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Recommendations by CII for Cement Plants

Electrical Energy Consumption


Section / Equipment Mines, crusher & stacking Reclaimer,grinding & transport Kiln feed, kiln & cooler Coal mill Cement grinding & transport Packing Lighting, pumps & services Total Electrical energy consumption (in units / ton of cement)

1.5 18.0 22.0 5.0 23.0 1.5 4.0 75.0

Electrical energy consumers Mines & Crusher The first step in the cement manufacturing process is the mining of limestone. Mining has conventionally been with compressed air drilling and subsequently blasting with explosives. The surface miner has been developed primarily for mining in locations, which are located close to human inhabited areas. This equipment has proved to be so useful that, they are fast replacing the conventional mining systems. In one of the new plants, a surface miner was installed and the mining energy consumption (compressors) was avoided. The size of the limestone mined is also lower, resulting in reduction of crushing energy consumption to 0.5 units / ton of cement, as against 1.5 - 2.0 units / ton in conventional plants. The surface miners are presently available for medium limestone. Hence, wherever possible, the surface miner can be installed for achieving energy saving. The operation of surface miner is also environment friendly, with less dust & noise generation.
Hence, consider application of surface miner for soft and medium hard Limestone.

The next step in the cement manufacturing process is the crusher. The choice of crusher type depends on the grindability and the type of down-the-line grinding system.

Typically, for a VRM system/ball mill with roll press system, it is recommended to have a single stage hammer crusher, with a high efficiency screen before the crusher.
Install single stage hammer crusher with high efficiency screen.

The other points to be taken care during the design stage are, the additional auxiliary power consumption. The auxiliary capacity and controls should be designed, such that, the idle power consumption is avoided during operation of the crusher.
Per ton of Limestone Target power consumption for the crusher (for medium hard limestone) Per ton of Cement

1.0 unit

1.5 unit

Transportation of Limestone The transportation of the mined limestone to the crusher, is normally done through dumpers or trucks. In case of mountainous terrain, the ropeways are installed. The detailed life cycle cost analysis of transportation with dumpers & ropeway indicates that, the ropeway is more beneficial in some cases, where the distances are more than 5 kms. The ropeway calls for higher investment, but the operating costs are much lower. In one of the operating cement plants, the ropeway was installed replacing the dumpers for transportation of limestone from the mines to the crusher in the plant, resulting in substantial benefits. The option of installing a rope-way can also be considered at the design stage.
Hence, consider installation of rope way for limestone transportation, where the distances are more than 5 kms.

Pre-blending system The pre-blending system plays a vital role in providing a uniform feed to the raw mill. The statistics of the performance of the pre-blending stockpiles in various operating cement plants in the country indicate that, the longitudinal stockpile has a better pre-blending efficiency. Hence, it is recommended to install a longitudinal pre-blending system. In locations where the 1. Rain-fall is more 2. Raw material is sticky in nature it is recommended to install closed stockpiles. This will help in avoiding feed failure to the raw mill during the monsoon / rainy seasons. The target operating pre-blending efficiency should be 10. Raw mill The raw mill is a major energy consumer and should be designed based on the grindability and moisture of the limestone available. The Vertical Roller Mill (VRM)

has at least 30% lesser power consumption, than the comparable ball mill system. Hence, for upto medium hard limestone, the VRM should be the first choice. Wherever the moisture percentage is also higher, say >15%, VRM should be the first choice. Only in case of very abrasive raw materials or raw materials with higher free silica content, the plant can consider installing a closed circuit ball mill, with a pregrinding system. The VRM (wherever the design allows), should be installed with a reject handling / mechanical re-circulation system, to ensure lower pressure drop across the mill. The energy efficient alternative therefore is to install a VRM with mechanical recirculation system. The other aspects to be taken care are Conveying system - only mechanical conveying systems such as, bucket elevators/belt conveyor should be installed Classifier - dynamic high efficiency classifier ( cage type classifier ) should be installed Mill inlet sealing - This is very essential, since majority of air infiltration in an operating plant is through the inlet. The present day plants use either rotary / triple gate seals for the mill inlet. These seals though effective in the initial days, start developing leaks over a period, demanding regular maintenance. In one of the new plants, a material seal at the VRM has been attempted with satisfactory results. Hence, it is better to strongly consider installation of material seal or reliable triple gate/rotary seals at the design stage itself High efficiency mill internals (for ball mills) In the case of ball mills, the present trend is to replace existing mill internals with high efficiency internals (grinding media, liners and diaphragms). This has the following advantages Higher mill output Less wear Lower power consumption (up to 5% reduction is expected) Lesser maintenance Hence, all the new plants installing ball mills, should prefer high efficiency mill internals. Target power consumption of (VRM) 18 units/ton of cement for medium hard limestone (or) 11-12 units/ton of limestone Fans in raw mill The fans are the major power consumers, next only to the main drive in the raw mill section and hence need attention during the design stage. The major power consuming fans are the raw mill fan and the vent ESP/BH fan (with kiln).

