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Unabomber'sManifesto ThefollowingisfulltextoftheUnabomber'sManifesto. _________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION 1.TheIndustrialRevolutionanditsconsequenceshavebeenadisaster forthehumanrace.Theyhavegreatlyincreasedthelifeexpectancyof thoseofuswholivein"advanced"countries,buttheyhave destabilizedsociety,havemadelifeunfulfilling,havesubjected humanbeingstoindignities,haveledtowidespreadpsychological suffering(intheThirdWorldtophysicalsufferingaswell)andhave inflictedseveredamageonthenaturalworld.Thecontinued developmentoftechnologywillworsenthesituation.

tion.Itwillcertainly subjecthumanbeingstogreaterindignitiesandinflictgreaterdamage onthenaturalworld,itwillprobablyleadtogreatersocial disruptionandpsychologicalsuffering,anditmayleadtoincreased physicalsufferingevenin"advanced"countries. 2.Theindustrialtechnologicalsystemmaysurviveoritmaybreak down.Ifitsurvives,itMAYeventuallyachievealowlevelof physicalandpsychologicalsuffering,butonlyafterpassingthrougha longandverypainfulperiodofadjustmentandonlyatthecostof permanentlyreducinghumanbeingsandmanyotherlivingorganismsto engineeredproductsandmerecogsinthesocialmachine.Furthermore, ifthesystemsurvives,theconsequenceswillbeinevitable:Thereis nowayofreformingormodifyingthesystemsoastopreventitfrom deprivingpeopleofdignityandautonomy. 3.Ifthesystembreaksdowntheconsequenceswillstillbevery painful.Butthebiggerthesystemgrowsthemoredisastrousthe resultsofitsbreakdownwillbe,soifitistobreakdownithad bestbreakdownsoonerratherthanlater. 4.Wethereforeadvocatearevolutionagainsttheindustrialsystem. Thisrevolutionmayormaynotmakeuseofviolence:itmaybesudden oritmaybearelativelygradualprocessspanningafewdecades.We can'tpredictanyofthat.Butwedooutlineinaverygeneralwaythe measuresthatthosewhohatetheindustrialsystemshouldtakein ordertopreparethewayforarevolutionagainstthatformof society.ThisisnottobeaPOLITICALrevolution.Itsobjectwillbe tooverthrownotgovernmentsbuttheeconomicandtechnologicalbasis ofthepresentsociety. 5.Inthisarticlewegiveattentiontoonlysomeofthenegative developmentsthathavegrownoutoftheindustrialtechnological system.Othersuchdevelopmentswementiononlybrieflyorignore altogether.Thisdoesnotmeanthatweregardtheseotherdevelopments

asunimportant.Forpracticalreasonswehavetoconfineour discussiontoareasthathavereceivedinsufficientpublicattention orinwhichwehavesomethingnewtosay.Forexample,sincethereare welldevelopedenvironmentalandwildernessmovements,wehavewritten verylittleaboutenvironmentaldegradationorthedestructionofwild nature,eventhoughweconsiderthesetobehighlyimportant. THEPSYCHOLOGYOFMODERNLEFTISM 6.Almosteveryonewillagreethatweliveinadeeplytroubled society.Oneofthemostwidespreadmanifestationsofthecrazinessof ourworldisleftism,soadiscussionofthepsychologyofleftismcan serveasanintroductiontothediscussionoftheproblemsofmodern societyingeneral. 7.Butwhatisleftism?Duringthefirsthalfofthe20thcentury leftismcouldhavebeenpracticallyidentifiedwithsocialism.Today themovementisfragmentedanditisnotclearwhocanproperlybe calledaleftist.Whenwespeakofleftistsinthisarticlewehavein mindmainlysocialists,collectivists,"politicallycorrect"types, feminists,gayanddisabilityactivists,animalrightsactivistsand thelike.Butnoteveryonewhoisassociatedwithoneofthese movementsisaleftist.Whatwearetryingtogetatindiscussing leftismisnotsomuchamovementoranideologyasapsychological type,orratheracollectionofrelatedtypes.Thus,whatwemeanby "leftism"willemergemoreclearlyinthecourseofourdiscussionof leftistpsychology(Also,seeparagraphs227230.) 8.Evenso,ourconceptionofleftismwillremainagooddealless clearthanwewouldwish,buttheredoesn'tseemtobeanyremedyfor this.Allwearetryingtodoisindicateinaroughandapproximate waythetwopsychologicaltendenciesthatwebelievearethemain drivingforceofmodernleftism.Webynomeansclaimtobetelling theWHOLEtruthaboutleftistpsychology.Also,ourdiscussionis meanttoapplytomodernleftismonly.Weleaveopenthequestionof theextenttowhichourdiscussioncouldbeappliedtotheleftistsof the19thandearly20thcentury. 9.Thetwopsychologicaltendenciesthatunderliemodernleftismwe call"feelingsofinferiority"and"oversocialization."Feelingsof inferiorityarecharacteristicofmodernleftismasawhole,while oversocializationischaracteristiconlyofacertainsegmentof modernleftism;butthissegmentishighlyinfluential.

FEELINGSOFINFERIORITY 10.By"feelingsofinferiority"wemeannotonlyinferiorityfeelings inthestrictestsensebutawholespectrumofrelatedtraits:low selfesteem,feelingsofpowerlessness,depressivetendencies, defeatism,guilt,selfhatred,etc.Wearguethatmodernleftiststend tohavesuchfeelings(possiblymoreorlessrepressed)andthatthese feelingsaredecisiveindeterminingthedirectionofmodernleftism. 11.Whensomeoneinterpretsasderogatoryalmostanythingthatissaid abouthim(oraboutgroupswithwhomheidentifies)weconcludethat hehasinferiorityfeelingsorlowselfesteem.Thistendencyis pronouncedamongminorityrightsadvocates,whetherornottheybelong totheminoritygroupswhoserightstheydefend.Theyare hypersensitiveaboutthewordsusedtodesignateminorities.Theterms "negro,""oriental,""handicapped"or"chick"foranAfrican,an Asian,adisabledpersonorawomanoriginallyhadnoderogatory connotation."Broad"and"chick"weremerelythefeminineequivalents of"guy,""dude"or"fellow."Thenegativeconnotationshavebeen attachedtothesetermsbytheactiviststhemselves.Someanimal rightsadvocateshavegonesofarastorejecttheword"pet"and insistonitsreplacementby"animalcompanion."Leftist anthropologistsgotogreatlengthstoavoidsayinganythingabout primitivepeoplesthatcouldconceivablybeinterpretedasnegative. Theywanttoreplacetheword"primitive"by"nonliterate."Theyseem almostparanoidaboutanythingthatmightsuggestthatanyprimitive cultureisinferiortoourown.(Wedonotmeantoimplythat primitiveculturesAREinferiortoours.Wemerelypointoutthe hypersensitivityofleftishanthropologists.) 12.Thosewhoaremostsensitiveabout"politicallyincorrect" terminologyarenottheaverageblackghettodweller,Asianimmigrant, abusedwomanordisabledperson,butaminorityofactivists,manyof whomdonotevenbelongtoany"oppressed"groupbutcomefrom privilegedstrataofsociety.Politicalcorrectnesshasitsstronghold amonguniversityprofessors,whohavesecureemploymentwith comfortablesalaries,andthemajorityofwhomareheterosexual,white malesfrommiddleclassfamilies. 13.Manyleftistshaveanintenseidentificationwiththeproblemsof groupsthathaveanimageofbeingweak(women),defeated(American Indians),repellent(homosexuals),orotherwiseinferior.Theleftists themselvesfeelthatthesegroupsareinferior.Theywouldneveradmit ittothemselvesthattheyhavesuchfeelings,butitisprecisely becausetheydoseethesegroupsasinferiorthattheyidentifywith theirproblems.(Wedonotsuggestthatwomen,Indians,etc.,ARE inferior;weareonlymakingapointaboutleftistpsychology).

14.Feministsaredesperatelyanxioustoprovethatwomenareas strongascapableasmen.Clearlytheyarenaggedbyafearthatwomen mayNOTbeasstrongandascapableasmen. 15.Leftiststendtohateanythingthathasanimageofbeingstrong, goodandsuccessful.TheyhateAmerica,theyhateWestern civilization,theyhatewhitemales,theyhaterationality.The reasonsthatleftistsgiveforhatingtheWest,etc.clearlydonot correspondwiththeirrealmotives.TheySAYtheyhatetheWest becauseitiswarlike,imperialistic,sexist,ethnocentricandso forth,butwherethesesamefaultsappearinsocialistcountriesorin primitivecultures,theleftistfindsexcusesforthem,oratbesthe GRUDGINGLYadmitsthattheyexist;whereasheENTHUSIASTICALLYpoints out(andoftengreatlyexaggerates)thesefaultswheretheyappearin Westerncivilization.Thusitisclearthatthesefaultsarenotthe leftist'srealmotiveforhatingAmericaandtheWest.Hehates AmericaandtheWestbecausetheyarestrongandsuccessful. 16.Wordslike"selfconfidence,""selfreliance,""initiative", "enterprise,""optimism,"etc.playlittleroleintheliberaland leftistvocabulary.Theleftistisantiindividualistic, procollectivist.Hewantssocietytosolveeveryone'sneedsforthem, takecareofthem.Heisnotthesortofpersonwhohasaninnersense ofconfidenceinhisownabilitytosolvehisownproblemsandsatisfy hisownneeds.Theleftistisantagonistictotheconceptof competitionbecause,deepinside,hefeelslikealoser. 17.Artformsthatappealtomodernleftistintellectualstendto focusonsordidness,defeatanddespair,orelsetheytakean orgiastictone,throwingoffrationalcontrolasiftherewerenohope ofaccomplishinganythingthroughrationalcalculationandallthat wasleftwastoimmerseoneselfinthesensationsofthemoment. 18.Modernleftistphilosopherstendtodismissreason,science, objectiverealityandtoinsistthateverythingisculturally relative.Itistruethatonecanaskseriousquestionsaboutthe foundationsofscientificknowledgeandabouthow,ifatall,the conceptofobjectiverealitycanbedefined.Butitisobviousthat modernleftistphilosophersarenotsimplycoolheadedlogicians systematicallyanalyzingthefoundationsofknowledge.Theyaredeeply involvedemotionallyintheirattackontruthandreality.Theyattack theseconceptsbecauseoftheirownpsychologicalneeds.Forone thing,theirattackisanoutletforhostility,and,totheextent thatitissuccessful,itsatisfiesthedriveforpower.More importantly,theleftisthatesscienceandrationalitybecausethey classifycertainbeliefsastrue(i.e.,successful,superior)and otherbeliefsasfalse(i.e.failed,inferior).Theleftist'sfeelings ofinferiorityrunsodeepthathecannottolerateanyclassification ofsomethingsassuccessfulorsuperiorandotherthingsasfailedor inferior.Thisalsounderliestherejectionbymanyleftistsofthe conceptofmentalillnessandoftheutilityofIQtests.Leftistsare

antagonistictogeneticexplanationsofhumanabilitiesorbehavior becausesuchexplanationstendtomakesomepersonsappearsuperioror inferiortoothers.Leftistsprefertogivesocietythecreditor blameforanindividual'sabilityorlackofit.Thusifapersonis "inferior"itisnothisfault,butsociety's,becausehehasnotbeen broughtupproperly. 19.Theleftistisnottypicallythekindofpersonwhosefeelingsof inferioritymakehimabraggart,anegotist,abully,aselfpromoter, aruthlesscompetitor.Thiskindofpersonhasnotwhollylostfaith inhimself.Hehasadeficitinhissenseofpowerandselfworth,but hecanstillconceiveofhimselfashavingthecapacitytobestrong, andhiseffortstomakehimselfstrongproducehisunpleasant behavior.[1]Buttheleftististoofargoneforthat.Hisfeelings ofinferiorityaresoingrainedthathecannotconceiveofhimselfas individuallystrongandvaluable.Hencethecollectivismofthe leftist.Hecanfeelstrongonlyasamemberofalargeorganization oramassmovementwithwhichheidentifieshimself. 20.Noticethemasochistictendencyofleftisttactics.Leftists protestbylyingdowninfrontofvehicles,theyintentionallyprovoke policeorraciststoabusethem,etc.Thesetacticsmayoftenbe effective,butmanyleftistsusethemnotasameanstoanendbut becausetheyPREFERmasochistictactics.Selfhatredisaleftist trait. 21.Leftistsmayclaimthattheiractivismismotivatedbycompassion orbymoralprinciple,andmoralprincipledoesplayaroleforthe leftistoftheoversocializedtype.Butcompassionandmoralprinciple cannotbethemainmotivesforleftistactivism.Hostilityistoo prominentacomponentofleftistbehavior;soisthedriveforpower. Moreover,muchleftistbehaviorisnotrationallycalculatedtobeof benefittothepeoplewhomtheleftistsclaimtobetryingtohelp. Forexample,ifonebelievesthataffirmativeactionisgoodforblack people,doesitmakesensetodemandaffirmativeactioninhostileor dogmaticterms?Obviouslyitwouldbemoreproductivetotakea diplomaticandconciliatoryapproachthatwouldmakeatleastverbal andsymbolicconcessionstowhitepeoplewhothinkthataffirmative actiondiscriminatesagainstthem.Butleftistactivistsdonottake suchanapproachbecauseitwouldnotsatisfytheiremotionalneeds. Helpingblackpeopleisnottheirrealgoal.Instead,raceproblems serveasanexcuseforthemtoexpresstheirownhostilityand frustratedneedforpower.Indoingsotheyactuallyharmblack people,becausetheactivists'hostileattitudetowardthewhite majoritytendstointensifyracehatred. 22.Ifoursocietyhadnosocialproblemsatall,theleftistswould havetoINVENTproblemsinordertoprovidethemselveswithanexcuse formakingafuss.

23.Weemphasizethattheforegoingdoesnotpretendtobeanaccurate descriptionofeveryonewhomightbeconsideredaleftist.Itisonly aroughindicationofageneraltendencyofleftism. OVERSOCIALIZATION 24.Psychologistsusetheterm"socialization"todesignatethe processbywhichchildrenaretrainedtothinkandactassociety demands.Apersonissaidtobewellsocializedifhebelievesinand obeysthemoralcodeofhissocietyandfitsinwellasafunctioning partofthatsociety.Itmayseemsenselesstosaythatmanyleftists areoversocialized,sincetheleftistisperceivedasarebel. Nevertheless,thepositioncanbedefended.Manyleftistsarenotsuch rebelsastheyseem. 25.Themoralcodeofoursocietyissodemandingthatnoonecan think,feelandactinacompletelymoralway.Forexample,wearenot supposedtohateanyone,yetalmosteveryonehatessomebodyatsome timeorother,whetherheadmitsittohimselfornot.Somepeopleare sohighlysocializedthattheattempttothink,feelandactmorally imposesasevereburdenonthem.Inordertoavoidfeelingsofguilt, theycontinuallyhavetodeceivethemselvesabouttheirownmotives andfindmoralexplanationsforfeelingsandactionsthatinreality haveanonmoralorigin.Weusetheterm"oversocialized"todescribe suchpeople.[2] 26.Oversocializationcanleadtolowselfesteem,asenseof powerlessness,defeatism,guilt,etc.Oneofthemostimportantmeans bywhichoursocietysocializeschildrenisbymakingthemfeel ashamedofbehaviororspeechthatiscontrarytosociety's expectations.Ifthisisoverdone,orifaparticularchildis especiallysusceptibletosuchfeelings,heendsbyfeelingashamedof HIMSELF.Moreoverthethoughtandthebehavioroftheoversocialized personaremorerestrictedbysociety'sexpectationsthanarethoseof thelightlysocializedperson.Themajorityofpeopleengageina significantamountofnaughtybehavior.Theylie,theycommitpetty thefts,theybreaktrafficlaws,theygoofoffatwork,theyhate someone,theysayspitefulthingsortheyusesomeunderhandedtrick togetaheadoftheotherguy.Theoversocializedpersoncannotdo thesethings,orifhedoesdothemhegeneratesinhimselfasenseof shameandselfhatred.Theoversocializedpersoncannoteven experience,withoutguilt,thoughtsorfeelingsthatarecontraryto theacceptedmorality;hecannotthink"unclean"thoughts.And socializationisnotjustamatterofmorality;wearesocializedto confirmtomanynormsofbehaviorthatdonotfallundertheheading ofmorality.Thustheoversocializedpersoniskeptonapsychological leashandspendshisliferunningonrailsthatsocietyhaslaiddown forhim.Inmanyoversocializedpeoplethisresultsinasenseof

