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Understanding Green Jobs, Climate Change and Decent Work

Dual challenge
1. Environment: Averting dangerous climate change and Protecting life-support on earth

2. Social challenge:
the prospect of well-being and dignity for all in the face of rapid population growth worldwide and the current exclusion of over a billion people from economic and social development

The dual challenge in numbers

Climate-related disasters: 262 million people affected annually over the period 2000-2004 Water shortages: 1.8 billion expected to suffer from fresh water scarcity by 2025, mostly in Asia and Africa Displacement by flooding: 330 million people increasingly exposed to flooding in coastal areas, Food shortages and malnutrition: currently affect 180 million people and threaten to affect 600 million people by 2080 Working poor: 1.3 billion in the world with earnings too low to lift them and their dependants above the poverty threshold of $2 per day (more than 43 per cent of the global workforce) Unemployed: 190 million globally Young job seekers: over 500 million additional job-seekers over the next 10 years Insecurity: 5.3 billion people without access to any social security coverage

Current Human Development Index vs. Ecological Impacts

Global GDP more than doubled between 1981 2005. But 60% of worlds ecosystems degraded/exploited unsustainably (MEA, 2005).

Examples of Impacts brought about by global average temperature changes

The International Labour Organization

Specialized agency of the UN 182 member States 40 field offices throughout the world

Established to achieve peace and social justice (1919) Devoted to advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity Placing employment at the heart of development policy

Tripartism: the essence of the ILO


Employers Workers

Structure of the ILO

ILO Member States
(Tripartite constituents)

International Labour Conference

Governing Body

International Labour Office

Core Labour Standards

Freedom of Association

Freedom from Discrimination

C. 87
Freedom of Association, 1948

C. 98
Right to Collective Bargaining, 49

C. 100
Equal Remuneration, 1951

C. 111
Discrimination (Employment & Occupation), 1958

Freedom from Forced Labour Minimum Age for Employment

C. 29
Forced Labour, 1930

C. 105
Abolition of Forced Labour, 1957

C. 138

C. 182

Minimum Age Worst Forms of for Employment, Child Labour, 1973 1999

The ILOs Decent Work Agenda

Centered on the ILOs key strategic objectives
The principal route out of poverty is work

People in poverty need representation, participation and voice

Earning power is suppressed by marginalization and lack of support systems

The only way to solve problems peacefully

The two challenges are connected

Climate change / environmental degradation: Measures to address vulnerability to Climate Change (adaptation) Policies to avoid dangerous climate change (mitigation Protecting environmental resources Employment and social challenges: Changing employment needs eg. Green skills Poverty and environmental degradation Population pressures on natural resources Increasing energy use

Responding to these challenges

Responding to these challenges requires a farreaching transformation to the way we produce, consume and earn a living Green jobs will be a key element of this shift to a sustainable, low-carbon economy

Labor/social issues GREEN JOBS



Impact of the transformation to a greener economy on sectors

Expansion of green sectors

Eg. Recycling, eco-tourism

Some sectors will decline

Eg. Some industries that cannot adapt

Most sectors will evolve

Eg. Manufacturing, construction, transport

Global Market Trends

This global green industry is expected to generate USD 3.1 Trillion in sales by 2020 Environmental technology - leading industry in the 21st century, with lead markets coming from : Wind power, photo-voltaics, energy efficiency, material efficiency, sustainable mobility (e-vehicles), green industry (LOHAS segment) Trends compendium Report, Berger, 2010

Global Market Trends : Food Production

Sustainable forestry certification increased by 181 % (last 5 years), 9 per cent of global forested land in 2009 Certified sustainable coffee increased by 400% (last 5 years). 8 per cent of global coffee exports Sustainable tea production has grown by 5000% (last 5 years). 7.7 per cent of global coffee exports Sustainable banana sales have grown by 63 % (last two years), 20 per cent of global exports in 2009 Sustainable cocoa sales increased by 248 % (last 5 years), 1.2 per cent of global sales in 2008

UNCTAD, October 2010

Global Market Trends: Ecotourism, agro-ecotourism

early 1990s, the fastest growing sector of the tourism industry, expanding globally between 20% and 34% per year. In 2004, growing 3 times faster than the global tourism industry as a whole (UNWTO) could grow to 25% of the worlds travel market, by 2012 Large potential for job creation, youth employment
EcoTourism World Congress, Ventiane, 2009

Enhancing natural capital = wealth creation

Approximately 2.6 billion
people rely on agricultural production systems for their livelihood (FAO 2009)

10% increase in farm

yields -> 7% reduction in poverty in Africa, more than 5% in Asia

525 million small

farms world wide, 404 million less than two hectares of land (Nagayets 2005) Small farms cultivate 60% of arable land (Herren et al. 2010)

Green farming practices

have increased yields, especially on small farms, between 79 and 180%.

An increase in overall GDP coming from agricultural labor productivity is on average 2.5 times more effective in raising the incomes of the poorest quintile in developing countries than an equivalent increase in GDP coming from non-agricultural labor productivity.

