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TABLE OF CONTENT

Abstract

2

Introduction and Objectives

3

Theory

4

Description of the Experimental Apparatus

6

Procedure

8

Data and Observations

10

Analysis and Results

12

Discussions

16

Conclusions

19

References

20

Appendix

20

1

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to perform and demonstrate how the intensity of radiation varies. This following experiment outlines the proper procedure for verifying the Inverse Square Law for Heat and the Stefan-Boltzmann Law as well as to study Area Factors. Consequently the student will then demonstrate them graphically by doing the analysis based on the all the data and readings obtained. As commonly known heat is transferred due to a temperature difference. Heat can be transferred in three different ways, which are known as conduction, convection and radiation. Any object that is hot gives off light known as Thermal Radiation. The hotter an object is the more light it emits. And, as the temperature of the object increase, it emits most of its light at higher and higher energies. (Higher energy light means shorter wavelength light.) In general, the net rate of energy transfer by thermal radiation between two surfaces involves complicated relationships among the properties of the surface, their orientations with respect to each other, the extent to which the intervening medium scatters, emits and absorbs thermal radiation and other factors. In these experiments, we will prove some fundamental law relating to radiation

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INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES

In this particular laboratory session, the experiment has been divided to three parts. In experiment 1, students are required to show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth power of the source temperature. Besides that, experiment 2 is conducted to show the tile intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of distance of the surface from the radiation source. On the other hand, experiment 3 required the students to demonstrate that the exchange of radiant energy from one surface to another is dependent upon their interconnecting geometry, i.e. a function of the amount that each surface can ‘see’ of the other. In addition to that, this experiment is also useful in such a way that it helps to provide some exposure to the students so that they are able to interpret the obtained test data and at the same time are able to apply the theory they have learned in class.

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THEORY

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that:

Where

q b = (T s 4 T a 4 )

q b = energy emitted by unit area of a black body surface (Wm -2 )

(Note: Energy emitted by surface = 3.040 × reading from radiometer R refer to Radiometer Data sheet for explanation)

= Stefan-Boltzmann constant equal to 5.67 x 10 -8 (Wm -2 K -4 )

T s = Source temperature and surrounding = black plate temp. (K)

T a = Temperature of radiometer and surrounding = room temp. (K)

The Inverse Square Law

The total energy dQ from an element dA can be imagined to flow through a hemisphere of radius r. A surface element on this hemisphere dA 1 lies on a line making an angle with the normal and the solid angle subtended by dA 1 at dA is dw = dA 1 /r2

If the rate of flow of energy through dA 1 is dQthen dQ= idwdA where iis the intensity of radiation in the direction.

THEORY The Stefan-Boltzmann Law The Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that: Where q =  (T – T

Figure 3.1 Radiation Heat Transfer: Solid Angle

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Radiation Heat Transfer: Area Factor

Radiation Heat Transfer: Area Factor Figure 3.2 Radiation Heat Transfer: Area Factor The heat transfer rate

Figure 3.2 Radiation Heat Transfer: Area Factor

The heat transfer rate from one radiating black surface to another is dependent on the amount that each surface can see of the other surface. In order to solve radiant heat transfer problems an area factor F is introduced where F is defined by the fraction of energy emitted per unit time by one surface that is intercepted by the other surface.

Thus the time rate of radiant heat transfer (Q 12) between two black surfaces of area A 1 and A 2 at temperature T 1 and T 2 respectively is given by:

Q 12 = A 1 F 12  (T 1 4 T 2 4 ) Area factors are found by analysis, numerical approximation and analogy and results for common configurations have been published in graphical form.

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DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

Description of the experimental rig

The Radiation Heat Transfer Rig consists of a pair of electrically heated radiant heat and light sources, together with a comprehensive range of targets and measuring instrumentation.

