Pippin,defeatedtheAvarsintheir ownPannonianpowercentre(cf.DICULESCU1922,234),andthatthereafterthe Frankish domination extended as far as the Adriatic Sea and the Carpathians. However, it would be hard to believe that the temporary (and mainly military) presence of the Franks in AdriaticDanubianCarpathian regions could impose banntermsthatsubsequentlyenteredallthemajorlanguagesofthatarea. 18Labialization(rounding)alsooccurredinAlpineRomance,asprovedbyan interesting variant bonn Bann, Verbannung (< Frank. bann), coexisting with a nonlabialized variant bann and with derivatives like bannir ffentlich bakanntmachen and bannida Einberufung von Sammlungen (cf. Bernardi/ Decurtins,s.v.bonn). 19Cf.Baumgartner/Mnard1996,s.v.ban. 20 In eighteenthcentury English, the French loan banal still had the earlier mediaeval meaning of obligatory for all the tenants of a feudal jurisdiction (cf. HOAD1993,s.v.banal).
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agglomrations qui environnent un centre urbain et participent son existence; (4) bannire enseigne sou laquelle se rangeaient les vassaux dun seigneur pour aller la guerre; (5) banneret seigneur de fief qui comptait un nombre suffisant de vassaux pour lever une bannire; (6) bannir condamner lexil, proscrire; (7) banni expuls de sa patrie, proscrit, exil; (8) abandon (O. Fr.) pouvoir, autorit (< bandon < ban); (9) aubain individu fix dans un pays tranger (< Frank. *aliban appartenentunautreban);(10)forbanpirate,individusansscrupules, bandit(<O.Fr.forbannircf.Germanverbannentobannish,asaprefixed verb). The abovepresented French lexical family based on O.Gmc. bann has clear correspondents in other West Romance idioms too. In general, RomanistshaveobservedMeyerLbkesview(1935,s.v.bann)according to which Frank. bann order under threat of punishment (Befehl unter Strafdrohung) became ban proclamation, district, confiscation, prohibition in Old French and Old Provenal, wherefrom that term and/or its derivatives entered neighbouring Romance idioms. The Coromines dictionary of Catalan (1983) contains a terme de dret medieval,namelyCatal.ban(withthemeaningofproclamation),from frncic bann, through the intermediation of les llenges de Frana. TheCorominasdictionaryofSpanish(1967)includes:baldninjuria,1300 [],tratamientosoberbio[],yprimitivamentetratamientoarbitrario, adiscrecin (<fr.ant.bandon<frnc. BANN); bandoedictosolemne,h. 1300(<fr.ban<frnc.BAN[N]),andbandidoproscrito,forajido,1516(<it. bandito < it. bandire proscribir < frnc. BANNJAN). 21 As for Italian, the Battisti, Alessio dictionary (1950) refers It. bando and its dialectal variant banno(decreto,condanna,esilio)tobothGoth.bandwo(segno,insegna) andO.H.Germ.ban(notificazione),aswellastotheLatinizedversions of the two Old Germanic terms (bandum and bannus, um, respectively see also below). There is a quite coherent relationship among all these
It is obvious that, in such cases, Corominas takes into consideration Romance intermediariesbetweenOldGermanicandSpanish,andnotalsothepossibilityof adirectGothicsource(ashedoes,howeverincasessuchasataviar,esquilar,gaita, ganso,etc.).
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Romance terms: they all reflect Old Germanic sources, and they all originally referred to feudal hierarchy and social regulations. However, foraclearerunderstandingoftherelationshipbetweenthoseGermanisms of French and Spanish and the protofeudal roots of the Southeast European ban (which became bn in Hungarian) we should review the basicopinionsontheultimaterootsofO.Gmc.bann.

IndoEuropeanarguments AgeneralimageoftheproductivenessoftheProtoIndoEuropean rootfomwhichtheOldGermanicbannfamilyderivesfromistobefound in the Pokorny dictionary of 1959, under bh sprechen (to speak). 22 FromtherichseriesofexamplesgivenbyPokorny(loc.cit.)wemaydraw the conclusion that PIE *bh to speak has representatives in major branches of the IE family, such as Indian, Hellenic, Italic, Slavic, and Germanic, as well as in isolated branchlets, such as Tocharian and Armenian.Also,itisquiteevidentthatnotonlythebasicPIErootunder discussion, but also several of its suffixed extensions (such as *bhtis, *bhnis, *bhnis, or *bhnw) prove to have been very productive. Anyway, the material presented by Pokorny (1959) amply demonstrates that recorded IE terms such as O. Ind. bhanati (he) speaks, Gk. phn voice,Lat.frtospeak,Armen.banword,speech,O.C.Slav.bajatito narrate,toheal,O.Icelbannprohibition,banandO.H.Germ.bannanto commandaredefinitelyrelated. VeryinterestinglinksarealsoindicatedinChantrainesdictionary of Ancient Greek (1984), under phm to declare, affirm, pretend, speak, presentedasbasedonanIE*bhe,or*bh,certainlythesamerootasthe one given as as *bh or *bha by other authors. (It is quite obvious that therehasbeenhesitationinestablishingthevowelqualityandquantityof the primeval root under discussion.) Chantraine (loc.cit.) also takes into account an extension *bhen, which, in his opinion, directly accounts for
22

Pokorny 1959 gives, separately, 1. bh glnzen (to shine), and 2. bh sprechen(tospeak),which,Ithink,mayhavebeenoriginallyrelated(aswecan imagine primeval meanings such as to make manifest, to beam, to show off, to express).

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both O. Ind. bhanati and Armen. ban (see above). Among the Indo EuropeanrelativesofGk.phmChantrainementionsO.H.Germ.bannan togiveanorder(donnerunordre)andtheLatinfamilyoffmafame, fbula conversation, story, and fr to speak (all showing the regular shiftPIE/bh/>Lat./f/).TothatLatinserieswemayaddfspermissionor orderofthegods,divineright,whichancientauthorswouldrefertofr tospeak(seeERNOUT,MEILLET1985,s.v.fs). In regard to the field of Germanic etymology, I will observe that the Pfeifer dictionary refers Germ. Bann (zwingende Gewalt, Exkommunikation)toaseriesofOldGermanicterms,includingO.Norse bann prohibition, ban, banishment and O. Eng. bannan to order, to summon.Thenthesamedictionary(s.v.Bann)makesageneralstatement according to which the Germanic term under discussion must originally havehadthemeaningofsolemnspeech,whichlatergrewintoacentral conceptofmediaevallaw.Initsturn,Kbler1989refersGoth.*bannwda (the compound reconstructed by Gamillscheg see above) to O. Gmc. *bannazGebot,Bann,basedonIE*bhasprechen.Kblerwentalongthe traditional etymological line, which is manifest not only in Pokorny (1959), but also in de Vries (1961), where O. Norse bann is referred to a series of Germanic cognates, as well as to related nonGermanic terms, such as the abovementioned ones (O. Ind. bhanati (he) speaks, Armen. banword,speech,etc.),towhichaCelticterm,O.Irl.bannlaw,isadded (phonetically,observePIE/bh/>Ind./bh/,butIrl./Armen./Gmc./b/). Under *bh to speak, the authors 23 of the appendix Indo EuropeanRootsattachedtoTheAmericanHeritageDictionaryoftheEnglish Language(AHD,1973)givetwosuffixedforms(*bh+anasalsuffix)as bases of Gmc. *bannan to speak publicly (used of particular kinds of proclamation in feudal or prefeudal custom), of Frank. *ban feudal jurisdiction, summons to military service, proclamation, as well as of a GermanismrecordedinLateLatinasbannumproclamation.Asamatter of fact, themost significant of the IndoEuropean terms presented above indicatethat,duringtheperiodinwhichGermanictribesenteredhistory, prefeudalcustomwasexpressednotbywrittenlaws,butbythevoice
23

CalvertWatkinsetal.(aHarvardteam).

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oftribalspeakers.Thelatterturned(atthetimeofincipientfeudalism) into local magistrates of a justiceofthepeace type, who eventually became local representatives of royal authority (of a type that coincided withthatofthelocalreevesappointedbyAngloSaxonkingscf.sheriff< O. Engl. scirgerefa shirereeve). Practically, the lexical material so far mentioned may be considered to be sufficient for a presentation of the origins, correspondents and spreading of O. Gmc. bann, a word of undeniable IndoEuropean origin. However, in regard to the Old Germanic prefeudal social system reflected in earlier meanings of O. Gmc.bann,somemorehistoricalfactsshouldbetakenintoaccount.

JewishGermanicparallels Assuming that (much of) the Bible reflects real history, I must observe that there are even some biblical clues to the kind of socio political context that may be envisaged in connection with the early historyofGmc.bann.Althoughthetwohistoricalmomentsareseparated by over one millennium, there is striking similarity between the biblical passage from judges to kings (that is from Samuel and his sons to Saul and David) and the Germanic passage from tribal priestkings 24 to warriorkings (see die Abfolge Volksknigtum Heerknigtum in WOLFRAM 1995, 64). Moreover, in both cases the rise of real monarchy meantimitationofforeignmodels.TheBiblereads:Anditcametopass, whenSamuelwasold,thathemadehissonsjudgesoverIsrael[].Then alltheeldersofIsraelgatheredthemselvestogether,andcametoSamuel
The existence of such personages at the time of the earliest contacts between Germanics and neighbouring peoples is proved by the fact that the proto Germanic term for the tribal priestking, *kuningas, was borrowed by Baltic and Slavicpopulations;thatiswhytherearetermssuchasLithuaniankunigaspriest, CzechknzpriestandSlovakkazpriest,pastor(whereassubsequentsemantic shifts,towardssociopoliticalmeanings,aremanifestwithBulg.knezmayorcf. dialectal Romanian chinez village magistrate , Upper Sorbian knjez lord, SerbianCroatian knz, and Russian knaz prince cf. Romanian cneaz local protofeudalleader)seetheVasmerdictionary,s.v.knaz,andtheglossariesof CARLTON1990.
24

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[]andsaiduntohim,Behold,thouartold,andthysonswalknotinthy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations (King James Version,1Samuel,8). 25 AsforearlyGermanichistory,kingsasfounders ofdynastiesandstates(betheyGothic,orGepidic,orFrankish)appeared exclusivelyinrelationshipwithRome,thatis,aspartofageneralimitatio imperii. Another remarkable JewishGermanic parallel is the one between thearchaicconquestanddestructionritualofSamuelstimeandthesame kind of practice with early historical Germanics. SecondcenturyBC Romanswereshockedtoseethattheirstrangeopponents,theCimbriand the Teutoni, hanged their prisoners, drowned the horses of the latter, threw the spoils of war into the water or destroyed them (WOLFRAM 1995,28).InapreroyalJewishcontext,Samuel(thepriestjudge)tellsSaul thattheLordhathrejectedtheefrombeingkingoverIsrael,sinceSaul did not wipe out the Amalekites together with all their possessions, in keepingwithGodscommandment(1Samuel15).Iinsistonthatepisode also because I found something remarkable in Luthers translation of it. WhereasKingJamesVersionsaysthattheAmalekitesshouldhavebeen utterlydestroyed,tosacrificeuntotheLord,inLutherswordswhatSaul was expected to do (about the Amalekites and their whole fortune) was den Bann vollstrecken execute the commandment. With his keen sense ofhisownlanguage,LutherchoseexactlyGerm.Bann,initsmostarchaic sense, to express the notion of divine commandment transmitted to mortals through the voice of a priestjudge. The Bible gives us lots of details about howGodsvoicecouldbeheardbychosenhearers,whothenactedas speakers whose voices made Gods will known to both kings and commoners of Israel. There also is sufficient information on how early Germanicsreceiveddivinecommandments,asIwillpointoutbelow.
In Luthers German version, the elders demand reads: So setze nun einen Knig ber uns, der uns richte, wie ihn alle Heiden haben literally: So put nowakingoverus,thatheruleus,asallgentileshavehim.
25

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ReportsoncertainearlyGermaniccustoms Theearliestinformation aboutGermanictriballifedoesnot come from the Germanics themselves, but from Greeks and Romans, who initiallyconsideredGermanicbarbarianstobejustanotherkindofCelts. 26 When the Mediterranean world came to feel the impact of the earliest Germanic intruders (first the Bastarni in the Southeast, then the Cimbri and Teutoni in the Southwest and Centre of Europe), the GreekRoman world became interested mainly in the militarypolitical dynamics of thoseintruders.Forinstance,inthesecondcenturyB.C.,Polybios(XXVI, 9) refers to the Bastarni of his time 27 only in regard to their potential as alliesofKingPhilipVofMacedoniaagainstRome.Aboutacenturylater, as conqueror of Gaul, Caesar could gather more detailed information about the Germanic way of life, which he presented in contrast with the Celtic one. 28 One special merit of Caesars celebrated Conquest of Gaul is that,inpassagesdedicatedtoGermanicopponents,theemperortobedid not observe only militarypolitical features, but also religious ones. For instance, Caesar mentions that (after Ariovistuss Suebi unexpectedly retired from a battle) he was told, by some prisoners, that the German matrons,whousedtodrawlotsandemployothermethodsofdivination todecidewhetheritwasadvisabletojoinbattle,hadpronouncedthatthe Germans were not destined to win if they fought before the new moon (II, 2). About one century later, Tacitus (Germania, 10) observes similar thingsaboutGermanicreligiousbeliefsandpractices:

Forauspicesandthecastingoflotstheyhavethehighestpossible regard[].Theybreakoffabranchofafruittreeandsliceitinto strips;theydistinguishthesebycertainrunesandthrowthem[]


Evenaslateasthelatterhalfofthenineteenthcentury,aremarkablehistorian, Mommsen (1987, I, 444), presented Clondicus the Bastarnic chief who had becomeanallyofPhilipVofMacedoniaascommanderofaCelticarmy. 27 In Wolframs presentation (1995, 26), the Bastarni appear as the earliest Germanics who came into direct touch with the Mediterranean world (die Mittelmeerwelt). 28IwillquotefromHandfordstranslationofCaesarsConquestofGaul,1960.
26

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ontoawhitecloth.ThenthepriestoftheStateiftheconsultation isapublicone,thefatherofthefamilyifitisprivate,afteraprayer tothegodsandanintentgazeheavenward,picksupthree,oneat a time, and reads their meaning from the runes scored on them. []Theirpracticeofquestioningthenotesandflightsofbirdsis, ofcourse,knownalsotous;peculiartotheGermansistheseeking ofpresentimentsandwarningsfromhorses.Thesehorsesarekept at the public expense []; they are pure white and undefiled by workforman.ThepriestorkingorchiefoftheStateyokesthemto asacredchariotandgoesalongwiththem,notingtheirneighings andsnortings.Noformofauspicesinspiresgreatertrust

I find it difficult to decide whether it was the Gemanic priest, or king,orchiefwhohadmoretodowithinterpretationandimpositionofa banntypeofregulationsduringthelongperiodinwhichBastarni,Goths and Gepids became, in turn, dynamic factors in the history of Southeast Europe. I am inclined to believe that, under circumstances in which Germanics acted as Herrenvolk among populations with other religious beliefs than their own, social aspects (to be observed by both Germanic masters and nonGermanic subjects) became more important than observance of auspices and divine commandments. Thus the archaic notion of bann must have been gradually secularized (the process continuingunderearlyfeudalcircumstances). 29 In regard to the Germanic socialjuridical customs of his time, Caesar (in his De bello Gallico) makes a contrastive presentation. First he describes the social stratification of the Gaulish Celts, whose common people were treated almost as slaves by the two privileged classes,
WhereasintheGermanicworldofCaesarstimethetermbannmostprobably stillwasclose,semantically,toLat.fs(divinecommandment),atthetimewhen Goths and Gepids strove to build their own state formations bann must have come to correspond semantically rather to Lat. is, which in imperial Roman times referred mainly tolay justice. Nevertheless we should notneglect the fact that, in very early Latin, not only fs, but also is and lex had religious implications(seethoseLatinwordsaspresentedinERNOUT,MEILLET1985)
29

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the druids and the military aristocracy (I, 1); then he he opens a new chapter(I,2)byaratherabruptstatement:ThecustomsoftheGermans are entirely different. Ceasar goes on by making the following observations,severalofwhicharequitemeaningfulforthisdiscussion:

TheGermansarenotagriculturalists,andliveprincipallyonmilk, cheese,andmeat.Noonepossesesanydefiniteamountoflandas privateproperty;themagistratesandtribalchiefsannuallyassign a holding to clans and groups of kinsmen [] and the next year makethemmoveonsomewhereelse.[]Whenatribeisattacked or intends to attack another, officers are chosen to conduct the campaign and invested with powers of life and death. In peace time there is no central magistracy; the chiefs of the various districtsandcantonsadministerjusticeandsettledisputesamong theirownpeople.