constraintandpowerlessnessthatcanbeaseverehardship.Wesuggest thatoversocializationisamongthemoreseriouscrueltiesthathuman beingsinflictononeanother. 27.Wearguethataveryimportantandinfluentialsegmentofthe modernleftisoversocializedandthattheiroversocializationisof greatimportanceindeterminingthedirectionofmodernleftism. Leftistsoftheoversocializedtypetendtobeintellectualsor membersoftheuppermiddleclass.Noticethatuniversity intellectuals(3)constitutethemosthighlysocializedsegmentofour societyandalsothemostleftwingsegment. 28.Theleftistoftheoversocializedtypetriestogetoffhis psychologicalleashandasserthisautonomybyrebelling.Butusually heisnotstrongenoughtorebelagainstthemostbasicvaluesof society.Generallyspeaking,thegoalsoftoday'sleftistsareNOTin conflictwiththeacceptedmorality.Onthecontrary,thelefttakes anacceptedmoralprinciple,adoptsitasitsown,andthenaccuses mainstreamsocietyofviolatingthatprinciple.Examples:racial equality,equalityofthesexes,helpingpoorpeople,peaceasopposed towar,nonviolencegenerally,freedomofexpression,kindnessto animals.Morefundamentally,thedutyoftheindividualtoserve societyandthedutyofsocietytotakecareoftheindividual.All thesehavebeendeeplyrootedvaluesofoursociety(oratleastof itsmiddleandupperclasses(4)foralongtime.Thesevaluesare explicitlyorimplicitlyexpressedorpresupposedinmostofthe materialpresentedtousbythemainstreamcommunicationsmediaand theeducationalsystem.Leftists,especiallythoseofthe oversocializedtype,usuallydonotrebelagainsttheseprinciplesbut justifytheirhostilitytosocietybyclaiming(withsomedegreeof truth)thatsocietyisnotlivinguptotheseprinciples. 29.Hereisanillustrationofthewayinwhichtheoversocialized leftistshowshisrealattachmenttotheconventionalattitudesofour societywhilepretendingtobeinrebellionagainstit.Manyleftists pushforaffirmativeaction,formovingblackpeopleinto highprestigejobs,forimprovededucationinblackschoolsandmore moneyforsuchschools;thewayoflifeoftheblack"underclass"they regardasasocialdisgrace.Theywanttointegratetheblackmaninto thesystem,makehimabusinessexecutive,alawyer,ascientistjust likeuppermiddleclasswhitepeople.Theleftistswillreplythatthe lastthingtheywantistomaketheblackmanintoacopyofthewhite man;instead,theywanttopreserveAfricanAmericanculture.Butin whatdoesthispreservationofAfricanAmericancultureconsist?It canhardlyconsistinanythingmorethaneatingblackstylefood, listeningtoblackstylemusic,wearingblackstyleclothingandgoing toablackstylechurchormosque.Inotherwords,itcanexpress itselfonlyinsuperficialmatters.InallESSENTIALrespectsmore leftistsoftheoversocializedtypewanttomaketheblackmanconform towhite,middleclassideals.Theywanttomakehimstudytechnical subjects,becomeanexecutiveorascientist,spendhislifeclimbing

thestatusladdertoprovethatblackpeopleareasgoodaswhite. Theywanttomakeblackfathers"responsible."theywantblackgangs tobecomenonviolent,etc.Buttheseareexactlythevaluesofthe industrialtechnologicalsystem.Thesystemcouldn'tcarelesswhat kindofmusicamanlistensto,whatkindofclotheshewearsorwhat religionhebelievesinaslongashestudiesinschool,holdsa respectablejob,climbsthestatusladder,isa"responsible"parent, isnonviolentandsoforth.Ineffect,howevermuchhemaydenyit, theoversocializedleftistwantstointegratetheblackmanintothe systemandmakehimadoptitsvalues. 30.Wecertainlydonotclaimthatleftists,evenofthe oversocializedtype,NEVERrebelagainstthefundamentalvaluesofour society.Clearlytheysometimesdo.Someoversocializedleftistshave gonesofarastorebelagainstoneofmodernsociety'smostimportant principlesbyengaginginphysicalviolence.Bytheirownaccount, violenceisforthemaformof"liberation."Inotherwords,by committingviolencetheybreakthroughthepsychologicalrestraints thathavebeentrainedintothem.Becausetheyareoversocialized theserestraintshavebeenmoreconfiningforthemthanforothers; hencetheirneedtobreakfreeofthem.Buttheyusuallyjustifytheir rebellionintermsofmainstreamvalues.Iftheyengageinviolence theyclaimtobefightingagainstracismorthelike. 31.Werealizethatmanyobjectionscouldberaisedtotheforegoing thumbnailsketchofleftistpsychology.Therealsituationis complex,andanythinglikeacompletedescriptionofitwouldtake severalvolumesevenifthenecessarydatawereavailable.Weclaim onlytohaveindicatedveryroughlythetwomostimportanttendencies inthepsychologyofmodernleftism. 32.Theproblemsoftheleftistareindicativeoftheproblemsofour societyasawhole.Lowselfesteem,depressivetendenciesand defeatismarenotrestrictedtotheleft.Thoughtheyareespecially noticeableintheleft,theyarewidespreadinoursociety.And today'ssocietytriestosocializeustoagreaterextentthanany previoussociety.Weareeventoldbyexpertshowtoeat,howto exercise,howtomakelove,howtoraiseourkidsandsoforth. THEPOWERPROCESS 33.Humanbeingshaveaneed(probablybasedinbiology)forsomething thatwewillcallthe"powerprocess."Thisiscloselyrelatedtothe needforpower(whichiswidelyrecognized)butisnotquitethesame thing.Thepowerprocesshasfourelements.Thethreemostclearcut ofthesewecallgoal,effortandattainmentofgoal.(Everyoneneeds tohavegoalswhoseattainmentrequireseffort,andneedstosucceed inattainingatleastsomeofhisgoals.)Thefourthelementismore

difficulttodefineandmaynotbenecessaryforeveryone.Wecallit autonomyandwilldiscussitlater(paragraphs4244). 34.Considerthehypotheticalcaseofamanwhocanhaveanythinghe wantsjustbywishingforit.Suchamanhaspower,buthewill developseriouspsychologicalproblems.Atfirsthewillhavealotof fun,butbyandbyhewillbecomeacutelyboredanddemoralized. Eventuallyhemaybecomeclinicallydepressed.Historyshowsthat leisuredaristocraciestendtobecomedecadent.Thisisnottrueof fightingaristocraciesthathavetostruggletomaintaintheirpower. Butleisured,securearistocraciesthathavenoneedtoexert themselvesusuallybecomebored,hedonisticanddemoralized,even thoughtheyhavepower.Thisshowsthatpowerisnotenough.Onemust havegoalstowardwhichtoexerciseone'spower. 35.Everyonehasgoals;ifnothingelse,toobtainthephysical necessitiesoflife:food,waterandwhateverclothingandshelterare madenecessarybytheclimate.Buttheleisuredaristocratobtains thesethingswithouteffort.Hencehisboredomanddemoralization. 36.Nonattainmentofimportantgoalsresultsindeathifthegoalsare physicalnecessities,andinfrustrationifnonattainmentofthegoals iscompatiblewithsurvival.Consistentfailuretoattaingoals throughoutliferesultsindefeatism,lowselfesteemordepression. 37.Thus,inordertoavoidseriouspsychologicalproblems,ahuman beingneedsgoalswhoseattainmentrequireseffort,andhemusthavea reasonablerateofsuccessinattaininghisgoals. SURROGATEACTIVITIES 38.Butnoteveryleisuredaristocratbecomesboredanddemoralized. Forexample,theemperorHirohito,insteadofsinkingintodecadent hedonism,devotedhimselftomarinebiology,afieldinwhichhe becamedistinguished.Whenpeopledonothavetoexertthemselvesto satisfytheirphysicalneedstheyoftensetupartificialgoalsfor themselves.Inmanycasestheythenpursuethesegoalswiththesame energyandemotionalinvolvementthattheyotherwisewouldhaveput intothesearchforphysicalnecessities.Thusthearistocratsofthe RomanEmpirehadtheirliterarypretentions;manyEuropeanaristocrats afewcenturiesagoinvestedtremendoustimeandenergyinhunting, thoughtheycertainlydidn'tneedthemeat;otheraristocracieshave competedforstatusthroughelaboratedisplaysofwealth;andafew aristocrats,likeHirohito,haveturnedtoscience. 39.Weusetheterm"surrogateactivity"todesignateanactivitythat isdirectedtowardanartificialgoalthatpeoplesetupfor themselvesmerelyinordertohavesomegoaltoworktoward,orletus

say,merelyforthesakeofthe"fulfillment"thattheygetfrom pursuingthegoal.Hereisaruleofthumbfortheidentificationof surrogateactivities.Givenapersonwhodevotesmuchtimeandenergy tothepursuitofgoalX,askyourselfthis:Ifhehadtodevotemost ofhistimeandenergytosatisfyinghisbiologicalneeds,andifthat effortrequiredhimtousehisphysicalandmentalfacilitiesina variedandinterestingway,wouldhefeelseriouslydeprivedbecause hedidnotattaingoalX?Iftheanswerisno,thentheperson's pursuitofagoalXisasurrogateactivity.Hirohito'sstudiesin marinebiologyclearlyconstitutedasurrogateactivity,sinceitis prettycertainthatifHirohitohadhadtospendhistimeworkingat interestingnonscientifictasksinordertoobtainthenecessitiesof life,hewouldnothavefeltdeprivedbecausehedidn'tknowallabout theanatomyandlifecyclesofmarineanimals.Ontheotherhandthe pursuitofsexandlove(forexample)isnotasurrogateactivity, becausemostpeople,eveniftheirexistencewereotherwise satisfactory,wouldfeeldeprivediftheypassedtheirliveswithout everhavingarelationshipwithamemberoftheoppositesex.(But pursuitofanexcessiveamountofsex,morethanonereallyneeds,can beasurrogateactivity.) 40.Inmodernindustrialsocietyonlyminimaleffortisnecessaryto satisfyone'sphysicalneeds.Itisenoughtogothroughatraining programtoacquiresomepettytechnicalskill,thencometoworkon timeandexertverymodesteffortneededtoholdajob.Theonly requirementsareamoderateamountofintelligence,andmostofall, simpleOBEDIENCE.Ifonehasthose,societytakescareofonefrom cradletograve.(Yes,thereisanunderclassthatcannottake physicalnecessitiesforgranted,butwearespeakinghereof mainstreamsociety.)Thusitisnotsurprisingthatmodernsocietyis fullofsurrogateactivities.Theseincludescientificwork,athletic achievement,humanitarianwork,artisticandliterarycreation, climbingthecorporateladder,acquisitionofmoneyandmaterialgoods farbeyondthepointatwhichtheyceasetogiveanyadditional physicalsatisfaction,andsocialactivismwhenitaddressesissues thatarenotimportantfortheactivistpersonally,asinthecaseof whiteactivistswhoworkfortherightsofnonwhiteminorities.These arenotalwayspuresurrogateactivities,sinceformanypeoplethey maybemotivatedinpartbyneedsotherthantheneedtohavesome goaltopursue.Scientificworkmaybemotivatedinpartbyadrive forprestige,artisticcreationbyaneedtoexpressfeelings, militantsocialactivismbyhostility.Butformostpeoplewhopursue them,theseactivitiesareinlargepartsurrogateactivities.For example,themajorityofscientistswillprobablyagreethatthe "fulfillment"theygetfromtheirworkismoreimportantthanthe moneyandprestigetheyearn. 41.Formanyifnotmostpeople,surrogateactivitiesareless satisfyingthanthepursuitofrealgoals(thatis,goalsthatpeople wouldwanttoattaineveniftheirneedforthepowerprocesswere alreadyfulfilled).Oneindicationofthisisthefactthat,inmany

ormostcases,peoplewhoaredeeplyinvolvedinsurrogateactivities areneversatisfied,neveratrest.Thusthemoneymakerconstantly strivesformoreandmorewealth.Thescientistnosoonersolvesone problemthanhemovesontothenext.Thelongdistancerunnerdrives himselftorunalwaysfartherandfaster.Manypeoplewhopursue surrogateactivitieswillsaythattheygetfarmorefulfillmentfrom theseactivitiesthantheydofromthe"mundane"businessof satisfyingtheirbiologicalneeds,butthatitisbecauseinour societytheeffortneededtosatisfythebiologicalneedshasbeen reducedtotriviality.Moreimportantly,inoursocietypeopledonot satisfytheirbiologicalneedsAUTONOMOUSLYbutbyfunctioningas partsofanimmensesocialmachine.Incontrast,peoplegenerallyhave agreatdealofautonomyinpursuingtheirsurrogateactivities.have agreatdealofautonomyinpursuingtheirsurrogateactivities. AUTONOMY 42.Autonomyasapartofthepowerprocessmaynotbenecessaryfor everyindividual.Butmostpeopleneedagreaterorlesserdegreeof autonomyinworkingtowardtheirgoals.Theireffortsmustbe undertakenontheirowninitiativeandmustbeundertheirown directionandcontrol.Yetmostpeopledonothavetoexertthis initiative,directionandcontrolassingleindividuals.Itisusually enoughtoactasamemberofaSMALLgroup.Thusifhalfadozen peoplediscussagoalamongthemselvesandmakeasuccessfuljoint efforttoattainthatgoal,theirneedforthepowerprocesswillbe served.Butiftheyworkunderrigidordershandeddownfromabove thatleavethemnoroomforautonomousdecisionandinitiative,then theirneedforthepowerprocesswillnotbeserved.Thesameistrue whendecisionsaremadeonacollectivebasesifthegroupmakingthe collectivedecisionissolargethattheroleofeachindividualis insignificant[5] 43.Itistruethatsomeindividualsseemtohavelittleneedfor autonomy.Eithertheirdriveforpowerisweakortheysatisfyitby identifyingthemselveswithsomepowerfulorganizationtowhichthey belong.Andthenthereareunthinking,animaltypeswhoseemtobe satisfiedwithapurelyphysicalsenseofpower(thegoodcombat soldier,whogetshissenseofpowerbydevelopingfightingskills thatheisquitecontenttouseinblindobediencetohissuperiors). 44.Butformostpeopleitisthroughthepowerprocesshavingagoal, makinganAUTONOMOUSeffortandattainingtthegoalthatselfesteem, selfconfidenceandasenseofpowerareacquired.Whenonedoesnot haveadequateopportunitytogothroughoutthepowerprocessthe consequencesare(dependingontheindividualandonthewaythepower processisdisrupted)boredom,demoralization,lowselfesteem, inferiorityfeelings,defeatism,depression,anxiety,guilt,

frustration,hostility,spouseorchildabuse,insatiablehedonism, abnormalsexualbehavior,sleepdisorders,eatingdisorders,etc.[6] SOURCESOFSOCIALPROBLEMS 45.Anyoftheforegoingsymptomscanoccurinanysociety,butin modernindustrialsocietytheyarepresentonamassivescale.We aren'tthefirsttomentionthattheworldtodayseemstobegoing crazy.Thissortofthingisnotnormalforhumansocieties.Thereis goodreasontobelievethatprimitivemansufferedfromlessstress andfrustrationandwasbettersatisfiedwithhiswayoflifethan modernmanis.Itistruethatnotallwassweetnessandlightin primitivesocieties.AbuseofwomenandcommonamongtheAustralian aborigines,transexualitywasfairlycommonamongsomeoftheAmerican Indiantribes.ButisdoesappearthatGENERALLYSPEAKINGthekindsof problemsthatwehavelistedintheprecedingparagraphwerefarless commonamongprimitivepeoplesthantheyareinmodernsociety. 46.Weattributethesocialandpsychologicalproblemsofmodern societytothefactthatthatsocietyrequirespeopletoliveunder conditionsradicallydifferentfromthoseunderwhichthehumanrace evolvedandtobehaveinwaysthatconflictwiththepatternsof behaviorthatthehumanracedevelopedwhilelivingundertheearlier conditions.Itisclearfromwhatwehavealreadywrittenthatwe considerlackofopportunitytoproperlyexperiencethepowerprocess asthemostimportantoftheabnormalconditionstowhichmodern societysubjectspeople.Butitisnottheonlyone.Beforedealing withdisruptionofthepowerprocessasasourceofsocialproblemswe willdiscusssomeoftheothersources. 47.Amongtheabnormalconditionspresentinmodernindustrialsociety areexcessivedensityofpopulation,isolationofmanfromnature, excessiverapidityofsocialchangeandthebreakdownofnatural smallscalecommunitiessuchastheextendedfamily,thevillageor thetribe. 48.Itiswellknownthatcrowdingincreasesstressandaggression. Thedegreeofcrowdingthatexiststodayandtheisolationofmanfrom natureareconsequencesoftechnologicalprogress.Allpreindustrial societieswerepredominantlyrural.TheindustrialRevolutionvastly increasedthesizeofcitiesandtheproportionofthepopulationthat livesinthem,andmodernagriculturaltechnologyhasmadeitpossible fortheEarthtosupportafardenserpopulationthaniteverdid before.(Also,technologyexacerbatestheeffectsofcrowdingbecause itputsincreaseddisruptivepowersinpeople'shands.Forexample,a varietyofnoisemakingdevices:powermowers,radios,motorcycles, etc.Iftheuseofthesedevicesisunrestricted,peoplewhowant peaceandquietarefrustratedbythenoise.Iftheiruseis

