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SPECIFIC HEAT

Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance to unit degree rise of temperature. Formula>>> c= Q/ T

Another type of specific heat is Molar specific heat which is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance through 1kelvin. Formula>>> c= Q/nT

PROPERTIES OF THERMODYNAMICS
1-Extensive properties
The properties of the system, whose value for the entire system is equal to the sum of their values for the individual parts of the system are called extensive properties. Example ( volume,mass,energy etc)

2-Intensive properties
It may be noticed that the temperature of the system is not equal to the sum of the temperatures of its individual parts, it is also true for pressure and density of the system.thus properties like temp,pressure and density are called intensive properties.

3-State
The state of a system (when the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium) is the condition of the system at any particular moment.

4-Process
A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic development of a thermodynamic system proceeding from an initial state to a final state.

BOYLE'S LAW
It states that the absolute pressure of a given mass of a perfect gas varies inversely as its volume, when the temperature remains constant." pv=constant or p1v1=p2v2=p3v3

CHARLE'S LAW
It states that the volume of a given mass of a perfect gas varies directly as its absolute temperature, when the absolute pressure remains constant".Mathematically p/T=constant OR V1/T1=V2/T2=V3/T3

AVOGADRO'S LAW
It states that"equal volumes of all gases,at the same temperature and pressure,contain equal no of molecules." n v

DALTON'S LAW
Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by the mixture of non-reactive gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases. This empirical law was observed by John Dalton in 1801 and is related to the ideal gas laws. ptotal=p1+p2+.....pn

GENERAL GAS EQUATION


According to Boyles Law : Volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to pressure if temperature remains constant . V 1/P -------------------(1) According to Charles law: Volume of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to absolute temperature if pressure remains constant. V T ----------------------(2) According to Avogadros law: Volume of a gas is directly proportional to no of moles. V n -----------------------(3) Combining 1,2,and 3 V T.n1/P. V nT/P V= (constant) nT/P PV/nT = constant Here constant is R PV/nT = R Or PV= n RT This is the equation of state of a gas (Ideal Gas Equation) R= Universal gas constant

Value of R is equal to 0.0821 dm3.atmosphere/mole.k R has different values in different systems of unit ANOTHER FORM: As PV/nT = constant For initial conditions: When temperature is T1 and pressure is P1: P1V1/T1 = constant -----------------(a) Similarly for final conditions: P2V2/T2 = constant -----------------(b) From equation (a) & (b) P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


It states that "The energy can niether be created nor destroyed through it can be transformed from one form to another." OR "The heat and mechanical work are mutually convertible." Formula--> Q-W=E OR Q+U=E

APPLICATIONS OF FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


1-Isobaric process
Isobaric process is that process which takes place at constant pressure. In such a process the heat transferred and the works done are both non-zero. MATHEMATICALLY W=PV OR Q=W+U

2-Isochoric process
It is defined as that process in which the volume of the system remains constant. in this process the work done will be zero so mathematically it can be written as U= Q

3-Isothermal process
If the temperature of the system remains constant throughout the process, it is called the isothermal process. In this process the internal energy of the gas does not change i.e U2-U1=o.therefore from the first law of thermodynamics Q= W

4-Adiabatic process
The process in which no heat flows into or out of the system is called an adiabatic process.Mathematically it can be written as,

U=-

HEAT
A quantity of heat is an amount of energy produced or transferred from one body,region of space,set of components,or thermodynamic system to another in any way other than as work.

WORK
.

Mechanical work is a scalar quantity that can be described as the product of a force times the distance through which it acts,and it is called the work of the force.

THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM
A thermodynamic system is a precisely defined macroscopic region of the universe, often called a physical system,that is studied using the principles of thermodynamics.

Control volume
Control volume is a volume in space of special interest for particular analysis. The surface of the control volume is referred as a control surface and is a closed surface. The surface is defined with relative to a coordinate system that may be fixed, moving or rotating. Mass,heat and work can cross the control surface and mass and properties can change with time within the control volume.

Examples: turbines, compressors, nozzle, diffuser, pumps, heat exchanger, reactors, a thrust-producing device, and combinations of these.

Control mass
The two underlying conservation equations for performing a thermodynamic analysis on a closed system or a control mass are, 1. Conservation of Mass, and 2. Conservation of Energy

Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Mass, which states that mass cannot be created or destroyed, is implicitly satisfied by the definition of a control mass.

Conservation of Energy
The first law of thermodynamics states: Energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only change forms. Energy transformation is accomplished through energy transfer as work and/or heat. Work and heat are the forms that energy can take in order to be transferred across the system boundary. the first law leads to the principle of Conservation of Energy where we can stipulate the energy content of an isolated system is constant.

Energy entering-Energy leaving=change of energy within the system.

PRESSURE-VOLUME FORMATION

DIAGRAME

FOR

STEAM

A PV diagram plots the change in pressure P with respect to volume V for some process or processes. Typically in thermodynamics,the set of processes forms a cycle,so that upon completion of the cycle there has been no net change in state of the system; ie, the device returns to the starting pressure and volume. The figure shows the features of a typical PV diagram. A series of numbered states (1 through 4) are noted. The path between each state consists of some process (A through D) which alters the pressure or volume of the system (or both).

A key feature of the diagram is that the amount of energy expended or received by the system as work can be estimated as the area under the curve on the chart. For a cyclic diagram, the net work is that enclosed by the curve. In the example given in the figure, the processes 1-2-3 produce a work output, but processes from 3-4-1 require a smaller

energy input to return to the starting position / state; thus the net work is the difference between the two.

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