Atthattime(aboutthemiddleofthefirstcenturyBC)theSuebic GermanswhowantedtocrosstheRhineandconquerGaulalreadyhada supreme military leader, Ariovistus, whom later historians were to considerasthefirstrexGermanorum,kingoftheGermans(WOLFRAM 1995,29).Nodoubt,Ariovistusstoodforanimportantsteptowardsanew kind of rex, a military leader ratherthan a religiously minded chief. But, out of Caesars presentation, we may understand that magistrates and tribal chiefs also had very important roles to play in Germanic internal affairs. In the centuries to follow, during the rise and fall of Imperial Rome, the military function of Germanic tribal units constantly grew in importance,aprocessthatalsoimpliedgrowingimportanceofGermanic kings (reges) and military leaders (duces). However, even under those circumstances, Old Germanic peacetime magistrates must have continued to administer justice not only among their own people, but

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also among nonGermanics on whom they imposed themselves as representativesofgentilepower. 30 Togoeastagain,IwillfullyagreewithDiculescusinterpretation of rex Cniva, the one who (according to Cassiodorus) was the fatal Gothic opponent of Emperor Decius in the middle of the third century. DICULESCU (1922, 35) finds a solution to what others regarded as a confusing situation, namely that Cniva (who did not even belong to the GothicroyalfamilyoftheAmali)wasmentionedasrexatamomentwhen the actual king of all the Goths, Ostrogota, was still alive. According to Diculescuscredibleinterpretation(loc.cit.),Cnivawasnotreallyarex,but justahighofficer:

InderTatwarKniwasowenigderNachfolgerOstrogotas,wieein Gotenknig berhaupt. Er war ein Gauknig, ein regulus oder ein Herzog gleich anderen Gotenfhrern in den msischen Feldzgen So, rather than a rex, Cniva was (like Athanaric and others of the kind)ajudex,oradux,inRomanterms.Hemusthavestartedasrulerover acertain*bannwda,anewlyconqueredandmilitarilycontrolledterritory somewherenorthoftheLowerDanube.Worthobserving,inthiscontext, is that Diculescus statement above contains the German term Herzog, a transparent compound literally meaning armyleader (cf. Goth. *harjatuga, O. H. Germ. herizoho, O. Norse hertogi, O. Eng. heretoga). That compound shows a Germanic *harja army (cf. Germ. Heer) combined with *tuga, 31 the latter semantically and etymologically corresponding to Lat.dux. 32

Cf. WOLFRAM 1995, 26, on the Bastarni, who im letzten Drittel des dritten vorchristlichen Jahrhunderts an der unteren Donau auftauchten und hier sehr raschzueinerbedeutendengentilenMachtwurden. 31Cf.Eng.tug,tow,andGerm.Zug. 32TherehavebeendebatesonwhethertheHerzogtitlereflectsaloantranslation of Gk. strategos or stratelates (see Pfeifer, s.v. Herzog), and whether O. C. Slav.
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AcertainfootnoteinIvnescu(2000,79)deservessomediscussion at this point. That note centres on the epithet of judex that was repeatedly attached, in ancient historical writings, to the name of Athanaric(theVisigothicrulerwhovainlytriedtostoptheinvasionofthe Huns into what is now Eastern Romania and the Republic of Moldova). Ivnescu chose to criticize Vasile Prvan and to adopt a (hardly tenable) opinion expressed by Radu Vulpe. Prvan (1911) considered that Athanarics position of judex must have reflected some kind of continuation of a Roman juridical institution that survived north of the DanubeafterthewithdrawaloftheRomanadministrationandarmyfrom theprovinceofDaciainthe3rdcentury.ButVulpe(1957)rejectedPrvans viewandstatedthattheapplicationofthetitleofjudextoAthanaricwas due simply to the similarity in form between that Latin term and Goth. iudanschiefofthewholepeople(inVulpesinterpretation).Myopinion isthatneitherPrvannorVulpe(followedbyIvnescu)wereright.Onthe one hand, Athanaric, a fourthcentury heathen Visigothic ruler, had no reasontoimitateRomanjuridicalofficers;ontheotherhand,heprobably did not have the title of iudans, which, at that time (as manifest in WulfilasBible,ofthesame4thcentury),couldbeusedasatranslationof Gk.basileus.Basically,AthanaricspositionmusthavebeenthatofanOld Germanic magistrate, similar to the ones mentioned by Caesar, and to the ones that I consider as having something to do with the earliest meanings of O. Gmc. bann. Nevertheless, the historical context was already quite different from that of Ceasars time. Both Rome and the Germanic world had changed. As for the latter, in the 4th century the border between military and juridical functions must have vanished, so therenolongerwasanycleardistinctionbetweenthesphererepresented by bann and the one represented by harjatuga. In support of such a statement, I will quote from what Bosworths dictionary of Old English gives under heretoga (the leader of an army or a people, a general; dux, consul).AmongBosworthsillustrativeexamples(loc.cit.),therearetwo remarkablequotationsfromOldEnglishbiblicaltexts,inwhichMosesis
voevoda (> Rmn. voievod) reflects a loantranslation of the Old Germanic title underdiscussion(seeVasmer,s.v.voevoda).

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presentesdasaheretogaoftheJews:SeheretogaMoysestheleaderMoses; MoisessemraheretogaMosesthegreatleader. Fromantiquitytofeudalism The materials presented above reveal the protofeudal frame withinwhichaGermanicjuridicalratherthanreligious bann couldcome to refer to military command, and eventually to authority of foreign feudal mastersovercertainregions.Thefinalstageofthatdevelopmentisperfectly reflected in the abovementined French banbannirebanal family, whose members were recorded with meanings that represent advanced feudalism. An interesting particular thing is that France, in providing (via the kingdom of Naples) an Angevin dynasty for the throne of fourteenthcentury Hungary, contributed something to the establishment of advanced feudalism in Central and Southeast European territories dominatedbytheHungariancrown.Butthetitleofbnhadalreadybeen inuseintheHungariankingdomasearlyasthe11thcentury:Theroyal council established [] by King Stephen [I] included the mayor of the palace [], the banus (governor) of Croatia, the voivode (prince) of Transylvania,thecountsandbishops(Lendvai1999:48). 33 Thatfactand theattestationofbaninSoutheastEuropeseveralcenturiesearlierthanthe coming of the Angevins to Hungary exclude the possibility of a French connectioninregardtotheappearanceofaHungarian(Latinized)banus. As for the possible SoutheastEuropean spreading of the latter, even the existenceofhundredsofBan(u)familynamesinallpartsofRomania(see below)wouldcontradicttheideathataHungarianfeudalaristocratictitle could produce such an onomastic boom among common inhabitants of territories once controlled by the Hungarian crown. In certain regions of Romania (and of neighbouring countries, for that matter) the title of ban must have been applied to a multitude of representatives of an early (rather modest) juridical institution. The latter, in my opinion, had its rootsinprotofeudaltimesduringwhichcertainGermanicshadimposed
We may deduce that, at that time, the title of banus was already applied to outstanding vassals of the Hungarian king, especially in Croatia and Southern Hungary(cf.DUWDeutschesUniversalwrterbuch,s.v.Ban).
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themselves on communities of autochthonous Southeast Europeans. It was that protofeudal relationship that represented the starting point for aninstitutionspecifictoanearlyfeudalsocialstructure.Letmecontinue bypresentingaspecialcase. The situation of fourteenthcentury Transylvania, ruled by representatives of Hungarian kings, is reflected in Latinwritten documentswhichoftenmentionthetitleofbanus,asattachedtonamesof highpositioned royal governors and members of royal councils. For instance, in a royal decree issued under King Lajos the Great (Lodouicus rex),in1361, 34 twomagnificentmenwithbanuspositionsarementioned, namelyNicolaodeZeechandNicolaodeMachow[Mava].But,inthesame period, other documents present persons with a banus title of a much lower rank. One such document, issued in the same year of 1361, mentions the death of one Peter [son] of the banus (Petrus Bani), who hadlivedinthevillageofOzd(intodaysMurecounty);anditwasalso in 1361 when a similar document was issued pro magistro Nicolao, filio quondamSymonis,banideDorlaz.ThevillageofDrlos(recordedasDorlaz firstin1317)isnowintheSibiuCountyofRomania,anditisnotknown to have been the seat of any banus comparable in importance to those of Dalmatia, Croatia, Mava, or Severin. One interesting aspect manifest in the lastmentioned Transylvanian document is a shift of title, from one generation to another: the father was known as banus, whereas the son bore the title of magister. It appears that the father had been just a local peacetime administrator of justice among the inhabitants of Dorlaz (= Drlos).ThepositionofSymondeDorlazprobablywasmuchmoremodest than the position of the two parallel fifteenthcentury bani of Craiova mentionedbyHasdeu(1983,161seeabove). To deduce that, before the firm establishment of the Hungarian feudalstate,therehadexistedvillagebaniinregionsthatoncewereruled byGermanicsisnotmerespeculation,ifwetakeintoaccountfactssuchas the following ones. In the same Sibiu County, at eica Mare, archaeologists have uncovered traces of an important earthwalled
Thisandotherdocumentsmentionedinthispartofthediscussionareincluded inDocumentaRomaniaeHistorica,C,XII,1985(ed..Pascu).
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fortressbuiltexactlyintheperiod(5th6thcenturies)duringwhichGepids werepoliticallydominantintheareaunderdiscussion. 35 Also,thesource of an important hoard made of 4th6thcentury Eastern Roman gold coins unearthed in a neighbouring village, eica Mic, appears to have had its source in the subsidies payed by Constantinople to the Gepids, as mentionedbyDICULESCU(1922,104).ItisalsoDiculescu(1922,102103) who presents historical records according to which at least one king of the Gepids, fifthcentury Ardarik, minted his own gold coin, known as Ardaricianusanaspectthathasitsownimportanceforthisstudy. Propernamesasarguments Inregardtoonomasticproofs,thepersonnameBanwasrecorded inTransylvaniaasearlyas1205(cf.CONSTANTINESCU1963, s.v. Ban). And it is also in Transylvania where I found the highest occurrence of Romanian Ban and Banu family names in telephone directories: Cluj has 108Banand10Banu,Sibiu67Banand26Banu,Timioara36Banand28 Banu (whereas Iai, the capital of historical Moldavia, has only 26 Banu). Mostimpressively,the2005telephonedirectoryofasingleTransylvanian village,PoianaSibiului(inthesameSibiuCounty),containsnolessthan 42familynamesofBan. To all these I may add a list of derivative names, such as: Bana, Banae, Ban, Banea, Bane, Banica, Banic, Baniciu, Banu, Bna, Bnu, Bnescu, Bnic, Bnie, Bnig, Bnil, Bnil, Bnior, Bni, Bnia, Bnian, Baniul, Bnoae, etc. (all included in Constantinescus onomastic dictionary, s.v. Ban). As I have already stated, one can hardly assume that so many Romanian names could derive from a high feudal title borrowed from
The Gepids are thought to have been the makers of the first earthwalled Transylvanianfortressesinthe5th6thcenturies,amongwhichworthmentioning arethefirststageofthefortressofMoreti(Murecounty),andtheearthwalled fortifications of Porumbenii Mari (Harghita county), and eica Mare (Sibiu County) ANGHEL 1972, 7. The same author cautiously adds (p. 8): The presence[atMoreti]offormsofmaterialcultureofalateGepidictypedoesnot excludethepossibilitythatthefortressunderdiscussioncanhavebelongedtothe autochthonousortheSlavicpopulation.
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Hungarian.Thefactthat,inveryearlytimes,banwasawellknownrank in Romanian villages is proved by the very presence and spreading of village names based on ban all over Romania. Since Transylvania produced earlier written documents (in Mediaeval Latin), it is not surprising that such village names were first recorded in that province: the earliest appear to be (according to Sucius toponymic dictionary) the namesoftwovillagesintheSlajCounty (central Transylvania),namely Ban and Bnior (the latter being a diminutive of Ban). Both were recorded in 1213, as villa Bani, and villa Ban, respectively. The latter is important also because, in a document of 1341, it was indicated as inhabitedbyWallachians,thatis,Romanians(possessioolachalisBantheluke accordingtothesameSuciudictionary,s.v.Bnior). 36 By its early written records, Transylvania has a special place in regardtopropernamesbasedonban.ButotherregionsofRomania,forall their lack of early historical documents, also show a multitude of such names, recorded in more recent times. Foremost among the Romanian placenames that deserve attention in this discussion is Insula Banului (literallytheBanusIsland),anislandoftheDanube,onwhichtheruins ofanearlymedievalfortressarestillvisible(cf.ANGHEL1972,68);that fortresswasthepowercentreofthebaniofSeverin,whowerequiteoften mentioned in mediaeval documents. As for presentday Romanian villagesoftheBanfamily,Ghineasdictionary(2000)includesthealready mentioned Ban and Bnior, plus three more correspondents in Transylvania(Bneti,Bnicel,Bnia),andaveryimportantBniainBanat (firstrecordedin1484). 37 Othercorrespondentsappearinotherprovinces ofRomania:inMoldavia(Banu,Bneasa,Bneti,LuncaBanului),Wallachia
In its final part, Sucius dictionary also includes recorded names of subsequently vanished villages, such as BanTolmcs (in Criana) 1559, and Banesti(inBanat)1690.SuchrecordssuggestthatvillageswithnamesoftheBan series may have been more numerous in the past. The earliest of them must originallyhavebeen,Ipresume,centersofjuridicalauthority. 37 The Banatian village name Bnia practically renders the articled form of the common noun bnie; and Bnie is also a Romanian family name (see CONSTANTINESCU1963,s.v.Ban).
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(Bneasa,Bneti,Bniceti),andOltenia(Baniu,Bneti,LuncaBanului).To these I will add Bneti, Bnetii Noi, and Bnila, 38 to be found in the RepublicofMoldova(cf.EREMIA1996). 39 OneproblemwithRomanianspecialistsinonomasticsisthatthey haveviewedthepropernamesunderdiscussiononlyasdependingonthe feudal institution of bnie (rank and jurisdiction of a banus); that institution,initsturn,hasbeentakenintoconsiderationonlyasreflecting Hungarian influence. Nevertheless, the very richness of the Romanian onomastic family Ban, as well as other facts raise serious doubts about such traditional views. We should, for instance, be very cautious about statements such as thr ones to be found in Constantinescus onomastic dictionary, under Ban, where that name is presented as frequent in the onomastics of Romania and of neighbouring countries, after the Hungariannameofarank,whichwasextendedtothatofabordermark (banat) in countries to the south [], beginning with the 12th century. However, it is also Constantinescu (1963, s.v. Ban) who gives the following quotation from Nicolae Iorga: Moldavian toponyms that derived from this term [ban] are numerous enough, although the institution of bnie is of a very recent date in Moldavia. Constantinescu tries (unconvincingly) to solve that confusion by assuming a massive transferofBannamesaspartoftheintermittentflowofRomaniansfrom Maramure (a Northern Transylvanian region controlled by Hungary in feudal times) to Moldavia. 40 But, as I have already stated above, no
WecannotavoidthecoincidencebetweenthesuffixofthevillagenameBnila (cf. the Romanian familyname Bnil) and the suffix of a multitude of Gothic personnames (see Albila, Argila, Fandila, Mannila, Tatila etc., in the onomastic appendixofKbler(1989). 39 Tezaurul toponimic (1991) includes a significant number of villagenames, such asBanul(2),Bneasa(5),andBnetii(16),stillinuseinhistoricalMoldaviaduring the18th19thcenturies. 40 Constantinescus etymological view on Ban was obviously influenced by the fact that, as he observes (1963, s.v. Ban), the name under discussion was first recordedinNorthernTransylvania;heconcludesthatitwasfromtherethatthe name spread over the Carpathians. But, like Iorga before him, Constantinescu does not overlook the fact that Banu (or Banul, in its articled form) occurs in
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credible explanation for the origins of ban and Ban can be reached if we confine ourselves to the times of advanced feudalism, and to the traditional AvaricHungarian etymology of the term under discussion. 41 At this point, some more things should be said about ban money, coin too. Fromtitletocurrency As mentioned above, according to Schuberts presentation (1982, 253) Old Bulgarian appears to have contained one single word ban with twomeanings:1.banus,governor,2.smallcoin.InregardtoRomanian, most lexicographers have assumed that it has two separate words, ban feudal title of nobility, and ban money, small coin, division of the leu [Romaniancurrency].Abouttheoriginofthelatter,Romanianspecialists havehadopinionssimilartotheonesexpressedbySchubert.Forexample, in his history of Romanian, Ivnescu (2000, 429) advocates the following opinion formulated earlier by Mihescu: the term ban coin must have entered Romanian after the invasion of the Mongols (1241); as a consequence of that event, the Hungarian currency disappeared, and (approximately after 1270) both in Hungary and in Romanian territories there began to circulate a type of currency known as denarius banalis or ban, minted by governors (bani) of Slavonia, who were vassals of the
Moldavia,asaname,beginningwiththe15thcentury,beforetheintroductionof the institution [of bnie]. For lack of records, nobody can actually tell us how longbeforethe15thcenturythetermbanandthenamesderivedfromithadbeen in use in Moldavia (or in other nonTransylvanian parts of Romania, for that matter).Anyway,ifoneassumesthatitispeoplemotionfromTransylvaniathat can account for the quite numerous Ban names of Moldavia, then that motion musthavebeennotthehistoricallyknown14thcenturyone,butratheranearlier (moreobscure)oneprovokedbyHungarianconquestsofthe9th10thcenturies(cf. MOLDOVANU1982,5758). 41 Constantinescu (loc.cit.) also sticks to that AvaricHungarian etymology, to whichheaddsthat,accordingtoHasdeu,banisatermborrowedbyTuranians from the Persians. Constantinescus final suggestion that the Romanian names Ban and Bana might be abbreviations from the names erban and erbana, respectively,deservesnoattention.