restricted,peoplewhousethedevicesarefrustratedbythe regulations...Butifthesemachineshadneverbeeninventedthere wouldhavebeennoconflictandnofrustrationgeneratedbythem.) 49.Forprimitivesocietiesthenaturalworld(whichusuallychanges onlyslowly)providedastableframeworkandthereforeasenseof security.Inthemodernworlditishumansocietythatdominates natureratherthantheotherwayaround,andmodernsocietychanges veryrapidlyowingtotechnologicalchange.Thusthereisnostable framework. 50.Theconservativesarefools:Theywhineaboutthedecayof traditionalvalues,yettheyenthusiasticallysupporttechnological progressandeconomicgrowth.Apparentlyitneveroccurstothemthat youcan'tmakerapid,drasticchangesinthetechnologyandthe economyofasocietywithoutcausingrapidchangesinallother aspectsofthesocietyaswell,andthatsuchrapidchangesinevitably breakdowntraditionalvalues. 51.Thebreakdownoftraditionalvaluestosomeextentimpliesthe breakdownofthebondsthatholdtogethertraditionalsmallscale socialgroups.Thedisintegrationofsmallscalesocialgroupsisalso promotedbythefactthatmodernconditionsoftenrequireortempt individualstomovetonewlocations,separatingthemselvesfromtheir communities.Beyondthat,atechnologicalsocietyHASTOweakenfamily tiesandlocalcommunitiesifitistofunctionefficiently.Inmodern societyanindividual'sloyaltymustbefirsttothesystemandonly secondarilytoasmallscalecommunity,becauseiftheinternal loyaltiesofsmallscalesmallscalecommunitieswerestrongerthan loyaltytothesystem,suchcommunitieswouldpursuetheirown advantageattheexpenseofthesystem. 52.Supposethatapublicofficialoracorporationexecutiveappoints hiscousin,hisfriendorhiscoreligionisttoapositionratherthan appointingthepersonbestqualifiedforthejob.Hehaspermitted personalloyaltytosupersedehisloyaltytothesystem,andthatis "nepotism"or"discrimination,"bothofwhichareterriblesinsin modernsociety.Wouldbeindustrialsocietiesthathavedoneapoor jobofsubordinatingpersonalorlocalloyaltiestoloyaltytothe systemareusuallyveryinefficient.(LookatLatinAmerica.)Thusan advancedindustrialsocietycantolerateonlythosesmallscale communitiesthatareemasculated,tamedandmadeintotoolsofthe system.[7] 53.Crowding,rapidchangeandthebreakdownofcommunitieshavebeen widelyrecognizedassourcesofsocialproblems.butwedonotbelieve theyareenoughtoaccountfortheextentoftheproblemsthatare seentoday. 54.Afewpreindustrialcitieswereverylargeandcrowded,yettheir inhabitantsdonotseemtohavesufferedfrompsychologicalproblems

tothesameextentasmodernman.InAmericatodaytherestillare uncrowdedruralareas,andwefindtherethesameproblemsasinurban areas,thoughtheproblemstendtobelessacuteintheruralareas. Thuscrowdingdoesnotseemtobethedecisivefactor. 55.OnthegrowingedgeoftheAmericanfrontierduringthe19th century,themobilityofthepopulationprobablybrokedownextended familiesandsmallscalesocialgroupstoatleastthesameextentas thesearebrokendowntoday.Infact,manynuclearfamilieslivedby choiceinsuchisolation,havingnoneighborswithinseveralmiles, thattheybelongedtonocommunityatall,yettheydonotseemto havedevelopedproblemsasaresult. 56.Furthermore,changeinAmericanfrontiersocietywasveryrapidand deep.Amanmightbebornandraisedinalogcabin,outsidethereach oflawandorderandfedlargelyonwildmeat;andbythetimehe arrivedatoldagehemightbeworkingataregularjobandlivingin anorderedcommunitywitheffectivelawenforcement.Thiswasadeeper changethatthatwhichtypicallyoccursinthelifeofamodern individual,yetitdoesnotseemtohaveledtopsychological problems.Infact,19thcenturyAmericansocietyhadanoptimisticand selfconfidenttone,quiteunlikethatoftoday'ssociety.[8] 57.Thedifference,weargue,isthatmodernmanhasthesense (largelyjustified)thatchangeisIMPOSEDonhim,whereasthe19th centuryfrontiersmanhadthesense(alsolargelyjustified)thathe createdchangehimself,byhisownchoice.Thusapioneersettledona pieceoflandofhisownchoosingandmadeitintoafarmthroughhis owneffort.Inthosedaysanentirecountymighthaveonlyacoupleof hundredinhabitantsandwasafarmoreisolatedandautonomousentity thanamoderncountyis.Hencethepioneerfarmerparticipatedasa memberofarelativelysmallgroupinthecreationofanew,ordered community.Onemaywellquestionwhetherthecreationofthis communitywasanimprovement,butatanyrateitsatisfiedthe pioneer'sneedforthepowerprocess. 58.Itwouldbepossibletogiveotherexamplesofsocietiesinwhich therehasbeenrapidchangeand/orlackofclosecommunityties withouthekindofmassivebehavioralaberrationthatisseenin today'sindustrialsociety.Wecontendthatthemostimportantcause ofsocialandpsychologicalproblemsinmodernsocietyisthefact thatpeoplehaveinsufficientopportunitytogothroughthepower processinanormalway.Wedon'tmeantosaythatmodernsocietyis theonlyoneinwhichthepowerprocesshasbeendisrupted.Probably mostifnotallcivilizedsocietieshaveinterferedwiththepower' processtoagreaterorlesserextent.Butinmodernindustrial societytheproblemhasbecomeparticularlyacute.Leftism,atleast initsrecent(midtolate20thcentury)form,isinpartasymptom ofdeprivationwithrespecttothepowerprocess.

DISRUPTIONOFTHEPOWERPROCESSINMODERNSOCIETY 59.Wedividehumandrivesintothreegroups:(1)thosedrivesthat canbesatisfiedwithminimaleffort;(2)thosethatcanbesatisfied butonlyatthecostofseriouseffort;(3)thosethatcannotbe adequatelysatisfiednomatterhowmucheffortonemakes.Thepower processistheprocessofsatisfyingthedrivesofthesecondgroup. Themoredrivesthereareinthethirdgroup,themorethereis frustration,anger,eventuallydefeatism,depression,etc. 60.Inmodernindustrialsocietynaturalhumandrivestendtobe pushedintothefirstandthirdgroups,andthesecondgrouptendsto consistincreasinglyofartificiallycreateddrives. 61.Inprimitivesocieties,physicalnecessitiesgenerallyfallinto group2:Theycanbeobtained,butonlyatthecostofseriouseffort. Butmodernsocietytendstoguarantythephysicalnecessitiesto everyone[9]inexchangeforonlyminimaleffort,hencephysicalneeds arepushedintogroup1.(Theremaybedisagreementaboutwhetherthe effortneededtoholdajobis"minimal";butusually,inlowerto middleleveljobs,whatevereffortisrequiredismerelythatof obedience.Yousitorstandwhereyouaretoldtositorstandanddo whatyouaretoldtodointhewayyouaretoldtodoit.Seldomdo youhavetoexertyourselfseriously,andinanycaseyouhavehardly anyautonomyinwork,sothattheneedforthepowerprocessisnot wellserved.) 62.Socialneeds,suchassex,loveandstatus,oftenremainingroup 2inmodernsociety,dependingonthesituationoftheindividual. [10]But,exceptforpeoplewhohaveaparticularlystrongdrivefor status,theeffortrequiredtofulfillthesocialdrivesis insufficienttosatisfyadequatelytheneedforthepowerprocess. 63.Socertainartificialneedshavebeencreatedthatfallintogroup 2,henceservetheneedforthepowerprocess.Advertisingand marketingtechniqueshavebeendevelopedthatmakemanypeoplefeel theyneedthingsthattheirgrandparentsneverdesiredorevendreamed of.Itrequiresseriousefforttoearnenoughmoneytosatisfythese artificialneeds,hencetheyfallintogroup2.(Butseeparagraphs 8082.)Modernmanmustsatisfyhisneedforthepowerprocesslargely throughpursuitoftheartificialneedscreatedbytheadvertisingand marketingindustry[11],andthroughsurrogateactivities. 64.Itseemsthatformanypeople,maybethemajority,these artificialformsofthepowerprocessareinsufficient.Athemethat appearsrepeatedlyinthewritingsofthesocialcriticsofthesecond halfofthe20thcenturyisthesenseofpurposelessnessthatafflicts manypeopleinmodernsociety.(Thispurposelessnessisoftencalled byothernamessuchas"anomic"or"middleclassvacuity.")Wesuggest

thatthesocalled"identitycrisis"isactuallyasearchforasense ofpurpose,oftenforcommitmenttoasuitablesurrogateactivity.It maybethatexistentialismisinlargepartaresponsetothe purposelessnessofmodernlife.[12]Verywidespreadinmodernsociety isthesearchfor"fulfillment."Butwethinkthatforthemajorityof peopleanactivitywhosemaingoalisfulfillment(thatis,a surrogateactivity)doesnotbringcompletelysatisfactory fulfillment.Inotherwords,itdoesnotfullysatisfytheneedfor thepowerprocess.(Seeparagraph41.)Thatneedcanbefully satisfiedonlythroughactivitiesthathavesomeexternalgoal,such asphysicalnecessities,sex,love,status,revenge,etc. 65.Moreover,wheregoalsarepursuedthroughearningmoney,climbing thestatusladderorfunctioningaspartofthesysteminsomeother way,mostpeoplearenotinapositiontopursuetheirgoals AUTONOMOUSLY.Mostworkersaresomeoneelse'semployeeas,aswe pointedoutinparagraph61,mustspendtheirdaysdoingwhattheyare toldtodointhewaytheyaretoldtodoit.Evenmostpeoplewhoare inbusinessforthemselveshaveonlylimitedautonomy.Itisachronic complaintofsmallbusinesspersonsandentrepreneursthattheirhands aretiedbyexcessivegovernmentregulation.Someoftheseregulations aredoubtlessunnecessary,butforthemostpartgovernment regulationsareessentialandinevitablepartsofourextremely complexsociety.Alargeportionofsmallbusinesstodayoperateson thefranchisesystem.ItwasreportedintheWallStreetJournalafew yearsagothatmanyofthefranchisegrantingcompaniesrequire applicantsforfranchisestotakeapersonalitytestthatisdesigned toEXCLUDEthosewhohavecreativityandinitiative,becausesuch personsarenotsufficientlydociletogoalongobedientlywiththe franchisesystem.Thisexcludesfromsmallbusinessmanyofthepeople whomostneedautonomy. 66.TodaypeoplelivemorebyvirtueofwhatthesystemdoesFORthem orTOthemthanbyvirtueofwhattheydoforthemselves.Andwhat theydoforthemselvesisdonemoreandmorealongchannelslaiddown bythesystem.Opportunitiestendtobethosethatthesystem provides,theopportunitiesmustbeexploitedinaccordwiththerules andregulations[13],andtechniquesprescribedbyexpertsmustbe followedifthereistobeachanceofsuccess. 67.Thusthepowerprocessisdisruptedinoursocietythrougha deficiencyofrealgoalsandadeficiencyofautonomyinpursuitof goals.Butitisalsodisruptedbecauseofthosehumandrivesthat fallintogroup3:thedrivesthatonecannotadequatelysatisfyno matterhowmucheffortonemakes.Oneofthesedrivesistheneedfor security.Ourlivesdependondecisionsmadebyotherpeople;wehave nocontroloverthesedecisionsandusuallywedonotevenknowthe peoplewhomakethem.("Weliveinaworldinwhichrelativelyfew peoplemaybe500or1,00maketheimportantdecisions"PhilipB. HeymannofHarvardLawSchool,quotedbyAnthonyLewis,NewYork Times,April21,1995.)Ourlivesdependonwhethersafetystandards

atanuclearpowerplantareproperlymaintained;onhowmuch pesticideisallowedtogetintoourfoodorhowmuchpollutioninto ourair;onhowskillful(orincompetent)ourdoctoris;whetherwe loseorgetajobmaydependondecisionsmadebygovernment economistsorcorporationexecutives;andsoforth.Mostindividuals arenotinapositiontosecurethemselvesagainstthesethreatsto more[than]averylimitedextent.Theindividual'ssearchfor securityisthereforefrustrated,whichleadstoasenseof powerlessness. 68.Itmaybeobjectedthatprimitivemanisphysicallylesssecure thanmodernman,asisshownbyhisshorterlifeexpectancy;hence modernmansuffersfromless,notmorethantheamountofinsecurity thatisnormalforhumanbeings.butpsychologicalsecuritydoesnot closelycorrespondwithphysicalsecurity.WhatmakesusFEELsecure isnotsomuchobjectivesecurityasasenseofconfidenceinour abilitytotakecareofourselves.Primitiveman,threatenedbya fierceanimalorbyhunger,canfightinselfdefenseortravelin searchoffood.Hehasnocertaintyofsuccessintheseefforts,but heisbynomeanshelplessagainstthethingsthatthreatenhim.The modernindividualontheotherhandisthreatenedbymanythings againstwhichheishelpless;nuclearaccidents,carcinogensinfood, environmentalpollution,war,increasingtaxes,invasionofhis privacybylargeorganizations,nationwidesocialoreconomic phenomenathatmaydisrupthiswayoflife. 69.Itistruethatprimitivemanispowerlessagainstsomeofthe thingsthatthreatenhim;diseaseforexample.Buthecanacceptthe riskofdiseasestoically.Itispartofthenatureofthings,itis noone'sfault,unlessisthefaultofsomeimaginary,impersonal demon.ButthreatstothemodernindividualtendtobeMANMADE.They arenottheresultsofchancebutareIMPOSEDonhimbyotherpersons whosedecisionshe,asanindividual,isunabletoinfluence. Consequentlyhefeelsfrustrated,humiliatedandangry. 70.Thusprimitivemanforthemostparthashissecurityinhisown hands(eitherasanindividualorasamemberofaSMALLgroup) whereasthesecurityofmodernmanisinthehandsofpersonsor organizationsthataretooremoteortoolargeforhimtobeable personallytoinfluencethem.Somodernman'sdriveforsecuritytends tofallintogroups1and3;insomeareas(food,shelter,etc.)his securityisassuredatthecostofonlytrivialeffort,whereasin otherareasheCANNOTattainsecurity.(Theforegoinggreatly simplifiestherealsituation,butitdoesindicateinarough, generalwayhowtheconditionofmodernmandiffersfromthatof primitiveman.) 71.Peoplehavemanytransitorydrivesorimpulsesthatarenecessary frustratedinmodernlife,hencefallintogroup3.Onemaybecome angry,butmodernsocietycannotpermitfighting.Inmanysituations itdoesnotevenpermitverbalaggression.Whengoingsomewhereone

maybeinahurry,oronemaybeinamoodtotravelslowly,butone generallyhasnochoicebuttomovewiththeflowoftrafficandobey thetrafficsignals.Onemaywanttodoone'sworkinadifferentway, butusuallyonecanworkonlyaccordingtotheruleslaiddownby one'semployer.Inmanyotherwaysaswell,modernmanisstrapped downbyanetworkofrulesandregulations(explicitorimplicit)that frustratemanyofhisimpulsesandthusinterferewiththepower process.Mostoftheseregulationscannotbedisposedwith,because thearenecessaryforthefunctioningofindustrialsociety. 72.Modernsocietyisincertainrespectsextremelypermissive.In mattersthatareirrelevanttothefunctioningofthesystemwecan generallydowhatweplease.Wecanbelieveinanyreligionwelike (aslongasitdoesnotencouragebehaviorthatisdangeroustothe system).Wecangotobedwithanyonewelike(aslongaswepractice "safesex").WecandoanythingwelikeaslongasitisUNIMPORTANT. ButinallIMPORTANTmattersthesystemtendsincreasinglytoregulate ourbehavior. 73.Behaviorisregulatednotonlythroughexplicitrulesandnotonly bythegovernment.Controlisoftenexercisedthroughindirect coercionorthroughpsychologicalpressureormanipulation,andby organizationsotherthanthegovernment,orbythesystemasawhole. Mostlargeorganizationsusesomeformofpropaganda[14]to manipulatepublicattitudesorbehavior.Propagandaisnotlimitedto "commercials"andadvertisements,andsometimesitisnoteven consciouslyintendedaspropagandabythepeoplewhomakeit.For instance,thecontentofentertainmentprogrammingisapowerfulform ofpropaganda.Anexampleofindirectcoercion:Thereisnolawthat sayswehavetogotoworkeverydayandfollowouremployer'sorders. Legallythereisnothingtopreventusfromgoingtoliveinthewild likeprimitivepeopleorfromgoingintobusinessforourselves.But inpracticethereisverylittlewildcountryleft,andthereisroom intheeconomyforonlyalimitednumberofsmallbusinessowners. Hencemostofuscansurviveonlyassomeoneelse'semployee. 74.Wesuggestthatmodernman'sobsessionwithlongevity,andwith maintainingphysicalvigorandsexualattractivenesstoanadvanced age,isasymptomofunfulfillmentresultingfromdeprivationwith respecttothepowerprocess.The"midlifecrisis"alsoissucha symptom.Soisthelackofinterestinhavingchildrenthatisfairly commoninmodernsocietybutalmostunheardofinprimitivesocieties. 75.Inprimitivesocietieslifeisasuccessionofstages.Theneeds andpurposesofonestagehavingbeenfulfilled,thereisno particularreluctanceaboutpassingontothenextstage.Ayoungman goesthroughthepowerprocessbybecomingahunter,huntingnotfor sportorforfulfillmentbuttogetmeatthatisnecessaryforfood. (Inyoungwomentheprocessismorecomplex,withgreateremphasison socialpower;wewon'tdiscussthathere.)Thisphasehavingbeen

