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2400 BC Abacus: The abacus, the first known calculator, was invented in Babylonia

500 BC Panini: Introduced the forerunner to modern formal language theory 300 BC Pingala: Pingala invented the binary number system 87 BC Antikythera Mechanism: Built in Rhodes to track movement of the stars 60 AD Heron of Alexandria: Heron of Alexandria invents machines which follow a series of instructions 724 Liang Ling-Can: Liang Ling-Can invents the first fully mechanical clock

1492 Leonardo da Vinci: Drawings by Leonardo da Vinci depict inventions such as flying machines, including a helicopter, the first mechanical calculator and one of the first programmable robots

1614 John Napier: John Napier invents a system of moveable rods (Napier's Rods) based on logarithms which was able to multiply, divide and calculate square and cube roots

1622 1623 1642 1671

William Oughtred: William Oughtred develops slide rules Calculating Clock: Invented by Wilhelm Schickard Blaise Pascal: Blaise Pascal invents the the "Pascaline", a mechanical adding machine Gottfried Leibniz: Gottfried Leibniz is known as one of the founding fathers of calculus

1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquard: Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents an automatic loom controlled by punched cards

1820 Arithmometer: The Arithmometer was the first mass-produced calculator invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar

1822 1834 1835

Charles Babbage: Charles Babbage designs his first mechanical computer Analytical Engine: The Analytical Engine was invented by Charles Babbage Morse code: Samuel Morse invents Morse code

1848 1853 Machine 1869 1878 table 1880 Photophone 1884 pressing keys

Boolean algebra: Boolean algebra is invented by George Boole Tabulating Machine: Per Georg Scheutz and his son Edvard invent the Tabulating

William Stanley Jevons: William Stanley Jevons designs a practical logic machine Ramon Verea: Ramon Verea invents a fast calculator with an internal multiplication

Alexander Graham Bell: Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone called the

Comptometer: The Comptometer is an invention of Dorr E. Felt which is operated by

1890 Herman Hollerith: Herman Hollerith invents a counting machine which increment mechanical counters


Guglielmo Marconi: Radio signals were invented by Guglielmo Marconi

1896 Tabulating Machine Company: Herman Hollerith forms the Tabulating Machine Company which later becomes IBM


Nikola Tesla: Remote control was invented by Nikola Tesla

1906 1911

Lee De Forest: Lee De Forest invents the electronic tube IBM: IBM is formed on June 15, 1911

1923 1924

Philo Farnsworth: Television Electronic was invented by Philo Farnsworth John Logie Baird: Electro Mechanical television system was invented by John Logie Baird

Walther Bothe: Walther Bothe develops the logic gate

1930 1931 1937

Vannevar Bush: Vannevar Bush develops a partly electronic Difference Engine Kurt Godel: Kurt Godel publishes a paper on the use of a universal formal language Alan Turing: Alan Turing develops the concept of a theoretical computing machine

1938 punch tape

Konrad Zuse: Konrad Zuse creates the Z1 Computer a binary digital computer using

1939 George Stibitz: George Stibitz develops the Complex Number Calculator - a foundation for digital computers

Hewlett Packard: William Hewlett and David Packard start Hewlett Packard

John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry: John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry develop the ABC (Atanasoft-Berry Computer) prototype


Enigma: Adolf Hitler uses the Enigma encryption machine

Colossus: Alan Turing develops the the code-breaking machine Colossus

1944 Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper: Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the MARK series of computers at Harvard University

1945 ENIAC: John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly: John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly develop the ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)

Computer Bug: The term computer bug as computer bug was first used by Grace Hopper

1946 F.C. Williams: F.C. Williams develops his cathode-ray tube (CRT) storing device the forerunner to random-access memory (RAM)

1947 Pilot ACE: Donald Watts Davies joins Alan Turing to build the fastest digital computer in England at the time, the Pilot ACE

William Shockley: William Shockley invents the transistor at Bell Labs

Douglas Engelbart: Douglas Engelbart theorises on interactive computing with keyboard and screen display instead of on punchcards


Andrew Donald Booth: Andrew Donald Booth invents magnetic drum memory

Frederic Calland Williams & Tom Kilburn: Frederic Calland Williams & Tom Kilburn develop the SSEM "Small Scale Experimental Machine" digital CRT storage which was soon nicknamed the "Baby"


Claude Shannon: Claude Shannon builds the first machine that plays chess

Howard Aiken: Howard Aiken develops the Harvard-MARK III


Hideo Yamachito: The first electronic computer is created in Japan by Hideo Yamachito.

Alan Turing: Alan Turing publishes his paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence which helps create the Turing Test.

1951 LEO: T. Raymond Thompson and John Simmons develop the first business computer, the Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) at Lyons Co.

UNIVAC: UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was introduced - the first commercial computer made in the United States and designed principally by John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly

EDVAC: The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) begins performing basic tasks. Unlike the ENIAC, it was binary rather than decimal


The IBM 701 becomes available and a total of 19 are sold to the scientific community.

1954 Language

John Backus & IBM: John Backus & IBM develop the FORTRAN Computer Programming


Bell Labs introduces its first transistor computer.

1956 Curtiss

Optical fiber was invented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E.

