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1 meer of my late husband Far Rahman. ony red by Bs Ran ad the hide Th a if i te Take nat Nee agor tee a deg Di Dae pst a a OK Pine alban in In by Gop Pope a, No CONTENTS Editors note Acknonledgments ndction 1. Baoy Seta and Formation of Sanat Orthodoxy 2. Developments from i Politics, fim, and Gnostic Extremism 23, aly Medieval Reform: The Saft Reform andthe ale of Chal 4. Later Medieval Reform, 5 Indian Reformist Thought ae 1 166 210 zi EDITOR'S NOTE exthumous publishing i always « oeardous tsk, and thus editor of ‘ach published werk mast be prepare lo take the risk involved. At the time of his death the Pakistani scholar Fashr Rahman (1919-1988) had arly completed def of « book entitled “Revival and Reform: A ‘Study in Islamic Fundamentals” The thor gota fara ve chaptern tha covered the eal history of Inland ee ofthe aor epeh-making ‘ures in the istry of lala evil Lf did nat erat him o complete his commentary on the section dealing wth moder fndamentaism a be ined. Some critics may argue that it may have been best if the Incomplete bock was never published. Others may appreciate Fair Rahman's last thoughts. Despite my hesitation, Iwas encouraged by the ‘at that soverl af the ate authors fendnand stents wore engor to s00 thi volume published. In pariclar Faslur Rahman's wile, Mes ile Rahman, was supportive of th ie of publication. After her hurband died ‘the placed this manuscript inthe cuted of Prfessr John Wend, director ‘ofthe Center for Mile Easter Stain and cllengueof Far Rehman the University of Cheng. Although Iwas ota student of Fear Rahman inthe formal sense, 1 ‘consider myself rong thane who benefited tremendoul frm in wrige avd ideas, Tha, when ax vning South Afcan fellow atthe University of Chicago in 1990, Professor Woods showed me this manoseript, 1 Imediatelyexpremted an interest in examining i. For anyone fui veh Felor Rahman mane and important works such ax Ascena Prycolog, lam, Ilamie Methodology in History, Mejor Then of he Er) No vib (Quran, an lam and Modenty it wan exiting to rad the materi that ‘ow contitte this book. The already published works of the late ator shaped his oeure and conatitved the mtn template fr hin interpretation ‘of developments within Ilamic thought. Resval and reform was «theme asl Rahman ceaslemy parsed and it defined hiv later intelectual project. Therefore, students of Faalue Rahman thought wil nd tht in is volume he revat sme of those igre and ides in detail that he ‘thers bi treated in hi many scholarly casas and honk ‘The manuscript ial appeared to be Sint def. Falur Rehan wae ‘iced with arthritis in his ands hich made wring dificult, The ‘uth’ son temcrihed the reared manoscript. One of the main ese this editor had o contend wi waa the fact tht the sentences inthe ext vere long and speechstye. At times a single sentence conaitted & paragraph. For thie reason editing was nocemary in places With the fo sources cited in the txt, none ofthe citations ad ‘extremely frustrating and ine consuming, inthe end it wa le rewarding to ore over the sources tht this extrerdinary thinker marbled in his ecarch. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS various stages of this project many poople have encouraged and amit me. My thank go o Profesor Jn Woods and Mi» Rahman ‘tho were gracious in entrusting me wih the editahip ofthis manuscript. [A the University of Cape Town, T woud Hike to thank my research ‘sinants Abnahid Mohamed, Abdelader Ripa, and Tabi Sit; Ma ‘Asi Brey, the departmental sistant th ine, provided sles support ‘and aaitance. At Sanford Univer, Sayema Hameed eel Hamed Saced ‘ko provided some help. Profesor Wan Mohamed Nur Wan Daud and Dr MshammadZsiniy Uthman at the Intemational Inwitete of Islamic ‘Thought and Cirle (STAC), and Profesor Mercia Hermancon ofthe Univesity of Laels (Chicago) ll provided some clues in tracing few references. Professor Amina Wad provided hepfl comments onthe Inedtion and genuine aopport. Mary Starkey inciive and highly professional editorial kills saved me from several inflict. Special ‘ord of hank ol of my fiend whose encouragement and supp over the yrs canna go unacknovieged: Abdurahid Omer, Abdalkader ‘Tiyoh, Chuck Wanamaker, Shamil Jepie,Se'dyye Shaikh, Farid sack, Muhammad Sted Kae Aare Mohamed, Abdal Aleem Somer, Richard Marin, Bruce Lawrence, Abdlasit Sechedina, Muneer Fareed, Ahmad Mana, Iail Marra, Shunsb Mane Fazal Davjee, and Mahmood Manda T have special thanks for « person to whom I have grow close in {tendship ovr the year. Rabet C Gregg, Teresa Hihn Moore Profesor in Religout Statics and former dean of Stanford Memorial Church, was Acknowledgments (x intrumenal in making sy fest end subsequent vies to Stanford Univenity posible. Amie Eisen, Chair of Religious Studies end hie colleague at Stanford were supprtve during my year as visting profesor ‘in 1098-1999 daring which most ofthis etal werk ok place. Richard Roberts at Stanford history department was alvays at hand to afer advice sd explore avenues for which Lam patefl Finally, my apreiation tomy tended fay: my parent, Iabiq and Ht; my brothers and sisters Sleiman, Aisa, Naaoema, Finland Zabenia; my inl Goolam and Farida Pend my wife Fabimoeisa (Nisa) and cu children Lamy and Shibl; my uncle Mohamad an his wife Zayboenisa for ll heir care over the year to ll of them Iwan o acknowledge my gratitude for thei love tnd car and for making my life meaning. am very much in debt all other, Ebrahim Moota ‘Stanford, 1999