successfullypassedthrough,theyoungmanhasnoreluctanceabout settlingdowntotheresponsibilitiesofraisingafamily.(In contrast,somemodernpeopleindefinitelypostponehavingchildren becausetheyaretoobusyseekingsomekindof"fulfillment."We suggestthatthefulfillmenttheyneedisadequateexperienceofthe powerprocesswithrealgoalsinsteadoftheartificialgoalsof surrogateactivities.)Again,havingsuccessfullyraisedhischildren, goingthroughthepowerprocessbyprovidingthemwiththephysical necessities,theprimitivemanfeelsthathisworkisdoneandheis preparedtoacceptoldage(ifhesurvivesthatlong)anddeath.Many modernpeople,ontheotherhand,aredisturbedbytheprospectof death,asisshownbytheamountofefforttheyexpendtryingto maintaintheirphysicalcondition,appearanceandhealth.Weargue thatthisisduetounfulfillmentresultingfromthefactthatthey haveneverputtheirphysicalpowerstoanyuse,havenevergone throughthepowerprocessusingtheirbodiesinaseriousway.Itis nottheprimitiveman,whohasusedhisbodydailyforpractical purposes,whofearsthedeteriorationofage,butthemodernman,who hasneverhadapracticaluseforhisbodybeyondwalkingfromhiscar tohishouse.Itisthemanwhoseneedforthepowerprocesshasbeen satisfiedduringhislifewhoisbestpreparedtoaccepttheendof thatlife. 76.Inresponsetotheargumentsofthissectionsomeonewillsay, "Societymustfindawaytogivepeopletheopportunitytogothrough thepowerprocess."Forsuchpeoplethevalueoftheopportunityis destroyedbytheveryfactthatsocietygivesittothem.Whatthey needistofindormaketheirownopportunities.Aslongasthesystem GIVESthemtheiropportunitiesitstillhasthemonaleash.Toattain autonomytheymustgetoffthatleash. HOWSOMEPEOPLEADJUST 77.Noteveryoneinindustrialtechnologicalsocietysuffersfrom psychologicalproblems.Somepeopleevenprofesstobequitesatisfied withsocietyasitis.Wenowdiscusssomeofthereasonswhypeople differsogreatlyintheirresponsetomodernsociety. 78.First,theredoubtlessaredifferencesinthestrengthofthe driveforpower.Individualswithaweakdriveforpowermayhave relativelylittleneedtogothroughthepowerprocess,oratleast relativelylittleneedforautonomyinthepowerprocess.Theseare dociletypeswhowouldhavebeenhappyasplantationdarkiesinthe OldSouth.(Wedon'tmeantosneerat"plantationdarkies"oftheOld South.Totheircredit,mostoftheslaveswereNOTcontentwiththeir servitude.WedosneeratpeoplewhoAREcontentwithservitude.) 79.Somepeoplemayhavesomeexceptionaldrive,inpursuingwhich

theysatisfytheirneedforthepowerprocess.Forexample,thosewho haveanunusuallystrongdriveforsocialstatusmayspendtheirwhole livesclimbingthestatusladderwithoutevergettingboredwiththat game. 80.Peoplevaryintheirsusceptibilitytoadvertisingandmarketing techniques.Somepeoplearesosusceptiblethat,eveniftheymakea greatdealofmoney,theycannotsatisfytheirconstantcravingfor theshinynewtoysthatthemarketingindustrydanglesbeforetheir eyes.Sotheyalwaysfeelhardpressedfinanciallyeveniftheir incomeislarge,andtheircravingsarefrustrated. 81.Somepeoplehavelowsusceptibilitytoadvertisingandmarketing techniques.Thesearethepeoplewhoaren'tinterestedinmoney. Materialacquisitiondoesnotservetheirneedforthepowerprocess. 82.Peoplewhohavemediumsusceptibilitytoadvertisingandmarketing techniquesareabletoearnenoughmoneytosatisfytheircravingfor goodsandservices,butonlyatthecostofseriouseffort(puttingin overtime,takingasecondjob,earningpromotions,etc.)Thusmaterial acquisitionservestheirneedforthepowerprocess.Butitdoesnot necessarilyfollowthattheirneedisfullysatisfied.Theymayhave insufficientautonomyinthepowerprocess(theirworkmayconsistof followingorders)andsomeoftheirdrivesmaybefrustrated(e.g., security,aggression).(Weareguiltyofoversimplificationin paragraphs8082becausewehaveassumedthatthedesireformaterial acquisitionisentirelyacreationoftheadvertisingandmarketing industry.Ofcourseit'snotthatsimple. 83.Somepeoplepartlysatisfytheirneedforpowerbyidentifying themselveswithapowerfulorganizationormassmovement.An individuallackinggoalsorpowerjoinsamovementoranorganization, adoptsitsgoalsashisown,thenworkstowardthesegoals.Whensome ofthegoalsareattained,theindividual,eventhoughhispersonal effortshaveplayedonlyaninsignificantpartintheattainmentof thegoals,feels(throughhisidentificationwiththemovementor organization)asifhehadgonethroughthepowerprocess.This phenomenonwasexploitedbythefascists,nazisandcommunists.Our societyusesit,too,thoughlesscrudely.Example:ManuelNoriegawas anirritanttotheU.S.(goal:punishNoriega).TheU.S.invaded Panama(effort)andpunishedNoriega(attainmentofgoal).TheU.S. wentthroughthepowerprocessandmanyAmericans,becauseoftheir identificationwiththeU.S.,experiencedthepowerprocess vicariously.HencethewidespreadpublicapprovalofthePanama invasion;itgavepeopleasenseofpower.[15]Weseethesame phenomenoninarmies,corporations,politicalparties,humanitarian organizations,religiousorideologicalmovements.Inparticular, leftistmovementstendtoattractpeoplewhoareseekingtosatisfy theirneedforpower.Butformostpeopleidentificationwithalarge organizationoramassmovementdoesnotfullysatisfytheneedfor power.

84.Anotherwayinwhichpeoplesatisfytheirneedforthepower processisthroughsurrogateactivities.Asweexplainedinparagraphs 3840,asurrogateactivitythatisdirectedtowardanartificialgoal thattheindividualpursuesforthesakeofthe"fulfillment"thathe getsfrompursuingthegoal,notbecauseheneedstoattainthegoal itself.Forinstance,thereisnopracticalmotiveforbuilding enormousmuscles,hittingalittleballintoaholeoracquiringa completeseriesofpostagestamps.Yetmanypeopleinoursociety devotethemselveswithpassiontobodybuilding,golforstamp collecting.Somepeoplearemore"otherdirected"thanothers,and thereforewillmorereadilyattackimportancetoasurrogateactivity simplybecausethepeoplearoundthemtreatitasimportantorbecause societytellsthemitisimportant.Thatiswhysomepeoplegetvery seriousaboutessentiallytrivialactivitiessuchassports,or bridge,orchess,orarcanescholarlypursuits,whereasotherswhoare moreclearsightedneverseethesethingsasanythingbutthe surrogateactivitiesthattheyare,andconsequentlyneverattach enoughimportancetothemtosatisfytheirneedforthepowerprocess inthatway.Itonlyremainstopointoutthatinmanycasesa person'swayofearningalivingisalsoasurrogateactivity.Nota PUREsurrogateactivity,sincepartofthemotivefortheactivityis togainthephysicalnecessitiesand(forsomepeople)socialstatus andtheluxuriesthatadvertisingmakesthemwant.Butmanypeopleput intotheirworkfarmoreeffortthanisnecessarytoearnwhatever moneyandstatustheyrequire,andthisextraeffortconstitutesa surrogateactivity.Thisextraeffort,togetherwiththeemotional investmentthataccompaniesit,isoneofthemostpotentforces actingtowardthecontinualdevelopmentandperfectingofthesystem, withnegativeconsequencesforindividualfreedom(seeparagraph131). Especially,forthemostcreativescientistsandengineers,worktends tobelargelyasurrogateactivity.Thispointissoimportantthatis deservesaseparatediscussion,whichweshallgiveinamoment (paragraphs8792). 85.Inthissectionwehaveexplainedhowmanypeopleinmodern societydosatisfytheirneedforthepowerprocesstoagreateror lesserextent.Butwethinkthatforthemajorityofpeopletheneed forthepowerprocessisnotfullysatisfied.Inthefirstplace, thosewhohaveaninsatiabledriveforstatus,orwhogetfirmly "hooked"orasurrogateactivity,orwhoidentifystronglyenoughwith amovementororganizationtosatisfytheirneedforpowerinthat way,areexceptionalpersonalities.Othersarenotfullysatisfied withsurrogateactivitiesorbyidentificationwithanorganization (seeparagraphs41,64).Inthesecondplace,toomuchcontrolis imposedbythesystemthroughexplicitregulationorthrough socialization,whichresultsinadeficiencyofautonomy,andin frustrationduetotheimpossibilityofattainingcertaingoalsand thenecessityofrestrainingtoomanyimpulses.

86.Butevenifmostpeopleinindustrialtechnologicalsocietywere wellsatisfied,we(FC)wouldstillbeopposedtothatformof society,because(amongotherreasons)weconsideritdemeaningto fulfillone'sneedforthepowerprocessthroughsurrogateactivities orthroughidentificationwithanorganization,ratherthenthrough pursuitofrealgoals. THEMOTIVESOFSCIENTISTS 87.Scienceandtechnologyprovidethemostimportantexamplesof surrogateactivities.Somescientistsclaimthattheyaremotivatedby "curiosity,"thatnotionissimplyabsurd.Mostscientistsworkon highlyspecializedproblemthatarenottheobjectofanynormal curiosity.Forexample,isanastronomer,amathematicianoran entomologistcuriousaboutthepropertiesof isopropyltrimethylmethane?Ofcoursenot.Onlyachemistiscurious aboutsuchathing,andheiscuriousaboutitonlybecausechemistry ishissurrogateactivity.Isthechemistcuriousaboutthe appropriateclassificationofanewspeciesofbeetle?No.That questionisofinterestonlytotheentomologist,andheisinterested initonlybecauseentomologyishissurrogateactivity.Ifthe chemistandtheentomologisthadtoexertthemselvesseriouslyto obtainthephysicalnecessities,andifthateffortexercisedtheir abilitiesinaninterestingwaybutinsomenonscientificpursuit, thentheycouldn'tgiveradamnaboutisopropyltrimethylmethaneorthe classificationofbeetles.Supposethatlackoffundsforpostgraduate educationhadledthechemisttobecomeaninsurancebrokerinsteadof achemist.Inthatcasehewouldhavebeenveryinterestedin insurancemattersbutwouldhavecarednothingabout isopropyltrimethylmethane.Inanycaseitisnotnormaltoputinto thesatisfactionofmerecuriositytheamountoftimeandeffortthat scientistsputintotheirwork.The"curiosity"explanationforthe scientists'motivejustdoesn'tstandup. 88.The"benefitofhumanity"explanationdoesn'tworkanybetter. Somescientificworkhasnoconceivablerelationtothewelfareofthe humanracemostofarchaeologyorcomparativelinguisticsfor example.Someotherareasofsciencepresentobviouslydangerous possibilities.Yetscientistsintheseareasarejustasenthusiastic abouttheirworkasthosewhodevelopvaccinesorstudyairpollution. ConsiderthecaseofDr.EdwardTeller,whohadanobviousemotional involvementinpromotingnuclearpowerplants.Didthisinvolvement stemfromadesiretobenefithumanity?Ifso,thenwhydidn'tDr. Tellergetemotionalaboutother"humanitarian"causes?Ifhewassuch ahumanitarianthenwhydidhehelptodeveloptheHbomb?Aswith manyotherscientificachievements,itisverymuchopentoquestion whethernuclearpowerplantsactuallydobenefithumanity.Doesthe cheapelectricityoutweightheaccumulatingwasteandriskof

accidents?Dr.Tellersawonlyonesideofthequestion.Clearlyhis emotionalinvolvementwithnuclearpowerarosenotfromadesireto "benefithumanity"butfromapersonalfulfillmenthegotfromhis workandfromseeingitputtopracticaluse. 89.Thesameistrueofscientistsgenerally.Withpossiblerare exceptions,theirmotiveisneithercuriositynoradesiretobenefit humanitybuttheneedtogothroughthepowerprocess:tohaveagoal (ascientificproblemtosolve),tomakeaneffort(research)andto attainthegoal(solutionoftheproblem.)Scienceisasurrogate activitybecausescientistsworkmainlyforthefulfillmenttheyget outoftheworkitself. 90.Ofcourse,it'snotthatsimple.Othermotivesdoplayarolefor manyscientists.Moneyandstatusforexample.Somescientistsmaybe personsofthetypewhohaveaninsatiabledriveforstatus(see paragraph79)andthismayprovidemuchofthemotivationfortheir work.Nodoubtthemajorityofscientists,likethemajorityofthe generalpopulation,aremoreorlesssusceptibletoadvertisingand marketingtechniquesandneedmoneytosatisfytheircravingforgoods andservices.ThusscienceisnotaPUREsurrogateactivity.Butitis inlargepartasurrogateactivity. 91.Also,scienceandtechnologyconstituteamasspowermovement,and manyscientistsgratifytheirneedforpowerthroughidentification withthismassmovement(seeparagraph83). 92.Thussciencemarchesonblindly,withoutregardtothereal welfareofthehumanraceortoanyotherstandard,obedientonlyto thepsychologicalneedsofthescientistsandofthegovernment officialsandcorporationexecutiveswhoprovidethefundsfor research. THENATUREOFFREEDOM 93.Wearegoingtoarguethatindustrialtechnologicalsocietycannot bereformedinsuchawayastopreventitfromprogressively narrowingthesphereofhumanfreedom.Butbecause"freedom"isaword thatcanbeinterpretedinmanyways,wemustfirstmakeclearwhat kindoffreedomweareconcernedwith. 94.By"freedom"wemeantheopportunitytogothroughthepower process,withrealgoalsnottheartificialgoalsofsurrogate activities,andwithoutinterference,manipulationorsupervisionfrom anyone,especiallyfromanylargeorganization.Freedommeansbeingin control(eitherasanindividualorasamemberofaSMALLgroup)of thelifeanddeathissuesofone'sexistence;food,clothing,shelter anddefenseagainstwhateverthreatstheremaybeinone's

environment.Freedommeanshavingpower;notthepowertocontrol otherpeoplebutthepowertocontrolthecircumstancesofone'sown life.Onedoesnothavefreedomifanyoneelse(especiallyalarge organization)haspoweroverone,nomatterhowbenevolently, tolerantlyandpermissivelythatpowermaybeexercised.Itis importantnottoconfusefreedomwithmerepermissiveness(see paragraph72). 95.Itissaidthatweliveinafreesocietybecausewehavea certainnumberofconstitutionallyguaranteedrights.Buttheseare notasimportantastheyseem.Thedegreeofpersonalfreedomthat existsinasocietyisdeterminedmorebytheeconomicand technologicalstructureofthesocietythanbyitslawsoritsformof government.[16]MostoftheIndiannationsofNewEnglandwere monarchies,andmanyofthecitiesoftheItalianRenaissancewere controlledbydictators.Butinreadingaboutthesesocietiesonegets theimpressionthattheyallowedfarmorepersonalfreedomthanout societydoes.Inpartthiswasbecausetheylackedefficient mechanismsforenforcingtheruler'swill:Therewerenomodern, wellorganizedpoliceforces,norapidlongdistancecommunications, nosurveillancecameras,nodossiersofinformationaboutthelivesof averagecitizens.Henceitwasrelativelyeasytoevadecontrol. 96.Asforourconstitutionalrights,considerforexamplethatof freedomofthepress.Wecertainlydon'tmeantoknockthatright:it isveryimportanttoolforlimitingconcentrationofpoliticalpower andforkeepingthosewhodohavepoliticalpowerinlinebypublicly exposinganymisbehaviorontheirpart.Butfreedomofthepressisof verylittleusetotheaveragecitizenasanindividual.Themass mediaaremostlyunderthecontroloflargeorganizationsthatare integratedintothesystem.Anyonewhohasalittlemoneycanhave somethingprinted,orcandistributeitontheInternetorinsome suchway,butwhathehastosaywillbeswampedbythevastvolumeof materialputoutbythemedia,henceitwillhavenopracticaleffect. Tomakeanimpressiononsocietywithwordsisthereforealmost impossibleformostindividualsandsmallgroups.Takeus(FC)for example.Ifwehadneverdoneanythingviolentandhadsubmittedthe presentwritingstoapublisher,theyprobablywouldnothavebeen accepted.Iftheyhadbeenacceptedandpublished,theyprobablywould nothaveattractedmanyreaders,becauseit'smorefuntowatchthe entertainmentputoutbythemediathantoreadasoberessay.Evenif thesewritingshadhadmanyreaders,mostofthesereaderswouldsoon haveforgottenwhattheyhadreadastheirmindswerefloodedbythe massofmaterialtowhichthemediaexposethem.Inordertogetour messagebeforethepublicwithsomechanceofmakingalasting impression,we'vehadtokillpeople. 97.Constitutionalrightsareusefuluptoapoint,buttheydonot servetoguaranteemuchmorethanwhatcouldbecalledthebourgeois conceptionoffreedom.Accordingtothebourgeoisconception,a"free" manisessentiallyanelementofasocialmachineandhasonlya

