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? Find out how to ask questions and get answers. Jump to: navigatio n, search "Chinese chess" redirects here. For other uses, see Chinese chess (disambiguation). Xiangqi Xiangqi board, with pieces in their starting positions Players 2 Setup time under one minute Playing time Standard "home plays": around 1 hour Blitz games: up to 10 minutes Random chance None Skills required Tactics, Strategy This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbo ls instead of Chinese characters. Xiangqi (Chinese: ; pinyin: xingq; Wade-Giles: hsiang4-ch'i2; listen (helpinfo)), is a two-player Chinese board game in the same family as Western chess, chaturanga, shogi and janggi. The present-day form of Xiangqi originated in China and is therefore commonly called Chinese chess in English. The first character Xing here has the meaning "image" or "representational", hence Xiangqi can be literally translated as "representational chess". The game is sometimes called "elephant chess" after an alternative meaning of as "elephant". Xiangqi has a long history. Though its precise origins have not yet been confirmed, the earliest indications reveal that the game was played as early as the 4th century BC in China. Some sources state that the creator of Xiangqi is Han Xin. It is said that Xiangqi was created by Han Xin to prepare him for the battle against Xiang Yu. Xiangqi is one of the most popular board games in the world. Distinctive features of Xia ngqi include the unique movement of the pao ("cannon") piece, a rule prohibiting the g enerals (similar to chess kings) from facing each other directly, and the river and palac e board features, which restrict the movement of some pieces. Contents [hide] 1 Rules of the game 1.1 Board 1.2 Pieces 1.2.1 Marshal/General 1.2.2 Advisor/Guard 1.2.3 Minister/War Elephant 1.2.4 Horse/Cavalry 1.2.5 Chariot/Rook 1.2.6 Cannon/Catapult 1.2.7 Private/Soldier 1.2.8 Approximate relative values of the pieces 1.3 Ending the game 2 Notation 2.1 Notational system 1 2.2 Notational system 2 3 Gameplay and strategy 3.1 Openings 4 History

5 Modern play 5.1 Tournaments and leagues 5.2 Rankings 5.3 Computers 5.4 Variations 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External links

[edit] Rules of the game [edit] Board Xiangqi is a common pastime in Chinese cities such as BeijingXiangqi is played on a bo ard that is 9 lines wide by 10 lines long. In a manner similar to the game Go (Wiq ), the pieces are played on the intersections, which are known as points. The vertical lines are known as files, while the horizontal lines are known as ranks. With a few awkw ard substitutions, it is possible to play this game using a standard chess set. Centered at the first through third ranks of the board is a square zone also mirrored in the opponent's territory. The three point by three point zone is demarcated by two diag onal lines connecting opposite corners and intersecting at the center point. This area is known as gng (listen), the palace or fortress. Dividing the two opposing sides (between the fifth and sixth ranks) is h, the river. The river is often marked with the phrases ch h (listen), meaning "Chu River", a nd (in Traditional Chinese) or (in Simplified Chinese) hn ji (listen), meaning "Han border", a reference to the Chu-Han War. Although the river provides a visual division between the two sides, only a few pieces are affected by its presence: soldiers are promoted after crossing, and elephants cannot cross the river. The starting points of the soldiers and cannons are typically marked with small crosses, but not all boards have these marks. [edit] Pieces The two players take command of pieces on either side of the river. One player's pieces are usually painted red (or, less commonly, white), and the other player's pieces are usually painted black (or, less commonly, blue or green). Which player moves first has varied throughout history, and also varies from one part to another of China. Some xiangqi books state that the black side moves first; others state that the red side moves first. Also, some books may refer to the two sides as north and south; which direction corresponds to which color also varies from source to source. Generally, red goes first in most modern formal tournaments.[1] Xiangqi pieces are represented by disks marked with a Chinese character identifying the piece and painted in a colour identifying to which player the piece belongs. Modern pieces are usually made with plastic, though some sets use pieces made of wood, and more expensive sets may use pieces made of jade. In more ancient times, many sets were simple unpainted woodcarvings; thus, to distinguish between the pieces of the two sides, most corresponding pieces use characters that are similar but vary slightly between the two sides.