The fans should be high efficiency (> 80%) backward curved fans with variable speed controls. The typical variable speed mechanisms proposed are Variable frequency drive (VFD) - up to 250 kW LT drives. RRC, fluid coupling, SPRS (HT only) - in increasing order of energy efficiency. The best variable speed systems are VFD for all LT fans and SPRS for all HT fans. The other major decision, whether to adopt a 3-fan system or 2-fan system, should be carefully weighed and taken at the design stage itself. The various conditions and the corresponding decision making table is given below Operational Characteristics
Entire PH air passes through the VRM and no flow of air through by-pass Part of PH air is passed through by-pass always P/H fan/ESP fan operates with damper throttling when R/M is stopped and expected R/M stoppage say >25% of time

Three Fan System Not Advantageous Advantageous Advantageous and lower power

Two Fan Systems Will serve the purpose Higher power consumption Higher power consumption

The other major decision is to decide the excess margin for the fans. The closer the operating point to the design point, the higher will be the efficiency of the fan. However, a safety margin is required to meet the contingency requirements.
The fans are to be designed typically with 15 % margin over the operating condition.

Raw mill and kiln main dust collection system The Electro Static Separator (ESP) has been conventionally used for collecting the dust in the kiln and raw mill circuits. The operating efficiency of the ESPs are normally around 99.5 %. The operation of the ESP also depends on the CO content of the flue gas. Whenever the CO content goes beyond 0.6 %, the ESP trips. The amount of time the tripping occurs is less; it nevertheless, leads to particulate emissions. With the increased emphasis on the environmental regulations, it is necessary to have a dust collection system, that is say 99.9 % efficient and operate continuously. The present trend has been to install bag houses for the kiln and raw mill exhaust. The comparisons of the ESP and bag house are as below 1. The bag house has a pressure drop of about 150 mm Wg as against 20 - 40 mm Wg in the ESP. Hence, the power consumption of the exhaust fan is higher. 2. The ESP trips, whenever the CO content goes beyond 0.6 %, while the operation of the bag house is not dependant upon the CO value.

3. The collection efficiency of the bag house is much higher at 99.9%, while that of the ESP is marginally lower. However, presently ESP's with efficiencies of 99.9% require higher investments. 4. The ESP requires conditioning with power consumption for the GCT pump and screw conveyors. 5. The GCT in the ESP system needs water for conditioning, while the bag house does not need water.

Hence, at the design stage itself, the decision to install the Bag house or ESP has to be taken, after carefully weighing the above aspects.

Blending and homogenisation This is a very important operation having a major bearing on the operation of the kiln and the thermal energy consumption of the kiln. The comparisons of the effectiveness & energy efficiency of various systems indicate that, the continuous blending & storage system is more efficient.
Hence, it is recommended to install a continuous blending & storage system. The target blending efficiency should be 10.

Kiln and pre-heater Kiln feed conveying Kiln feed conveying should be carried out by mechanical bucket elevator, as pneumatic conveying is more energy consuming and also adds false air to the system. The pneumatic conveying system consumes about 1 unit / ton of kiln feed, as against 0.25 units / ton of kiln feed for a mechanical conveying system.
Hence, it is recommended to install a mechanical conveying system.