certainsetofprescribedanddelimitedfreedoms;freedomsthatare designedtoservetheneedsofthesocialmachinemorethanthoseof theindividual.Thusthebourgeois's"free"manhaseconomicfreedom becausethatpromotesgrowthandprogress;hehasfreedomofthepress becausepubliccriticismrestrainsmisbehaviorbypoliticalleaders; hehasarightstoafairtrialbecauseimprisonmentatthewhimof thepowerfulwouldbebadforthesystem.Thiswasclearlythe attitudeofSimonBolivar.Tohim,peopledeservedlibertyonlyif theyusedittopromoteprogress(progressasconceivedbythe bourgeois).Otherbourgeoisthinkershavetakenasimilarviewof freedomasameremeanstocollectiveends.ChesterC.Tan,"Chinese PoliticalThoughtintheTwentiethCentury,"page202,explainsthe philosophyoftheKuomintangleaderHuHanmin:"Anindividualis grantedrightsbecauseheisamemberofsocietyandhiscommunity liferequiressuchrights.BycommunityHumeantthewholesocietyof thenation."Andonpage259TanstatesthataccordingtoCarsumChang (ChangChunmai,headoftheStateSocialistPartyinChina)freedom hadtobeusedintheinterestofthestateandofthepeopleasa whole.Butwhatkindoffreedomdoesonehaveifonecanuseitonly assomeoneelseprescribes?FC'sconceptionoffreedomisnotthatof Bolivar,Hu,Changorotherbourgeoistheorists.Thetroublewithsuch theoristsisthattheyhavemadethedevelopmentandapplicationof socialtheoriestheirsurrogateactivity.Consequentlythetheories aredesignedtoservetheneedsofthetheoristsmorethantheneeds ofanypeoplewhomaybeunluckyenoughtoliveinasocietyonwhich thetheoriesareimposed. 98.Onemorepointtobemadeinthissection:Itshouldnotbe assumedthatapersonhasenoughfreedomjustbecauseheSAYShehas enough.Freedomisrestrictedinpartbypsychologicalcontrolof whichpeopleareunconscious,andmoreovermanypeople'sideasofwhat constitutesfreedomaregovernedmorebysocialconventionthanby theirrealneeds.Forexample,it'slikelythatmanyleftistsofthe oversocializedtypewouldsaythatmostpeople,includingthemselves aresocializedtoolittleratherthantoomuch,yettheoversocialized leftistpaysaheavypsychologicalpriceforhishighlevelof socialization. SOMEPRINCIPLESOFHISTORY 99.Thinkofhistoryasbeingthesumoftwocomponents:anerratic componentthatconsistsofunpredictableeventsthatfollowno discerniblepattern,andaregularcomponentthatconsistsof longtermhistoricaltrends.Hereweareconcernedwiththelongterm trends. 100.FIRSTPRINCIPLE.IfaSMALLchangeismadethataffectsa longtermhistoricaltrend,thentheeffectofthatchangewillalmost

alwaysbetransitorythetrendwillsoonreverttoitsoriginal state.(Example:Areformmovementdesignedtocleanuppolitical corruptioninasocietyrarelyhasmorethanashorttermeffect; soonerorlaterthereformersrelaxandcorruptioncreepsbackin.The levelofpoliticalcorruptioninagivensocietytendstoremain constant,ortochangeonlyslowlywiththeevolutionofthesociety. Normally,apoliticalcleanupwillbepermanentonlyifaccompaniedby widespreadsocialchanges;aSMALLchangeinthesocietywon'tbe enough.)Ifasmallchangeinalongtermhistoricaltrendappearsto bepermanent,itisonlybecausethechangeactsinthedirectionin whichthetrendisalreadymoving,sothatthetrendisnotaltered butonlypushedastepahead. 101.Thefirstprincipleisalmostatautology.Ifatrendwerenot stablewithrespecttosmallchanges,itwouldwanderatrandomrather thanfollowingadefinitedirection;inotherwordsitwouldnotbea longtermtrendatall. 102.SECONDPRINCIPLE.Ifachangeismadethatissufficientlylarge toalterpermanentlyalongtermhistoricaltrend,thanitwillalter thesocietyasawhole.Inotherwords,asocietyisasysteminwhich allpartsareinterrelated,andyoucan'tpermanentlychangeany importantpartwithoutchangealltheotherpartsaswell. 103.THIRDPRINCIPLE.Ifachangeismadethatislargeenoughto alterpermanentlyalongtermtrend,thentheconsequencesforthe societyasawholecannotbepredictedinadvance.(Unlessvarious othersocietieshavepassedthroughthesamechangeandhaveall experiencedthesameconsequences,inwhichcaseonecanpredicton empiricalgroundsthatanothersocietythatpassesthroughthesame changewillbeliketoexperiencesimilarconsequences.) 104.FOURTHPRINCIPLE.Anewkindofsocietycannotbedesignedon paper.Thatis,youcannotplanoutanewformofsocietyinadvance, thensetitupandexpectittofunctionasitwasdesignedto. 105.Thethirdandfourthprinciplesresultfromthecomplexityof humansocieties.Achangeinhumanbehaviorwillaffecttheeconomyof asocietyanditsphysicalenvironment;theeconomywillaffectthe environmentandviceversa,andthechangesintheeconomyandthe environmentwillaffecthumanbehaviorincomplex,unpredictableways; andsoforth.Thenetworkofcausesandeffectsisfartoocomplexto beuntangledandunderstood. 106.FIFTHPRINCIPLE.Peopledonotconsciouslyandrationallychoose theformoftheirsociety.Societiesdevelopthroughprocessesof socialevolutionthatarenotunderrationalhumancontrol. 107.Thefifthprincipleisaconsequenceoftheotherfour.

108.Toillustrate:Bythefirstprinciple,generallyspeakingan attemptatsocialreformeitheractsinthedirectioninwhichthe societyisdevelopinganyway(sothatitmerelyacceleratesachange thatwouldhaveoccurredinanycase)orelseitonlyhasatransitory effect,sothatthesocietysoonslipsbackintoitsoldgroove.To makealastingchangeinthedirectionofdevelopmentofanyimportant aspectofasociety,reformisinsufficientandrevolutionis required.(Arevolutiondoesnotnecessarilyinvolveanarmeduprising ortheoverthrowofagovernment.)Bythesecondprinciple,a revolutionneverchangesonlyoneaspectofasociety;andbythe thirdprinciplechangesoccurthatwereneverexpectedordesiredby therevolutionaries.Bythefourthprinciple,whenrevolutionariesor utopianssetupanewkindofsociety,itneverworksoutasplanned. 109.TheAmericanRevolutiondoesnotprovideacounterexample.The American"Revolution"wasnotarevolutioninoursenseoftheword, butawarofindependencefollowedbyaratherfarreachingpolitical reform.TheFoundingFathersdidnotchangethedirectionof developmentofAmericansociety,nordidtheyaspiretodoso.They onlyfreedthedevelopmentofAmericansocietyfromtheretarding effectofBritishrule.Theirpoliticalreformdidnotchangeany basictrend,butonlypushedAmericanpoliticalculturealongits naturaldirectionofdevelopment.Britishsociety,ofwhichAmerican societywasanoffshoot,hadbeenmovingforalongtimeinthe directionofrepresentativedemocracy.AndpriortotheWarof IndependencetheAmericanswerealreadypracticingasignificant degreeofrepresentativedemocracyinthecolonialassemblies.The politicalsystemestablishedbytheConstitutionwasmodeledonthe Britishsystemandonthecolonialassemblies.Withmajoralteration, tobesurethereisnodoubtthattheFoundingFatherstookavery importantstep.ButitwasastepalongtheroadtheEnglishspeaking worldwasalreadytraveling.TheproofisthatBritainandallofits coloniesthatwerepopulatedpredominantlybypeopleofBritish descentendedupwithsystemsofrepresentativedemocracyessentially similartothatoftheUnitedStates.IftheFoundingFathershadlost theirnerveanddeclinedtosigntheDeclarationofIndependence,our wayoflifetodaywouldnothavebeensignificantlydifferent.Maybe wewouldhavehadsomewhatclosertiestoBritain,andwouldhavehad aParliamentandPrimeMinisterinsteadofaCongressandPresident. Nobigdeal.ThustheAmericanRevolutionprovidesnota counterexampletoourprinciplesbutagoodillustrationofthem. 110.Still,onehastousecommonsenseinapplyingtheprinciples. Theyareexpressedinimpreciselanguagethatallowslatitudefor interpretation,andexceptionstothemcanbefound.Sowepresent theseprinciplesnotasinviolablelawsbutasrulesofthumb,or guidestothinking,thatmayprovideapartialantidotetonaiveideas aboutthefutureofsociety.Theprinciplesshouldbeborneconstantly inmind,andwheneveronereachesaconclusionthatconflictswith themoneshouldcarefullyreexamineone'sthinkingandretainthe conclusiononlyifonehasgood,solidreasonsfordoingso.

INDUSTRIALTECHNOLOGICALSOCIETYCANNOTBEREFORMED 111.Theforegoingprincipleshelptoshowhowhopelesslydifficultit wouldbetoreformtheindustrialsysteminsuchawayastoprevent itfromprogressivelynarrowingoursphereoffreedom.Therehasbeen aconsistenttendency,goingbackatleasttotheIndustrial Revolutionfortechnologytostrengthenthesystematahighcostin individualfreedomandlocalautonomy.Henceanychangedesignedto protectfreedomfromtechnologywouldbecontrarytoafundamental trendinthedevelopmentofoursociety. Consequently,suchachangeeitherwouldbeatransitoryonesoon swampedbythetideofhistoryor,iflargeenoughtobepermanent wouldalterthenatureofourwholesociety.Thisbythefirstand secondprinciples.Moreover,sincesocietywouldbealteredinaway thatcouldnotbepredictedinadvance(thirdprinciple)therewould begreatrisk.Changeslargeenoughtomakealastingdifferencein favoroffreedomwouldnotbeinitiatedbecauseitwouldrealizedthat theywouldgravelydisruptthesystem.Soanyattemptsatreformwould betootimidtobeeffective.Evenifchangeslargeenoughtomakea lastingdifferencewereinitiated,theywouldberetractedwhentheir disruptiveeffectsbecameapparent.Thus,permanentchangesinfavor offreedomcouldbebroughtaboutonlybypersonspreparedtoaccept radical,dangerousandunpredictablealterationoftheentiresystem. Inotherwords,byrevolutionaries,notreformers. 112.Peopleanxioustorescuefreedomwithoutsacrificingthesupposed benefitsoftechnologywillsuggestnaiveschemesforsomenewformof societythatwouldreconcilefreedomwithtechnology.Apartfromthe factthatpeoplewhomakesuggestionsseldomproposeanypractical meansbywhichthenewformofsocietycouldbesetupinthefirst place,itfollowsfromthefourthprinciplethatevenifthenewform ofsocietycouldbeonceestablished,iteitherwouldcollapseor wouldgiveresultsverydifferentfromthoseexpected. 113.Soevenonverygeneralgroundsitseemshighlyimprobablythat anywayofchangingsocietycouldbefoundthatwouldreconcile freedomwithmoderntechnology.Inthenextfewsectionswewillgive morespecificreasonsforconcludingthatfreedomandtechnological progressareincompatible.

RESTRICTIONOFFREEDOMISUNAVOIDABLEININDUSTRIALSOCIETY 114.Asexplainedinparagraph6567,7073,modernmanisstrapped downbyanetworkofrulesandregulations,andhisfatedependson theactionsofpersonsremotefromhimwhosedecisionshecannot influence.Thisisnotaccidentaloraresultofthearbitrarinessof arrogantbureaucrats.Itisnecessaryandinevitableinany technologicallyadvancedsociety.ThesystemHASTOregulatehuman behaviorcloselyinordertofunction.Atwork,peoplehavetodowhat theyaretoldtodo,otherwiseproductionwouldbethrownintochaos. BureaucraciesHAVETOberunaccordingtorigidrules.Toallowany substantialpersonaldiscretiontolowerlevelbureaucratswould disruptthesystemandleadtochargesofunfairnessdueto differencesinthewayindividualbureaucratsexercisedtheir discretion.Itistruethatsomerestrictionsonourfreedomcouldbe eliminated,butGENERALLYSPEAKINGtheregulationofourlivesby largeorganizationsisnecessaryforthefunctioningof industrialtechnologicalsociety.Theresultisasenseof powerlessnessonthepartoftheaverageperson.Itmaybe,however, thatformalregulationswilltendincreasinglytobereplacedby psychologicaltoolsthatmakeuswanttodowhatthesystemrequires ofus.(Propaganda[14],educationaltechniques,"mentalhealth" programs,etc.) 115.ThesystemHASTOforcepeopletobehaveinwaysthatare increasinglyremotefromthenaturalpatternofhumanbehavior.For example,thesystemneedsscientists,mathematiciansandengineers.It can'tfunctionwithoutthem.Soheavypressureisputonchildrento excelinthesefields.Itisn'tnaturalforanadolescenthumanbeing tospendthebulkofhistimesittingatadeskabsorbedinstudy.A normaladolescentwantstospendhistimeinactivecontactwiththe realworld.Amongprimitivepeoplesthethingsthatchildrenare trainedtodoareinnaturalharmonywithnaturalhumanimpulses. AmongtheAmericanIndians,forexample,boysweretrainedinactive outdoorpursuitsjustthesortofthingsthatboyslike.Butinour societychildrenarepushedintostudyingtechnicalsubjects,which mostdogrudgingly. 116.Becauseoftheconstantpressurethatthesystemexertstomodify humanbehavior,thereisagradualincreaseinthenumberofpeople whocannotorwillnotadjusttosociety'srequirements:welfare leeches,youthgangmembers,cultists,antigovernmentrebels,radical environmentalistsaboteurs,dropoutsandresistersofvariouskinds. 117.Inanytechnologicallyadvancedsocietytheindividual'sfate MUSTdependondecisionsthathepersonallycannotinfluencetoany greatextent.Atechnologicalsocietycannotbebrokendowninto small,autonomouscommunities,becauseproductiondependsonthe cooperationofverylargenumbersofpeopleandmachines.Sucha

societyMUSTbehighlyorganizedanddecisionsHAVETObemadethat affectverylargenumbersofpeople.Whenadecisionaffects,say,a millionpeople,theneachoftheaffectedindividualshas,onthe average,onlyaonemillionthshareinmakingthedecision.What usuallyhappensinpracticeisthatdecisionsaremadebypublic officialsorcorporationexecutives,orbytechnicalspecialists,but evenwhenthepublicvotesonadecisionthenumberofvoters ordinarilyistoolargeforthevoteofanyoneindividualtobe significant.[17]Thusmostindividualsareunabletoinfluence measurablythemajordecisionsthataffecttheirlives.Theirisno conceivablewaytoremedythisinatechnologicallyadvancedsociety. Thesystemtriesto"solve"thisproblembyusingpropagandatomake peopleWANTthedecisionsthathavebeenmadeforthem,butevenif this"solution"werecompletelysuccessfulinmakingpeoplefeel better,itwouldbedemeaning. 118Conservativesandsomeothersadvocatemore"localautonomy." Localcommunitiesoncedidhaveautonomy,butsuchautonomybecomes lessandlesspossibleaslocalcommunitiesbecomemoreenmeshedwith anddependentonlargescalesystemslikepublicutilities,computer networks,highwaysystems,themasscommunicationsmedia,themodern healthcaresystem.Alsooperatingagainstautonomyisthefactthat technologyappliedinonelocationoftenaffectspeopleatother locationsfaraway.Thuspesticideorchemicalusenearacreekmay contaminatethewatersupplyhundredsofmilesdownstream,andthe greenhouseeffectaffectsthewholeworld. 119.Thesystemdoesnotandcannotexisttosatisfyhumanneeds. Instead,itishumanbehaviorthathastobemodifiedtofittheneeds ofthesystem.Thishasnothingtodowiththepoliticalorsocial ideologythatmaypretendtoguidethetechnologicalsystem.Itisthe faultoftechnology,becausethesystemisguidednotbyideologybut bytechnicalnecessity.[18]Ofcoursethesystemdoessatisfymany humanneeds,butgenerallyspeakingitdoesthisonlytotheextent thatitistotheadvantageofthesystemtodoit.Itistheneedsof thesystemthatareparamount,notthoseofthehumanbeing.For example,thesystemprovidespeoplewithfoodbecausethesystem couldn'tfunctionifeveryonestarved;itattendstopeople's psychologicalneedswheneveritcanCONVENIENTLYdoso,becauseit couldn'tfunctioniftoomanypeoplebecamedepressedorrebellious. Butthesystem,forgood,solid,practicalreasons,mustexert constantpressureonpeopletomoldtheirbehaviortotheneedsofthe system.Toomuchwasteaccumulating?Thegovernment,themedia,the educationalsystem,environmentalists,everyoneinundatesuswitha massofpropagandaaboutrecycling.Needmoretechnicalpersonnel?A chorusofvoicesexhortskidstostudyscience.Noonestopstoask whetheritisinhumanetoforceadolescentstospendthebulkoftheir timestudyingsubjectsmostofthemhate.Whenskilledworkersareput outofajobbytechnicaladvancesandhavetoundergo"retraining," nooneaskswhetheritishumiliatingforthemtobepushedaroundin thisway.Itissimplytakenforgrantedthateveryonemustbowto