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Hungariankings. 42 Thesameauthorwentonbyassertingthatthekind ofcurrencyunderdiscussionwasinuseinourprincipalities[]almost one century, until 1365, when Vlaicu, voivode of Wallachia, issued his owncurrency,whichwasalsocalledban. 43 Mihescus interpretation sounds tenable, although we cannot forget that, in a neighbouring country, an O.Bulg. small coin had been recorded (according to Schubert see above) as early as the 10th century,thatisquitelongbeforethecomingoftheMongols.And,insuch a context, we cannot overlook the information about the coin called Ardericianus,issued asearlyasthe5th centuryby King Arderik ofthe Gepids (see above). Such problems of chronology and of precedence remain for others to solve. What I can say at this point is that the connection between ban feudal title and ban money can hardly be denied, and that both the former and the latter show very old age on Romanian grounds. 44 Also, in regard to the use of both ban feudal title and ban money in the Romanian principalities after the 14th century, I have foundthe two terms side by side in a Romanian document of 1603 (HASDEU 1983, 170 my italics): fostau dat popa Stanciul n mna
Ivnescu (loc.cit.) quotes from Mihescus article Originea cuvntului ban moned(SCL,XVIII,1967,p.343347). 43 See also the Tiktin dictionary, s.v. ban and ban, respectively: ban 1. Ban (Mnze) [...] Ursprnglich wohl Name einer bestimmten, von einem Banus geschlagenenMnze[...];2.kleinsteMnze[...];3.Geldstck[...];4Geld[...].Et. Whrsch. ban. / ban Ban(us). In der Walachei ehem. vom Frsten ernannten StatthalterderkleinenWalachei(BanulCraiovei)[...].Et.Magy.bn. 44 In regard to ban money, I must observe that, along a metaphorical line, that wordhasproducedquiteanumberofphrasesinRomanian,suchasthefollowing ones(selectedfromMDA,II,2001,s.v.ban):astrngebanialbipentruzilenegreto savemoney(literallytogatherwhitemoneyforblackdays);aumblacudoibani ntreipungitotrytodeceivesomebodybysomething(literallytomovearound withtwocoinsinthreepurses);aumblanbaniiluitomovearoundarrogantly (literally to move around in his own money). There also are Romanian plant names such as the compound banulpopii (priests penny), or the diminutive derivativesbnior,bnule,bnu,whichobviouslyalludetothecoinlikeshapes oftheflowersofthedesignatedplants.
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Hrizii portarul i jupnesii lui Samfiri i banului Andreiu clugrul bani gataaspri20.000. 45 (Andreiuisobviouslysomeonewhohadbeenabanus, and who subsequently became a monk; as for bani gata, the formula still meanscashintodaysRomanian.) IwillnowreturntoCiornescuandtowhatappearstobehisdim intuitionofaGermanicoriginofRmn.ban.Ciornescuwasnotinfavorof a relationship between ban feudal title and ban money, which are treated as two distinct words in his dictionary. Rather intriguing is that whereas he (as mentioned above) joins the traditional opinion about an Avaric origin of the former term, in the case of the latter he has very peculiar views and gives surprising details. Among other things, CiornescumentionsthatthereisnotonlyBulg.bansmallcoin,butalso apluralformbaniusedbyMeglenoRomanians.AsfortheoriginofRmn. ban coin, money, Ciornescu openly rejects the connection with ban feudal title (as proposed by Hasdeu and Tiktin), and he prefers to consider that the term is of unknown origin. Nevertheless, the same authorimmediatelyadds:

Probably what we have in this case is the Germanic word ban, M.Lat.bannusproclamation,banns,whichcametomean,among many other things, fine for crimes against authority, or contribution paid to the feudal lord (cf. the 7th12thcentury examples in Niemeyer 823). The change of sense might be explained through the necessity of paying fines by cash, in a period in which currency was not usual. What remains to be clarified is the way of the borrowing; it was probably done via Hungarian. 46

In rough translation: the sum of twenty thousand aspers in cash has been given by Stanciul the priest to the hand of Hrizea the porter and to his wife SamfiraandtothebanusAndreiuthemonk. 46 The final part of the statement is confusing, taking into consideration that among the examples given by Ciornescu (loc.cit.) there is a Hung bny coin, presentedbyhimasaborrowingfromRomanian.
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Had Ciornescu insisted on the M.Lat. bannus connection, and on the capital semantic sphere of feudal authority, rather than on the finepaidbycash,hecouldhave drawnamorecredibleconclusionon the origin of both ban money and ban feudal title, whose source is undeniablyOldGermanic. Peculiarmeaningsandderivations Whereas in Western Romance the acquision of an Old Germanic bann mainly via Mediaeval Latin bannus (bannum) has been generally assumed (as reflected in dictionaries), the similar acquisition of the same OldGermanictermintheLateVulgarLatinusedinSoutheastEurope,or inprotoRomanianisamoredifficultproblem.Toblameforthatsituation ismainlythelackofdocumentsfromtheperiond(5th7thcenturies)during which Romanian was being shaped as a distinct historical language. Nevertheless, even in the absence of documents, Romanian provides, by itself,sufficientindicationsinthematterunderdiscussion.Severalcluesto thevery old age ofbanin Romanian have alreadybeen mentionedsee, for instance, the numerous Romanian propernames of the Ban family discussed above. Besides those, and besides the series of derivatives transparently derived fom ban coin, money, there is a multitude of Romanianderivativesfromban,suchasbneaswifeofabanus,bneasc name of a Romanian folk dance, bni to grant the title of banus to someone, bnie jurisdiction or residence of a banus, bnior boyar of a ranklowerthanthatofabanus,etc.(alltobefoundasseparateentriesin MDA,I,2001). There also is, in Romanian, a seemingly separate term, a verb whose obsoleteregional meanings I consider to be of capital importance for this demonstration. The verb is given in MDA as bni, with three meanings (the first marked as obsolete, the other two as regional): 1. to negociate;2.nottoleavesomebodyinpeace;3.torepent.MDApresents that verb neither as derived from Rmn. ban, nor as based on Hung. bn feudal title, but on the Hungarian verb bnni. The dictionary gives no meaning for the assumed sourceword, so I may take into consideration twoHungarianverbalradicalsthatareseparatelygiveninKelemen1964:

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bn (in its unsuffixed form), with the meanings to regret, to feel remorseful, and bn/ik to behave in a certain way (with somebody), to treat (somebody) in a certain way, to handle. As I will demonstrate below, the meanings of those Hungarian terms reflect more recent semanticshifts(towardsmoregeneralabstractmeanings),whichmeanta gettingawayfromthesemanticsphereoftheactualOldGermanicsource term bann. Rmn. bni (especially by its first and second meanings) and several other Romanian related terms (see below) show correspondence with that Old Germanic semantic sphere, whose principal reference is to anarchaicjuridicalsystem. In her presentation of the correspondents of Hung. bn, Schubert (1982) misses several important things. First, although she assumes (p. 161) a transfer such as Hung bn(ni) > Rmn. bnui to suspect (argwhnen), 47 she proposes no connection between the latter and the family of bn feudal title. Also, she does not mention the existence of Rmn.bnitonegociate,nottoleavesomebodyinpeace,torepent(asa relative of both ban and bnui). Moreover, after having finished her presentationofcorrespondentsofHung.bnfeudaltitle,Schubertpasses to those of Hung. bnt to bother, mistreat, hinder, plague (behelligen, mihandeln, behindern, plagen) without assuming that, etymologically, she actually remained on the same ground (that is, on the ground of etymological relatives of Hung. bn feudal title). As Schuberts states, bnt (first recorded in Hungarian in the 14th century) appears to be a
I will not insist here on the fact that Schubert and other specialists (see especiallyPUCARIU1976,275andROSETTI1986,383)perpetuatedanopinion according to which the Romanian infinitive ending ui has its origin in South Slavicovat.Thelatterissupposedbyarathercomplicatedlogictohavebeen appliedtocertainHungarianverbsthatenteredRomanian(cf.Rmn.bnui,bntui) only after having passed through South Slavic. What appears to have been overlooked is that there is as a fundamental verbal ending oj in Albanian (a languagethathasquitemanysubstrataltieswithRomanian).Alb.ojandRmn. uiappeartobeetymologicallyrelatednottoSlav.ovatproper,butrathertothe infixlike element uj that occurs in Slavic verbs of the ovat category (see SCHMALSTIEG 1983, 49 on Slavic verbs with an infinitive in ovati, which alternateswithapresentsteminuj).
47

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HungarianfactitivederivativefromtheabovementionedHung.bnto regret (bedauern), which the same author presents as a word of unknown etymology. Nevertheless, a quite big family of European termsamplydemonstratesthatHung.bntisjustanOldGermanismthat reachedHungarianthroughaRomanceintermediation(oraSlavicone).I takeintoconsiderationthatbantcaneasilyberegardedasjustavariantof band, 48 which is contained in the series of Romance terms that resulted fromtheLatinGermanicconflationofbannum+bandum(seeabove).Well known words of the family under discussion are It. bando decree, conviction, bannishment. 49 The Friulan correspondent of It. bando is exactly bant (under which the Friulan dictionary of PIRONA et al. 1977 also gives mand in bant mandare al bando, bandire and di bant inutilmente). The existence of a Friulan term (of Old Germanic origin) with a form like bant and a meaning like banishment can be a good startingpointforanexplanationofHung.bnt.AsfortheRomanianverb bntu(1stpers.sg.indic.pres.bntui,withinitialstress),thattermcannot possiblycomefromHungarian,forseveralreasons. First of all, phonetically speaking, one could hardly assume that HungarianloansinRomanian 50 couldbeaffectedbyaveryearlyphonetic change, which marked Romanian terms genetically inherited from Latin (e.g. blandum > blnd, rancidus > rnced), but which did not mark early Slavic loans (such as the already mentioned hran food and ran
Ashiftliked>tposesnoproblem,sinceitmaysimplyreflectthereception(by anonGermanicear)ofaspecificGermanicdevoicingofstopsinfinalpositions cf. Germ. Band and Brand, pronounced /bant/ and /brant/, respectively. In that respect, the form of Friul. bant bando may be compared to those of two other OldGermanismspreservedindialectalOccitan(Provenal),namelybortbordo andrantrando(aspresentedinPONS,GENRE1997). 49AnimportantderivativeofIt.bandoisbandiretoproscribe,which,initsturn, produced bandito exile, outlaw, bandit. Through various intermediations, It. banditobecameapanEuropeanterm:cf.Span.bandido,Fr.bandit,Eng.bandit,as wellasRmn.bandit(arecentborrowingfromFrench,orItalian,orboth). 50 See Kirly 1990: 117119 and 185 about difficulties encountered by specialists whohaveconsideredRomanianwordssuchasbnatandbntuiasderivedfrom Hungarian.
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wound).Nodoubt,Hung.bntandRmnbntuiarerelated(firstofallby the ultimate Old Germanic origin that they appear to have in common); but the latter shows very old age on Romanian ground, not only in its shape, but also in its (nonHungarian) meanings, which are much more complexthanthoseofHung.bntoregretandofthelattersderivatives. SchubertdidnotassumeanyetymologicaltiebetweenHung.bntitleof nobility and Hung. bn to regret (which she sees as basis of bnt); but such a tie results from the very illustrative material given in Schubert (1982, 257258). In that respect, obviously juridical senses are visible in both SerbianCroatian and Romanian correspondents of Hung. bnt. The source and original meaning of the latter could be clarified by mere reference to Serb.Croat. bantovati molestare, impedire, a term that was recordedinkroatischenRechtsverordnungenseitdem15.Jahrhundert according to Schubert (1982, 257). The same author (1982, 257) mentions other old SerbianCroatian terms of the same lexical family: bantovanje molestia,vexatio,impedimentum;bantovateljvexatorand(simplestbut notleast)bantamolestia. 51 Semantically, Rmn. bntui is a quite complex term, and it shows more similarity to SerbianCroatian bant correspondents than that to Hung.bnttobother,mistreat,hinder,plague(supposedlyderivedfrom bn to regret). Rmn. bntui (first recorded at the beginning of the 17th century)hasthefollowingmeanings:tobother,haunt(aboutevilspirits), pester, pillage (about invaders), ravage, damage, put to trial, punish. (Amongotherthings,DEX,s.v.bntui,givestheRomanianobsoleteoath S m bntuie Dumnezeu! May God punish me!) The word under discussion has several important derivatives: bntuial impediment, plunder, trial, temptation, bntuire persecution, trouble, sorrow, pillage, devastation, damage, and bntuitor oppressor. The earliest recorded meaningsofRmn.bntuirevealaconnectionbetweenthatwordandthe lexical family represented by Romanian bni, bni, bnui (see above), as well as bnat (commonly presented as based on Hung. bnat sorrow).
To those I will add Polish banova and bantova (recorded in the 17th century), whicharegivenintheBrcknerdictionaryasHungarianloans(basedonHung. bnandbnt,respectively).
51

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That connection is sustained not exactly by the (obviously more recent) RomanianmeaningsthatcorrespondtoHungarianones(mistreat,bother, regret), but rather by the obsolete meanings that correspond to the juridical sphere observed by Schubert in the case of the abovementioned SerbianCroatian lexical family. Here are those early meanings of the Romanian terms under discussion, as given in a dictionary of 17th18th centuryRomanian(COSTINESCUetal.1987mytranslations):(1)bnat accusation, imputation, reprimand, remonstrance, suspicion(besides the more recent meanings of sorrow, regret, remorse, anger, trouble, spite); (2)bnitopunish(besidestonegociate,andbesidestograntsomeone thetitleofbanus,ameaningusuallypresentedasbelongingtoaseparate, homonymic term); (3) bnui same asbni; (4) bnui to suspect (besides to regret, to envy, to get angry);(5) bnuial suspicion (besides regret, remorse). In fact, even in presentday Romanian bnui and bnuial stillrefer to thenotion of suspicion(juridicallytoo). And, in this context, we should not forget about the abovementioned Rmn. bntui,whichiscurrentlyusedwiththemeaningstohaunt,toroam,but which earlier meant to bother, damage, put to trial, punish, 52 as presented in MDA. Without the abovementioned old meanings we would not have any clear arguments in favour of a connection between, on the one hand, Rmn. ban feudal title (with its deduced reference to a pre and protofeudal juridical system of Old Germanic extraction) and, on the other hand, the old juridical meanings shown by the Romanian terms presented above. If they were mere borrowings from Hungarian, they would show the more generalabstract meanings (regret, remorse, sorrow)oftheirHungariancorrespondents,whichappeartoreflectmore recentsemanticshifts. 53
Hasdeu (1983, 181) gives the text of a Romanian decree of 1606 (passed in favour of an orphaned young lady), which recommends, in an archaic formulation:aceast sracUdrica snou bntoiascnemene(in plain presentday English,nooneshouldbotherthispoorUdricamytranslation). 53MyintentionisfarfromadenialofHungarianinfluencesonRomanian.WhatI mean to say in this demonstration is just that Romanian must have contained several important Old Germanisms of the ban family (with preHungarian
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Generalconclusions Whatresultsfromthedemonstrationaboveis,firstofall,thatthe Germanic bann category of terms developed from primitive Indo European ones that referred to very archaic religiousjuridical notions. Suchtermswerespecifictotimesinwhichcommandmentsandlawswere believed to be transmitted by divinities to humans, through the voice of exceptional (or professional) individuals. In course of time, such individualswereinturnmedicinemen,prophets,priestkings,andtribal magistrates. The last two stages represent the times during which the actual Germanic Vlkerwanderung began. When mere destruction and plunderwasreplacedbyprofitableconquest,Germanictribalmagistrates (probably still having some religious prestige too) came to dominate not only the life of their own tribes, but also the life of nonGermanic populations that came under Germanic control. Such was the period in which nonGermanics of CentralEastern Europe became familiar with andadoptedGermanicjuridicaltermsofthebannfamily. AterritorywiththenameofBanat(madeofanOldGermanicroot plus a Latin suffix, at) survived through the Middle Ages into modern times exactly in the DanubianCarpathian area once covered by the kingdomoftheGepids.ThereforeonecanassumethatLatinizedformlike banus and banatus were already in use among speakers of Vulgar Latin (and/or of protoRomance) in areas controlled by the Gepids. However, we cannot exclude other Germanic idioms (such as those of the Goths, Langobards,orVandals,orevenoftheearlierBastarnae)assourcesofthe banandbanttermsthatweretosurviveinCentralandSoutheastEurope. Those terms can have been perpetuated by local populations after the destructionoftheGepidickingdom,thenthroughthetimesdominatedby Avars and Slavs. When they moved south, the ancestors of SouthSlavs, notably those of the Serbians and the Croatians, must have borrowed (from preSlavic populations of DanubianCarpathian regions) Germanisms of the ban and bant types, which became bases for peculiar
juridical meanings) at the time of the earliest contacts and exchanges between RomanianandHungarian.