Pre-heater - stages & sizing The more the number of stages in a preheater, the higher the thermal efficiency of the system. In the older plants, the conventional cyclones offer a pressure drop of 550 to 600 mm wg resulting in higher power consumption of the pre-heater fan. Presently lowpressure drop cyclones, having a pressure drop of 380 - 420 mm wg are available. With the installation of these low pressure drop cyclones, it is possible to achieve a pre-heater fan power consumption of about 6 units / ton of clinker, as against the present consumption of more than 8 units / ton of clinker. The target pre-heater fan air flow capacity should be below 1.8 Nm3/kg of clinker. The margins in all the sections of the plant, also influence the energy efficiency of the plant. It is recommended that all the equipment in the pre-heater system, be designed for a kiln loading of 5 ton/m3/day.

Coal conveying system The coal after grinding in the mill, is conveyed pneumatically to the kiln & calciner for firing. Generally, identical conveying equipments are used for both calciner and kiln. The coal fired in the calciner is about 50 % more than that fired in the kiln. Correspondingly, the capacity of the conveying system and the blower are lower for the kiln firing. The installation of a lower capacity conveying system, reduces the quantity of the ambient air entering the kiln. This increases the secondary air by an equivalent quantity, resulting in increased thermal efficiency. Hence, by design separate right capacity conveying systems should be installed for kiln & calciner.
Install separate right capacity coal conveying system for kiln & calciner .

Water sprays Water spray systems can be installed, particularly in cooler vent, pre-heater outlet or other areas, where further utilisation of heat is not required. The volume of the gas can be reduced by spraying of water, which ultimately results in reduction of fan power consumption. Presently, water spray systems, which can reduce temperature by more than 100oC in a small area, are available. These systems can aid in reducing the power consumption of the exhaust fans. GCT water pumps Water is sprayed in GCT (located before R/M or in the by-pass line) through high pressure pumps. The capacity of pumps required depends on the operation of raw mill and coal mill. The water requirement will be maximum, when none of the hot air users are in operation. The water requirement will be least, when all hot air users are in operation. Hence, it is better to install pumps of different capacities to suit both the different requirements.
Install two GCT pumps of different capacities to meet the raw mill operation and stoppage condition.

Coolers The cooler is a critical equipment used for cooling and also to recuperate the heat back into the kiln system. This has a major bearing on the thermal efficiency of the system. This is being dealt with in Section-5.4. The cooler is also a major consumer of electrical energy. The major energy consumers are the cooler fans.
It is recommended to install high efficiency backward curved fans for cooler, with Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) for all the fans. Target energy consumption - 5 units / ton of clinker

Coal section The coal is generally procured from the coalfields through rail or road, crushed, ground to fine powder and then used in the mill. The coal receipts vary in quality continuously. Hence, it will be better to install a longitudinal pre-blending stockpile for coal also. The installation of pre-blending stockpile for coal will ensure uniform quality of coal feed to the kiln.

Install pre-blending stockpile for coal. The coal mill is also a major energy consumer. Presently, majority of the coal mills are air-swept ball mills. The VRM has been installed in some of the modern plants, with at least 40% lower energy consumption, in comparison to the conventional airswept ball mills, used in older cement plants. Hence, it is recommended to install vertical roller mills for coal grinding. Install VRM for coal grinding. Fine coal bins The calciner can accept coarser coal, in comparison to the kiln. Hence, it is recommended to have separate fine coal hoppers, for kiln coal and calciner coal. This will enable differential grinding of coal for calciner & kiln. Install separate bins for calciner and kiln. Fans in kiln & coal mill The fans are major power consumers in the kiln and pre-heater system. Hence, by design the fans should be of higher efficiency (>80%) and equipped with a variable speed mechanism for speed control. The typical variable speed arrangements for the fans in the kiln and coal mill sections are as below

Fan
P H fan RM fan/ESP fan Cooler vent fan Cooler fans Coal mill fans

Type of variable speed drive (VSD) SRPS/GRR/LRS SPRS/GRR/LRS SPRS/DC/Fluid coupling/ GRR/LRS VFD VFD/GRR (or) fluid coupling for HT

The VSDs are given in the order of reducing efficiency. Cement mill The cement mill is another major energy consumer in a cement plant. In the present operating plants, majority of the cement mills are open circuit ball mills. In some of the plants, closed circuiting has been done, to increase the capacity & reduce the energy consumption. The installation of the pre-grinding system, has also been taken up in some plants, with substantial benefits. Recently, the VRM has also been installed for grinding of cement in three cement plants in India. The results reported by one of the plants (23-24 units/ton of OPC-43 grade) is very encouraging.
Hence, every new plant should go for either a VRM or a ball mill with pre-grinding system & high efficiency separator.