The unit consists of a horizontal bench mounted track fitted with a heat radiation source end and a light source at the other. Between the two sources may be placed either a heat radiation detector or a light meter. In addition, a number of accessories can be fitted for experimental purposes. These include metal plates with thermocouples attached, two vertically oriented metal plates to form an aperture, and a number of acrylic filters. The radiation detectors and accessories are all clamped to stands which enable them to be positioned at different distances from the appropriate source. Distances are measured with a scale mounted on the front track.

Electrical power for the two radiation sources is supplied from control panel and a variable transformer. Temperatures of the two metal plates used in conjunction with the heat radiation source are displayed on a digital read-out, either reading being selected by switching the connectors. Output from heat radiation detector and light meter are displayed on digital read out.

DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS Description of the experimental rig The Radiation Heat Transfer Rig consists

Figure 3.3: View of the Radiation Heat Transfer Unit

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Figure 3.4: Experiment I Set-up the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Figure 3.5: Experiment II Set-up the Inverse Square

Figure 3.4: Experiment I Set-up the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Figure 3.4: Experiment I Set-up the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Figure 3.5: Experiment II Set-up the Inverse Square

Figure 3.5: Experiment II Set-up the Inverse Square Law

Figure 3.4: Experiment I Set-up the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Figure 3.5: Experiment II Set-up the Inverse Square

Figure 3.6: Experiment III Set-up Radiation Heat Transfer: Area Factor

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Experiment I

PROCEDURE

  • 1. Turn on the power source is switched on.

  • 2. Connect black plate cable terminal is connected to the panel and measure the room temperature is measured using the black plate

  • 3. Install the black plate is installed on the horizontal rig with a distance of 50mm from the heat source.

  • 4. Position the radiometer is positioned at x=110 mm from the heat source, the radiometer must be aligned such that the sensing surface is parallel to the heater surface.

  • 5. Switch on the radiometer knob is adjusted to no. 2. The front surface of the radiometer is closed with a black surface object and the knob is adjusted to get 0 reading.

  • 6. Set the heater power input is set to maximum level.

  • 7. When the black plate temperature (Ts) reaches 60 0 C, all the corresponding radiometer reading (R)* for black plate temperature from 60 0 C to 100 0 C with the temperature increment of 5 0 C is recorded.

  • 8. The black plate is dissembled with care.

Experiment II

  • 1. Set the power input is set to maximum.

  • 2. Position the radiometer is positioned at x=100 mm from the heat source. The radiometer must be aligned such that the sensing surface is parallel to the heater surface.

  • 3. After the heater is heated to a considerable constant rate, the radiometer reading can now be observed to be almost constant.

  • 4. The radiometer reading (R )* and its distance (x) from the heat source is recorded.

  • 5. The above procedure is repeated for different radiometer to heat source distance (x), from 100 mm to 1000 mm with the increment of 100 mm.

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Experiment III

  • 1. The black plate is installed on the horizontal rig with a distance of 50 mm from the heat source.

  • 2. The aperture, which is formed by two aluminium-coated plates, is installed on the rig with a distance of 200 mm from the heat source. The aluminium-coated surface is positioned facing the heat source.

  • 3. The radiometer is positioned at 300 mm from the heat source. The radiometer must be aligned such that the sensing surface is parallel to the heater surface.

  • 4. The heater power input is set to maximum level.

  • 5. The aperture opening is set to 60 mm.

  • 6. When the temperature of the black plate (Ts)has reached a steady value, the radiometer reading (R)*for the aperture-opening from 60 mm down to zero in step of 5 mm is recorded.

  • 7. The black plate and aperture is disassembled, the heat source power is set to minimum and the power source is turned off.

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DATA AND OBSERVATIONS

Experiment I: Stefan-Boltzmann Law = 5.67 X 10 -8 (Wm -2 K -4 ) Room temperature (T∞) = 28°C

 

Radiometer

         

Black plate,

T s

T∞

q b = 3.040 R

q b = (T s 4 - T 4 )

Percentage

Ts (C)

Reading, R (W/m 2 )

(K)

(K)

(W/m 2 ) exp.