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mediaevalSerbianCroatianjuridicalterms,withclearcorrespondencesin Romanian(seeabove). After having adopted a series of bann and band terms directly from Old Germanic invaders, Italians also learned about a ban title (It. bano) from their Croatian neighbours. Hungarians did something similar after the conquest of their new homeland; that is, they borrowed the sourcewords of their bn and bnt from their Slavic and Romance 54 subjectsand/orneighbours.Inlatertimes,afterHung.bnhaddeveloped meaningsthatreflectedanadvancedfeudalhierarchy,theHungariantitle under discussion acted as a reinforcement of ban terms in all the languages of the Hungariancontrolled part of CentralEastern Europe. But,asdemonstratedabovethatreinforcementcouldhardlystandforthe basisofthemassofRomanianBannames,whichreflectapreHungarian situation. TheRomanianmaterialisdominantinthisarticlenotbecausethe presentauthorknowsthatbetter.Themainreasonisthat,besidesthejust mentioned onomastic argument, the unity of the Romanian terms belongingtothebanbnatbnibnuibntuifamilyismostcoherentofall, astheyallstillreflectanarchaicjuridicalsystem.Anditisquiteobvious that,intheirearliestmeanings,thoseRomanianwordsareclosesttowhat Old Germanic bann stood for, before it came to refer to advancedfeudal realities. No doubt, several aspects (such as the time and place of the development from ban high social position to ban currency) should be furtherclarifiedinthefuture.ButIamsurethatatleastonemajoraspect, namelytheOldGermanicoriginsofbothWestandEastRomanceterms ofthebanfamily,isanundeniablefact.

ForthesourceofHung.bnIhaveinmindtheusageofsuchatermbySlavs and Romanians living in territories subsequently occupied by Hungarians, whereas for bnt I will not exclude an Alpine Romance source, mainly since a termbantisstillinuseinFriulan(seeabove).
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BIBLIOGRAPHY *** 1973 AHDTheAmericanHeritageDictionaryoftheEnglishLanguage, (ed.W.Morris),NewYork. ANGHELGheorghe 1972 CetimedievaledinTransilvania,Bucureti. BATTISTICarlo,ALESSIOGiovanni 19501957 Dizionarioetimologicoitaliano,Firenze. BAUMGARTNEREmmanule,MNARDPhilippe 1996 Dictionnaire tymologique et historique de la langue franaise, Paris. CARLTONTerenceR. 1990 Introduction to the Phonologic History of Slavic Languages, Columbus. CHANTRAINEPierre 1984 Dictionnairetymologiquedelalanguegrecque,Paris. CIORNESCUAlexandru 2001 Dicionaruletimologicallimbiiromne(ed.T.andruMehedini, M.PopescuMarin),Bucureti. CONSTANTINESCUN.A. 1963 DicionaronomasticromnescBucureti. COROMINASJoan 1967 Breve diccionario etimolgico de la lengua castellana (2nd ed.), Madrid. COROMINESJoanetal. 19821991 Diccionari etimologic i complementari de la llengua catalana (4.a edici),Barcelona. COSTINESCUMariana,GEORGESCUMagdalena,ZGRAONFlorentina 1987 Dicionarullimbiiromneliterarevechi(16401780).Bucureti. *** 1996 DEX Dicionarul explicativ al limbi romne, (ed. I. Coteanu et al.).Bucureti.

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StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai COMPTESRENDUSETNOTICESBIBLIOGRAPHIQUES Yanis Pikoulas (d.), Inscriptions and history of Thessaly: new evidence. Proceedings of the International Symposium in honour of professor Christian Habicht,Volos2006,111p.+15planches. Ce volume est consacr, comment on lapprend mme du dbut, aux travaux du colloque international en lhonneur du professeur Christian habicht, organis Volos en 2006. Le professeur Habicht a consacr une partie impressionante de ses travaux lpigraphie thsalienne,valoriseparplusieurspublicationsaulongdeplusde30ans. Cecolloqueestdonclexpressiondurespectdparplusieurssavantsde Grce, dAllemagne, de France, de GrandeBretagne afin de rendre hommage un grand pigraphiste et historien du monde ancient et de Thssalieenparticulier. Le volume comprend des contributions pigraphiques consacres auxpoquesarchaque,classique,hellnistiqueetromaine.Leprofesseur Habicht parle avec beaucoup de modstie sur ses travaux en Thssalie (MyworkinThessaly,p.1524).Nousremarquonsainsilapublicationdes inscriptions nouvelles et rvises (Herwig Kramolisch, The inscriptions in theMuseumofHalmyros,p.2729;AngelosMatthaiou,Anarchaicinscription from Gardiki Omilaion, p. 4954; Argyroula DoulgeriIntzesiloglou, A new inscriptionfromPherae,p.5566;BabisG.Intzesiloglou,Theinscriptionofthe Kynegoi of Herakles from the ancient theatre of Demetrias, p. 6777; Anthi BatziouEftstathiou, Yanis Pikoulas, A Senatus Consultum from Demetrias, p. 7989, Apostolos Kontogiannis, Inscriptions from Olympiotissa Elassonas, p. 91102; M.E. ZachouKontoyanni, Manumissions from Atrax (SEG 32, 604), p. 103111). Larticle de Bruno Helly (Quinze annes dpigraphie thsalienne,p.2126)faitunncessairetatdequestion,tandisqueCharles Crowther (Foreign judges in Thessaly in the Hellenistic Period: A second century phenomenon?, p. 3148) et met en discussion lexistence et lusage

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de tribunaux et des juges trangers dans les cits grecques dpoque hellnistique,surtoutenThssalie. CevolumeprouvequelecolloqueorganisVolosnapastune manifestation purement festive, mais ses travaux, par la qualit et par le degr de nouveaut, ont vraiment rendu hommage au professeur ChristianHabicht. LucreiuMihailescuBrliba Corpus der rmischen Rechtsquellen zur antiken Sklaverei (CRRS), herausgegeben von Tiziana J. Chiusi, JohannaFilipFrschl, J. Michaeil Rainer,TeilVI.StellungderSklavenimSakralrecht,bearbeitetvonLeonhard Schumacher,FranzSteinerVerlag,Stuttgart2006,124p.. LevolumeestparudanslasrieForschungenzurantikenSklaverei, projet initi par Jospeh Vogt et continu, aprs sa mort, par lAcadmie desSciencesetdesLettresdeMayence.Lecorpusdessourcesjuridiques concernant lesclavage antique fait partie de cet ample projet; jusqu prsent ont t publis quatre volumes (une prolegomena et encore trois volumes, sur le dbut du statut servile, sur les situations incertaines des statutsdesclavesetdepropritairesetsurleservusfugitivus).Cettepartie a t ralis par Leonhard Schumacher, professeur lUniversit de Mayenceetspcialistedanslesclavageantique(ilfautseulementrappeler sonlivre,SklavereiinderAntike.AlltagundSchicksalderUnfreien,Mnchen 2001). Lauteur analyse les sources juridiques qui mentionnent des reglmentationssurlesvouexenverslesdieux,surlessacerdoces,surles collges, sur la protection des esclaves et sur le droit spulcral. La premirepartiedulivrereprsenteuncommentairedecessources;elleest suivieparlestextesproprementdites,accompagnspardestraductionset par des commentaires ponctuelles. La postion de lesclave dans le droit sacrestcomplexe,commelapositiondelesclaveengnral:dupointde vuejuridique,lesclavenestquunobjet,maislaloineluiinterditpasde remplircertaineschargessacerdotales,commeaeditui,magistri,ministri,ou mmesacerdotes.

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Lelivreconstitueunimportantinstrumentdesoucesjuridiquesur lesclavageromain,ralisdunemanireexemplaire. LucreiuMihailescuBrliba Studia historiae et religionis dacoromanae. In honorem Silvii Sanie, ediderunt Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba, Octavian Bounegru, Editura AcademieiRomne,Bucarest2006,448p. Le volume est consacr la 70e anniversaire du professeur Silviu Sanie, dont les ouvrages sur les religions orientales dans lEmpire et sur larchologieetlareligiondesDacessesontimposescommeouvragesde reference dans lhistoriographie roumaine et internationale. Dailleurs , plus de 35 professeurs, collaborateurs, anciens et actuels collgues de Silviu Sanie (de Iai, Bucarest, ClujNapoca, Tulcea, Constana, Tel Aviv, Rome,Sofia,Chicago,LeMans)ontcontribulaparutiondecevolume. Cesontenplupartdesarticlesquitraitentdessujetsconcernantlhistoire daceetromaine,maisgalementlhistoiredelaculture(MariusAlexianu, Le sommeil de la nature chez Alcman, p. 3134), ou lhistoire des colonies grecques aux poques archaque, classique et hellnistique (Victor Cojocaru,CataloguedesanthroponymesnordetnordouestpontiquesauxVIeIer sicles av. J.C. chez les anciens auteurs grecs et latins, p. 3559; Roxana GabrielaCurc, Traits dialectaux ioniques dans les inscriptions dHistria, p. 6168;MihaiIrimia,DasGebietSkythiaMinorinhellenistischerZeit,p.6997; Alexandru Barnea, Eroul cavaler / Le hros cavalier, p. 99103; Gabriel Talmachi, Aspecte iconografice privitoare la monedele emise de ctre coloniile vestpontice Callatis i Tomis n epoca autonom / Iconographic aspects concerningthecurrencyissuedbythewestponticcoloniesCallatisandTomisin autonomous epoch, p. 105112). La qualit scientifique du volume est montr par les nouveauts prsentes dune manire analytique et critique. Il sagit dabord par la publication des rsultats de fouilles (Gabriela Gheorghiu, Deposits and consacrated material reused within the sacred area from Samizegetusa Regia, p. 127137; Asher Ovadiah, Yehudit Turnheim, Zeus Hypsistos in Mt. Gerizim (Tell erRas), p. 205224; Cristian

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Gzdac,BruceWright,GicBetean,CristianRoman,Identifyingareasof human activity at lpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa (Roman Dacia=broadly today Romania). Coin finds ans metal detecting, p. 285296). On remarque galementlapublicationdesinscriptionsindites(RaduArdevan,Volker Wollmann,EinegriechischeInschriftausIliua(Dakien),p.259267;Carmen Ciongradi, Ein Weihalar fr Nemesis aus Samizegetusa, p. 2692775; Maria Brbulescu, Adriana Cteia, Une inscription funraire chrtienne rcemment dcouverte Constantza, p. 439448), ou la redcouverte dune inscription considreperdue(AlexandruAvram,UneinscriptiondeTomisredcouverte Caen,p.277283).Ilfautaussirappelerdesarticlestraitantdunemanire sobre et exhaustive certains problmes spciaux des provinces balkano danubiennes (Cecilia Stoian Symonds, Interfrences artistiques dans les reprsentationsdeladesseHcatedanslesprovincesromainesduBasDanube, p. 243257; Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba, Les origines de la population appartenant aux catgories sociales moyennes et humbles de la Dacie selon les sources pigraphiques, p. 297315; Octavian Bounegru, Notes sur les petits commerants de la Msie et de la Thrace lpoque romaine, p. 317326; Margarita Tatscheva, ber die Sugambrerkohorten in den Provinzen an der unterenDonau,p.369377)etbeaucoupdautres. La plupart des articles sont rdigs en franais, allemand, anglais ou italien; les articles rdigs en roumain ont des rsums en une des languesrappelscidessus. Parlaqualitscientifiquesdesarticlespublis,levolumeditpar Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba et Octavian Bounegru reprsente un vrai hommage rendu au professeur Silviu Sanie. La diffusion rapide dans les bibliothquesdeltrangerestunpreuvedanscesens. ValentinPiftor

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Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba, Individu et socit en Dacie romaine. tudededmographiehistorique,HarrassowitzVerlag,Wiesbaden2004,166 p. Le livre de Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba, malgr ses dimensions assez rduites, reprsente un modle de la valorisation statistique des donns pigraphiques en Dacie. La dmographie de lAntiquit pose toujours de problmes, puisque les donnes fournies par les inscriptions sont beacoup moins nombreuses et dune qualit plus douteuse que les donnesfouniesparlessourcesdesautrespoques. Cest pourquoi lauteur se montre prudent en ce qui concerne les conclusions,montrantquelesrsultatsobtenuspeuventtreinterprtset modifis. Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba opre avec les donnes pigraphiques dune manire jamais rencontr en Roumanie chez les historiens de lAntiquit. Il calcule, selon tous les rgles de la statistique moderne, lesprance de vie la naissance, la mortalit et la structure dge.Ilremarquequebeacoupdesgesmentionnsdanslestextessont arrondis cause de lignorance des ges; il propose une prudence lgarddelinterprtationdesparamtresdmographiqueslorsquilsagit desgesarrondis.LesprancedevieenDacieest,seonlinterprtationde Lucreiu MihailescuBrliba, environ 30 ans chez les femmes et un peu plusde30anschezleshommes. Lauteurfaitaussidestudesdmographiquessurlesmembresde llitemunicipale,surlessoldatsetsurlapopulationdelorigineservile. Le livre reste un modle dinterprtation des donnes statistique dansuneprovinceolechantillonnageestfaible.Cestpourquoiilareu lePrixVasilePrvandelAcadmieRoumaineetatnominalispour leVII ePrixInternationalGrardBoulvert. ValentinPiftor

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D.Benea(ed.),MeteuguriiartizaninDaciaroman/Craftsand artisansinRomanDacia,BibliothecaHistoricaetArchaeologica UniversitatisTimisiensisVIII,Timioara,2007,272pp.,illustrationsand tablesincludedinthetext,ISSN14537419. PublishedundertheaegisoftheConstantinDaicoviciuHistory andArchaeologyStudiesCentre,oftheWestUniversityofTimioara,the volumerepresentstheresultofasymposiumorganisedinsidetheabove mentioned institution, by a university collective lead by professor D. Benea. The importance of its theme must be underlined from the start, because apart from being sterile, uninteresting or easy, it may lead to morethanoneresearchdirectionrelatingtotheprovincescivilisation.A sign and the same time a model is given by those international projects dedicated to the handcraft in the Empires provinces, one of these being mentionedalsobyD.Benea. The main directions followed along the pages of this interesting volumeareconcentratedonproblemsconcerningTheexploitationofthe subsoilresources(pp.67112),Craftsandartisans(pp.113206),Import ExportMerchants (pp. 207246), preceded by a Foreword (p. 3), Abbreviations (pp. 78), The Program of the Symposium (pp. 911), Studies and notes (pp. 2166) and followed by a section entitled Varia (pp.247266)andReviews(pp.267271). A study belonging to professor D. Protase, The Autochtonous Dislocations andtheireffectsuponthe RomanizationProcessin Dacia(pp. 13 20),referringtonativestransfersfromDaciaandtheimportanceofthese actions on the Romanisation process, precedes the first chapter of this volume, Studies and notes. This is opened by A. tefnescus work, The Habitat in Roman Dacia (towns, pagi, villages, vici militares) (pp. 2334), consisting of the main discussions upon the territorial organisation, speciallythatbelongingtotheurbancentresofDacia. The study signed by D. Benea, Considerations regarding the archaeological researches related to the crafts from Dacia province (pp. 3566), represents a synthesisof themaindirections asregards the handicraft at the province level, based on a bibliography which contains the main

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studies published by now, with references to this problem. Of course, there is a series of deficiencies if we take into account the level of researchesondifferentmattersofthisdomain,buttheyaretheresultofa lackofinformationandnotofmethodologicalmistakes.Moreover,asthe author remarks, over the last years, due to new researches, new dates seem to contribute to the framing of a general picture of the domestic industry in the Roman province. A second part of this study reflects analyses regarding the exploitation of the natural resources (salt, stone), orereductionandmetalworking(plumb,bronze,goldandsilver),stone workshops,buildingmaterialsandceramicsproducingworkshops,bone, horn, glass and semiprecious stone working, and also aspects hard to reconstitutelike theweavingandskindressinghouseholdworkshopsor the quotidian habitat. The brief and concise conclusions may represent directions to follow for the researchers of this ample branch of ancient economy,stilllessexplored. TheexploitationofthesubsoilresourcesopenswithM.Crngu Balaci,OnthepresenceofthenotebooksformodelsinRomanDacia(pp.6975), astudybasedonthecirculation/spreadofmodelsinsidetheprovince,the relations between the sleeping partner and artisan, interestingly demonstrated in the case of a monument built at Porolissum and discovered at Dragu and of another one, identical in shape and expression,foundatZam.Asecondexample,consistingoftwosideways aedicula walls discovered at Iliua, respectively Grbu, stands, as that givenbytheauthor,foranextraproofoftheexistenceofthesenotebooks formodels.However,itmustbeunderlinedthattheiroriginsshouldntbe looked only in the major art field, but also in the minor art one, for examplethatofthefigurativebronzes. AnarticlesignedbyR.M.Feraru,Newcontributionstothestudyof thesundialsdiscoveredintheGreekfortressesofDobroudja(pp.6989),follows alongthepages,beingdedicatedtothestudyoftwoobjectsdiscoveredat HistriaandCumpna,onTomisterritorium. ThechaptercloseswithanewcontributionofD.Beneaconcerning oneofthemainresourcesofRomanDacia,moreandmoreanalysedover thelast periodthesalt,Aboutthe exploitation of saltin Roman Dacia (pp.