The VRM should have a high efficiency separator and mechanical re-circulation system. The ball mill if installed, should have high efficiency internals (grinding media, liner plates, diaphragm). The conveying of cement to the silo should be through a mechanical conveying system.
Utilise mechanical conveying for cement. Target power consumption for OPC - 43 grade cement are as follows

VRM - 23 units / ton of cement Ball mill with roll press - 27 units / ton of cement Ball mill ( closed circuit ) - 29 units / ton of cement Cement silo and packing plant The cement silo should have a blower extraction system, to reduce the power consumption. The packing should be through an electronic packer, for accurate weight and reduced energy consumption.
Target power consumption - 1.5 units / ton of cement

Thermal Energy Consumption


The thermal energy contributes nearly half of the energy cost in a cement plant. The major consumption is the fuel used in the kiln. The other thermal energy consumers are 1. Coal furnace - Used for drying of coal in some plants 2. Raw mill furnace - Used for drying of raw meal during starting of the plant 3. Cement mill furnace - Used in some plants for drying of slag The major aspects which affect the thermal energy consumption in a cement plant are listed below. Pre-heater - stages & sizing The number of stages in the pre-heater system has a major bearing on the thermal energy consumption of the kiln. The more the number of stages in the preheater, the higher the thermal efficiency of the system. Presently, it is recommended to install a 6-stage / 5-stage pre-heater system. One additional stage, will on one hand reduce the thermal energy consumption by 10 - 15 kcal / kg of clinker. On the other hand it increases the preheater fan power consumption by 1 unit / ton of clinker. The net benefit is to be quantified before taking the decision. It is also important to note that, the pre-heater outlet temperature reduces by about 25oC, when an additional stage is added. This reduces the heat available for drying the limestone and coal. This aspect also has to be borne in mind, while deciding the number of stages in the pre-heater. Target specific thermal energy consumption - 715 kCal / kg of clinker

Pre-heater - monitoring The continuous monitoring of the pre-heater is very essential, to maintain the preheater system leak proof. Hence, it is recommended to install oxygen and CO analysers at the kiln inlet, pre-heater outlet to enable continuous monitoring of the system. Kiln - inlet & outlet seals The inlet & outlet seals of the kiln are important, as it helps reduce the air infiltration into the system. The inlet seal is more important, as the infiltration chances are higher. Based on the experiences of the Indian cement plants, recommend installing 1. v Pneumatic seal for kiln inlet 2. Spring loaded mechanical seal for kiln outlet The pre-heater flanges, poking holes & inspection holes are all potential sources of leakage during operation of the plant. Hence the number of flanges should be reduced to a bare minimum. The inspection & poking holes in the pre-heaters should be provided with air tight covers, so that, the air infiltration into the system is minimum. Coolers The cooler is a critical equipment used for cooling and also recuperate the heat back into the kiln system. In majority of the existing plants, conventional grate coolers are being used. These coolers have lower recuperation efficiency, occupy more space & need more cooling air. The latest high efficiency coolers, have higher recuperation efficiency, need lesser cooling air, are compact in size and has lower radiation loss. The typical comparison of a conventional cooler and a high efficiency cooler are as below. Parameters Units Conventional High cooler efficiency cooler 35 2.2 1.0 800 - 900 5 50 1.8 0.6- 0.8 950 - 1050 5

Loading Cooling air Cooler vent air TA temperature Power cons.