The oldest Xiangqi piece found to date is in Henan Provincial Museum - a piece. In Mainland China, most sets still use traditional characters for the pieces. [edit] Marshal/General General and advisorsThe generals are labelled with the Chinese character (trad.) / (simp.) jing (listen) (general) on the black side and (trad.) / (simp.) shui (listen) (marshal) on the red side. These pieces are equivalent to the kings of Western chess. Legend has it that originally the pieces were known as emperors, but when an emperor of China heard about the game, he executed two players for "killing" or "capturing" the emperor piece. Future players called them generals instead. The general starts the game at the midpoint of the back edge (within the palace). The general may move one point either vertically or horizontally, but not diagonally. The general cannot leave the palace under any circumstances (except under the flying general rule mentioned below); thus, the general can only move to and stay on the 9 points within the palace. When a general is threatened by an enemy piece, the general is said to be "in check." When the general is in check and unable to escape check on the player's move, it is said to be checkmated, and the player will lose the game. The player only loses the game if the opponent makes a move to capture the general, if the opponent fails to notice the check, or shows mercy, the game can continue. A stalemate rule does not exist. If a player makes a move that leaves the two generals facing one another on the same file with no other pieces placed in between, then the general is in check. This rule is known as the flying general (fijing in Chinese), and states that one general may "fly" across the board and capture the other if they are in the same file with no pieces in between. This is a very important feature of the Xiangqi game and is often forgotten by new players of the game. It is important because the general often plays a role in enforcing checkmate, especially when many of the other pieces have been taken and the board is wide open. Indeed, a win remains possible as long as a player has at least a single horse, chariot, or soldier not on the last rank. If a player forgets this rule and moves a piece that exposes a clear line between his or her general and his opponent's, he or she loses the game if his or her opponent notices what has happened. [edit] Advisor/Guard The advisors (also known as guards or ministers, and less commonly as assistants, mandarins, or warriors) are labelled sh (listen) ("scholar", "gentleman", "officer") for black and sh (listen) ("scholar", "official") for red. Rarely, sets use the character for both colours. While their origin is probably the same as that of the queen in Western chess[2], their powers are distinct from those of the queen[3]. The advisors start to the sides of the general. They move one point diagonally and may not leave the palace. This effectively means they can only move to five of the points wi thin the palace. They serve to protect the general/marshal. [edit] Minister/War Elephant The elephants are labelled xing (elephant) for black and xing (minister) for red. They are located next to the advisors. These pieces move exactly two points diagonally

and may not jump over intervening pieces. They may not cross the river; thus, they serve as defensive pieces. There are only seven possible points on the board to which they can move. Because of an elephant's limited movement, it can be easily trapped or threatened. A chariot can threaten one just by moving to a space where all brown spaces available to the elephant are threatened. Since one elephant could be easily captured, it depends on the other for protection. The Chinese characters for "minister" and "elephant" are homophones (listen) and both have alternative meanings as "appearance" or "image". However, both are referred to as elephants in the game. [edit] Horse/Cavalry The red horse may take the black horse, but the black horse cannot take the red horse because its movement is obstructed by another piece Green moves are legal; red ones are illegal because another piece is obstructing the movement of the horseThe horses are labelled m (listen) for black and m (listen) for red in sets marked with Traditional Chinese characters and m (listen) for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese characters. Some traditional sets use for both colours. They begin the game next to the elephants. It moves one point vertically or horizontally and then one point diagonally away from its former posit ion. It is important to note that the horse does not jump, as the knight does in Western chess. Thus, if there were a piece lying on a point one point away horizontally or vertic ally from the horse, then the horse's path of movement is blocked and it is unable to m ove in that direction. Note, however, that a piece two points away horizontally or vertic ally or a piece a single point away diagonally would not impede the movement of the h orse. The diagram on the left illustrates the horse's movement. Since horses can be blocked, it is sometimes possible to trap the opponent's horse. It is possible for one player's horse to attack the opponent's horse while the opponent's hor se is blocked from attacking, as seen in the diagram on the right. [edit] Chariot/Rook The chariots are labelled for black and for red in sets marked with Traditional Chin ese characters and for both black and red in sets marked with Simplified Chinese ch aracters. Some traditional sets use for both colors. Rarely, simplified sets use . All of these characters are pronounced as j (listen). The chariot moves and captures verti cally and horizontally any distance. The chariots begin the game on the points at the c orners of the board. Their placement and movement is similar to that of a rook in west ern chess. The chariot/rook piece is considered to be the strongest piece in the game. [edit] Cannon/Catapult The long-range threat of the cannonThe cannons are labelled po (listen) for black and po (listen) for red. They are homophones. po means a "catapult" for hurling boulders. po means "cannon". The sh