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91112). After an introduction presenting general dates about using the saltandtheinformationofferedbyPliniusinthisregard,therefollowsan incursionalongtheRomanianhistoriographyrelatedtothesalttheme,its extractionmethodsandthetoolsused,thelocalisingoftheresources,the salt mines administration during the Roman age and the role played by saltwithintheprovincialeconomicsystem. The chapter entitled Crafts and artisans is opened by another articleoftheabovementionedauthor,DieBleiverabeitunginderRmischen provinz Dakien (pp. 115125), and is based on a presentation of the provincialplumbresourcesandproduction,thewaytheyarereflectedby theepigraphicandespeciallyarchaeologicalsources.Sofar,theresearches have revealed several producing centres at Sucidava, Romula, Drobeta and Apulum, but the discovery of some pipes of the same type (fistulae plumbeae) in important centres such as Ulpia Traiana, Drobeta, Romula andTibiscum,followedbyfutureresearches,couldleadtothedefiningof newworkshops. AnaCtina,ThepottersfromPotaissaandtheirceramicsproducts(pp. 123150), renders the image of this important pottery centre reflected in the local terra sigillata production, stamped ceramics, paterae handles (alreadyanalysedbyV.RusuBolinde),Dragendorf39shapes,antefixes and lamps. The study of the ceramic material production in Dacia is continued by M. Pslaru, Printing models from the pottery workshops of Potaissa(pp.151157)andS.RegepVlasici,B.Muscalu,RectangularRoman Lamps with EagleHandle from Tibiscum (pp. 159170). The first article presentsthreeprintingmodels(forlamp,medallionandpatera),whilethe second contribution concentrates upon several lamps discovered at Tibiscum, probably of local production, but unique on the territory of Dacia. Clin Timoc, The bone and horn working in Dacia province (pp. 171 188) analyses aspects concerning the identification of several materials working areas, with centres at Apulum, Buciumi, Cristeti, Cumidava, Drobeta, Iliua, Mehadia, Pojejena, Porolissum, Potaissa, Romia Certiae, Romula,Sucidava,Tibiscum,UlpiaTraianaSarmizegetusa.

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C. G. Alexandrescu, Aspects of daily life in the Roman time at the NorthoftheDanubewithaspecialreferencetoleatherandtextiles(pp.189200), approaches a difficult and less explored subject, that concerning the ancient textiles and leather articles related to the discoveries effected insidetheEmpire.AlthoughthereareattestedacoriariusandaPeregrinus caligarius natione Dacus, a collegium utriclariorum or an association of leatherdressersortanninghouseownersthelastonesatTomisaswell as the discovery of a marble sarcophagus in the calatidian necropolis, there is no clear evidence of this quotidian craft in Dacia or Inferior Moesia;thetextilesareattestedespeciallyonarchaeologicalbases,inside the necropolis of Callatis and Noviodunum and within the Roman living Dinogetia. M. HadjiVasinca, The precious stone working in Roman Dacia (pp. 201206), presents synthetically aspects related to those cavatores gemmarums activity from Dacia, starting with the resources providing, productioncentres,chronologyandiconographicalinterpretations. Thenextchapter,ImportExportMerchants,beginswithanarticle signedbyO.entea,Amphoraestorehousesormilitaryinstalations?(pp.207 217). The author brings into discussion an interesting archaeological situation, come out after the rescue researches in the site area from Barboi. The interpretation, according to which the fortress discovered wasadepositofamphorae,isdeniedbytheauthor.Instead,heclassifiesit among those of reduced sizes, establishing analogies with those fortlets fromBritannia. M. Tril undrea, Imports of Terra Sigillata from Westendorf at TibiscumJupa.ThebuildingI(TheGlassWorkshop),onpp.219223,andC. Balaci, Crngui Balaci, Commercial relations of Tibiscum with the Roman Empire (I). Roman Lamps, on pp. 225229, rediscuss the problem of the ceramicsmaterialdiscoveredinthisancientcentre,basedonimports.The terra sigillata fragments discovered at Tibiscum attest the following craftsmen: Comitialis (4 fragments), Helenius (6 fragments) and possibly SeverinusSeverianus(1fragment).Asregardstheperiodofimports,itis attested from the beginning until the middle of the 3 rd cent. The import lamps from this centre are Italian, Pannonic and SouthDanubian

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products, significant discoveries that define Dacia provinces preferences andcommercialrelationswiththerestoftheEmpire. P.Dinulescu,MilitaryequipmentpiecesinthevillarusticafromGrla Mare (pp. 231235) studies eight objects (one perforated heartshaped pendant, one buckle with an attaching loop, one spur, two belt brackets, onerectangularbracketusedforornamentingthebelts,onebelttrimming, one tearshaped pendant) followed by a detailed description and a chronological framing, related to the context of the other discoveries insidetheEmpire. F. M Popescus article, On the origin of the tradesmen from Dacia province after Epigraphic Sources (pp. 235246), represents an interesting analysisoftheprovincialcommercialactivities,reflectedintheepigraphic sources related to the origin of the merchants attested in this area. The Greekorientalelementisbestrepresented,exceptingseveralcitizensfrom Augusta Treverorum and Aquileia. A useful supplementum epigraphicum whichcontainsinscriptionsreferringtothissubject,discoveredbothintra andextraprovinciam,endsthisstudy. Varia section reflects several characteristics referring to The archaeologicaleducationatTimioara(M.Brbulescu),onp.249,asynthetic article called The debut (pp. 251259) signed by D. Benea, about the beginningsofthearchaeologicaleducationatTimioara,thelistwithThe publications of the Constantin Daicoviciu History and Archaeology Studies CentresignedbyM.CrnguiBalaci(pp.261263)andareportconcerning TheCSIATIMmembersactivityandthepreuniversityeducation,B.Muscalu, onpp.265266. Reviews section is represented by a single contribution, A. Morillo, J. Aurrecoechea (edit.), The Roman Army in Hispania. An ArchaeologicalGuide,Len,2006(C.Timoc),p.269271. Inconclusion,theremustbeunderlinedtheunitarystructureofthevolume, accompanied by adequate notes and a raised level of information. In spite of publishing a less new material (a part of it has already been presented in other specialisedstudies),thecontributionsgatheredalongthepagesofthepresentwork standforanexcellentreviewandaworkingdeviceforanyresearcherorenthusiast. GeorgeNuu

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Norman A. Doenges, Pollentia. A Roman Colony on the Island of Mallorca,BARInternationalSeries1404,Oxford2005,73pp.,ISBN184171 8459. The publishing, in the prestigious collection BAR IS, of a monograph dedicated to a well known Roman city, fully justifies a brief presentationoftheauthorsmainworksandalsotheobservationsraised by the lecture this volume. The admirable work of Doenges must be underlinedfromthebeginning,butalsothefactthatduetosuchstudies, whichgatherdifferentarticlespresentedonotheroccasions,weareableto clarify the general picture of the urban life in the Empire. The contributions concerning the ancient topography, thenewarchaeological researchmethods,thestudyofthematerialdiscoveredandtheanalogies offered by this very useful in researching sites less well preserved, whichrevealarichinventory,unfortunatelyoutofaclearstratigraphical context represent defining elements for monographs of this type. Pollentia seems to successfully subscribe to such a list, the only minus representing, in the authors opinion, the presentation of the archaeologicalmaterial,extremelyconciseinmostofthecases. The volume contains four chapters and a bibliography, all precededbyaTableofContents,ListofIllustrationsandPreface.Chapter1. History, Discovery and Early Excavation, on pp. 112, deals with some generalaspectsasregardsthehistoryofthesite,startingwiththeorigins ofthiscity,identifiedattheendofthe16thcent..W.L.Bryantfoundation involvedinthismatter,puttinganendtoanyenthusiasticresearchersand offering its financial support in the systematic research project of the ancientcity.ThemainobjectivesstudiedalongthesepagesareTheRoman Theatre,intheSEofthecity,excavatedbyA.ArribasandL.Amoros,The Sa Portella Excavation (M. Taradell, D. Woods and later A. Arribas) from theresidentialareaofthecity,otherthreeresidencesHouseoftheBronze Head, House of the Two Treasures, North House, together with NorthSouth Street,whichreflectthreephasesstartingfromthesecondquarterofthe1st cent. B.C. and up to the JuliusClaudius age, and Northwest House, a complexconsistingoftwotabernaebuiltinthe3rdcent.A.D.Thechapter

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endswithaseriesofdiscussionsinregardtothesizeofthecityandthe measures taken by the government for protecting the archaeological site (ThesizeofPollentia,Governmentprotection). Chapter 2. The Forum of Pollentia, on pp. 1322, begins with a general overview followed by a presentation of The Capitolium, which reflectsaverycloseanalogyatCosa(themiddleofthe2ndcent.B.C.).On the base ofthe Arretinian sigillata fragments the time of its building was established in the Augustus age, but its ceasing date is not clear yet, although some areashave surviveduntilthe5th cent.A.D.The Northeast Temple or Monument is another structure that brings up functionality questions. In the authors opinion, its shape reminds of a monument pedestalandthediscoveryofahorsehead,comingfromastatuarybronze group, seems to underline this presumption. But, in spite of this morphologicalargument,accordingtowhichtheplatformshouldfitsuch amonument,theauthordoesntbringanyclearanalogiesinthismatter.It isaboutTheEastTemple,asmallsizedbuilding,andTheOpenAreaofthe Forum, with its altar (in Doenges opinion, reflecting analogies with Ara dellaReginafromTarquiniaandthealtaroftheCapitoliumfromCosa)or rostrum (by its first discoverers). As concerns the Forum from Pollentia, this ceased to exist during the 4th cent. A. D. At the same time the four tabernae from the Western side were burnt. This chronological frame is alsotheterminusofthenumismaticinventory,thelastcoinsdatingbackto Valentinian(378383)andTeodosius(383387).Containingmorethanthe 200gravesstudiedbynow,thenecropolisfromForum(ForumNecropolis) atteststhreeburyingtypes:insimplehole,gravescoveredbythinmarble plates and cista/ cist graves made of marble plates or covered by earth mounds. Usually the body of the dead was wrapped in a simple shroud andburiedwithitsheadtotheWest(onesingleexception).Accordingto the numismatic inventory the times of inhumation lasted between the beginning and the end of the 4th cent. North of the Capitolium is another complexdevastatedbyfire(andherewemayremarktheanalogieswith theruiningoftheForumsedificesduringthethirdquarterofthe3rdcent. A.D.).

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Chapter3.Themostconsistentpartofthisstudy,TheDarthmouth College Sector, on pp. 2349, represents the area researched to the North West from the Forum, not too far from the Capitolium. Effected under Darthmouth College and Bryant Foundations aegis, the researches from this place started in the summer of 1986, for the purpose of studying a cisterna. The main places discovered were grouped in two complexes: WesternUnitandEasternUnit.Threerooms,notedV,X,Y,andTheWest Streetbelongtothefirstcomplex.Threeunidentifiedcoinsandasestertius from Severus Alexanders period were found in the last mentioned area. But the archaeological inventory is enumerated without specifying its stratigraphical context or showing any drawings, on categories or quantities (e.g. two bronze rings). However the authors contributions concerningthecitystopographyareveryinteresting;afterananalysisof the plans and measurements from this area and Sa Portella, Doenges established that the city was built in standard insulae of 87 Roman steps (26.00m). Room Y is considered a taberna that had connections to Room X, representing the same time a working place and deposit. Although its stratigraphyisaccuratelydescribed,theceramicisconcisely(onlyitstype) and insipid enumerated: hand worked (Talayotic), Campanian B, ArretinianterrasigillataandterrasigillataGallica,AfricanAandC.Therest of the inventory, selectively mentioned, by the principle of special interests,isnotaccompaniedbydrawingsoranalogiesandphotosofthis are quite rare. This should be remarked so much the more as the archaeologicalinventoryisrichandvarious.So,thestratigraphyofthese discoveries, clear in most of the cases, would have offered an excellent comparanda for other places of the Empire. The same situation is encounteredinthecaseofthediscoveriesfromRoomXandV:therewere discovered lots of metal artefacts, typologically varied, unfortunately just mentionedandonlysomeofthemaccompaniedbyphotos.TheEastUnit,a complexruinedsomewherebetween270and280A.D.ispresentedinthe samemanner. Chapter4.PollentiaExcavations19952000,onpp.5059,dealswith aseriesofgeneralproblemsregardingthehistoryofthissiteandalsoits

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topography.Accordingtothis,theareasresearchedduringthelastyears wereRoomZ,WestStreet,RoomA,B,TheLateFortificationWallandtheLate Room South of the Capitolium. However, Doenges made a general presentation of these discoveries without pointing too much to the inventorybroughtout. H. B. Mattingly is the one that signs Chapter 5. Pollentia: History andCoinage,presentingalongthepp.6069thenumismaticdiscoveriesof this site. From the statistical point of view, the coins number 10 foreign samples belonging to the Republican age (Foreign coins of the Republican period), 22 Roman Republican samples (Roman Republican Coinage), 4 foreign samples belonging to the Imperial age (Foreign coinage of the Imperial period) and Roman Imperial samples (Augustus Nero, 4 coins; Vespasian Commodus, 103 coins; Septimius Severus Carinus, 104 coins;DiocletianConstantiusII,12coins;ValentinianTheodosius I,4 coins). Bibliografia, on pp. 7173, ends this interesting volume, which stands for a valuable model of presenting the results of researches. We may pass over several minuses concerning the manner of presenting the archaeological inventory if we take into consideration the punctual characterofthisworkandthefactthatitrepresentsanewcontributionon thelistofmonographsdedicatedtotheimperialcities. GeorgeNuu Blas Romn Castelln Huerta, Cuth: el cerro de la mscara. Arqueologa y etnicidad en el sur de Puebla. Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia. Coleccin cientfica, Serie Arqueologa, Mxico, D.F.,2006. LestagededocumentationenMexique,durantlemoisdeseptembre 2008,ycomprislaConferenciamagistralLos manantialesde aguasaladade Moldavia, Rumania. Etnoarqueologia de un recurso natural polivalente soutenue le 5 Septembre 2008 la Escuela Nacional de Antropologa e Historia, Mxico City (Mxico) par les membres du projet Ethnosal (M.