ton/m2/day Nm3/kg of Clinker Nm3/kg of Clinker deg C units / ton of clinker

Typically, the high efficiency cooler can reduce the thermal energy consumption by 30 - 40 kCal/kg of clinker. Hence, it is recommended to install a high efficiency grate cooler at the initial stage itself. Wherever possible, the cooler exhaust air should be used for raw material drying/coal drying/slag drying. The cooler should also have an ESP/bag house for collection of clinker dust. Burners The burner system also plays a vital role, in determining the thermal efficiency of the system. The present operating burners operate with, a primary air ranging from 12% - 18%. The latest trend is to install multi-channel low primary air burners. These burners have the following advantages Lower primary air requirement (7 - 8%) Sharper and shorter flame Better flame control In an operating plant, the replacement of a conventional burner with a new burner (7 % primary air, including conveying air) resulted in reduction of thermal energy consumption by nearly 15 kCal / kg of clinker. Hence, it is recommended to install a high efficiency low primary air burner. Refractory lining - kiln, pre-heaters & coolers The refractory lining in the kiln, pre-heaters & coolers are very vital for conserving thermal energy within the system and protect the outside supporting metallic part. The older systems used to utilise all along only high alumina bricks. The present trend is to install basic bricks in the kiln, which have comparatively higher life (more than twice) and lower consumption. Since this reduces the stoppages of the plant, the run factor of the plant improves, resulting in lower thermal and electrical energy consumption. In all other areas of the pre-heaters and the cooler, it is recommended to install alumina bricks (30 - 40%), preceded by insulation bricks.

Other energy efficiency aspects


The other miscellaneous energy efficiency aspects, which need to be taken care in the design stage, are listed below 1. The bag filters & de-dusting fans distributed over the entire plant consume about 2 -3 % of the over-all energy consumption. These fans should be designed, based on the individual user requirement and not from the point of standardisation. The typical de-dusting air requirements for different applications are given below Equipment De-dusting air quantity

Hammer crusher 100m3/hour/ton Bucket elevators 1800m3/hour/m2 of BE cross section Pneumatic conveyor Conveying air + 50 % Air slides Air supplied + 20 % Cement packers 2000 m3/hour/spout Bins section 4000 m3/hour/m2 of bin cross 2. It is always better to have individual dedicated package compressor, for the individual bag-filters. This will help avoid long compressed air lines & minimise leakages. The small compressors are 'ON/OFF' types, while the bigger compressors are controlled by loading/unloading machanism. Hence, the installation of smaller dedicated compressors for individual bag filters, will ensure energy efficiency. We recommend installing separate small package compressors for individual bag filters. 3. The rating of motors should be done, such that, the motor operates at higher loading factor, say more than 80 % during the normal operation. The safety margins of the motors, should be discussed with supplier in detail, to avoid under loading of the motor during operation. Wherever the starting load decides the motor capacity, it is recommended to install soft starters, to take care of the starting torque. 4. The transmission of power from the prime mover to the driven equipment should be 'Direct' as far as possible. Wherever a belt drive is required, it is recommended to install a flat belt drive. 5. Installation of LED's for indication lamps. Presently filament lamps are being used for the indication purposes. The LED lamps can be installed in place of filament lamps, with reduced energy consumption & longer life. Electrical systems Lighting system In a cement plant, lighting consumes between 1 - 1.5 units / ton of cement, depending on the extent of lighting. There is a good potential to save energy in lighting system by optimising the system voltage. This can be achieved by having a separate line and transformer, so that the lighting voltage can be regulated and maintained at about 210 V. At the design stage itself, a cement plant should install only energy efficient lighting as below 1. HPSV lights for plant and outdoor lighting 2. Fluorescent tube lights with electronic chokes and compact fluorescent lamps ( CFL ) for inside lighting

Electrical distribution The electrical distribution should have an auto PF control system and an 'on-load' tap changing facility for the main transformer. The auto PF control system will aid in maintaining high PF on a consistent basis. This will enable consistent PF and better demand management of the plant.

The 'on-load' tap changing facility of the main transformer, enables maintenance of the optimum voltage as required by the system. The optimum voltage helps in operating the motors at higher efficiency. Generators The oil fired generators are also being installed to supply power to the plant during power failures. The generators should have the facility of operating in parallel with the grid. The facility should be such that, the kiln continues to operate, even when the grid power fails. These generators should have the following facilities 1. Operation with multiple fuels 2. Waste heat recovery systems, which can be used for generator oil heating. The waste heat can also be used for meeting the plant A/C load by installing a vapor absorption refrigeration system.