radical of means 'stone', and the hu part of means 'fire'. However, both are re ferred to as cannon in the game. In Xiangqi, each player has two cannons. The cannons start on the row behind the soldi ers, two points in front of the horses. Cannons move like the chariots, horizontally and vertically, but capture by jumping exactly one piece (whether it is friendly or enemy) o ver to its target. When capturing, the cannon is moved to the point of the captured pie ce. The piece which the cannon jumps over is called the (trad.) / (simp.) po ti (listen) ("cannon platform"). Any number of unoccupied spaces may exist between the cannon and the cannon platform, or between the cannon platform and the piece to be captured, including no spaces (the pieces being adjacent) in both cases. Cannons are powerful at the beginning of the game when platforms are plentiful, and are typically used in combination with chariots to effective mate. [edit] Private/Soldier Each side has five soldiers, labelled z (listen) (pawn/private) for black and bng (l isten) (soldier) for red. Soldiers are placed on alternating points, one row back from the edge of the river. They move and capture by advancing one point. Once they have cros sed the river, they may also move (and capture) one point horizontally. Soldiers cannot move backward, and therefore cannot retreat; however, they may still move sideways at the enemy's edge. Unlike Western chess, soldiers in Xiangqi do not promote when th ey reach the furthest rank. [edit] Approximate relative values of the pieces Piece Point(s) Soldier before crossing the river 1 Soldier after crossing the river 2 Advisor 2 Elephant 1 - 2 Horse 4 - 5 Cannon 4 - 5 Chariot 9 These advisory values do not take into account positional advantages. For example, th e chariot at the corner in the beginning of the game is not very useful, but it can be mo ved to points where it affects the game much more, for example near the center of the board or the opponent's palace. Also, the value of a cannon drops as the game goes on due to having fewer platforms for use in capturing, while the value of the horse increas es slightly due to fewer obstructions. Despite the chariot having the highest value of 9 points, it should be pointed out that often, players will, at certain game scenarios, valu e a cannon/horse on or exceeding the level of a chariot due to the piece's unique attac k style. What's left on the board is also important to value of piece. For example, in a mid or late game, if red still has two chariots and black has one advisor left, that adviso r is very valuable for black because it is very easy for red to checkmate with two chario ts if black does not have an advisor. [edit] Ending the game "Checkmate!" (assuming the cannon is safe) Note that the horse is not actually needed for this to be checkmate.The game ends when one player successfully takes the gener al, or checkmates the other playerthat is, when one player successfully threatens the opposing general with a piece and the player with the threatened general has no legal