1957 1958

Sputnik I and Sputnik II: Sputnik I and Sputnik II are launched by the Russians ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) and NASA is formed

Silicon chip: The first integrated circuit, or silicon chip, is produced by the US Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce

1959 Paul Baran: Paul Baran theorises on the "survivability of communication systems under nuclear attack", digital technology and symbiosis between humans and machines

1960 invented.

COBOL: The Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language is

1961 Unimate: General Motors puts the first industrial robot, Unimate, to work in a New Jersey factory.

1962 The first computer game: The first computer game Spacewar Computer Game invented BY Steve Russell & MIT

1963 The Computer Mouse: Douglas Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouse (nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end)

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is developed to standardize data exchange among computers.


Word processor: IBM introduces the first word processor

BASIC: John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC)


Hypertext: Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson coin the term "hypertext"

1967 1969

Floppy Disk: IBM creates the first floppy disk Seymour Cray: Seymour Cray develops the CDC 7600, the first supercomputer

Gary Starkweather: Gary Starkweather invents the laser printer whilst working with Xerox

ARPANET: The U.S. Department of Defense sets up the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET ) this network was the first building blocks to what the internet is today but originally with the intention of creating a computer network that could withstand any type of disaster.

1970 RAM: Intel introduces the world's first available dynamic RAM ( random-access memory) chip and the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004.


E-mail: E-mail was invented by Ray Tomlinson

Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD ): Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD ) was invented by James Fergason

Pocket calculator: Pocket calculator was invented by Sharp Corporation

Floppy Disk: Floppy Disk was invented by David Noble with IBM - Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility.


First Video Game: Atari releases Pong, the first commercial video game

The CD: The compact disc is invented in the United States.

1973 Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs: Robert Metcalfe creates the Ethernet, a local-area network (LAN) protocol

Personal computer: The minicomputer Xerox Alto (1973) was a landmark step in the development of personal computers

Gateways: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn develop gateway routing computers to negotiate between the various national networks


SQL: IBM develops SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language ) now known as SQL

WYSIWYG: Charles Simonyi coins the term WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) to describe the ability of being able to display a file or document exactly how it is going to be printed or viewed


Portable computers: Altair produces the first portable computer

Microsoft Corporation: The Microsoft Corporation was founded April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800


Apple: Apple Computers was founded Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs

1977 Apple Computers Apple II, the first personal computer with color graphics, is demonstrated

MODEM: Ward Christensen writes the programme "MODEM" allowing two microcomputers to exchange files with each other over a phone line


Magnetic tape: The first magnetic tape is developed in the US


Over half a million computers are in use in the United States.

1980 Paul Allen and Bill Gates: IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates to create an operating system for a new PC. They buy the rights to a simple operating system manufactured by Seattle Computer Products and use it as a template to develop DOS.


Microsoft: MS-DOS Computer Operating System increases its success

1982 program

WordPerfect: WordPerfect Corporation introduces WordPerfect 1.0 a word processing

Commodore 64: The Commodore 64 becomes the best-selling computer of all time.

SMTP: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is introduced


More than 10 million computers are in use in the United States

Domain Name System (DNS): Domain Name System (DNS) pioneered by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris and Craig Partridge. Seven 'top-level' domain names are initially introduced: edu, com, gov, mil, net, org and int.

Windows: Microsoft Windows introduced eliminating the need for a user to have to type each command, like MS-DOS, by using a mouse to navigate through drop-down menus, tabs and icons


Apple Macintosh: Apple introduces the Macintosh with mouse and window interface

Cyberspace: William Gibson coins the word cyberspace when he publishes Neuromancer

1985 Paul Brainard: Paul Brainard introduces Pagemaker for the Macintosh creating the desktop publishing field.

Nintendo: The Nintendo Entertainment System makes its debut.

1986 1987

More than 30 million computers are in use in the United States. Microsoft introduces Microsoft Works

Perl: Larry Wall introduces Perl 1.0


Over 45 million PCs are in use in the United States.

1990 The Internet, World Wide Web & Tim Berners-Lee: Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau propose a 'hypertext' system starting the modern Internet

Microsoft and IBM stop working together to develop operating systems


The World Wide Web: The World Wide Web is launched to the public on August 6, 1991


At the beginning of the year only 50 World Wide Web servers are known to exist

1994 The World Wide Web Consortium is founded by Tim Berners-Lee to help with the development of common protocols for the evolution of the World Wide Web

YAHOO: YAHOO is created in April, 1994.


Java: Java is introduced

Amazon: Amazon.com is founded by Jeff Bezos

EBay: EBay is founded by Pierre Omidyar

Hotmail: Hotmail is started by Jack Smith and Sabeer Bhatia.


WebTV: WebTV is introduced


Altavista introduces its free online translator Babel Fish

Microsoft acquires Hotmail


Google: Google is founded by Sergey Brin and Larry Page on September 7, 1998

PayPal is founded by Peter Thiel and Max Levchin


Xbox: Bill Gates introduces the Xbox on January 7th 2001.


Approximately 1 billion PCs been sold

PayPal is acquired by eBay

2005 2006

September 12: eBay acquires Skype Skype announces that it has over 100 million registered users.