technicalnecessityandforgoodreason:Ifhumanneedswereput beforetechnicalnecessitytherewouldbeeconomicproblems, unemployment,shortagesorworse.Theconceptof"mentalhealth"in oursocietyisdefinedlargelybytheextenttowhichanindividual behavesinaccordwiththeneedsofthesystemanddoessowithout showingsignsofstress. 120.Effortstomakeroomforasenseofpurposeandforautonomy withinthesystemarenobetterthanajoke.Forexample,onecompany, insteadofhavingeachofitsemployeesassembleonlyonesectionofa catalogue,hadeachassembleawholecatalogue,andthiswassupposed togivethemasenseofpurposeandachievement.Somecompanieshave triedtogivetheiremployeesmoreautonomyintheirwork,butfor practicalreasonsthisusuallycanbedoneonlytoaverylimited extent,andinanycaseemployeesarenevergivenautonomyasto ultimategoalstheir"autonomous"effortscanneverbedirected towardgoalsthattheyselectpersonally,butonlytowardtheir employer'sgoals,suchasthesurvivalandgrowthofthecompany.Any companywouldsoongooutofbusinessifitpermitteditsemployeesto actotherwise.Similarly,inanyenterprisewithinasocialistsystem, workersmustdirecttheireffortstowardthegoalsoftheenterprise, otherwisetheenterprisewillnotserveitspurposeaspartofthe system.Onceagain,forpurelytechnicalreasonsitisnotpossible formostindividualsorsmallgroupstohavemuchautonomyin industrialsociety.Eventhesmallbusinessownercommonlyhasonly limitedautonomy.Apartfromthenecessityofgovernmentregulation, heisrestrictedbythefactthathemustfitintotheeconomicsystem andconformtoitsrequirements.Forinstance,whensomeonedevelopsa newtechnology,thesmallbusinesspersonoftenhastousethat technologywhetherhewantstoornot,inordertoremaincompetitive. THE'BAD'PARTSOFTECHNOLOGYCANNOTBESEPARATEDFROMTHE'GOOD'PARTS 121.Afurtherreasonwhyindustrialsocietycannotbereformedin favoroffreedomisthatmoderntechnologyisaunifiedsystemin whichallpartsaredependentononeanother.Youcan'tgetridofthe "bad"partsoftechnologyandretainonlythe"good"parts.Take modernmedicine,forexample.Progressinmedicalsciencedependson progressinchemistry,physics,biology,computerscienceandother fields.Advancedmedicaltreatmentsrequireexpensive,hightech equipmentthatcanbemadeavailableonlybyatechnologically progressive,economicallyrichsociety.Clearlyyoucan'thavemuch progressinmedicinewithoutthewholetechnologicalsystemand everythingthatgoeswithit. 122.Evenifmedicalprogresscouldbemaintainedwithouttherestof thetechnologicalsystem,itwouldbyitselfbringcertainevils.

Supposeforexamplethatacurefordiabetesisdiscovered.People withagenetictendencytodiabeteswillthenbeabletosurviveand reproduceaswellasanyoneelse.Naturalselectionagainstgenesfor diabeteswillceaseandsuchgeneswillspreadthroughoutthe population.(Thismaybeoccurringtosomeextentalready,since diabetes,whilenotcurable,canbecontrolledthroughtheuseof insulin.)Thesamethingwillhappenwithmanyotherdiseases susceptibilitytowhichisaffectedbygeneticdegradationofthe population.Theonlysolutionwillbesomesortofeugenicsprogramor extensivegeneticengineeringofhumanbeings,sothatmaninthe futurewillnolongerbeacreationofnature,orofchance,orofGod (dependingonyourreligiousorphilosophicalopinions),buta manufacturedproduct. 123.Ifyouthinkthatbiggovernmentinterferesinyourlifetoomuch NOW,justwaittillthegovernmentstartsregulatingthegenetic constitutionofyourchildren.Suchregulationwillinevitablyfollow theintroductionofgeneticengineeringofhumanbeings,becausethe consequencesofunregulatedgeneticengineeringwouldbedisastrous. [19] 124.Theusualresponsetosuchconcernsistotalkabout"medical ethics."Butacodeofethicswouldnotservetoprotectfreedomin thefaceofmedicalprogress;itwouldonlymakemattersworse.Acode ofethicsapplicabletogeneticengineeringwouldbeineffectameans ofregulatingthegeneticconstitutionofhumanbeings.Somebody (probablytheuppermiddleclass,mostly)woulddecidethatsuchand suchapplicationsofgeneticengineeringwere"ethical"andothers werenot,sothatineffecttheywouldbeimposingtheirownvalueson thegeneticconstitutionofthepopulationatlarge.Evenifacodeof ethicswerechosenonacompletelydemocraticbasis,themajority wouldbeimposingtheirownvaluesonanyminoritieswhomighthavea differentideaofwhatconstitutedan"ethical"useofgenetic engineering.Theonlycodeofethicsthatwouldtrulyprotectfreedom wouldbeonethatprohibitedANYgeneticengineeringofhumanbeings, andyoucanbesurethatnosuchcodewilleverbeappliedina technologicalsociety.Nocodethatreducedgeneticengineeringtoa minorrolecouldstandupforlong,becausethetemptationpresented bytheimmensepowerofbiotechnologywouldbeirresistible, especiallysincetothemajorityofpeoplemanyofitsapplications willseemobviouslyandunequivocallygood(eliminatingphysicaland mentaldiseases,givingpeopletheabilitiestheyneedtogetalongin today'sworld).Inevitably,geneticengineeringwillbeused extensively,butonlyinwaysconsistentwiththeneedsofthe industrialtechnologicalsystem.[20]

TECHNOLOGYISAMOREPOWERFULSOCIALFORCETHANTHEASPIRATIONFORFREEDOM 125.ItisnotpossibletomakeaLASTINGcompromisebetween technologyandfreedom,becausetechnologyisbyfarthemorepowerful socialforceandcontinuallyencroachesonfreedomthroughREPEATED compromises.Imaginethecaseoftwoneighbors,eachofwhomatthe outsetownsthesameamountofland,butoneofwhomismorepowerful thantheother.Thepowerfulonedemandsapieceoftheother'sland. Theweakonerefuses.Thepowerfulonesays,"OK,let'scompromise. GivemehalfofwhatIasked."Theweakonehaslittlechoicebutto givein.Sometimelaterthepowerfulneighbordemandsanotherpiece ofland,againthereisacompromise,andsoforth.Byforcingalong seriesofcompromisesontheweakerman,thepowerfuloneeventually getsallofhisland.Soitgoesintheconflictbetweentechnology andfreedom. 126.Letusexplainwhytechnologyisamorepowerfulsocialforce thantheaspirationforfreedom. 127.Atechnologicaladvancethatappearsnottothreatenfreedom oftenturnsouttothreatenfreedomoftenturnsouttothreatenit veryseriouslylateron.Forexample,considermotorizedtransport.A walkingmanformerlycouldgowherehepleased,goathisownpace withoutobservinganytrafficregulations,andwasindependentof technologicalsupportsystems.Whenmotorvehicleswereintroduced theyappearedtoincreaseman'sfreedom.Theytooknofreedomaway fromthewalkingman,noonehadtohaveanautomobileifhedidn't wantone,andanyonewhodidchoosetobuyanautomobilecouldtravel muchfasterthanthewalkingman.Buttheintroductionofmotorized transportsoonchangedsocietyinsuchawayastorestrictgreatly man'sfreedomoflocomotion.Whenautomobilesbecamenumerous,it becamenecessarytoregulatetheiruseextensively.Inacar, especiallyindenselypopulatedareas,onecannotjustgowhereone likesatone'sownpaceone'smovementisgovernedbytheflowof trafficandbyvarioustrafficlaws.Oneistieddownbyvarious obligations:licenserequirements,drivertest,renewingregistration, insurance,maintenancerequiredforsafety,monthlypaymentson purchaseprice.Moreover,theuseofmotorizedtransportisnolonger optional.Sincetheintroductionofmotorizedtransportthe arrangementofourcitieshaschangedinsuchawaythatthemajority ofpeoplenolongerlivewithinwalkingdistanceoftheirplaceof employment,shoppingareasandrecreationalopportunities,sothat theyHAVETOdependontheautomobilefortransportation.Orelsethey mustusepublictransportation,inwhichcasetheyhaveevenless controlovertheirownmovementthanwhendrivingacar.Eventhe walker'sfreedomisnowgreatlyrestricted.Inthecityhecontinually hastostopandwaitfortrafficlightsthataredesignedmainlyto serveautotraffic.Inthecountry,motortrafficmakesitdangerous andunpleasanttowalkalongthehighway.(Notetheimportantpointwe haveillustratedwiththecaseofmotorizedtransport:Whenanewitem oftechnologyisintroducedasanoptionthatanindividualcanaccept

ornotashechooses,itdoesnotnecessarilyREMAINoptional.Inmany casesthenewtechnologychangessocietyinsuchawaythatpeople eventuallyfindthemselvesFORCEDtouseit.) 128.WhiletechnologicalprogressASAWHOLEcontinuallynarrowsour sphereoffreedom,eachnewtechnicaladvanceCONSIDEREDBYITSELF appearstobedesirable.Electricity,indoorplumbing,rapid longdistancecommunications...howcouldoneargueagainstanyof thesethings,oragainstanyotheroftheinnumerabletechnical advancesthathavemademodernsociety?Itwouldhavebeenabsurdto resisttheintroductionofthetelephone,forexample.Itofferedmany advantagesandnodisadvantages.Yetasweexplainedinparagraphs 5976,allthesetechnicaladvancestakentogetherhavecreatedworld inwhichtheaverageman'sfateisnolongerinhisownhandsorin thehandsofhisneighborsandfriends,butinthoseofpoliticians, corporationexecutivesandremote,anonymoustechniciansand bureaucratswhomheasanindividualhasnopowertoinfluence.[21] Thesameprocesswillcontinueinthefuture.Takegenetic engineering,forexample.Fewpeoplewillresisttheintroductionofa genetictechniquethateliminatesahereditarydiseaseItdoesno apparentharmandpreventsmuchsuffering.Yetalargenumberof geneticimprovementstakentogetherwillmakethehumanbeingintoan engineeredproductratherthanafreecreationofchance(orofGod, orwhatever,dependingonyourreligiousbeliefs). 129Anotherreasonwhytechnologyissuchapowerfulsocialforceis that,withinthecontextofagivensociety,technologicalprogress marchesinonlyonedirection;itcanneverbereversed.Oncea technicalinnovationhasbeenintroduced,peopleusuallybecome dependentonit,unlessitisreplacedbysomestillmoreadvanced innovation.Notonlydopeoplebecomedependentasindividualsona newitemoftechnology,but,evenmore,thesystemasawholebecomes dependentonit.(Imaginewhatwouldhappentothesystemtodayif computers,forexample,wereeliminated.)Thusthesystemcanmovein onlyonedirection,towardgreatertechnologization.Technology repeatedlyforcesfreedomtotakeastepbackshortofthe overthrowofthewholetechnologicalsystem. 130.Technologyadvanceswithgreatrapidityandthreatensfreedomat manydifferentpointsatthesametime(crowding,rulesand regulations,increasingdependenceofindividualsonlarge organizations,propagandaandotherpsychologicaltechniques,genetic engineering,invasionofprivacythroughsurveillancedevicesand computers,etc.)ToholdbackanyONEofthethreatstofreedomwould requirealongdifferentsocialstruggle.Thosewhowanttoprotect freedomareoverwhelmedbythesheernumberofnewattacksandthe rapiditywithwhichtheydevelop,hencetheybecomepatheticandno longerresist.Tofighteachofthethreatsseparatelywouldbe futile.Successcanbehopedforonlybyfightingthetechnological systemasawhole;butthatisrevolutionnotreform.

131.Technicians(weusethisterminitsbroadsensetodescribeall thosewhoperformaspecializedtaskthatrequirestraining)tendto besoinvolvedintheirwork(theirsurrogateactivity)thatwhena conflictarisesbetweentheirtechnicalworkandfreedom,theyalmost alwaysdecideinfavoroftheirtechnicalwork.Thisisobviousinthe caseofscientists,butitalsoappearselsewhere:Educators, humanitariangroups,conservationorganizationsdonothesitatetouse propagandaorotherpsychologicaltechniquestohelpthemachieve theirlaudableends.Corporationsandgovernmentagencies,whenthey findituseful,donothesitatetocollectinformationabout individualswithoutregardtotheirprivacy.Lawenforcementagencies arefrequentlyinconveniencedbytheconstitutionalrightsofsuspects andoftenofcompletelyinnocentpersons,andtheydowhateverthey candolegally(orsometimesillegally)torestrictorcircumvent thoserights.Mostoftheseeducators,governmentofficialsandlaw officersbelieveinfreedom,privacyandconstitutionalrights,but whentheseconflictwiththeirwork,theyusuallyfeelthattheirwork ismoreimportant. 132.Itiswellknownthatpeoplegenerallyworkbetterandmore persistentlywhenstrivingforarewardthanwhenattemptingtoavoid apunishmentornegativeoutcome.Scientistsandothertechniciansare motivatedmainlybytherewardstheygetthroughtheirwork.Butthose whoopposetechnilogiccalinvasionsoffreedomareworkingtoavoida negativeoutcome,consequentlythereareafewwhoworkpersistently andwellatthisdiscouragingtask.Ifreformerseverachieveda signalvictorythatseemedtosetupasolidbarrieragainstfurther erosionoffreedomthroughtechnologicalprogress,mostwouldtendto relaxandturntheirattentiontomoreagreeablepursuits.Butthe scientistswouldremainbusyintheirlaboratories,andtechnologyas itprogresseswouldfindways,inspiteofanybarriers,toexertmore andmorecontroloverindividualsandmakethemalwaysmoredependent onthesystem. 133.Nosocialarrangements,whetherlaws,institutions,customsor ethicalcodes,canprovidepermanentprotectionagainsttechnology. Historyshowsthatallsocialarrangementsaretransitory;theyall changeorbreakdowneventually.Buttechnologicaladvancesare permanentwithinthecontextofagivencivilization.Supposefor examplethatitwerepossibletoarriveatsomesocialarrangements thatwouldpreventgeneticengineeringfrombeingappliedtohuman beings,orpreventitfrombeingappliedinsuchawaysastothreaten freedomanddignity.Still,thetechnologywouldremainwaiting. Soonerorlaterthesocialarrangementwouldbreakdown.Probably sooner,giventhatpaceofchangeinoursociety.Thengenetic engineeringwouldbegintoinvadeoursphereoffreedom,andthis invasionwouldbeirreversible(shortofabreakdownoftechnological civilizationitself).Anyillusionsaboutachievinganythingpermanent throughsocialarrangementsshouldbedispelledbywhatiscurrently happeningwithenvironmentallegislation.Afewyearsagoitseemed thatthereweresecurelegalbarrierspreventingatleastSOMEofthe

worstformsofenvironmentaldegradation.Achangeinthepolitical wind,andthosebarriersbegintocrumble. 134.Foralloftheforegoingreasons,technologyisamorepowerful socialforcethantheaspirationforfreedom.Butthisstatement requiresanimportantqualification.Itappearsthatduringthenext severaldecadestheindustrialtechnologicalsystemwillbeundergoing severestressesduetoeconomicandenvironmentalproblems,and especiallyduetoproblemsofhumanbehavior(alienation,rebellion, hostility,avarietyofsocialandpsychologicaldifficulties).We hopethatthestressesthroughwhichthesystemislikelytopasswill causeittobreakdown,oratleastweakenitsufficientlysothata revolutionoccursandissuccessful,thenatthatparticularmoment theaspirationforfreedomwillhaveprovedmorepowerfulthan technology. 135.Inparagraph125weusedananalogyofaweakneighborwhois leftdestitutebyastrongneighborwhotakesallhislandbyforcing onhimaseriesofcompromises.Butsupposenowthatthestrong neighborgetssick,sothatheisunabletodefendhimself.Theweak neighborcanforcethestrongonetogivehimhislandback,orhecan killhim.Ifheletsthestrongmansurviveandonlyforceshimto givehislandback,heisafool,becausewhenthestrongmangets wellhewillagaintakeallthelandforhimself.Theonlysensible alternativefortheweakermanistokillthestrongonewhilehehas thechance.Inthesameway,whiletheindustrialsystemissickwe mustdestroyit.Ifwecompromisewithitandletitrecoverfromits sickness,itwilleventuallywipeoutallofourfreedom. SIMPLERSOCIALPROBLEMSHAVEPROVEDINTRACTABLE 136.Ifanyonestillimaginesthatitwouldbepossibletoreformthe systeminsuchawayastoprotectfreedomfromtechnology,lethim considerhowclumsilyandforthemostpartunsuccessfullyoursociety hasdealtwithothersocialproblemsthatarefarmoresimpleand straightforward.Amongotherthings,thesystemhasfailedtostop environmentaldegradation,politicalcorruption,drugtraffickingor domesticabuse. 137.Takeourenvironmentalproblems,forexample.Heretheconflict ofvaluesisstraightforward:economicexpediencenowversussaving someofournaturalresourcesforourgrandchildren[22]Butonthis subjectwegetonlyalotofblatherandobfuscationfromthepeople whohavepower,andnothinglikeaclear,consistentlineofaction, andwekeeponpilingupenvironmentalproblemsthatourgrandchildren willhavetolivewith.Attemptstoresolvetheenvironmentalissue consistofstrugglesandcompromisesbetweendifferentfactions,some ofwhichareascendantatonemoment,othersatanothermoment.The