moves which would prevent the general from being threatened. In Chinese, to say check, one says (trad.) / (simp.) jing (listen), and to say check mate, one says (trad.) / (simp.) jingjn (listen). The two calls are sometimes i nterchangeable. You are not required to inform the other player when you have them i n check. In Xiangqi, a player (often with material or positional disadvantage) may attempt to ch eck or chase pieces in a way that the moves fall in a cycle, forcing the opponent to dra w the game. The following special rules are used to make it harder to draw the game b y endless checking and chasing (regardless of whether the positions of the pieces are r epeated or not): The side that perpetually checks with one piece or several pieces will be ruled to lose u nder any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual checking. The side that perpetually chases any one unprotected piece with one or more pieces wi ll be ruled to lose under any circumstances unless he or she stops the perpetual chasin g. Chases by generals and soldiers are allowed however.[4] If one side perpetually checks and the other side perpetually chases, the perpetually c hecking side has to stop or be ruled to lose. When neither side violates the rules and both persist in not making an alternate move, the game can be ruled as a draw. When both sides violate the same rule at the same time and both persist in not making an alternate move, the game can be ruled as a draw. The above rules to prevent perpetual checking and chasing are popular, but they are b y no means the only rules. There are a large number of confusing end game situations. [5] [edit] Notation [edit] Notational system 1 The book The Chess of China[6] describes a notational system of absolute positional re ferences in which the ranks of the board are numbered 1 to 10 from closest to farthest away, followed by a digit 1 to 9 for files from right to left. Both values are relative to th e moving player. Moves are then indicated as follows: [piece name] ([former rank][former file])-[new rank][new file] Thus, the most common opening in the game would be written as: (32)35, (18)37 [edit] Notational system 2 A notational system partially described in A Manual of Chinese Chess[7] and used by se veral computer software implementations describes positions in relative terms as follo ws: [single-letter piece abbreviation][former file][operator indicating direction of movemen t][new file, or in the case of purely vertical movement, new rank] The file numbers are counted from each player's right to each player's left. The initials are as follows:

Piece Initial(s) Advisor A Cannon C Chariot R (for Rook, because using C would conflict with the letter for Cannon) Elephant E General G or K (for King) Horse H Soldier S or P (for Pawn) Direction of movement is indicated via an operator symbol. A plus sign is used to indic ate forward movement. A minus sign or hyphen is used to indicate backwards moveme nt. A dot or period or equal sign is used to indicate horizontal or lateral movement. If a piece (such as the horse or elephant) simultaneously moves both vertically and horizon tally, then the plus or minus sign is used rather than the period. Thus, the most common opening in the game would be written as: C2.5 H8+7 [edit] Gameplay and strategy Xiangqi is a fast game for several reasons. First, the barrier of pawns is reduced drama tically. Second, the cannons jump to capture, making them a long-range threat early in the game. In addition, since the general is confined to only moving within the palace, it can be checkmated more easily unless it is protected by other pieces. Because of the size of the board and the relative low number of long-range pieces, it m ay take time to move one's army of pieces from place to place on the board, and there is a tendency for the battle to focus on a particular area of the board. Common strategi es used in Western chess such as forking with horse and pinning with chariot (sometim es the cannon and general can also pin) are also applicable in xiangqi. Usually, the soldiers do not support each other unless the player has no better move. T his is because from the initial position, it takes a minimum of 5 moves of a soldier to all ow twin soldiers to protect each other. Defensively, a common configuration is to leave the general at his or her starting positi on, deploy one advisor and one elephant on the two points directly in front of the gener al, and to leave the other advisor and the other elephant in their starting positions, to t he side of the general. In this setup, the paired-up advisors and elephants support each other, and the general is immune from attacks by cannons. However, with the loss of a single advisor or elephant, the general becomes vulnerable to cannons, and this setup may need to be abandoned. The defender may move advisors or elephants away from the general, or even sacrifice them intentionally, to ward off attack by a cannon. The two chariots are not normally lined up together as they are the most powerful piec e and in doing so, a player risks the chances of losing at least one chariot to an inferior piece of the enemy. Depending on the situation, it may be advantageous to position a chariot at one of the corners of the enemy's side of the board, where it is very difficult t o dislodge, and threatens the enemy general. It is common to use the cannons independently to control particular ranks and files. Usi ng a cannon to control the middle file is often considered vital strategy, because it help s to lock certain pieces such as the advisors and elephants in certain positions to preve nt a check. The two files adjacent to the middle rank are also considered important and knights and chariots can be used to push for mate here.

