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Scanning the Special Issue

N 1917, Senator Hiram Johnsonsaid, The first casualty when war comes is truth. Today, we can say that the fir:;t casualtyis communications. This represents both a challente to our ingenuity and a tributeto the importance of o u profession. One of the most important tools that we have to prever: t communications jamming is, of course, spectrum spreadin]:. But this tool can also be used for several other purpose: : rejecting unintentional interference; lowering the probability of a transmission being intercepted by an unintended receive:.; combating multipath problems; and providing multiple acce!s to a communications system shared by a number of user:;. This Special Issue discusses of all these aspects of spreatispectrum communications. The issuebegins witha set of perspective papers (including tutorial information), then continues with sections on interference rejection, code-division multiple access, nonlinez r effects, and new systems, technology, and uses. Each of these sections is scanned below. PERSPECTIVE PAPERS The early history of spread-spectrum communications i; presented ina paper by Scholtz (The Origins of Spread. Spectrum Communications) that is truly archival in nature. It provides many fascinating details and interesting photographs, and represents the combined efforts of the author and many other contributors: Because of the secrecy associated with most of the early activities in spread-spectrunl communications, it is possible that some important contribu- * tions should be added to this history; consequently, theautho: and the Guest Editors strongly encourage the readers to submit such information to theTRANSACTIONS. woulcI We especially like to receive the information by July 15, 1982, S ( I that it can bereviewed and included in the December 19811 issue; this will ensure that theinformation will be indexed together with the original paper to enhance their combined historical value. The second paper is an extensive tutorial by Pickholtz, Schilling, and Milstein (Theory of Spread-Spectrum Corn,. munications-A Tutorial). It includes discussions on anti jamming considerations, code-division multiple access, multi. path, properties of common spreading techniques, and tech. niques for acquisition and tracking. Additional perspective and tutorial information is providec: in the paper by Krasner (Optimal Detection of DigitallJ. Modulated Signals). It includes a discussion of those park; of detectiontheory necessary to understand the low prob. ability of intercept (LPI) aspects of a variety of spectrum. spreading techniques. The emphasis is on cases wherein the! signal-to-noise ratio per symbol is small compared to unity.

INTERFERENCE REJECTION The rejection or suppression of theeffects of deliberate interference (jamming) or accidental interference (multipath, spectrum overlap) has been and continues to be one of the paramount motivations for the development of spreadspectrum systems. The papers grouped under the topic Interference Rejection indicate the broad , concerns of system analysts and designersin dealing with the different forms of unwanted narrow-band and wide-band signals in both fading and nonfading channels. The Perspective Papers section referred to the importance of coding in achieving acceptable interference,rejection performance. Coded error probabilities for antijam systems are often difficult to evaluate. Omura and Levitt (Coded Error Probability Evaluation for Antijam Communications Systems) decouple the coding aspects of antijam design from the rest of the system and derive coded error probability bounds in terms of the channel cutoff data rate parameter R,. They compare numerically computable values of R , for several detection and decoder metrics to indicate a systematic general, approach to the performance evaluation of antijam communications that includes error-correction coding. They also indicate how side information (i.e., varying channel parameters, knowledge of jammer characteristics, etc.) can be included in the evaluation. Milstein and Schilling (The Effect of Frequency-Selective Fading ona Noncoherent FH-FSK System Operating with Partial-Band Interference) compare the probability of error with and without error-correction coding of an FH-FSK signal format in the presence of partial-band tone interference under frequency-selective Rician channel conditions. Their analysis examines the sensitivity of error rate to the number of interfering tones, the interference-to-signal ratio in each frequency slot, and the relative amount of power in the scatter component of the received signal compared to the specular component. They show that performance can degrade rapidly with increased power in the scatter component and that, similar to the nonfading channel, for a given set of system parameters there is a value for the number of interfering tones that causes the most degradation in the probability of error. This value occurs when the interference-to-signal ratio in each frequency slot interfered withis approximately 0 dB. In many interference environments, thecombination of coding and spread-spectrum processing may not be sufficient to reduce the interference effects to an acceptable level. Thus, ancillary techniques may be required to augment the systems interference-rejection performance. Ketchum and Proakis (Adaptive Algorithms for Estimating and Suppressing Narrow-Band Interference in PF Spread-Spectrum Systems) describe the signal-to-interference ratio improvements that