(W/m 2 ) theo.

Error (%)

           
 
  • 60 333

69

 

297

209.76

  • 256.03 18.07

 
 
  • 65 338

81

 

297

246.24

  • 298.86 17.60

 
 
  • 70 343

93

 

297

282.72

  • 343.63 17.73

 
 
  • 75 348

107

 

297

325.28

  • 390.40 16.70

 
 
  • 80 353

122

 

297

370.88

  • 439.23 15.60

 
 
  • 85 358

134

 

297

407.36

  • 490.18 16.90

 
 
  • 90 363

151

 

297

459.04

  • 543.31 15.50

 
 
  • 95 368

170

 

297

516.8

  • 598.69 13.70

 

Table 3.1: Result for Experiment III

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Experiment II: Inverse Square Law

Heat Sources Distance, X (mm)

Radiometer Reading, R (mW/cm 2 )

log 10 X

log 10 R

100

174.5

 
  • 2 2.24171

200

93.0

  • 2.30103 1.96848

 

300

50.2

  • 2.47712 1.70070

 

400

31.0

  • 2.60206 1.49136

 

500

21.2

  • 2.69897 1.32634

 

600

15.8

  • 2.77815 1.19866

 

700

11.7

  • 2.84510 1.06819

 

800

9.4

  • 2.90309 0.97313

 

900

7.5

  • 2.95424 0.87506

 

1000

5.6

 
  • 3 0.74819

Table 3.2: Result for Experiment II

Experiment III: Area Factors

Aperture (mm)

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Radiometer Reading (mW/cm 2 )

2.2

3.0

4.4

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.7

2.4

2.1

1.6

1.1

0.5

0.1

Table 3.3: Result for Experiment III

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ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

All the required graphs are shown on the following pages:

For Experiment II

Graph 1:

Graph of Radiometer Reading (Intensity of Radiation) vs. Distance

Graph 2:

Graph of log 10 R versus log 10 x

For Experiment III

Graph 3:

Graph of Radiometer Reading against Aperture Opening

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Radiometer Reading vs. Distance

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
RADIOMETER READING, R (mW/cm 2 )

DISTANCE, X (mm)

Graph 1: Graph of Radiometer Reading (Intensity of Radiation) vs. Distance

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log 10 R vs. log 10 X

2.5 2 y = -1.5234x + 5.4053 1.5 1 0.5 0 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6
2.5
2
y = -1.5234x + 5.4053
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3
3.2
log 10 R

log 10 X

Graph 2: Graph of log 10 R vs. log 10 X

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Radiometer Reading vs. Aperture Opening

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 10 20 30 40
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
RADIOMETER METER (mW/cm 2 )

APERTURE OPENING (mm)

Graph 3: Graph of Radiometer Reading vs. Aperture Opening

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DISCUSSIONS

Experiment I

The comparison of the emissivity of the black plate and Stefan Boltzmann Law, as well as the trend and the discrepancy between both results.

The first calculation is made according to the Stefan Boltzmann Law and the other one is according to emissivity of the black plate, which is the experimental value. By comparison both results, generally we can say that the percentage error is quite small. Thus the experimental results agree closely with the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which is the theoretical value.

The uncertainty, in percent, of q b , if the measurement of the temperature is uncertain by 2%? Calculation is shown.

Consider the data at T s = 60 C and the corresponding radiometer reading R = 69 W/m 2 . Thus the emissivity of the black plate is q b = 3.040 x 69 = 209.76 W/m 2 .

T s = 60 + 273 = 333 K T = 24 + 273 = 297 K

q b =

(T s 4 - T 4 ) = 5.67 x 10 -8 (333 4 297 4 ) = 256.03 W/m 2 .