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Alexianu, R.G. Curc et V. Cotiug), nous a permis, entre autres, de connatre par lintermdiaire de quelques livres et dintressantes discussions, quelques directions de recherche de lhistoriographie mexicaine. Nous avons choisi prsenter succinctement ce livre parce quil illustre la tendance de rcuprer les dimensions multiples des espaces archologiques moins spectaculaires que ceux tudis dhabitude par larchologie monumentaliste mexicaine mais qui prsentent des significations importantes parce quil sagit tout simplement des formes des manifestations de lhumain (en ce cas, durant la priode prhispanique).Lebutexplicitedecettedmarcheestdedfinirlidentit ethnique des habitants successifs dune zone moins connue du sud de ltatMexicaindePuebla. La rgion sudest de ltat Puebla, connue actuellement sous le nome de Cuth, a reprsent un centre politique et urbain qui a commenc son dveloppement quelques sicles avant lre chrtienne. Durant 500 ans, cette rgion a t habite par des populations connues sous le nom gnrique dOlmeques historiques, tetlamixtecas ou, plus frquemment, chochopopolocas/popolocas. Comment peuton dfinirlidentitethniquedeshabitantsdecettezonepartirdesrsultats des recherches archologiques cest lenjeu principal, videmment trs complexe,decelivre. LepotentielarchologiquedelazonedeCuthexpliquelattention de quelques spcialistes qui ont dvelopp des projets de recherches commeProyectoReginSurdePuebla(partirde1993),ProyectoCuth, ValledeZapotitlnSalinas,Puebla(partirde1997)ouProyectoVallede Zapotitln Salinas, Puebla ( partir de 2002). A partir des donnes obtenues durant ces projets, y compris de ses propres recherches, le professeur Castelln Huerta propose une ample dmarche concentrique qui prsente deux niveaux, respectivement une approche qui comprend dans les premiers six chapitres des rfrences gnrales (Antecedentes de estudio en Cuth y Zapotitln, Geografa y medio ambiente, Etnohistoria de la regin, Etnografa del rea de Cuth, Arqueologa y etnicidad, Metodologa e hiptesis) et dans les chapitres suivants des approches spcifiques

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(Cronologa de Cuth, Anlisis de la cermica, Arquitectura de Cuth, Anlisis dedistribucinespacial,Anlisisdeestiloytransformacin:lacermica,Anlisis de estilo y transformacin: la arquitectura, Cuth y sus relaciones intertnicas). Lasimplenumrationdecesthmatiquesmontrecombiencomplexeest ladmarchedelauteuretcombiensolideestsaformationthorique. Les analyses trs nuances portant sur la comparaison entre larchologie de Cuth et les rgions voisines, sur les relations entre les variations stylistiques et le style ethnique, sur les marques de lidentification sociale observables dans la sphre des artefacts semblent indiquerlexistencedescommunautsmultiethniques.Lauteurrejetteles thories simplistes selon lesquelles les influences concernant la culture matrielle dans le cas des contacts interethniques agissent dun peuple dominant et crateur un peuple plus faible et rceptif. Pour Castelln Huerta il sagit des mcanismes beaucoup plus subtiles qui impliquent une dimension symbolique de type dialogal qui agit au niveau des matriaux,destechniquesetdesformes. Sansreprendrelargumentationcomplexedelauteur,ilconvientde mentionnerbrivementlaconclusionprincipale:lidentitethniquedes habitants antiques de Cuth drive, dune part, dune multiplicit des groupeshumainsspcialissdansdesactivitsdistinctesquiontcrdes combinaisonscramiquesetarchitectoniquesspcifiquesydautrepartde ceuxquiparlaientprincipalementdesvariantesdelalanguepopoloca,de lalanguemixtecaetnahuatl,verslapriodepostclassique. Ce livre qui sinscrit dune manire tout a fait brillante dans la traditiondelcoleanthropologiquemexicainenestpaslire,selonnous, seulementparceuxintresssdupassprhispanique,maisaussiparles archologues de nimporte o qui veulent dpasser les approches conventionnels (sans les ngliger!) et promouvoir un discours pistmique de nature a surprendre le vivant du temps archologique, danssesmultiplesdimensions. MariusAlexianu

StudiaAntiquaetArchaeologicaXIIIXIV,20072008,Iai

CHRONIQUES
LACTIVITSCIENTIFIQUEDELACHAIREDHISTOIREANCIENNE ETDARCHOLOGIE(20062007) RoxanaGabrielaCURC,LucreiuMIHAILESCUBRLIBA

I.ManifestationsorganisesparlaCHAA

A. Communications des membres de la CHAA et du Centre InterdisciplinairedtudesArchohistoriques(CIEA) 24.10.2006. Symposium Participarea arheologilor ieeni la cel de al XVlea CongresInternaionaldetiinePreistoriceiProtoistorice,organisparCISA, dans le cadre des manifestations scientifiques Zilele Universitii Al. I. CuzaIai. 15.12.2006. Socrates, Rencontres Internationales/International Meetings, 3me dition/3rdedition(Organisateur:N.Bolohan). 08.05.2007. 1st Colloquim AegeanBalkansCarpathians. From Prehistory toAntiquity,Iasi,8thMay2007.(Organisateur:N.Bolohan). 08.06.2007. International Round Table The Balkans and Their Stories, Iai (Organisateur:N.Bolohan). 05.12.2007. Socrates, Rencontres Internationales/International Meetings, 4me dition/4thedition(Organisateur:N.Bolohan).

LactivitscientifiquedenotrecollgueNeluZugravuestpubliedanslarevue Classica&Christiana.Parconsquent,avecsonaccord,nousnepublieronspasson activitdansnotrerevue.

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17.12.2007. Precedentele intelectuale ale difuzionismului lui Vere Gordon Childe, Table Ronde Vere Gordon Childe (18921957). Dilemele difuzioniste, (Organisateur:N.Bolohan). B.InvitsdelaCHAAetdeCIEA SteliosANDREOU,AssociateProfessorPhD,DepartmentofArchaeology, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki Settlement, Economy and Society in the FringeoftheMycenaeanWorld:NorthernGreeceduringthelater2ndmillennium BC, Aegean Balkans Carpathians from Prehistory to Antiquity, 1st Colloquium,AlexandruIoanCuzaUniversity,Iai,8thMay2007. Ulf BRUNNBAUER, Wissenschaftlicher Assistent, PD Dr., Osteuropa Institut, Freie Universitt Berlin, Arbeitsbereich Geschichte und Kultur HistoricalAthropologyoftheBalkans:PotentialsandChallengesandChallenges ofanewApproachtoBalkanHistory,TheBalkansandTheirStories,Round Table,AlexandruIoanCuzaUniversity,Iai,8thJune2007.

II.ParticipationsdesmembresdelaCHAAauxmanifestations scientifiques A. Manifestationsscientifiquesnationales 19.01.2006. Institut de lArchologie Iai: V. Spinei, Prsentation du volumeDieWeltvonByzance,Mnchen,2005. 28.03.2006.SymposiumAutohtoniimigratorilaestdeCarpai.Secolele IVXI,Vaslui,MusedHistoire:V.Spinei,Problemegeneraleprivindmarile migraiinestulisudestulEuropei. 1820.05.2006. Neolitizarea spaiului central i sudest european. Romnia,UniversitLucianBlagaetMuseNationalBrukenthal,Sibiu: N. Ursulescu, Despre limita rsritean de rspndire a complexului cultural StarevoCri.

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31.05.03.06.2006. XLe Session Nationale des Rapports Archologiques, Constana: N. Ursulescu, IsaiiaBalta Popii (en collaboration avec Felix Tencariu, George Bodi, Loredana Solcan, Ioana Robu, Marius Cozma, Ciprian Lazanu); N. Ursulescu, Descoperiri privind perioada bronzului timpuriudelaIsaiiaBaltaPopii(encollaborationavecFelixTencariu,Letiia Scarlat,LoredanaSolcan). 07.06.2006.InstitutdelArchologieIai:V.Spinei,Informaiivechiruseti despreCetateaAlb. 15.06.2006. Institut de lArchologie Iai: V. Spinei, Laudatio profesorului AlexandruVulpelamplinireaa75deani. 03.07.2006. Institut de lArchologie Iai: V. Spinei, Omagierea colegului SilviuSanie. 09.09.2006.SymposiumDescopeririarheologicedinsecoleleIVXIlaest deCarpai,AcademiaRomnIai:V.Spinei,Nomaziituranicinspaiul estcarpaticromnescnsecoleleXXI. 06.10.2006. Symposium National Vasile Prvan, Complexe Musal Iulian Antonescu Bacu: N. Ursulescu, Cucuteni: cultur sau civilizaie? Ctevaconsideraiiarheologiceiistorice. 24.10.2006. Symposium Participarea arheologilor ieeni la cel de al XV lea Congres Internaional de tiine Preistorice i Protoistorice, organis parCISAdanslecadredelamanifestationscientifiqueZileleUniversitii Al. I. Cuza, Iai: N. Ursulescu, Debutul culturii Cucuteni n arheologia european(encollaborationavecMdlinCornelVleanu);Datenoiprivind arhitectura construciilor precucuteniene (en collaboration avec Felix Adrian Tencariu). 27.10.2006.ZileleUniversitii,UniversitAl.I.Cuza,Iai:N.Bolohan, DefinireazonelordecontactnPreistorie.ndreptrimetodologice. 10.2006. Session Nationale dArchologie Pontica, Constana: O. Bounegru,Halmyris:notedetoponimieantic. 11.2006. Session des communications du Muse de Vaslui, Vaslui: O. Bounegru,Spaiulestcarpaticncontextulrelaiilorcomercialeromane. 22.02.2007. Institut de lArchologie Iai: V. Spinei, Noi meniuni documentaremedievaleasupraromnilor.

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15.03.2007. Institut de lArchologie Iai: V. Spinei, Romnii n cronica atribuitluiAmarettoMannelli. 19.03.2007. Colloque organis loccasion de lattribution du titre de Membru de onoare de lInstitut de lArchologie Iai, prof. dr. Mircea Babe:V.Spinei,LaudatioProf.Dr.MirceaBabe. 16.04.2007.Galeria DanadeIai:V. Spinei,O remarcabil sintezasupra orauluiIai. 03.05.2007.CasaOamenilordetiindinBucureti:V.Spinei,Alocuiune deomagiereacad.CamilMurean. 17.05.2007. Colloque organis loccasion de lattribution du titre de Membru de onoare de lInstitut de lArchologie Iai, prof. dr. Ioan Mitrea:V.Spinei,OmagiereacoleguluiIoanMitrea. 31.05.2007. Table Ronde XLI Session Nationale des Rapports Archologiques,Tulcea:V.Cotiug,Noiperspectivencercetareaarheologic interdisciplinar romneasc Platforma de formare i cercetare arheologic n domeniulArheologiei. 07.09.2007. Prelegerile Academice de lAcadmie Roumaine Iai: V. Spinei, prsentation du volume M. Otte, V. Chirica, P. Haesaerts, LAurignacienetleGravettiandeMitocMaluGalben. 2829.09.2007.SessionscientifiqueduComplexeMusalNeam,ddie la clbration de 50 ans dexistence du Muse dHistoire de Roman, Roman: N. Ursulescu, Semne simbolice pe obiecte ceramice din aezarea precucuteniandelaIsaiia(encollaborationavecFelixAdrianTencariu). 2829.09.2007. Session des communications scientifiques du Muse dHistoireRoman.50ansdexistencedumuse:N.Bolohan,Silitea2000 2004.Raportdeetap. 25.10.2007. Table ronde Motenirea lui Vasile Prvan, Universit Al.I.Cuza Iai, Facult dHistoire: A. Lszl, Vasile Prvan i Muzeul NaionalSecuiescdinSfntuGheorghe. 2526.10.2007. Session des communications scientifiques du Muse Vasile Prvan de Brlad: N. Ursulescu, Observaii privind condiiile de descoperire a plasticii antropomorfe precucuteniene n aezarea de la Isaiia (jud. Iai)(encollaborationavecFelixAdrianTencariu).

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0910.11.2007. Cinquime Confrence de la Socit Archologique Psta Bla,Cluj:A.Lszl,Azersdikultrahzairl(DesprecaseleculturiiAriud). 2021.11.2007. Session Scientifique Annuelle du Muzeul Naional al Carpailor Rsriteni, Sf.Gheorghe: A. Lszl, Despre cronologia culturii AriusdCucuteni, R.G. Curc, Proiectul tip Idei: etnoarheologia izvoarelor deapsratdinMoldova(encollaboration). 23.11.2007. Ariud100. Sfntu Gheorghe: A. Lszl, Insemntatea spturilorarheologicedelaAriuddelanceputulsec.XX. 2829.11.2007. Bucovina file de istorie. Muse dHistoire, Suceava: A. Lszl, Despre cronologia sfritului epocii bronzului i nceputului epocii fierului. Datri radiocarbon vs. datri tradiionale; N. Ursulescu, Neolitic i eneolitic/chalcolithic:realitiarheologiceitradiiiterminologice. 10.12.2007. Symposium National Aezri i locuine preistorice. Structur, organizare, simbol, Institut de lArchologie, Iai: A. Lszl, Desprestructurilederezistentaalecaselorneoliticeeneolitice. 17.12.2007. Table Ronde Vere Gordon Childe (19921957). Dilemele difuzioniste, Universit Al.I.Cuza Iai, Facult dHistoire: A. Lszl, TnrulVereGordonChildeiarheologiatransilvan.

B. Manifestationsscientifiquesinternationales 19.02.2006. In Poseidons Reich XI. Transportkeramik: Ein Artikel der Massenproduktion als Schlssel zur Wirtschafts und Handelsgeschichte der Antike, Frankfurt am Main: O. Bounegru, Naves actuarieae Seeschiffe fur den Amphorentransport in romischer Zeit? Eine ikonographische und historischeUntersuchung. 03.2006. The Division of Classical Archaeology of the Department of Archaeology,TelAviv,Israel:O.Bounegru,TheAugustanEconomy:aCore PeripheryMode. 04.2006. Albright Institute of Archaeology, Jerusalem, Israel: O. Bounegru, The Cult of the Martyrs in the 3rd4th Century on the Lower Danube:themartyriumofEpictetusandAstion.

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05.05.2006. Department Ancient History of Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Grce: N. Bolohan, The prehistory of the south easternEurope. 05.2006. Department Ancient History of Archaeology, Aristotle UniversityofThessaloniki,Grce:A.Lszl,TheLowerDanubeRegionand the Northern Aegean World. Cultural Interreletions in the Late Bronze Age (danslecadreduprogrammeSocrates). 05.2006. Confrence lUniversit dAngers: I. Moga, Le TrsHaut et ses anges; Cultes solaires et lunaires en Anatolie grcoromaine. Mthodologie de recherche;StlesdeconfessiondanslAsieMineure(IerIIIes.apr.J.C.). 0811.02.2007. In Poseidons Reich XII, Wracks: Sprechende Zeugnisse antiker Schiffskatastrophen, Kln. O. Bounegru, Das Wrack aus dem Hafen von Kallatis (westpontische Kste): eine historische und archologische Untersuchung. 06.2006. Congreso Internacional Las salinas y la sal de interior en la historia: Economia, mediombiente y sociedad, Sigunza, Espagne: O. Bounegru,LafiscalitdupoissonsalauxembouchuresduDanubelpoque romaine; R.G. Curc, Halotoponymes et halohydronymes dans les documents mdivauxdelaMoldavie(XIVXVII). 0409.09.2006. XV. Congres, Union International des Sciences PrehistoriquesetProtohistoriques,Lisabona:A.Lszl,Surlarchitecturede la civilisation AriudCucuteniTripolye. Techniques de construction, types de maison; N. Ursulescu, New data regarding the architecture of precucutenian buildings (en collaboration avec Adrian Felix Tencariu); N. Ursulescu, Le dbut de la culture Cucuteni dans larchologie europenne Lisabona (en collaborationavecMdlinCornelVleanu). 2829.09.2006.ColloqueinternationalCucuteniTripolyeCulturalComplex UnityandVariety,organisparleCentreInternationaldeRecherchedela Culture Cucuteni, Piatra Neam: N. Ursulescu, Le rle de lenvironnement danslindividualisationdequelquesaspectsdelacivilisationCucuteniTripolie. 09.2006. Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautores. XXV International Congres 2006 The Pottery of the Via Egnatia, Durres, Albania: O. Bounegru, Les commencements des importations de sigilles pergamniennes dans les cits du littoralouestpontique(Istros,Tomis,Callatis).