lineofstrugglechangeswiththeshiftingcurrentsofpublicopinion. Thisisnotarationalprocess,orisitonethatislikelytoleadto atimelyandsuccessfulsolutiontotheproblem.Majorsocial problems,iftheyget"solved"atall,arerarelyorneversolved throughanyrational,comprehensiveplan.Theyjustworkthemselves outthroughaprocessinwhichvariouscompetinggroupspursingtheir ownusuallyshortterm)selfinterest[23]arrive(mainlybyluck)at somemoreorlessstablemodusvivendi.Infact,theprincipleswe formulatedinparagraphs100106makeitseemdoubtfulthatrational, longtermsocialplanningcanEVERbesuccessful.138.Thusitis clearthatthehumanracehasatbestaverylimitedcapacityfor solvingevenrelativelystraightforwardsocialproblems.Howthenis itgoingtosolvethefarmoredifficultandsubtleproblemof reconcilingfreedomwithtechnology?Technologypresentsclearcut materialadvantages,whereasfreedomisanabstractionthatmeans differentthingstodifferentpeople,anditslossiseasilyobscured bypropagandaandfancytalk. 139.Andnotethisimportantdifference:Itisconceivablethatour environmentalproblems(forexample)maysomedaybesettledthrougha rational,comprehensiveplan,butifthishappensitwillbeonly becauseitisinthelongterminterestofthesystemtosolvethese problems.ButitisNOTintheinterestofthesystemtopreserve freedomorsmallgroupautonomy.Onthecontrary,itisinthe interestofthesystemtobringhumanbehaviorundercontroltothe greatestpossibleextent.Thus,whilepracticalconsiderationsmay eventuallyforcethesystemtotakearational,prudentapproachto environmentalproblems,equallypracticalconsiderationswillforce thesystemtoregulatehumanbehaviorevermoreclosely(preferablyby indirectmeansthatwilldisguisetheencroachmentonfreedom.)This isn'tjustouropinion.Eminentsocialscientists(e.g.JamesQ. Wilson)havestressedtheimportanceof"socializing"peoplemore effectively. REVOLUTIONISEASIERTHANREFORM 140.Wehopewehaveconvincedthereaderthatthesystemcannotbe reformedinasuchawayastoreconcilefreedomwithtechnology.The onlywayoutistodispensewiththeindustrialtechnologicalsystem altogether.Thisimpliesrevolution,notnecessarilyanarmed uprising,butcertainlyaradicalandfundamentalchangeinthenature ofsociety. 141.Peopletendtoassumethatbecausearevolutioninvolvesamuch greaterchangethanreformdoes,itismoredifficulttobringabout thanreformis.Actually,undercertaincircumstancesrevolutionis mucheasierthanreform.Thereasonisthatarevolutionarymovement caninspireanintensityofcommitmentthatareformmovementcannot

inspire.Areformmovementmerelyofferstosolveaparticularsocial problemArevolutionarymovementofferstosolveallproblemsatone strokeandcreateawholenewworld;itprovidesthekindofidealfor whichpeoplewilltakegreatrisksandmakegreatsacrifices.Forthis reasonsitwouldbemucheasiertooverthrowthewholetechnological systemthantoputeffective,permanentrestraintsonthedevelopment ofapplicationofanyonesegmentoftechnology,suchasgenetic engineering,butundersuitableconditionslargenumbersofpeoplemay devotethemselvespassionatelytoarevolutionagainstthe industrialtechnologicalsystem.Aswenotedinparagraph132, reformersseekingtolimitecertainaspectsoftechnologywouldbe workingtoavoidanegativeoutcome.Butrevolutionariesworktogain apowerfulrewardfulfillmentoftheirrevolutionaryvisionand thereforeworkharderandmorepersistentlythanreformersdo. 142.Reformisalwaysrestraindebythefearofpainfulconsequences ifchangesgotoofar.Butoncearevolutionaryfeverhastakenhold ofasociety,peoplearewillingtoundergounlimitedhardshipsfor thesakeoftheirrevolution.ThiswasclearlyshownintheFrenchand RussianRevolutions.Itmaybethatinsuchcasesonlyaminorityof thepopulationisreallycommittedtotherevolution,butthis minorityissufficientlylargeandactivesothatitbecomesthe dominantforceinsociety.Wewillhavemoretosayaboutrevolution inparagraphs180205. CONTROLOFHUMANBEHAVIOR 143.Sincethebeginningofcivilization,organizedsocietieshavehad toputpressuresonhumanbeingsofthesakeofthefunctioningofthe socialorganism.Thekindsofpressuresvarygreatlyfromonesociety toanother.Someofthepressuresarephysical(poordiet,excessive labor,environmentalpollution),somearepsychological(noise, crowding,forcinghumansbehaviorintothemoldthatsociety requires).Inthepast,humannaturehasbeenapproximatelyconstant, oratanyratehasvariedonlywithincertainbounds.Consequently, societieshavebeenabletopushpeopleonlyuptocertainlimits. Whenthelimitofhumanendurancehasbeenpassed,thingsstartgoing rong:rebellion,orcrime,orcorruption,orevasionofwork,or depressionandothermentalproblems,oranelevateddeathrate,ora decliningbirthrateorsomethingelse,sothateitherthesociety breaksdown,oritsfunctioningbecomestooinefficientanditis (quicklyorgradually,throughconquest,attritionorevolution) replacesbysomemoreefficientformofsociety. [25] 144.Thushumannaturehasinthepastputcertainlimitsonthe developmentofsocieties.Peoplecoudbepushedonlysofarandno

farther.Buttodaythismaybechanging,becausemoderntechnologyis developingwayofmodifyinghumanbeings. 145.Imagineasocietythatsubjectspeopletoconditionsthatamke themterribleyunhappy,thengivesthemthedrugstotakeawaytheir unhappiness.Sciencefiction?Itisalreadyhappeningtosomeextent inourownsociety.Itiswellknownthattherateofclinical depressionhadbeengreatlyincreasinginrecentdecades.Webelieve thatthisisduetodisruptionfothepowerprocess,asexplainedin paragraphs5976.Butevenifwearewrong,theincreasingrateof depressioniscertainlytheresultofSOMEconditionsthatexistin today'ssociety.Insteadofremovingtheconditionsthatmakepeople depressed,modernsocietygivesthemantidepressantdrugs.Ineffect, antidepressantsareaameansofmodifyinganindividual'sinternal stateinsuchawayastoenablehimtotoelratesocialconditions thathewouldotherwisefindintolerable.(Yes,weknowthat depressionisoftenofpurelygeneticorigin.Wearereferringhereto thosecasesinwhichenvironmentplaysthepredominantrole.) 146.Drugsthataffectthemindareonlyoneexampleofthemethodsof controllinghumanbehaviorthatmodernsocietyisdeveloping.Letus lookatsomeoftheothermethods. 147.Tostartwith,therearethetechniquesofsurveillance.Hidden videocamerasarenowusedinmoststoresandinmanyotherplaces, computersareusedtocollectandprocessvastamountsofinformation aboutindividuals.Informationsoobtainedgreatlyincreasesthe effectivenessofphysicalcoercion(i.e.,lawenforcement).[26]Then therearethemethodsofpropaganda,forwhichthemasscommunication mediaprovideeffectivevehicles.Efficienttechniqueshavebeen developedforwinningelections,sellingproducts,influencingpublic opinion.Theentertainmentindustryservesasanimportant psychologicaltoolofthesystem,possiblyevenwhenitisdishingout largeamountsofsexandviolence.Entertainmentprovidesmodernman withanessentialmeansofescape.Whileabsorbedintelevision, videos,etc.,hecanforgetstress,anxiety,frustration, dissatisfaction.Manyprimitivepeoples,whentheydon'thaveworkto do,arequitecontenttositforhoursatatimedoingnothingatall, becausetheyareatpeacewiththemselvesandtheirworld.Butmost modernpeoplemustbecontantlyoccupiedorentertained,otherwisethe get"bored,"i.e.,theygetfidgety,uneasy,irritable. 148.Othertechniquesstrikedeeperthattheforegoing.Educationis nolongerasimpleaffairofpaddlingakid'sbehindwhenhedoesn't knowhislessonsandpattinghimontheheadwhenhedoesknowthem. Itisbecomingascientifictechniqueforcontrollingthechild's development.SylvanLearningCenters,forexample,havehadgreat successinmotivatingchildrentostudy,andpsychologicaltechniques arealsousedwithmoreorlesssuccessinmanyconventionalschools. "Parenting"techniquesthataretaughttoparentsaredesignedtomake childrenacceptfundamentalvaluesofthesystemandbehaveinways

thatthesystemfindsdesirable."Mentalhealth"programs, "intervention"techniques,psychotherapyandsoforthareostensibly designedtobenefitindividuals,butinpracticetheyusuallyserveas methodsforinducingindividualstothinkandbehaveasthesystem requires.(Thereisnocontradictionhere;anindividualwhose attitudesorbehaviorbringhimintoconflictwiththesystemisup againstaforcethatistoopowerfulforhimtoconquerorescape from,henceheislikelytosufferfromstress,frustration,defeat. Hispathwillbemucheasierifhethinksandbehavesasthesystem requires.Inthatsensethesystemisactingforthebenefitofthe individualwhenitbrainwasheshimintoconformity.)Childabusein itsgrossandobviousformsisdisapprovedinmostifnotall cultures.Tormentingachildforatrivialreasonornoreasonatall issomethingthatappallsalmosteveryone.Butmanypsychologists interprettheconceptofabusemuchmorebroadly.Isspanking,when usedaspartofarationalandconsistentsystemofdiscipline,aform ofabuse?Thequestionwillultimatelybedecidedbywhetherornot spankingtendstoproducebehaviorthatmakesapersonfitinwell withtheexistingsystemofsociety.Inpractice,theword"abuse" tendstobeinterpretedtoincludeanymethodofchildrearingthat producesbehaviorinconvenientforthesystem.Thus,whentheygo beyondthepreventionofobvious,senselesscruelty,programsfor preventing"childabuse"aredirectedtowardthecontrolofhuman behaviorofthesystem. 149.Presumably,researchwillcontinuetoincreastheeffectiveness ofpsychologicaltechniquesforcontrollinghumanbehavior.Butwe thinkitisunlikelythatpsychologicaltechniquesalonewillbe sufficienttoadjusthumanbeingstothekindofsocietythat technologyiscreating.Biologicalmethodsprobablywillhavetobe used.Wehavealreadymentiondtheuseofdrugsinthisconnection. Neurologymayprovideotheravenuesofmodifyingthehumanmind. Geneticengineeringofhumanbeingsisalreadybeginningtooccurin theformof"genetherapy,"andthereisnoreasontoassumethesuch methodswillnoteventuallybeusedtomodifythoseaspectsofthe bodythataffectmentalfuntioning. 150.Aswementionedinparagraph134,industrialsocietyseemslikely tobeenteringaperiodofseverestress,dueinparttoproblemsof humanbehaviorandinparttoeconomicandenvironmentalproblems.And aconsiderableproportionofthesystem'seconomicandenvironmental problemsresultfromthewayhumanbeingsbehave.Alienation,low selfesteem,depression,hostility,rebellion;childrenwhowon't study,youthgangs,illegaldruguse,rape,childabuse,other crimes,unsafesex,teenpregnancy,populationgrowth,political corruption,racehatred,ethnicrivalry,bitterideologicalconflict (i.e.,prochoicevs.prolife),politicalextremism,terrorism, sabotage,antigovernmentgroups,hategroups.Allthesethreatenthe verysurvivalofthesystem.ThesystemwillbeFORCEDtouseevery practicalmeansofcontrollinghumanbehavior.

151.Thesocialdisruptionthatweseetodayiscertainlynotthe resultofmerechance.Itcanonlybearesultfotheconditionsof lifethatthesystemimposesonpeople.(Wehavearguedthatthemost importantoftheseconditionsisdisruptionofthepowerprocess.)If thesystemssucceedsinimposingsufficientcontroloverhuman behaviortoassureitwownsurvival,anewwatershedinhumanhistory willhavepassed.Whereasformerlythelimitsofhumanendurancehave imposedlimitsonthedevelopmentofsocieties(asweexplainedin paragraphs143,144),industrialtechnologicalsocietywillbeableto passthoselimitsbymodifyinghumanbeings,whetherbypsychological methodsorbiologicalmethodsorboth.Inthefuture,socialsystems willnotbeadjustedtosuittheneedsofhumanbeings.Instead,human beingwillbeadjustedtosuittheneedsofthesystem. [27]152.Generallyspeaking,technologicalcontroloverhuman behaviorwillprobablynotbeintroducedwithatotalitarianintention oreventhroughaconsciousdesiretorestricthumanfreedom.[28] Eachnewstepintheassertionofcontroloverthehumanmindwillbe takenasarationalresponsetoaproblemthatfacessociety,suchas curingalcoholism,reducingthecrimerateorinducingyoungpeopleto studyscienceandengineering.Inmanycases,therewillbe humanitarianjustification.Forexample,whenapsychiatrist prescribesanantidepressantforadepressedpatient,heisclearly doingthatindividualafavor.Itwouldbeinhumanetowithholdthe drugfromsomeonewhoneedsit.Whenparentssendtheirchildrento SylvanLearningCenterstohavethemmanipulatedintobecoming enthusiasticabouttheirstudies,theydosofromconcernfortheir children'swelfare.Itmaybethatsomeoftheseparentswishthatone didn'thavetohavespecializedtrainingtogetajobandthattheir kiddidn'thavetobebrainwashedintobecomingacomputernerd.But whatcantheydo?Theycan'tchangesociety,andtheirchildmaybe unemployableifhedoesn'thavecertainskills.Sotheysendhimto Sylvan. 153.Thuscontroloverhumanbehaviorwillbeintroducednotbya calculateddecisionoftheauthoritiesbutthroughaprocessofsocial evolution(RAPIDevolution,however).Theprocesswillbeimpossible toresist,becauseeachadvance,consideredbyitself,willappearto bebeneficial,oratleasttheevilinvolvedinmakingtheadvance willappeartobebeneficial,oratleasttheevilinvolvedinmaking theadvancewillseemtobelessthanthatwhichwouldresultfromnot makingit(seeparagraph127).Propagandaforexampleisusedformany goodpurposes,suchasdiscouragingchildabuseorracehatred.[14] Sexeducationisobviouslyuseful,yettheeffectofsexeducation(to theextentthatitissuccessful)istotaketheshapingofsexual attitudesawayfromthefamilyandputitintothehandsofthestate asrepresentedbythepublicschoolsystem. 154.Supposeabiologicaltraitisdiscoveredthatincreasesthe likelihoodthatachildwillgrowuptobeacriminalandsupposesome sortofgenetherapycanremovethistrait.[29]Ofcoursemost

parentswhosechildrenpossessthetraitwillhavethemundergothe therapy.Itwouldbeinhumanetodootherwise,sincethechildwould probablyhaveamiserablelifeifhegrewuptobeacriminal.But manyormostprimitivesocietieshavealowcrimerateincomparison withthatofoursociety,eventhoughtheyhaveneitherhightech methodsofchildrearingnorharshsystemsofpunishment.Sincethere isnoreasontosupposethatmoremodernmenthanprimitivemenhave innatepredatorytendencies,thehighcrimerateofoursocietymust beduetothepressuresthatmodernconditionsputonpeople,towhich manycannotorwillnotadjust.Thusatreatmentdesignedtoremove potentialcriminaltendenciesisatleastinpartawayof reengineeringpeoplesothattheysuittherequirementsofthe system. 155.Oursocietytendstoregardasa"sickness"anymodeofthought orbehaviorthatisinconvenientforthesystem,andthisisplausible becausewhenanindividualdoesn'tfitintothesystemitcausespain totheindividualaswellasproblemsforthesystem.Thusthe manipulationofanindividualtoadjusthimtothesystemisseenasa "cure"fora"sickness"andthereforeasgood. 156.Inparagraph127wepointedoutthatiftheuseofanewitemof technologyisINITIALLYoptional,itdoesnotnecessarilyREMAIN optional,becausethenewtechnologytendstochangesocietyinsucha waythatitbecomesdifficultorimpossibleforanindividualto functionwithoutusingthattechnology.Thisappliesalsotothe technologyofhumanbehavior.Inaworldinwhichmostchildrenare putthroughaprogramtomakethementhusiasticaboutstudying,a parentwillalmostbeforcedtoputhiskidthroughsuchaprogram, becauseifhedoesnot,thenthekidwillgrowuptobe,comparatively speaking,anignoramusandthereforeunemployable.Orsupposea biologicaltreatmentisdiscoveredthat,withoutundesirable sideeffects,willgreatlyreducethepsychologicalstressfromwhich somanypeoplesufferinoursociety.Iflargenumbersofpeople choosetoundergothetreatment,thenthegenerallevelofstressin societywillbereduced,sothatitwillbepossibleforthesystemto increasethestressproducingpressures.Infact,somethinglikethis seemstohavehappenedalreadywithoneofoursociety'smost importantpsychologicaltoolsforenablingpeopletoreduce(orat leasttemporarilyescapefrom)stress,namely,massentertainment(see paragraph147).Ouruseofmassentertainmentis"optional":Nolaw requiresustowatchtelevision,listentotheradio,readmagazines. Yetmassentertainmentisameansofescapeandstressreductionon whichmostofushavebecomedependent.Everyonecomplainsaboutthe trashinessoftelevision,butalmosteveryonewatchesit.Afewhave kickedtheTVhabit,butitwouldbeararepersonwhocouldgetalong todaywithoutusingANYformofmassentertainment.(Yetuntilquite recentlyinhumanhistorymostpeoplegotalongverynicelywithno otherentertainmentthanthatwhicheachlocalcommunitycreatedfor itself.)Withouttheentertainmentindustrythesystemprobablywould nothavebeenabletogetawaywithputtingasmuchstressproducing