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5 , MAY 1982

canbe ,obtained byadaptive prefiltering of direct-sequence spread-spectrum signals corrupted by single and multiple narrow-band interference. They compare the effectiveness of prefilter designs basedon 1) spectral estimationofthe receiver input signal plus interference, and 2) linear prediction that assumes that the interference canbe modeled by white noise passed through an all-pole filter. The results achievable by both approaches are shown to be generally similar. However, the authors indicate that superior performance (up to 5 dB addtional S/I improvement) is gained for the linear-prediction approach if the derived prefilter is followed by its own matched filter. Li and Milstein (Rejection ofNarrow-Band Interference in PN Spread-Spectrum Systems Using Transversal Filters) also consider the problem of using two-sided transversal filters and prediction-error filters to reject narrowband interference. Their results indicate that, when the interference tone is near the carrier of the spread-spectrum signal, the performance improvement the of two-sided transversal filter is better than that of the prediction-error filter having the same number of taps. In addition, results are presented suggesting that the two-sided transversal filter isalso better for multiple-tone interference conditions. The spatial filtering capability of antenna arrays provides an additional approachaugmenting for interference-rejection performance. The combination of adaptive arrays with spreadspectrumcommunicationshasbeenatopic of research for many years now, and the paper by Winters (Spread Spectrum in a Four-Phase Communication System Employing Adaptive Antennas) presents some new results in this area. In addition to providing the expected antijam capability, the technique is furtherenhancedbyprovidingforrapid acquisition ofthe spread signal. Matsumoto Cooper and (Performance a of Nonlinear FH-DPSK Spread-Spectrum Receiver with Multiple NarrowBand Interfering Signals) compare the performance in both fading Wd nonfading channels ofan FH-DPSK signal structure for linear and nonlinear receivers employing differentially coherent matched filters. In the nonlinear receiver, a bandpass limiter follows the matched filter for each hopped frequency. TheFH signal designed is formultipathapplicationsthat assume independent, relatively slow fading in each FH channel. In this paper,theinterference issimilar to thedesired signal, and is modeled as a summation sinusoids of with random phasing. The authors show that the nonlinear receiver is superior to the linear receiver for any signal-to-interference ratioandanynumber of interfering signals. Incontrast to Matsumoto and Cooper, Lee and Miller (Error Performance Analysis DPSK/FH of Spread-Spectrum Communication System in the Partial Band Jamming Environment) address thederivationoftheprobabilityof error for partial-band interference in thecontext ofapureFHspread-spectrum sytem in which multipath is not expected to be a significant factor. Here, earlier probability-of-error analyses are extended to cover all thedifferentjamming effects in the decision process. Their results potentially have broader applicability thantothe specific implementationdescribedby Lee and Miller.

A third paper onFH-DPSK is by Simon (The Performance of M-ary FH-DPSK in the Presence of Partial-Band Multitone Jamming). This paper presents general results for the average probability of error and includes in the analysis the optimal jammer strategy (Le., the one that maximizes the probability of error). In the final paper in this section, Smith (Tradeoff Between Processing Gain and Interference Immunity in Co-Site Multichannel Spread-Spectrum Communications) describes the susceptibility of spread-spectrum radios to mutual and cosite interference, identifies potential interference-rejection solutions (nonintersecting frequency sets, code division, spectrumshaping, etc.), and assesses their relative effectiveness. The primary emphasis is on FH-FSK systems, although PN-PSK systems are also examined. The analytical results are applied to tactical line-of-sight voice radiocommunications; the effects of multiple independent voice nets, multiple cosite radios, and antenna isolation on overall system performance are illustrated. The capabihties of alternative interferencecontrol methods to provide efficient multichannelspectrum utilization (in terms of the number of independent channels allowableper megahertzofband allocation) are contrasted. Results are parameterized as afunctionofthe differential loss in processing necessary gain to achieve a desired bit error rate.


The section on Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) contains four papers. The first is by Rowe(Bounds on the Number of Signals with Restricted Cross Correlation); it gives an upper bound to the number of users in a synchronous CDMA system in whicheach user employs either an orthogonal or biorthogonal alphabet. This bound is presented in terms of the mean-square cross correlation between users, rather than in terms of the maximum cross correiation of the user set. The next paper is by Pursley, Sarwate, and Stark (Error Probability for Direct-Sequence Spread - Spectrum MultipleAccess Communications-Part I: Upper and Lower Bounds). The results of this paperapply to abinarydirect-sequence asynchronous CDMA systemwherein the peak distortion due to multiple users does not exceed the desired level. The limitation. of the technique is that the numerical complexity is exponentid in the number simultaneous of users; it is therefore appropriate most for a small number of users. This limitation not does exist in the following paper by Geraniotis and Pursley (Error Probability for Direct Sequence Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications-Part 11: Approximations). This latter paper presents an approximate solution which computationally grows only linearly with the number of simultaneous users. In additon, the paper presents resblts for various quaternary modulation formats. The final paper in this section, also byGeraniotisand Pursley (Error Probabilities for Slow-Frequency-Hopped Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications over FadingChannels),presents bothboundson, andapproximations for, the performance of a slow-frequency-hopped