% Error = (256.03 209.76) x 100 / 256.03 = 18.07 %

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Experiment II

The Radiation Heat transfer Rig set-up

Experiment II The Radiation Heat transfer Rig set-up The gradient of the slope for the graph

The gradient of the slope for the graph of log 10 R versus log 10 x and what does it indicates? From the best fit line equation, Y = -1.523X + 5.405 the gradient of the slope for the graph of log 10 R vs. log 10 X is equal to -1.523. In theory, the intensity of radiation on a surface should be proportional to the square of distance of the surface from the radiation source. That is,

From the derivation above, the theoretical gradient value is found to be

-2.

Thus, the

experimental gradient value calculated seems to lie within good tolerance from the theoretical

one.

What can your verified from the graphs? From both Graph 1 and Graph 2, the negative slope shows the inversely proportional relationship between the intensity of radiation on a surface and the square of distance of the surface from the radiation source. The gradient actually the rate of heat generated, q gen .

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Experiment III

The Radiation Heat transfer Rig set-up

Experiment III The Radiation Heat transfer Rig set-up Analysis of Graph 3 From the data recorded

Analysis of Graph 3

From the data recorded and also from Graph of Radiometer Reading against Aperture Opening, we can say that generally the radiometer reading increases linearly with increasing aperture opening. However, the radiometer readings for distance 55 mm and 60 mm show another story, probably due to some errors. Errors may rise from numerous sources such as equipment faulty and parallax error. Therefore, despite the errors, we can conclude that the exchange of radiant energy from one surface to another is dependent upon their interconnecting geometry.

Why the radiometer is not showing zero reading when the aperture opening is 0mm?

In this experiment, we could not obtain radiometer reading equals to zero when the aperture opening is zero because of fraction of the incident radiation from the heat source. Thus, the radiometer will still give a small reading although the aperture opening is zero.

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CONCLUSIONS

Experiment I

In Experiment I, it proven that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth power of the source temperature. Comparing the emissivity of the black plate and Stefan Boltzmann Law, generally we can say that the percentage error is small. Thus the experimental results agree closely with the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which is the theoretical value.

Experiment II

From best fit line of Graph 2, the experimental gradient obtained is equal to -1.523. The inverse square law says that the theoretical slope of graph log 10 R vs. log 10 X has a value of -2. Thus, the experimental gradient value calculated seems to lie within good tolerance from the theoretical one. Besides, the negative slope shows the inversely proportional relationship between the intensity of radiation on a surface and the square of distance of the surface from the radiation source.

Experiment III

From the data recorded and also from Graph of Radiometer Reading against Aperture Opening, we can say that generally the radiometer reading increases linearly with increasing aperture opening. Despite the errors, we can conclude that the exchange of radiant energy from one surface to another is dependent upon their interconnecting geometry. It is also found out that we could not obtain radiometer reading equals to zero when the aperture opening is zero because of fraction of the incident radiation from the heat source.

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REFERENCES

Instruction manual from the Heat Transfer & Applied Thermodynamics Lab

2012, Radiation Heat Transfer,

2012, Wikipedia, Inverse Square Law http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse-square_law

2012, Wikipedia, Heat Transfer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer

Incropera, DeWitt, Bergmann, Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7 th Edition, Wiley Asia Student Edition

Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach, 7 th Edition, Mc Graw Hill

APPENDIX

REFERENCES Instruction manual from the Heat Transfer & Applied Thermodynamics Lab 2012, Radiation Heat Transfer, <ahttp://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/radiation-heat-transfer-d_431.html 2012, Wikipedia, Inverse Square Law http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse-square_law 2012, Wikipedia, Heat Transfer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer 2012, The overview behind heat radiation http://www.efunda.com/formulae/heat_transfer/radiation/overview_rad.cfm Incropera, DeWitt, Bergmann, Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7 Edition, Wiley Asia Student Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach, 7 Edition, Mc Graw Hill APPENDIX Figure 3.7: Heat Transfer Mode 20 " id="pdf-obj-19-29" src="pdf-obj-19-29.jpg">

Figure 3.7: Heat Transfer Mode

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