[edit] Openings

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 abcdefghi Dng tu po: Red moves his or her cannon over from h3 to e3. (Noted as "(32)35" or "C2.5")

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 abcdefghi M li tio: Black moves his or her horse out from h10 to g8 (Noted as "(18)37" or "H8+7") Since the left and right flank of the starting setup are symmetrical and therefore equiv alent, it is customary to always make the first move from the right flank. Starting on th e left flank is considered to be needlessly confusing. The most common opening is to move the cannon to the central column, an opening k nown as (trad.) / (simp.) dng tu po. The most common reply is to advance the horse on the same flank. Together, this move-and-response is known by the rhyme (trad.) / (simp.) dng tu po, m li tio (listen). The notation for this is "1. (32)35, (18)37" or "1. C2.5 H8+7". See also the diagrams to the right. This is usually followed by the most common second move, (trad.) / (simp.) ch j"chariot sortie"in which the first player moves a chariot forward one space (usu

ally the right one(moving the left chariot loses the left horse to the enemy cannon) ). The most common reply is to move the right advisor diagonally. shng sh. This is to prevent a series of events that leads to the first player quickly checkmating the second. Less common first moves include: moving an elephant to the central column advancing the soldier on the third or seventh file moving a horse forward moving either cannon behind the 2nd pawn from the left or right General advice for the opening includes rapid development of at least one chariot, because it is the most powerful piece and the only long-range piece besides the cannon. It may not be a bad move to develop one horse to the edge of the board, for example, to avoid being blocked by one of one's own pawns that cannot advance. Usually, at least one horse should be moved to the middle. Beginners often succumb to an early checkmate with two cannons. This checkmate may be executed in four moves from the beginning of the game. However, it is easily countered by the horse reply. A double cannon technique involves 2 cannons of the same side lining up with the enemy general with no other pieces in between. This results in a check as the rear cannon uses the front cannon as cannon platform. The opponent cannot get away by placing a piece in front of the general to block the rear cannon because the front cannon will use that newly-moved piece as cannon platform to capture the general. The solution is either to move the general up before the check or to nullify the 2nd cannon either by taking it out or placing a piece between the two cannons. [edit] History Xiangqi has a long history. Though its precise origins have not yet been definitely confirmed, the earliest indications reveal the game may have been played as early as the 4th century BC, by Tian Wen (), the Lord of Mengchang () for the state of Qi, during the Warring States Period. (See chess in early literature or timeline of chess.) Judging by its rules, Xiangqi was apparently closely related to military strategists in anc ient China. The ancient Chinese game of Liubo may have had an influence as well. The word Xingq's meaning "figure game" can also be treated as meaning "constellation game". Sometimes the xingq board's "river" is called the "heavenly river", which may mean the Milky Way; previous versions of xingq may have been based on the movements of sky objects. During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, wars were fought for years running. A new strategy board game was patterned after the array of troops (according to a hypothesis by David H. Li, this was developed by Han Xin in the winter of 204 BC-203 BC to prepare for an upcoming battle). This was the earliest form of Xiangqi. During the Cao Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties, a kind of strategy game was popular among the people. It laid a foundation for the finalized pattern of Xiangqi. In ancient times, both highbrows and lowbrows enjoyed Xiangqi. During the reign of Suzong of the Tang Dynasty, Prime Minister Niu Sengru wrote a fictional story about Xiangqi. That occurred during the Baoying period, so it was named