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819 use of a large enough number of frequency slots over which tohop produces an effect equivalent to using time interleaving of data sequences in order to randomize the errors that occur in a signal transmitted over a fading channel. Finally, the fifth paper, written by Giordano, Sunkenberg, DePedro, Stynes, Brown, and Lee (A Spread-Spectrum Simulcast MF Radio Network), describes a network designed to operate reliably over a channel that includes both interference and fading. It is shown that the system is robust with respect to individual links and, hence, exhibits both good connectivity and low vulnerability to jamming. SUMMARY We believe that the information contained in this Special Issue will be of lasting value to workers in the field of spreadspectrum communications. Unfortunately, because time of constraints or security classification, certain papers could not be included in this issue; we therefore recommend thatit be considered in combination with the Conference Record of the1982 IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM 82), whose theme is Progress in Spread-Spectrum Communications. In closing, we notethat no technical publication on a specialized topic can hope to be successful without the dedicated efforts of the anonymous reviewers. Over 100 experts on spread-spectrum and military communications gave their time to bring t h ~ s Special Issue to fruition. Their high standards of technical excellence contributed significantly to the quality of the papers, and we are deeply grateful for their efforts.

noncoherent FSK system. The system is completely asynchronous, and the recieved are signals further degraded (beyond the multiple access interference) by the effects of a fading channel. NONLINEAR EFFECTS There are two papers that deal with the effects of a limiter on the performance of a spread-spectrum communications system. The first is by Baer (Interference Effects of Hard Limiting in PN Spread-Spectrum Systems); it considers a biphase PN system operating over a hard-limited channel in the presence of strong interference. Baer illustrates that the resulting intermodulation products can negate the antijam capability of systems designed with even a large processing gain.The second paper, coauthored byAein and Pickholtz (A Simple Unified Phasor Analysis for PN Multiple Access to Limiting Repeaters), presents a justification for using a relatively straightforward phasor analysis technique to determine the probability of error of a quadriphase system operating over a nonlinear channel in the presence of strong interference. The analysis is quite general, and even allows for the possibility of AM/PM conversion. In both papers, the key application is satellite communications. NEW SYSTEMS, TECHNOLOGY, AND USES The final section contains five papers that either illustrate new ways of accomplishing various functions necessary to the successful operation of a spread-spectrum system (e.g., synchronization) or present new uses of spread-spectrum communications. There are two papers dealing with synchronization. The first one, by Yost and Boyd CA Modified PN Code Tracking Loop: Its Performance Analysis and Comparative Evaluation), shows that, by somewhat modifying a standard delay-locked loop,it is possible to obtain,for example, tracking performance equivalent to that of a standard loop,but with the simplicity of implementation of a dithering loop. The price one pays for this type of performance is reduced pull-inrange and higher probability offalse lock. Both synchronization and acquisition are considered in the paperbyBaier, Dostert, and Pandit (A Novel SpreadSpectrum Receiver Synchronization Scheme Using a SawTapped Delay Line). This paper contains both experimental and analytical results, and, as its title implies, makes heavy use of the matched-filtering capabilities of a surface-acousticwave tapped delay line. Another interesting application of SAW technology to spread-spectrum communications is presented in the paper by LaRosa, Marynowski, and Henrich (A Simple Modulator for Sinusoidal Frequency Shift Keying). Here a SAW filter is used to generate a sequence of phase-coded overlapping chips (sinusoidal FSK) from a sequence of phase-coded rectangular chips.Thisis potentially advantageous in a system where a sharp spectral rolloff is desired. The fourth paper in this section is by Mizuno (Randomization Effect of Errors by Means of Frequency Hopping Techniques in a Fading Channel). Mizunoshows thatthe

CHARLESE. COOK, Guest Editor Communications Division MITRE Corporation Bedford, MA 01730

FREDW. ELLERSICK, Guest Editor Communications Division MITRE Corporation Bedford, MA 01730

LAURENCE MILSTEIN, B. Guest Editor Dep. Elec. Eng. & Comput. Sci. University of California at San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093

DONALD SCHILLING L. , Guest Editor Dep. Elec. Eng. City College of New York New York, NY 10031

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Authorized licensed use limited to: Harbin Institute of Technology. Downloaded on May 01,2010 at 14:19:00 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Authorized licensed use limited to: Harbin Institute of Technology. Downloaded on May 01,2010 at 14:19:00 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.