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Theories of Social Learning 1. Drive Theory Neo-Hullian Theory Clark Hull 2. Operant Learning Theory B.F. Skinner 3.

3. Cognitive Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Neo-Hullian Theory Difference from psychoanalytic approach 1. Instincts played virtually no role in this theory 2. The personality was no longer described as a system composed of an id, ego and superego. (used the term habit) Habit well-learned associations between various stimuli and responses that represent the stable aspects of ones characters 3. Development occurs continuously and is not at all stagelike Personality-system of transition John Dollard and Neil Miller 4. Each individual was said to develop a unique habit structure (or personality) because no two persons are never exposed to precisely the same set of social learning experiences Dollard & Miller-viewed development as the changes in a childs behavior as a result of his or her experiences Collection of habits (personality) the idea outcome of the learning experiences Operant-Learning Approach B. F. Skinner - Majority of habits that children acquire are freely emitted responses or operants that are either more or less probable as a function of their consequences - Behavior is motivated by external stimuli reinforcers or primitive events- rather than of internal forces or drives - Radical behaviorism focuses exclusively on the external stimuli (reward and punishment) Banduras Cognitive Social Learning Theory - Children can learn novel responses by merely observing the behavior of a model, making representations to reproduce the models behavior at some future time - Cognitive learning children need not be reinforced or even respond in order to learn by observing others - Human development is best described as a continuous reciprocal interaction between children and their environment; the environment clearly affects the child, but the childs behavior is thought to affect the environment as well Cognitive-Development Theory Jean Piaget

Research Methods Human development research follows an organized set of principles to guide the research process. 1. Define the problem by focusing on specific variables that are carefully defined 2. Formulates questions and or hypotheses concerning the problem and the relationship among variables are established 3. Select a representative sample to participate in the study 4. Collect the data

5. Statistically analyze the data. 6. Choose the statistical techniques as quantitative tool to assist in understanding the info 7. Summarize the findings 8. Report 3 data collection methods 1. Descriptive studies 2. Manipulative experiments 3. Naturalistic experiments Descriptive Studies information is gathered on subjects without manipulating them in any way Manipulative and Naturatilistic- an experiment is performed before the info is gathered Four time-variable designs 1. One time 2. One-group 3. Longitudinal studies 4. Cross-sectional studies 5. Sequential studies Self-report studies ask people their opinion of themselves Interviews Person-person meetings or conversations Questionnaires devices that consist of a list of questions to be answered Observational studies-counting the numb and types of their behaviors Case studies presents data on an individual or individuals in great detail in order to make generalizations about a particular age group