Baoying. Baoying had six pieces and produced a significant influence on Xiangqi in subsequent years. Three forms of the game took shape after the Song Dynasty. One of them consisted of 32 pieces. They were played on a board with 9 vertical lines and 9 horizontal lines. Popular in those days was a board without a river borderline; the Korean game of janggi is derived from this earlier riverless version. The river borderline was added later, and this form of the game has lasted to the present day. With the economic and cultural development during the Qing Dynasty, Xiangqi entered a new stage. Many different schools of circles and players came into prominence. With the popularization of Xiangqi, many books and manuals on the techniques of playing the game were published. They played an important role in popularizing Xiangqi and improving the techniques of play in modern times. [edit] Modern play [edit] Tournaments and leagues In Europe and Asia, there are significantly more Xiangqi leagues and clubs than in the United States. Each European nation generally has its own governing league; for example, in Britain, Xiangqi is regulated by the United Kingdom Chinese Chess Association. Asian countries also have nationwide leagues, such as the Malaysia Chinese Chess Association in Malaysia. In addition, there are also several international federations and tournaments. For example, the Chinese Xiangqi Association hosts several tournaments every year, including the Yin Li and Ram Cup Tournaments.[8] There is also an Asian Xiangqi Federation[9] and a World Xiangqi Federation,[10] which hosts tournaments and competitions bi-annually, though most are limited to players from member nations. Xiangqi has spread from Asia into the United States, where it has gained increasing popularity. However, there remains no official league or nationwide club for Xiangqi in the U.S.,[11] and Xiangqi is mainly played recreationally or at local clubs, usually located in Chinatowns. [edit] Rankings The Asian Xiangqi Federation and its corresponding member associations also rank players in a number format similar to the rankings of chess. The best player in China, according to the 2006 Chinese National Ratings, is Xu Yinchuan with a rating of 2628. [12] Other strong players include Lu Qin and Hu Ronghua. The Asian Xiangqi Federation also bestows the title of grandmaster to select individuals around the world who have excelled at xiangqi or have made special contributions to the game. Though there are no specific criteria for becoming a grandmaster, the list of grandmasters is limited to fewer than a hundred people.[13] [edit] Computers Please help improve this article or section by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page or at requests for expansion. (April 2007) As of 2005, the world's best human xiangqi players remain better than the world's best

computer players. The game-tree complexity of xiangqi is approximately 10150, so in 2004 it was projected that a human top player will be defeated before 2010.[14] And in the Computer-Human Xiangqi Dual Meet in 2006[4], the final score was Computer 5.5 - Human 4.5 [edit] Variations Variations of the game have been created, such as Blitz games, Supply Chess and two variations "blind" chess. In Blitz games, each player only has around 5-10 minutes each (depending on rules), leading to a fast-paced game with no room for thought and moves have to be made by instinct. In Supply Chess, a team of two players plays against another team, with one person taking the black pieces and another taking the red pieces. Any pieces obtained by killing the opponent's pieces is given to the teammate. These pieces can be deployed by the teammate to give him an advantage over the other player, so long as he observes the following rules: The piece can only be on your own side The piece cannot cause your opponent to be in check There have been instances of Blitz-Supply chess, but such competitions are usually friendly or small scale, as much criticism has arose over these variations of chess. Players often use tactics such as rapidly exchanging pieces to force out a draw in blitz games. In supply chess, one player often exchanges all his pieces with his opponent to allow his teammate to confuse his opponent with the large number of pieces on the board. Four cannons or rooks on the board would lead to an almost unbreakable control of key lanes, virtually assuring victory. In blind chess, played by two, all of the pieces are jumbled, flipped so the character of the piece is concealed and placed on the squares on only one side of the river. The players assume a colour and take alternate turns. The object of the game is to capture all of your opponent's pieces. At each turn, the player can do one of three things. They may choose to uncover a concealed piece, move one of their own pieces to an empty square (pieces can only move to an adjacent square and not diagonally regardless of its movement style in original Xiangqi) or they may choose to capture one of their opponents pieces. There are limitations for the last option however. Each piece, although move the same way, has a "rank" that enables it to capture pieces beneath its rank. The general is the highest rank and can capture any piece apart from the soldier. The chariot can capture all other pieces apart from the general. The horse may capture all pieces apart from the general and the chariot. The cannon may capture the elephant, advisor and soldiers and the elephant may capture the advisor and soldiers. Soldiers, is the lowest rank but also one of the most important as it is the only piece that can capture generals (which is the most powerful piece in blind chess)

