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Product Rule Quotient Rule and Chain Rule

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Derivative of f(x)

g(x) = (f '(x)

g(x)) + (f(x)

g'(x))

EXAMPLE : The derivative of (x + 5x -6x + 9) Equals (7x -x -8x + 1)

(3x + 10x -6) (7x - x -8x + 1) + (x + 5x -6x + 9) (21x -2x -8)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Quotient Rule -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Derivative of f(x) g(x) equals (f '(x) g(x) g(x)) - (f(x) g'(x))

EXAMPLE : The derivative of (5x + 2x + 9) (7x -3x + 8)

equals

(10x + 2) (7x -3x + 8) - (5x + 2x + 9) (7x -3x + 8)

(14x -3)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chain Rule -------------------------------------------------------------------------------First, we should discuss the concept of the composition of a function which actu ally means the function of another function. It is easier to discuss this concep t in informal terms. ALL compositions of 2 functions consist of 2 parts: 1) The function inside the parentheses and 2) The function outside of the parentheses. As an example, let's analyze 4 (x+5) Speaking informally we could say the "inside function" is (x3+5) and the "outside function" is 4 (inside)2. First, let's multiply this out and then take the derivative. 4 (x3+5)2 = 4x6 + 40 x3 + 100 derivative = 24x5 + 120 x2 Now, let's differentiate the same equation using the chain rule which states tha t the derivative of a composite function equals: (derivative of outside) (inside) (derivative of inside). Using the chain rule to differentiate 4 (x3+5)2 we obtain: derivative of outside = 4 2 = 8 inside = x3 + 5 derivative of inside = 3x2 Now we multiply all 3 quantities to obtain: ANSWER = 8 (x3+5) (3x2) As a double check we multiply this out and obtain: 8x3+40 (3x2) = 24 x5 + 120 x2 which is precisely the answer we obtained by using the "long way".

By now you might be thinking that the problem could have been solved with or wit hout the chain rule. However, let's take a more complex example:

EXAMPLE: What is the derivative of (4X3 + 5X2 -7X +10)14 ? ANSWER: 14 (4X3 + 5X2 -7X +10)13 (12X 2 + 10X -7) Yes, this problem could have been solved by raising (4X3 + 5X2 -7X +10) to the f ourteenth power and then taking the derivative but you can see why the chain rul e saves an incredible amount of time and labor. And yes, 14 (4X3 + 5X2 -7X +10)13 (12X 2 + 10X -7) is an acceptable answer. After all, once we have determined a derivative, it is much more convenient to "plug in" values of x into a compact formula as opposed to using some multi-term monst rosity. The chain rule can also help us find other derivatives. For example, what is the derivative of the square root of (X3 + 2X + 6) OR (X3 + 2X + 6) ? ANSWER: (X3 + 2X + 6)- (3X2 + 2) Another example will illustrate the versatility of the chain rule. Let's introduce a new derivative if f(x) = sin (x) then f '(x) = cos(x) Now we can solve problems such as this composite function: what is the derivative of sin(5x3 + 2x) ? ANSWER: cos(5x3 + 2x) (15x2 + 2) The chain rule is a powerful tool of calculus and it is important that you under stand it thoroughly. _____________________