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11.2006.XXXeCongrsGIREA,Salamanca:L.Brliba,Uneinscriptiondun esclaveetdesonmatreTroesmis. 17.04.2007. Institut des Sciences Archologiques de lUniversit de Budapest (ELTE): A. Lszl, Despre casele culturii AriudCucuteni (en hongrois). 18.04.2007. Institut des Sciences Archologiques de lUniversit de Budapest(ELTE):A.Lszl,Despreuneleproblemealecronologieiepociitrzii abronzuluidinnordestulBazinuluiCarpatic(enhongrois). 04.2007. Confrence lUniversit dAngers: I. Moga, Cultes solaires et lunaires en Asie Mineure (IerIIIe s. apr. J.C.). Isomorphismes symboliques; Le dieu Mn; Aspects religieux travers la documentation pigraphique et iconographique. 08.05.2007.1stColloquiumAegeanBalkansCarpathians.FromPrehistory toAntiquity,Iai:A. Lszl, The Aegeanand theBalkanDanubian countries intheBronzeAge.Issuesofsynchronisation. 1819.05.2007. Round Table The Carpathian Basin and its Role in the Neolithisation of the Balkan Peninsula, organise par le Muse Brukenthal, Sibiu: N. Ursulescu, Le modle Enkidu et le concept de rvolution nolithique. 08.05.2007. 1st Colloquim AegeanBalkansCarpathians. From Prehistory to Antiquity, Iai, 8th May 2007: N. Bolohan, Rethinking the Buffer TerritoriesintheBalkansLBA. 08.06.2007. International Round Table The Balkans and Their Stories, Iai: N.Bolohan,TheBalkansandsomeoftheirarhaeologicalstories. 30.06.2007. Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, Aristotle UniversityofThessaloniki,Grce:N. Bolohan, EarlyMiddle Bronze Agein theCarpathians. 0207.09.2007.XIIIInternationalCongressofGreekandLatinEpigraphy, CongresorganisparlAssociationInternationaledpigraphiegrecqueet latine, Oxford: O. Bounegru, La horothsie dHistria: une nouvelle approche pigraphique dun dossier douanier lpoque romaine; R.G. Curc, The dialectalsurvivalinthekoineofScythiaMinorsinscriptions. 03.07.10.2007.CongrsinternationalMigrationundAkkulturationimOsten des Mittelmeerraumes in hellenistischer und rmischer Zeit, organis par

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Universit Al.I Cuza Iai et Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, Fritz ThyssenSonderprogramm Frderung des regionalen Wissenschaftsdialogs in Sdosteuropa, Iai, Romania: O. Bounegru, Commerantsmultiples citoyennet dans lespace pontogen; L.Brliba, Die FremdeninderLokaleliteausTroesmis;I.Moga,ExpressingJewishIdentityin theAnatolianWorld.Contacts,AcculturationandProselytism. 18.10.2007. Symposium International Cucuteni. Tesori di una civilta preistorica dei Cucuteni, Accademia di Romania in Roma: V. Cotiug, LabitatodellapopolazionediCucuteni. 18.10.2007. Symposium Valori della civilt di Cucuteni, Accademia di Romania, Roma: N. Ursulescu, La religione della civilt di Cucuteni; A. Lszl,CucuteniLospazioeiltempodiunacivilt. 1819.10.2007 Session des communications scientifiques du Muse National dArchologie et Histoire de la Moldavie, Chiinu, Rep. Moldova: R.G. Curc, Elenism i romanitate n Moesia Inferior: epigrafie i statistic. 09.11.2007. Confrence lUniversit Anadolu, Eskiehir, Turquie: I. Moga,TheRomanizationofDacia. 0910.11.2007. Symposium The Balkans Neolithic as Uncovered by the Last DecadeResearch,Timioara:N.Ursulescu,Surlephnomnecultureldutype VinaetleproblmedudbutdelEnolithique/chalcolithiquesurleterritoirede laRoumanie. 1012.11.2007. Quatrime Confrence de la Socit Archologique Psta Bla,TrguMure:A.Lszl,Refleciicuprivirelaperiodizareaicronologia epocii bronzului i primei vrste a fierului din estul Bazinului Carpatic (en hongrois). 1011.12.2007. Colloque international tablissements et habitations prhistoriques. Structure, organisation, symbole, Institut de lArchologie: N. Ursulescu, Modles dorganisation de lespace aux habitations de la culture PrcucutenientreSiretetPrut;V.Cotiug,Terminologiastructurilordelocuit neoeneolitice.

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C. Bourses,voyagesdedocumentations 03.2006.I.MogaabnficidunebourseBritishInstituteatAnkara. 05.2006.I.MogaabnficidunebourseSocrates/ErasmuslUniversit dAngers. 05.03.06.06.2006.O.Bounegruaeffectuunvoyagededocumentation Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Israel: The Oriental Influences on the Early Martyr Cults on the Lower Danube (3rd 4th Centuries):anHistorical,ArchaeologicalandIconographicalApproach. 0131.07.2006. O. Bounegru a effectu un voyage de documentation financ par Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung Universitt Marburg, Allemagne. 08. 2006. V. Spineia effectu un voyage de documentation Rmisch GermanischeKommission,FrankfurtamMain,Allemagne. 08.09.2006. N. Ursulescu, A. Lszl ont effectu un voyage de documentation au XVe Congrs de lUnion Internationale des Sciences Prhistoriques et Protohistoriques, Lisabonne, Portugal, financ par la FondationCucutenipentrumileniulIII. 09.20.09.2006. N. Bolohan a effectu un voyage de documentation Aristotle University, Department Ancient History of Archaeology, Thessaloniki,Grce,TheprehistoryofthesoutheasternEurope. 0110.12.2006. O. Bounegru a effectu un voyage de documentation Deutsches Archologisches Institut Berlin, Allemagne: Sigiles pergameniennesdeHalmyris. 04.2007.I.MogaabnficidunebourseSocrates/ErasmuslUniversit dAngers. 19.30.05.2007. N. Bolohan a effectu un voyage de documentation Aristotle University, Department Ancient History of Archaeology, Thessaloniki, Grce o a prsent la communication EarlyMiddle Bronze AgeintheCarpathians. 22.0521.06.2007. L. MihailescuBrliba a effectu un voyage de documentationlUniversitdeKonstanz(Allemagne),danslecadredu programmeSOCRATES.

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17.26.09.2007. N. Bolohan a effectu un voyage de documentation Aristotle University, Department Ancient History of Archaeology, Thessaloniki, Grce o a prsent la communication Prehistory across the borders. Trade/Traffic/Routes of transport in the Eastern Balkan Peninsula duringtheLateBronzeAge. 01.30.11.2007. I. Moga a effectu un voyage de documentation British InstituteofArchaeologyatAnkaraetDAI,IFEA,KoUniversityiDutch Institute,Istanbul,danslecadreduprojetPNIIIDEI414/2007. 17.19.11.2007 O. Bounegru a effectu un voyage de documentation Ecole Normale Suprieure, Paris et lUniversit du Maine, Le Mans, France. 03.09.12.2007. R.G. Curc a effectu un voyage de documentation Universit degli Studi di Bari (Italie) dans le cadre du projet PN II IDEI 414/2007. 20.12.200707.01.2008 O. Bounegru a effectu un voyage de documentation DAI et au Seminar fr Alte Geschichte Marburg, Allemagne.

III.ParticipationsdesmembresdelaCHAAauxprogrammesetaux projetsderecherche Platforma de formare i cercetare interdisciplinar Arheoinvest projet MedC no.36/20062009s (Directeur: V. Spinei; directeur dtudes: N. Ursulescu;directeurdulaboratoiredarchologieappliqueetthortique: A.Lszl). Aria de captare a resurselor din teritoriul Histriei n epoca grecoroman. Studiu de ecocronologie a habitatului histrian din perspectiva analizei spaiale, CNCSIS,IDEI,420/20072010(Directeur:O.Bounegru). La Horothsie dHistria: une nouvelle approche pigraphique dun dossier douanierlpoqueromaine,CNCSIS,MC,54/2007(Directeur:O.Bounegru). Dimensiunea european a civilizaiei eneolitice de la est de Carpai, CNCSIS, typeA,no.664/20042006(Directeur:N.Ursulescu).

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Arheologiaromneascncontexteuropean.ReceptareacivilizaieiCucutenin tiina preistoriceuropeanpnla cel deal DoileaRzboiMondial, CNCSIS, type A, 1361/20072008 (Directeur: N. Ursulescu; membres: A. Lszl, N. Bolohan,V.Cotiug). Programul european Marie Curie: proiectul EPISCON, MESTCT 2005 (EuropeanPhDinScienceforConservation)coord.:UniversitdeBologna (20062009)(Membre:N.Ursulescu). ARHEOPOLICE: Sistem expert arheometric pentru combaterea inteligent a traficului cu valori ale patrimoniului culturalistoric, dans le cadre du Programme Parteneriate n domenii prioritare, nr. 1646/20072010 (directeur M. Praisler) (Partenairescollaborateurs: N. Ursulescu, A. Lszl, N. Bolohan). Religie, art i societate n preistoria Romniei, cu privire special la spaiul carpatic, CNCSIS type A, 20062008 (Directeur adjoint: N. Ursulescu; membre:V.Cotiug). The dialectal survival in the koine of Scythia Minors inscriptions, XIII International Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy, Congrs organis par LAssociation Internationale dpigraphie grecque et latine, CNCSIS, PNIIMC,no.55/2007(Directeur:R.G.Curc). Elenism i romanitate. Interferene etnice i lingvistice n spaiul Moesiei Inferior oglindite n sursele literare i epigrafice, CNCSIS, PNIITD, no.221/2007(Directeur:R.G.Curc). Izvoarele de ap srat din Moldova: etnoarheologia unei resurse naturale polivalente,CNCSIS,PNIIIdei,414/2007(Membres:R.G.Curc,I.Moga, V.Cotiug). StructurietnodemograficelaDunreadeJosnsecoleleIVIIp.Chr.(Directeur L. Brliba), CNCSIS, type A, 1212 / 2006 (Membres: O. Bounegru, R.G. Curc). Izvoarele istoriei cretinismului romnesc. Fontes Histoiae DacoRomanae Christianitatis(DirecteurN.Zugravu)(20062008)(Membre:V.Cotiug). Metode i tehnici noi utilizate n autentificare, (20052007) (Membre: V. Cotiug). Laboratoare pentru ciclul de Licen Laborator Interdisciplinar de Arheologie (2006)(Membre:V.Cotiug).

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Antologa de textos griegos y latinos sobre la historia de la sal projet dans le cadre du Programme Action Complmentaire I+D: HUM200627948 E/HISTfinancparMinisteriodeEducacionyCiencia,DireccionGeneral deInvestigacion,Spania,20062009(Membre:R.G.Curc). Enseigner la citoyennet entre logique europenne et logique nationale: limites, frontires et nationalits, IUFM Toulouse (coordonateur Alain Cazenave Piarrot)(Membre:I.Moga).

IV.FouillesarchologiquesdesmembresdelaCHAA N.Ursulescu Isaiia. Equipe de recherche: N. Ursulescu (responsable), F.A. Tencariu (responsable adjoint), DianaMriuca Vornicu, Andreea Vornicu, Radu Furnic. Lanalyse archozoologique a t realise par le Prof. Sergiu Haimovici(FacultdeBiologiedelUAIC). En 2007, afin de dlimiter la limite Sudouest de lhabitat prcucutenien,onatprolongSI/1996(40m)avec35mtres.Ainsi,on a entrecrois le foss de dfense de lagglomration, bch du niveau suprieur dhabitat, entre les mtres 57,35 et 59,25. Il y a 1,30 m de profondeur du niveau de fouille. Vers lextrieur, le foss a eu une marche, o on a trouv de plusieurs pierres (probablement dun placage de laparoi). Alintrieur, le fossatfouill assez escarp. Audel du foss nil y a pas des traces dhabitat. En terrain, vers le NordOuest, on observeunlgercreusement,quiindiqueprobablementletracdufoss. A lavenir les fouilles doivent apporter de nouvelles donnes sur les lmentesdefortificationdelhabitat. Le financement de la recherche a t assur par ASBF Cucuteni pentrumileniulIIIdeBucarest(Prsident:Dr.RomeoDumitrescu).

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V.Cotiug(responsable) BotoaniRediu(2007) IaiStr.Ttrainr.50(2007) IaiStr.Silvestru(2006) IaiEsplanadaRpaGalben(2006). IaiStadion(2006). IaiSplaiBahlui(2006). L.MihailescuBrliba Slava Rus (Ibida). Equipe de recherche: L. MihailescuBrliba (responsable),ValentinPiftor,tudiantsFHI. Les fouilles de 2007 ont mis en vidence une nouvelle tour de la cit(T10);cettetouratfouillseulementlextrieur,ayantuneforme demicirculaire.9mlextrieurdurempartdelacit,onatrouvles restesdequelquessqueletteshumaines,maleureusenttrsdranges.

V.ListedespublicationsdesmembresdelaCHAA NeculaiBolohan 1.NewstoriesaboutbufferterritoriesintheBalkans,Aegaeum27,Betweenthe Aegean and Baltic Seas. Prehistory Across Borders, Proceedings of the 11th International Aegean Conference, Zagreb, 2005, eds., Universite de Liege/UniversityofTexasatAustin,2007,307313,Pl.LXXVIILXXX. OctavianBounegru 1.Universulepigrafieigreceti,Iai,2006,324p. 2. Trafiquants et navigateurs sur le BasDanube et dans le Pont Gauche lpoqueromaine,Wiesbaden,2006,199p. 3. Studia Historiae et religionis DacoRomanae. In honorem Silvii Sanie, Bucureti,2006(d.encollaborationavecL.MihailescuBrliba). 4. Mithridates VI Eupator und die griechischen Stdte an der Westkste des Pontos Euxeinos, Pontos Euxeinos. Beitrge zur Archologie und

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Geschichte des Antiken Schwarzmeer und Balkanraumes, Langenweisbach2006,p.397414. 5.IlpescesalatoadIstria,Salternum,X,2006,p.8186. 6. Trafiquants et armateurs de Nicomdie dans la Mditerrane lpoque romaine, (eds.) A. Akerraz, P. Ruggieri, A. Siraj, C. Vismara, LAfrica Romana XVI. Mobilit delle persone e dei popoli, dinamiche migratorie, emigrazioni ed immigrazioni nelle province occidentali dellImpero romano. Atti del XVI convegno di studio Rabat, 1519 dicembre 2004, Roma2006,p.15571568. 7. Notes sur les petits commerants de la Msie et de la Thrace lpoque romaine, Studia Historiae et religionis DacoRomanae. In honorem Silvii Sanie, Bucureti,2006,p.317326. 8. Artaxata, Artemea, Artemis, Artemision, Artemita, Artiaca, Artigi, Arta kmh, Artouba, Artymnesos, Arulis, Arunda, Arupium, Arykanda, Arxama, Arxata, Asadi, Asai, Asabaia, Asamtae, Asbamaion, Asbana, Asbotos, Asbysta, Ascheion,Asea,Aser,Asgarzos,Ashdod,Ashkelon,Askakaulis,Askania,Askara, Askoukome, Askoura, Askra, Askyris, Asiana, Asiane, Asiba, Asicha, Ascheion, Ascurum,. Asido, Asine, Asmurna, Asopos, Asos, Aspabota, Aspacora, Aspadana, Aspalatheia, Aspaneus, Aspendos, Aspenzinsos, Aspis, Aspledon, Aspona,Aspropyrgos,Assa,Assabe,Assara,Assarada,Assaria,Asseria,Asseros, Assesos, Assiout, Asso, Assoros, Assos, Assuras, Assya, Astakana, Astakos, Astale, Astarte, Astaunistis, Asteion, Astiagi, Asteria, Asterion, Asterousia, Astibos,Astigi,Astoa,Astra,Astragon,Astraia,Astraius,Astrochonda,Astron, Astypalaia, Astyra, Asuada, Atalante, Atalmo, Atarneus, Ataxarita, Ategua, Atenia, Atetta, Athela, Athenai, dans: M. Zahariade (General Editor), LexiconoftheGreekandRomanCitiesandPlaceNamesinAntiquityCa 15000B.C.CaA.D.500,fasc.7,Amsterdam,2006,p.9601180. 9. Inschriften von Nikaia und Nikomedia aus dem Reisebericht von B. Graef (1889),AthenischeMitteilungen,121,2006,p.263280. 10. Le Pont Gauche et Rome: traditions hellnistiques et modles commerciaux romains,ClassicaetChristiana,2,2007,p.4958. 11.NavesactuariaeSeeschiffefrdenAmphorentransportinrmischerZeit? EineikonographischeundhistorischeUntersuchung,Skyllis,2007,p.136139.

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12.ExpediiaamiraluluihistrianHegesagorasnvestulMriiNegre,Tyragetia, s.n.I[XVI],nr.1,2007,p.311316. 13.Lexpedition navale de lamiral histrien Hegesagoras et la guerre sacre de lApolloniePontique,Pontica,50,2007,p.8592. 14.SigilespergameniennesdeHalmyris,Dacia,N.S.,51,2007,p.247250. 15.Notes sur les rlations commerciales au Pont Gauche lpoque romaine, Ancient Civilisations and the Sea. International Conference a Tribute to the70thAnniversaryofProf.MichailLazarov,Varna,13th15thOctober, 2004,Varna2007,p.321328. 16. The Pedological Stratification Effect of Corrosion and Contamination Productson ByzantineBronze Artefacts,CorrosionEngineeringScienceand Technology, Maney Publishing, (en collaboration avec I. Sandu, N. Ursulescu, I. G. Sandu, I. C. A. Sandu, A. Alexandru), 2007, p.256266, revueISI. VasileCotiug 1.MirceaPetrescuDmbovia,Amintirileunuiarheolog,PiatraNeam,2006 (diteur). 2. Ipoteze rare ale cultului fertilitii n plastica antropomorf a culturii Precucuteni, dans Cucuteni 120 Valori universale, coordinateurs: N. Ursulescu, C.M. Lazarovici, Iai, 2006, p. 122130 (en collaboration avec N.UrsulescuetD.Boghian). 3.LocuineledesuprafacuplatformdinaezareaprecucuteniandelaTrgu Frumos Baza Ptule, Codrul Cosminului S.N., 12, 2006, p. 323 (en collaborationavecN.UrsulescuetD.Boghian). 4. Prelucrarea caninilor de mistre n cultura Precucuteni n lumina descoperirilordelaTrguFrumos(jud.Iai),ActaMuseiTutovensis,I,2006, p.6481(encollaborationavecN.UrsulescuetLuminiaBejenaru). RoxanaGabrielaCurc 1.Dicionardecuvintelatinetiuniversale,Iai,2006(200p.). 2. Lexic grec i latin universal (en collaboration avec M. Paraschiv et M. Alexianu),Iai,2007.