The game continues until one of the players has lost all of their pieces. Blind chess is mostly a game of luck as the player cannot choose where their pieces are set up. They can only increase their chances by moving pieces and uncovering appropriately, calculating the odds that the uncovered piece next to them can be friend or foe, superior or inferior. This game is more well known in Hong Kong than in mainland China. A second variation of blind chess involves playing without a visible chess board. The players have to memorize the positions of the pieces on the chess board. A third person is occasionally asked to keep track of the game with an actual chess board in case of disputes. The players calls out their moves with four character notations in the format [piece name][former file][advance/retreat/horizontal][new file/ranks advanced]. For example, if a horse was in rank 3 file 3 and it was to move to rank 4 file 5, the notation used would be the Chinese words "horse 3 advances to 5". If a chariot was to move from rank 3 file 3 to rank 3 file 6, it would be "chariot 3 horizontal to 6". If a piece advances forward without changing file, the number of steps forward or back is used instead. [edit] Notes ^ Xiangqi: Chinese Chess ([1]) ^ from the mantri in Chaturanga) ^ (but similar to that of the mantri) ^ CXQ Chinese Chess Rules ([2]) ^ Asian Chinese Chess Rules ([3]) ^ Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China: Mei Ya, 1978. (getCITED.org listing) ^ Wilkes, Charles Fred. A Manual of Chinese Chess. 1952. ^ From rec.games.chinese-chess FAQ #21 What are some of the top tournaments in the world? ^ Asian Xiangqi Federation homepage includes English translations of Asian tournament results, rules, etc. ^ World Xiangqi Federation homepage. ^ From rec.games.chinese-chess FAQ #20 ^ -- ^ rec.games.chinese-chess FAQ lists the International Grandmasters by country. ^ Yen, Chen, Yang, Hsu, 2004, Computer Chinese Chess. [edit] Further reading Lau, H. T. Chinese Chess. Tuttle Publishing, Boston, 1985. ISBN 0-8048-3508-X. Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China: Mei Ya, 197 8. (Out-of-print but can be partly downloaded on http://www.banaschak.net/index.html) Li, David H. First Syllabus on Xiangqi: Chinese Chess 1. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1996. ISBN 0-9637852-5-7. Li, David H. The Genealogy of Chess. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. IS BN 0-9637852-2-2. Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Cannon: Chinese Chess 2. Premier Publishing, Bethesd a, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-7-3. Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Elephant: Chinese Chess 3. Premier Publishing, Bethes da, Maryland, 2000. ISBN 0-9637852-0-6. Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Pawn: Chinese Chess 4. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2002. ISBN 0-9711690-1-2. Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Horse: Chinese Chess 5. Premier Publishing, Bethesda,

Maryland, 2004. ISBN 0-9711690-2-0. Sloan, Sam. Chinese Chess for Beginners. Ishi Press International, San Rafael, Tokyo, 1 989. ISBN 0-923891-11-0. Wilkes, Charles Fred. A Manual of Chinese Chess. 1952. For a serious and updated reading about Xiangqi history: Andrew Lo and Tzi-Cheng Wa ng, ""The Earthworms Tame the Dragon": The Game of Xiangqi" in Asian Games, The A rt of Contest, edited by Asia Society, 2004 [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: XiangqiComputer Chinese ChessPDF (221 KiB) (Yen, Chen, Yang, Hsu) review Introduction to Chinese Chess An Introduction to Xiangqi for Chess Players Essentials of Chinese Chess and of Korean ChessPDF (217 KiB) Qianhong Xiangqi freeware Chinese Chess game for Windows Internet Chinese Chess Server (thai. und engl.) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiangqi" Categories: Xiangqi | Abstract strategy games | Traditional board games | Chess varian ts | Chinese games | Chinese words and phrases | Chinese ancient games Hidden categories: Articles to be expanded since April 2007 | All articles to be expande dViewsArticle Discussion Edit this page History Personal toolsLog in / create account Na vigation Main Page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Interaction About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help Search Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Cite this page Languages esky Dansk Deutsch Espaol Esperanto Franais Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Magyar

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