Climate change impacts in enterprises


Climate change impacts in enterprises


Traditionally, efficient production means maximum output at the least cost, and often at the expense of a degraded environment.


= Population (2.6B)

Resource Use

x Efficiency of Production

History of Environmental Approaches

Principle of Diffusion End of Pipe Technology Closed Loop Economy Cleaner Production

policy of high smoke stacks, hazardous waste discharge to open sea Filter, WWTP: development of Environmental Technologies Recycling of secondary materials, reduction of waste volume, resource efficiency, Green Dot Integrated view of production processes, integration of technology and management Re-designing of production processes, products and markets





mid 1990s

Steps towards sustainable industrial development Industrial Ecology Cleaner Production Env. Management System Env. Monitoring & Auditing Waste Reduction Conservation of Energy Conservation of Water Waste Management Effluent Treatment Solid Waste Disposal No Management
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics

Impact of the transformation to a greener economy on jobs

New jobs will be created
Eg. Manufacturing of pollution control devices

Some jobs will be substituted

Eg. Shifting from fossil fuels to renewables

Some jobs will be eliminated without direct replacement

Eg. Jobs lost when packaging materials banned

Most jobs will be transformed

Eg. Skills sets, work methods and profiles of trades become more environmentally friendly


Greening measures in major segments of the economy undergoing transformation

Energy supply Integrated gasification/ carbon sequestration Co-generation (combined heat and power) Renewables (wind, solar, biofuels, geothermal, small-scale hydro); fuel cells Transport More fuel-efficient vehicles, retrofit Hybrid-electric, electric, and fuel-cell vehicles Car-sharing Manufacturing Pollution control (scrubbers and other tailpipe technologies) Energy and materials efficiency Clean production techniques (toxics avoidance) Cradle-to-cradle (closed-loop systems) Buildings Lighting, energy-efficient appliances and office equipment Solar heating and cooling, solar panels Retrofitting Green buildings (energy-efficient windows, insulation, building materials, heating, ventilation and airconditioning)

The ILOs aim to promote decent work translates in the adoption of a just transition framework for the construction of a fairer, greener and more sustainable globalization.

One that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities..
Industries that provide products or services related to renewable energy, increased energy efficiency, clean transportation and fuels, agriculture and natural resource conservation, and pollution prevention or environmental cleanup.

.Low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive (UNEP, 2011)


KEY FINDINGS from the Initiative

Higher rates of GDP growth over time and enhanced wealth Central to Poverty Alleviation
Green investments provide expanded benefits (not only economic but also improve natural capital, social protection, security) and spur local economy

Creates jobs and enhances social equity Better quality of growth than a brown economy

Opportunity to find global solutions

Green Jobs Initiative

Partners: ILO, UNEP, ITUC and IOE Green Jobs Report (September 2008)

ILO Green Jobs Programme

Advisory services for member countries

Green Jobs
Green jobs is defined by the ILO/UNEP as: employment created in economic sectors and activities, which reduces their environmental impact and ultimately brings it down to levels that are sustainable

Green Jobs should also meet requirements of decent work adequate wages, safe conditions, workers rights, social dialogue and social protection

What are green jobs?

Green Jobs = Decent + Environmentally Sustainable GREEN
Activities that are environmentally sustainable Low-carbon (mitigation) Climate resilient (adaptation) Environmentallyfriendly (minimizing waste and pollution, protecting biodiversity)

Decent work is defined by the ILO as: Opportunities for women and men to obtain productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity

Jobs that reduce environmental impact of enterprises & economic activities such as - those that help to protect ecosystems & biodiversity - Jobs that reduce consumption of energy, materials, water, decarbonise economy - minimize or avoid generation of waste Idea of green jobs is not absolute, there are shades of green

Green & Decent Jobs link MDG 1 (poverty reduction) and MDG 7 (protecting the environment) So, how do we promote Green & Decent Jobs in different industry sectors? Greening of industry comes not just from growing more trees or investing in effluent treatment plants or energy efficient production processes (important as these are) BUT we also need to look at how business conducts its business. What employment & working conditions need to be promoted for green & decent jobs?

Green Jobs A Journey towards Decent Work and Environmental Sustainability


E.S, but not Decent

E.S & Decent Green Jobs

Neither ES nor decent

Decent but not E.S


Green Jobs are based on the two pillars of Decent Work and Environmental Sustainability; Green jobs pursue the goal of full employment, decent work for all and a low-carbon, environmentally friendly economy; Green Jobs = Decent Work that contributes to Environmental Sustainability (ES) Green Jobs are Decent Work

Green Jobs and the Sustainable Development Agenda

GJ links environmental policies and economic policies to achieve inclusive growth in the context of sustainable development

Employment & Poverty reduction

Sustainable Development
Engine of Growth

Decent Work
Labor/social issues

The core ILS (8)

OHS standards HRD/TVET
(ILC 2007 conclusions on sustainable enterprises )
Engine of Growth Environment


Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right
to collective bargaining C87 Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention,1948; C98 Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949; Elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor C29 Forced Labour Convention 1930; C105 Aboliation of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 Effective abolition of child labor C138 Minimum Age Convention, 1973, C182 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation C100 Equal remuneration Convention, 1951, C111 Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958