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STAGEDEDOCUMENTATIONBONN(2008) VictorSPINEI Donnant cours linvitation reue de la part du professeur Hermann Parzinger, prsident du Deutsches Archologisches Institut, ritre par le nouveau prsident de linstitution, le professeur Hans Joachim Gehrke, jai bnfici, lt de lanne 2008, dun stage de documentation la Kommission fr Archologie Aussereuropischer Kultur de BonnBad Godesberg, droul dans lintervalle 16 juillet13 aot. La Comission, constitue en 1979 comme institution dpendant de lInstitut Archologique Allemand, sous le nom de Kommission fr AllgemeineundVergleichendeArchologie,achangdappellatifen2006, et vers la fin de lanne 2007 a quitt le sige situ dans le primtre centraldeBonn,dmnageantdansunnouveauetspacieuxlocalemplac dans le quartier Bad Godesberg, lancienne rsidence du gouvernement fdral avant la runification de lAllemagne. Concomitamment au changement de dnomination de linstitution, sa publication priodique Beitrge zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archologie, imprime partir delanne1979etdontonavaitpubli24numros,achangdetitre,sous la forme Zeitschrift fr Archologie Aussereuropischer Kulturen, dont le premiervolumeaparuen2006. Ladoption du nouveau nom vient consacrer lorientation des recherches archologiques seulement vers lextrieur de lEurope, ce qui, dailleurs, se laissait entrevoir depuis quelque temps. Durant la dernire priode, les chercheurs de la Kommission fr Archologie Aussereuropischer Kultur ont entrepris de fructueuses recherches au Prou (Bajo Rio Grande, Palpa), en Bolivie (Loma Mendoza, Moxos), au Maroc (Mogador, Hassi Ouenzga, Malu Sidi Lahsen, Taghit Haddouch, IfrielBaroud,IfrinAmmar),enSriLanka(Tissamaharama),auVitnam (G Cha, Cn Rng, Cn Nn, B He, G Cy Thi, G M Vi, Lai Nghi), en Mongolie (Karakorum, Kara Balgasun), au Npal (Dzarkot, Khyinga), en Ymen (Marib) etc., recouvrant une large palette

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chronologique,tenduedepuislaPrhistoirejusquauMoyenge(Cf.B. Vogt, Aufgaben und Forschungsschwerpunkte der Kommission fr Allgemeine undVergleichendeArchologie,in175JahreDeutschesArchologischesInstitut 18292004 (Archologischer Anzeiger, 2004, 2), p. 8994; Kommission fr Allgemeine und Vergleichende Archologie Bonn. Expeditionen in vergessene Welten. 25 Jahre archologische Forschungen in Amerika, Afrika und Asien (AVAForschungen, 10), Aachen, 2004; Deutsches Archologisches Institut. Jahresbericht2006,Berlin,2007,p.207225). Pour les investigations finances et coordonnes par la KommissionfrArchologieAussereuropischerKulturonacooptaussi dautres spcialistes dAllemagne, ainsi que des pays o lon trouve les objectifs viss pour recherches. Aux fouilles participent aussi pas mal dtudiants et daspirants au titre de docteur, occasion bnfique pour quils sapproprient les mthodes modernes de fouilles de mme que llargissement de leur horizon cognitif vers des civilisations encore peu connues.Selonlesnormeslgislativesadoptespartoutdanslemonde,les picesdcouvertesrestentdanslepatrimoinedespaysdeprovenance,les coordinateurs gardant en change la priorit quant la valorisation scientifique des rsultats de leurs recherches. Cest toujours eux quincombe la responsabilit de la conservation des monuments mis jour, afin quon puisse prvenir leur abmement et pour les intgrer au circuittouristique. PuisquemonsjourBonnaconcidavecunepriodeadquate aux fouilles archologiques, lorsque la plupart des chercheurs de la Commissiontaientpartisdansdesmissionsscientifiques,jenaipaseula possibilit de contacter que peu dentre eux. Ainsi, dr. Josef Eiwanger, directeur adjoint la Kommission fr Archologie Aussereuropischer Kultur, ma prsent les principaux rsultats des fouilles quil avait diriges au Maroc, tandis que dr. Andreas Reinecke ma inform sur les dcouvertes rcentes faites dans les chantiers du Vitnam et de la Cambodge. En ce qui me concerne, jai manifest un intrt particulier pour les recherches complexes entreprises par lquipe mixte allemande mongole sous la coordination du professeur HansGeorg Httel Karakorum, capitale de lEmpire mongol durant la priode dapoge de

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son extension territoriale. Les fouilles ont dcouvert une surface tendue duprimtredelarsidencedugrandkhanetdesonvoisinage,mettant en relief lccletisme culturel patronn par les potentats mongols, la diversit et leffervescence des contacts avec des territoires plus proches ouplusloignsentrssousleurhgmonie. La documentation faite auprs de la Kommission fr Archologie Aussereuropischer Kultur a vis de faon prioritaire ltude dans la bibliothque de cette institution, spcialise dans larchologie de lAsie, delAmriqueCentraleetduSudetdelAfriqueduNord,demmeque dans les connexions des civilisations de lAsie Centrale et Antrieure et des rgions maghrbines avec certaines zones de lEurope. Tout comme dautresbibliothquesdesinstitutsadjacentsDeutschesArchologisches Institut,celledeBonndispose,elleaussi,dunsystmeremarquablepour rpertorierlesvolumes,assurparCarmenHlzemannetUndineBentz. Au dbut de lanne 2008, la bibliothque de la Kommission fr Archologie Aussereuropischer Kultur dtenait plus de 53000 volumes, tantabonneplusde250publicationspriodiquesdetoutlemonde. En mme temps, jai us des disponibilits dinformation offertes parlaBibliothquecentraledelUniversitdeBonn,toutcommedecelles offertes par des sections des instituts se trouvant sous lombrelle de la FacultdePhilosophie.LUniversitdeBonnatcrele18octobre1818 parlimplicationdirecteduroiFriedrichWilhelmIII,dontelleaemprunt le nom en 1828, selon les us et coutumes traditionnels universitaires allemands,rclamantlattributiondunomdufondateur,detellesorteque Alma mater, appele initialement Preussische RheinUniversitt, est devenue Rheinische FriedrichWilhelms Universitt. Celleci a t abrite par le majestueux palais du prince lecteur, restaur aprs le dsastreux incendiede1777. Depuislespremiresfacults,initialementdethologieetdedroit, lUniversit situe sur les rives du Rhin sest dveloppe toujours, incorporantpasmaldedisciplinesetagrandissantsesexigencesjusquce quelle ft propulse parmi les plus respectables institutions denseignementdelEuropeCentrale.Parmisesplusillustresprofesseurs on peut mettre en vidence lhomme de lettres August Wilhelm von

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Schlegel (17671845), le romaniste Ernst Robert Curtius (18861956), le physicienWolfgangPaul,lauratduprixNobelen1989,tandisqueparmi ses tudiants devenus ultrieurement clbres on peut citer les crivains Heinrich Heine et Luigi Pirandello, le philosophe Friedrich Nietzsche, le compositeur Max Bruch, les politiciens Konrad Adenauer et Robert Schumanetc. LUniversitjoueunrleimportantdanslaviedelaville,laquelle, ses plus de 300000 dhabitants, a environ 38000 tudiants, par consquent le sixime ou le septime habitant de Bonn est impliqu directement dans un emploi en connexion avec le processus denseignement universitaire (Cf. Rheinische FriedrichWilhelms Universitt Bonn/TheUniversityofBonn,Redaktion:WernerBesch(Leitung),Dorothea Carr,RichardMller,2med.,Bonn,1993). Dans le cadre des bibliothques de Philosophische Fakultt jai travaill Abteilung fr Vor und Frhgeschichtliche Archologie et Abteilung fr Kunstgeschichte, dpendentes de lInstitut fr Kunstgeschichte und Archologie, ainsi qu Abteilung fr Mongolistik und Tibetstudien et Abteilung fr Islamforschung, appartenant lInstitut fr Orient und Asienwissenschaften. Avant ladoption du systme Bologna dans lenseignement suprieur, les sections sus mentionnestaientdesinstitutspart,tousayantunindubitableprestige national et international, et pour beaucoup cest pas tout fait clair pourquoi aton adopt la respective mesure administrative de nature greversurleurrputation. AbteilungfrMongolistikundTibetstudienjaieuloccasionde mentreteniravecquelquesspcialistesillustrescommelesspcialistesen tudesmongoliennesMichaelWeiersetHansRoth,oubienlespcialiste en tudes tibetaines Dieter Schuh, actuellement la retraite, mais encore vivaces sur le plan scientifique, tandis qu Abteilung fr Vor und Frhgeschichtliche Archologie jai joui de lappui gnreux reu de la partduprofesseurJanBemmannetdudr.ErnstPohl.Lescollguesdela section dArchologie Pr et Protohistorique ont t, tout comme le professeur HansGeorg Httel de la Kommission fr Archologie Aussereuropischer Kultur, engags dans les projets de recherche de

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lanciennecapitalemongoledeKarakorum,oilsontobtenudesrsultats dunerelevancescientifiqueremarquable.prsentilssontentransla valorisationmonographiquedesrecherchesquilsontentreprises,donton vapublierplusieursvolumes. Ltude de la prhistoire Rheinische FriedrichWilhelms Universitt a de belles traditions, dpassant six dcennies. Une chaire consacre cette discipline a t institue en 1937, une poque o le rgimenationalsocialistesestavrextrmementproccupdissminer les tudes de pr et protohistoire dans tout le Reich, tout en patronnant avec persvrace leur introduction dans les units denseignement suprieur. Mme sicetteopportunit a temployepour dynamiser les recherches archologiques, pas mal de savants nont pas consenti se subordonner de manire obdiente aux impratifs propagandistiques quavaientenvuelesgouvernants,maisontcontinuavechonntetleurs dmarches scientifiques. Le premier titulaire de la nouvelle chaire de lUniversit de Bonn est devenu Kurt Tackenberg (18991992), qui a patronn la constitution dun Institut fr Vor und Frhgeschichte le 21 mai1938,toutensemontrantextrmementlaborieuxdanslorganisation desactivitsdeceluicipendantlesduresannesdelaguerre(Cf.C.Pohl ThibletetE.Pohl,ZurGeschichtedesInstitutesfrVorundFrhgschichtliche derUniversittBonn,I,DieEreignisgeschichte,inBonnerBeitrgezurVorund FrhgeschichtlichenArchologie,1,2000,FestschriftfrHeinrichSchnitzler,p. 727). Les destructions causes par les bombardements et certaines disfonctionnalits administratives ont empch pendant trois ans la reprise des cours dans le cadre de lInstitut. Les successeurs de Kurt Tackenberg Otto Kleemann, Jakob Ozols, Volker Bierbrauer, Helmut Roth ont beaucoup contribu la diversification de la thmatique des cours et des sminaires, ainsi qu la dynamisation de la vie scientifique delInstitut.MmesiprsentlInstitutestdevenuseulementuneSection (AbteilungfrVorundFrhgeschichtlicheArchologie),sondirecteur,le professeur Jan Bemmann, a continu avec nergie et assurance les proccupationsdesesprdcesseursautantpourcequiestduprogramme defouilles,quepourleurvalorisation.Endehorsdesfouillesentreprises

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louest de lAllemagne, Bedburg / Knigshofen / Morken, Brhl, Lneburg / Oedeme, Walberberg, XantenLttingen etc, les membres et collaborateursde la Sectiondirigent dimportants chantiers en Mongolie, auNpal,enUkraine,enPologneetenSlovaquie. La ville o est n et a pass son enfance Ludwig van Beethoven offre aux visiteurs, outre sa maison mmoriale, de nombreux objectifs culturels dignes de grand intrt: la monumentale cathdrale romane, AkademischesKunstmuseum,RheinischesLandesMuseum,gyptisches Museum, Deutsches Museum, Kunstmuseum, le palais Poppelsdorf, Godesburg(BadGodesberg)etc.Outrelesglises,lesmonumentsetles muses de Bonn, jai visit aussi quelques vestiges archologiques (pretorium,cloacamaximaetc.)etdesdificesreligieux(leDme,lgliseSt. Martinetcelledesdominicains)deCologne. (TraduitparMichaelaSpinei)

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Fig.1.1LesigedelaKommissionfrArchologieAussereuropischer Kultur de BonnBad Godesberg; 2 Rheinische FriedrichWilhelms Universitt;3LeDmedeBonn.

ABRVIATIONS Toutes les abrviations de sources littraires, jurdiques et patristiques, ainsi que celles des corpora contenant ce type de sources, sont selon les systmes utilissparleThesaurusLinguaeLatinaeetparH.G.Liddel,R.Scott,AGreek EnglishLexicon9,Oxford,1940. AE LAnneEpigraphique,Paris AMN ActaMuseiNapocensis,ClujNapoca AMP Acta Musei Porolisenssis, Muse du Dpartement de Slaj,Zalu Anadolu/Anatolia Anadolu/Anatolia,Ankara Antaeus Antaeus.AnthopologyGraduateResearchJournal,Toronto Apulum Apulum.ActaMuseiApulensis,AlbaIulia ArhMold ArheologiaMoldovei,InstitutdArchologiedeIai ARR ArheoloskiRadoviiRasprave,Zagreb AS AnatolianStudies,Ankara BABesch BulletinAntiekeBeschaving,Leuven BAI BibliothecaArchaeologicaIassiensis BAR BritishArchaeologicalReports,Oxford BCH Bulletindecorrespondancehellenique,Paris Belleten Belleten.Istanbul Berytus Berytus.Beirut BMA BibliothecaMemoriaeAntiquitatis,PiatraNeam CCDJ Cultur i Civilizaie la Dunrea de Jos, Muse du Bas Danube,Clrai CHAA ChairedHistoireAncienneetdArchologie CIL CorpusInscriptionumLatinarum,Berlin Cronica Cronica Cercetrilor Arheologice din Romania, CommissionNationaledArchologie,Bucarest.

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Dacia Dacia,N.S. DAGR EA Epigraphica GCBI FHI IDR ILBR ILJug IMS ISM IstMitt Istros JHS JRA JRS Materiale Numen PBF Peuce Pontica PZ RANarb

Dacia. Fouilles et recherches archologiques en Roumanie, Bucarest Dacia.Revuedarchologieetdhistoireancienne,Nouvelle Srie,Bucarest Dictionnaire des antiquits grecques et romaines (ed. Ch. Daremberg,Ed.Saglio),Paris EpigraphicaAnatolica,Bonn Epigraphica,Napoli GodisnakCentruzaBalkanoloskaispitivajna,Sarajevo FacultdHistoiredeIai InscripiileDacieiromane,Bucureti InscriptioneslatinaeinBulgariarepertae,Sofia Inscriptiones latinae quae in Jugoslavia repertae et editae sunt,Ljubljana InscriptionsdelaMsieSuprieure,Belgrade InscripiiledinScythiaMinor,Bucureti IstanbulerMitteilungen,Istanbul Istros.MusedeBrila,Brila JournalofHellenicStudies,London JournalofRomanArchaeology,BostonMss. JournalofRomanStudies,London Materiale i cercetri arheologice, Institut dArchologie deBucarest Numen. International Review for the Study of Religions, Leiden PraehistorischeBronzefunde,MnchenStuttgart Peuce.InstitutdesRecherchescoMusales,Tulcea Pontica. Muse dHistoire Nationale et dArchologie, Constana PraehistorischeZeitschrift,BerlinNewYork RevueArcheologiquedelaNarbonnaise,Montpellier.

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RE RIU RivStLig SAA SCIV(A) ZA

RealEnzyklopdie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Stuttgart,18931980. DiermischeInschriftenUngarns,Budapest RivistadiStudiLiguri,Torino Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, Universit Al.I. Cuza deIai Studii i Cercetri de Istorie Veche (i Arheologie), Institut dArchologie,Bucarest ZivaAntiqua,Ljubljana.