Occupational health and safety standards

Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155) and its Protocol of 2002 and Recommendation (No. 164); Chemical Convention, 1990 (No. 170) and Recommendation (No. 177); Prevention of Major Industrial Accident Convention, 1993 (No. 174) and Recommendation (No. 181); Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1985 (No. 161) and Recommendation (No. 171); Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187) and Recommendation (No. 197); ILO Guideline on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001)

Green Standards Approach Organic Agriculture - SNI 01-6729-2002 (Indonesian National Standards) on Organic Food System by National Standardization Agency of Indonesia Green Building and Construction - SNI 03-6759-2002 (Indonesian National Standards) on Codes for Energy conservation designation of buildings; Green Star (Australia) Green Finance Principles for Responsible Investment (UN- PRI) Sustainable Fisheries Marine Stewardship Council Fishery Standards Sustainable Forestry Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Manufacturing and Industry (ISO) 14064 of Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Verification Tourism Green Globe 21 Standard

Over 100,000 workers in Asia, almost all untrained and unprotected in an environmentally damaging and hazardous industry.

Not Green Jobs !!

For decent work & environment related reasons

Millions of workers in Asia involved in hazardous waste recycling (e-waste, lead and other heavy metals, etc.) in the informal sector.

Type 2: Tackling decent work deficiencies


Environmentally sustainable but not providing decent work

Green jobs


Neither environmentally sustainable nor providing decent work

Decent work but not environmentally sustainable



Type 3: Improving environmental sustainability

Type 1: Bio-fuels, Bioships breaking Type 2: Waste management/ recycling Type 3: Energy/ nergy/ resource efficiency in manufacturing & service sectors/green skills & competencies Type 4: Expand into new green sectors


Working conditions (OSH) Terms of employment (wages & contracts of employment) regularization of employment relations Freedom of Association and Right to Collective Bargaining

ILO relevance
Employment Services The labour market shifts induced by the impact of climate change and its related policies must be understood, anticipated and accompanied. Employment services aim to improve the functioning of the labor market. Realizing the objectives of climate mitigation policies and the opportunities will depend on the extensive use of the ILO tool of social dialogue with industry and trade union. While these apply to all enterprises, adjusting to climate change will require a particular focus on SMEs which are likely to face significant information deficits relative to large firms, and also face financial constraints relative to large firms. 2007 ILC on Sustainable Enterprise.

Social Dialogue Sustainable Enterprise

Occupational Investments and employment promotion policies in green sectors and greening sectors will require a focus on Safety and occupational safety and health (ILO standards) Health

Capacity of intervention in the context of climate related Disaster Management natural disasters, both prevention and reactive strategies (CRISIS). Migration Standards and Rights Employment Intensive Env.t related Programs Climate variability & climate change migration and emigration Ex: The climate change gender double deficit. Government driven policies in employment intensive infrastructure programs are important tool for adapting to climate change (Adaptation+DW). ILO EIIP, national such as NREGA (India), Working for Water Program (South Africa), Green Belt Movement (Kenya), Retrofitting public program (Germany, US,), etc. Climate change will exacerbate the needs through, higher frequency of severe weather events (ex. South East Asia) and the higher rate of job turnover Surging of new skills, transformation and expansion of existing ones, such as in greening existing processes.

Social Protection Skills

Living Wage Health Benefits for all employees Pension Benefits Paid Leave Safe Working conditions Family friendly working conditions Opportunities for advancement Entry level jobs accessible to with barriers to employment Meaningful work and job satisfaction Local hiring practices Job training linked to real jobs Flexible work schedules Access to membership to workers organizations

ILO Initiatives in the Philippines: Green Jobs

Just transition towards a low carbon, climate resilient, greener economy

New national policy and programme frameworks:

Successful interventions to mainstream Decent Work!
Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 UNDAF 2012-2018 Philippine Labor and Employment Plan 2011-2016


Philippine Jobs Pact

The Millennium Development Goals

Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including for women and young people


ILO CO-Manila

UNDAF 2012-2018

ILO actively participated in all the UNDAF processes and leads two sub-outcomes under Outcome 2.

4 Outcomes
Universal access to quality social services, with focus on the Millennium Development Goals

Decent and productive employment for sustained and greener growth

Democratic governance

Resilience to disasters and climate change

Enabling conditions for just transition

Skills development & adaptation of the labour force Supporting the MSMEs Adaptation of institutional & governance frameworks, and the role of social actors Analyzing OSH issues

On going discussions.
Social policies to reconcile social goals with existing or proposed economic policies Environmental economics - Getting prices right, including removing subsidies, valuing natural resources, ecological tax reforms Public procurement policies to promote greening of business and markets Strategic investments in sustainable infrastructure, R&D on environmental technologies Target incentive programs, stimulus packages and partnerships

Green Jobs Resources: Green Jobs Communities of Practice (COP) portal: http://greenjobs-ap.ilobkk.org.th

Thank you

Georginia Pascual pascual@ilo.org 580-9940 09175004572