pressureonusasitdoes. 157.Assumingthatindustrialsocietysurvives,itislikelythat technologywilleventuallyacquiresomethingapproachingcomplete controloverhumanbehavior.Ithasbeenestablishedbeyondany rationaldoubtthathumanthoughtandbehaviorhavealargely biologicalbasis.Asexperimentershavedemonstrated,feelingssuchas hunger,pleasure,angerandfearcanbeturnedonandoffby electricalstimulationofappropriatepartsofthebrain.Memoriescan bedestroyedbydamagingpartsofthebrainortheycanbebroughtto thesurfacebyelectricalstimulation.Hallucinationscanbeinduced ormoodschangedbydrugs.Theremayormaynotbeanimmaterialhuman soul,butifthereisoneitclearlyislesspowerfulthatthe biologicalmechanismsofhumanbehavior.Forifthatwerenotthecase thenresearcherswouldnotbeablesoeasilytomanipulatehuman feelingsandbehaviorwithdrugsandelectricalcurrents. 158.Itpresumablywouldbeimpracticalforallpeopletohave electrodesinsertedintheirheadssothattheycouldbecontrolledby theauthorities.Butthefactthathumanthoughtsandfeelingsareso opentobiologicalinterventionshowsthattheproblemofcontrolling humanbehaviorismainlyatechnicalproblem;aproblemofneurons, hormonesandcomplexmolecules;thekindofproblemthatisaccessible toscientificattack.Giventheoutstandingrecordofoursocietyin solvingtechnicalproblems,itisoverwhelminglyprobablethatgreat advanceswillbemadeinthecontrolofhumanbehavior. 159.Willpublicresistancepreventtheintroductionoftechnological controlofhumanbehavior?Itcertainlywouldifanattemptweremade tointroducesuchcontrolallatonce.Butsincetechnologicalcontrol willbeintroducedthroughalongsequenceofsmalladvances,there willbenorationalandeffectivepublicresistance.(Seeparagraphs 127,132,153.) 160.Tothosewhothinkthatallthissoundslikesciencefiction,we pointoutthatyesterday'ssciencefictionistoday'sfact.The IndustrialRevolutionhasradicallyalteredman'senvironmentandway oflife,anditisonlytobeexpectedthatastechnologyis increasinglyappliedtothehumanbodyandmind,manhimselfwillbe alteredasradicallyashisenvironmentandwayoflifehavebeen. HUMANRACEATACROSSROADS 161.Butwehavegottenaheadofourstory.Itisonethingtodevelop inthelaboratoryaseriesofpsychologicalorbiologicaltechniques formanipulatinghumanbehaviorandquiteanothertointegratethese techniquesintoafunctioningsocialsystem.Thelatterproblemisthe moredifficultofthetwo.Forexample,whilethetechniquesof

educationalpsychologydoubtlessworkquitewellinthe"labschools" wheretheyaredeveloped,itisnotnecessarilyeasytoapplythem effectivelythroughoutoureducationalsystem.Weallknowwhatmany ofourschoolsarelike.Theteachersaretoobusytakingknivesand gunsawayfromthekidstosubjectthemtothelatesttechniquesfor makingthemintocomputernerds.Thus,inspiteofallitstechnical advancesrelatingtohumanbehaviorthesystemtodatehasnotbeen impressivelysuccessfulincontrollinghumanbeings.Thepeoplewhose behaviorisfairlywellunderthecontrolofthesystemarethoseof thetypethatmightbecalled"bourgeois."Buttherearegrowing numbersofpeoplewhoinonewayoranotherarerebelsagainstthe system:welfareleaches,youthgangscultists,satanists,nazis, radicalenvironmentalists,militiamen,etc.. 162.Thesystemiscurrentlyengagedinadesperatestruggleto overcomecertainproblemsthatthreatenitssurvival,amongwhichthe problemsofhumanbehaviorarethemostimportant.Ifthesystem succeedsinacquiringsufficientcontroloverhumanbehaviorquickly enough,itwillprobablysurvive.Otherwiseitwillbreakdown.We thinktheissuewillmostlikelyberesolvedwithinthenextseveral decades,say40to100years. 163.Supposethesystemsurvivesthecrisisofthenextseveral decades.Bythattimeitwillhavetohavesolved,oratleastbrought undercontrol,theprincipalproblemsthatconfrontit,inparticular thatof"socializing"humanbeings;thatis,makingpeople sufficientlydocilesothattheirbehaviornolongerthreatensthe system.Thatbeingaccomplished,itdoesnotappearthattherewould beanyfurtherobstacletothedevelopmentoftechnology,anditwould presumablyadvancetowarditslogicalconclusion,whichiscomplete controlovereverythingonEarth,includinghumanbeingsandallother importantorganisms.Thesystemmaybecomeaunitary,monolithic organization,oritmaybemoreorlessfragmentedandconsistofa numberoforganizationscoexistinginarelationshipthatincludes elementsofbothcooperationandcompetition,justastodaythe government,thecorporationsandotherlargeorganizationsboth cooperateandcompetewithoneanother.Humanfreedommostlywillhave vanished,becauseindividualsandsmallgroupswillbeimpotent visavislargeorganizationsarmedwithsupertechnologyandan arsenalofadvancedpsychologicalandbiologicaltoolsfor manipulatinghumanbeings,besidesinstrumentsofsurveillanceand physicalcoercion.Onlyasmallnumberofpeoplewillhaveanyreal power,andeventheseprobablywillhaveonlyverylimitedfreedom, becausetheirbehaviortoowillberegulated;justastodayour politiciansandcorporationexecutivescanretaintheirpositionsof poweronlyaslongastheirbehaviorremainswithincertainfairly narrowlimits. 164.Don'timaginethatthesystemswillstopdevelopingfurther techniquesforcontrollinghumanbeingsandnatureoncethecrisisof thenextfewdecadesisoverandincreasingcontrolisnolonger

necessaryforthesystem'ssurvival.Onthecontrary,oncethehard timesareoverthesystemwillincreaseitscontroloverpeopleand naturemorerapidly,becauseitwillnolongerbehamperedby difficultiesofthekindthatitiscurrentlyexperiencing.Survival isnottheprincipalmotiveforextendingcontrol.Asweexplainedin paragraphs8790,techniciansandscientistscarryontheirwork largelyasasurrogateactivity;thatis,theysatisfytheirneedfor powerbysolvingtechnicalproblems.Theywillcontinuetodothis withunabatedenthusiasm,andamongthemostinterestingand challengingproblemsforthemtosolvewillbethoseofunderstanding thehumanbodyandmindandinterveningintheirdevelopment.Forthe "goodofhumanity,"ofcourse. 165.Butsupposeontheotherhandthatthestressesofthecoming decadesprovetobetoomuchforthesystem.Ifthesystembreaksdown theremaybeaperiodofchaos,a"timeoftroubles"suchasthose thathistoryhasrecorded:atvariousepochsinthepast.Itis impossibletopredictwhatwouldemergefromsuchatimeoftroubles, butatanyratethehumanracewouldbegivenanewchance.The greatestdangeristhatindustrialsocietymaybegintoreconstitute itselfwithinthefirstfewyearsafterthebreakdown.Certainlythere willbemanypeople(powerhungrytypesespecially)whowillbe anxioustogetthefactoriesrunningagain. 166.Thereforetwotasksconfrontthosewhohatetheservitudeto whichtheindustrialsystemisreducingthehumanrace.First,wemust worktoheightenthesocialstresseswithinthesystemsoasto increasethelikelihoodthatitwillbreakdownorbeweakened sufficientlysothatarevolutionagainstitbecomespossible.Second, itisnecessarytodevelopandpropagateanideologythatopposes technologyandtheindustrialsocietyifandwhenthesystembecomes sufficientlyweakened.Andsuchanideologywillhelptoassurethat, ifandwhenindustrialsocietybreaksdown,itsremnantswillbe smashedbeyondrepair,sothatthesystemcannotbereconstituted.The factoriesshouldbedestroyed,technicalbooksburned,etc. HUMANSUFFERING 167.Theindustrialsystemwillnotbreakdownpurelyasaresultof revolutionaryaction.Itwillnotbevulnerabletorevolutionary attackunlessitsowninternalproblemsofdevelopmentleaditinto veryseriousdifficulties.Soifthesystembreaksdownitwilldoso eitherspontaneously,orthroughaprocessthatisinpartspontaneous buthelpedalongbyrevolutionaries.Ifthebreakdownissudden,many peoplewilldie,sincetheworld'spopulationhasbecomesooverblown thatitcannotevenfeeditselfanylongerwithoutadvanced technology.Evenifthebreakdownisgradualenoughsothatreduction ofthepopulationcanoccurmorethroughloweringofthebirthrate

thanthroughelevationofthedeathrate,theprocessof deindustrializationprobablywillbeverychaoticandinvolvemuch suffering.Itisnaivetothinkitlikelythattechnologycanbe phasedoutinasmoothlymanagedorderlyway,especiallysincethe technophileswillfightstubbornlyateverystep.Isittherefore crueltoworkforthebreakdownofthesystem?Maybe,butmaybenot. Inthefirstplace,revolutionarieswillnotbeabletobreakthe systemdownunlessitisalreadyindeeptroublesothattherewould beagoodchanceofitseventuallybreakingdownbyitselfanyway;and thebiggerthesystemgrows,themoredisastroustheconsequencesof itsbreakdownwillbe;soitmaybethatrevolutionaries,byhastening theonsetofthebreakdownwillbereducingtheextentofthe disaster. 168.Inthesecondplace,onehastobalancethestruggleanddeath againstthelossoffreedomanddignity.Tomanyofus,freedomand dignityaremoreimportantthanalonglifeoravoidanceofphysical pain.Besides,weallhavetodiesometime,anditmaybebetterto diefightingforsurvival,orforacause,thantolivealongbut emptyandpurposelesslife. 169.Inthethirdplace,itisnotallcertainthatthesurvivalof thesystemwillleadtolesssufferingthanthebreakdownofthe systemwould.Thesystemhasalreadycaused,andiscontinuingto cause,immensesufferingallovertheworld.Ancientcultures,that forhundredsofyearsgavepeopleasatisfactoryrelationshipwith eachotherandtheirenvironment,havebeenshatteredbycontactwith industrialsociety,andtheresulthasbeenawholecatalogueof economic,environmental,socialandpsychologicalproblems.Oneofthe effectsoftheintrusionofindustrialsocietyhasbeenthatovermuch oftheworldtraditionalcontrolsonpopulationhavebeenthrownout ofbalance.Hencethepopulationexplosion,withallthatitimplies. Thenthereisthepsychologicalsufferingthatiswidespread throughoutthesupposedlyfortunatecountriesoftheWest(see paragraphs44,45).Nooneknowswhatwillhappenasaresultofozone depletion,thegreenhouseeffectandotherenvironmentalproblemsthat cannotyetbeforeseen.And,asnuclearproliferationhasshown,new technologycannotbekeptoutofthehandsofdictatorsand irresponsibleThirdWorldnations.Wouldyouliketospeculateabut whatIraqorNorthKoreawilldowithgeneticengineering? 170."Oh!"saythetechnophiles,"Scienceisgoingtofixallthat!We willconquerfamine,eliminatepsychologicalsuffering,makeeverybody healthyandhappy!"Yeah,sure.That'swhattheysaid200yearsago. TheIndustrialRevolutionwassupposedtoeliminatepoverty,make everybodyhappy,etc.Theactualresulthasbeenquitedifferent.The technophilesarehopelesslynaive(orselfdeceiving)intheir understandingofsocialproblems.Theyareunawareof(orchooseto ignore)thefactthatwhenlargechanges,evenseeminglybeneficial ones,areintroducedintoasociety,theyleadtoalongsequenceof otherchanges,mostofwhichareimpossibletopredict(paragraph

103).Theresultisdisruptionofthesociety.Soitisveryprobable thatintheirattempttoendpovertyanddisease,engineerdocile, happypersonalitiesandsoforth,thetechnophileswillcreatesocial systemsthatareterriblytroubled,evenmoresothatthepresentone. Forexample,thescientistsboastthattheywillendfamineby creatingnew,geneticallyengineeredfoodplants.Butthiswillallow thehumanpopulationtokeepexpandingindefinitely,anditiswell knownthatcrowdingleadstoincreasedstressandaggression.Thisis merelyoneexampleofthePREDICTABLEproblemsthatwillarise.We emphasizethat,aspastexperiencehasshown,technicalprogresswill leadtoothernewproblemsforsocietyfarmorerapidlythatithas beensolvingoldones.Thusitwilltakealongdifficultperiodof trialanderrorforthetechnophilestoworkthebugsoutoftheir BraveNewWorld(iftheyeverdo).Inthemeantimetherewillbegreat suffering.Soitisnotallclearthatthesurvivalofindustrial societywouldinvolvelesssufferingthanthebreakdownofthat societywould.Technologyhasgottenthehumanraceintoafixfrom whichthereisnotlikelytobeanyeasyescape. THEFUTURE 171.Butsupposenowthatindustrialsocietydoessurvivethenext severaldecadeandthatthebugsdoeventuallygetworkedoutofthe system,sothatitfunctionssmoothly.Whatkindofsystemwillitbe? Wewillconsiderseveralpossibilities. 172.Firstletuspostulatethatthecomputerscientistssucceedin developingintelligentmachinesthatcandoallthingsbetterthat humanbeingscandothem.Inthatcasepresumablyallworkwillbe donebyvast,highlyorganizedsystemsofmachinesandnohumaneffort willbenecessary.Eitheroftwocasesmightoccur.Themachinesmight bepermittedtomakealloftheirowndecisionswithouthuman oversight,orelsehumancontroloverthemachinesmightberetained. 173.Ifthemachinesarepermittedtomakealltheirowndecisions,we can'tmakeanyconjecturesastotheresults,becauseitisimpossible toguesshowsuchmachinesmightbehave.Weonlypointoutthatthe fateofthehumanracewouldbeatthemercyofthemachines.Itmight bearguedthatthehumanracewouldneverbefoolishenoughtohand overallthepowertothemachines.Butwearesuggestingneitherthat thehumanracewouldvoluntarilyturnpowerovertothemachinesnor thatthemachineswouldwillfullyseizepower.Whatwedosuggestis thatthehumanracemighteasilypermititselftodriftintoa positionofsuchdependenceonthemachinesthatitwouldhaveno practicalchoicebuttoacceptallofthemachinesdecisions.As societyandtheproblemsthatfaceitbecomemoreandmorecomplexand machinesbecomemoreandmoreintelligent,peoplewillletmachines makemoreoftheirdecisionforthem,simplybecausemachinemade

decisionswillbringbetterresultthanmanmadeones.Eventuallya stagemaybereachedatwhichthedecisionsnecessarytokeepthe systemrunningwillbesocomplexthathumanbeingswillbeincapable ofmakingthemintelligently.Atthatstagethemachineswillbein effectivecontrol.Peoplewon'tbeabletojustturnthemachinesoff, becausetheywillbesodependentonthemthatturningthemoffwould amounttosuicide. 174.Ontheotherhanditispossiblethathumancontroloverthe machinesmayberetained.Inthatcasetheaveragemanmayhave controlovercertainprivatemachinesofhisown,suchashiscarof hispersonalcomputer,butcontroloverlargesystemsofmachineswill beinthehandsofatinyelitejustasitistoday,butwithtwo difference.Duetoimprovedtechniquestheelitewillhavegreater controloverthemasses;andbecausehumanworkwillnolongerbe necessarythemasseswillbesuperfluous,auselessburdenonthe system.Iftheeliteisruthlessthemaysimplydecidetoexterminate themassofhumanity.Iftheyarehumanetheymayusepropagandaor otherpsychologicalorbiologicaltechniquestoreducethebirthrate untilthemassofhumanitybecomesextinct,leavingtheworldtothe elite.Or,iftheeliteconsistofsoftheartedliberals,theymay decidetoplaytheroleofgoodshepherdstotherestofthehuman race.Theywillseetoitthateveryone'sphysicalneedsare satisfied,thatallchildrenareraisedunderpsychologicallyhygienic conditions,thateveryonehasawholesomehobbytokeephimbusy,and thatanyonewhomaybecomedissatisfiedundergoes"treatment"tocure his"problem."Ofcourse,lifewillbesopurposelessthatpeoplewill havetobebiologicallyorpsychologicallyengineeredeithertoremove theirneedforthepowerprocessortomakethem"sublimate"their driveforpowerintosomeharmlesshobby.Theseengineeredhuman beingsmaybehappyinsuchasociety,buttheymostcertainlywill notbefree.Theywillhavebeenreducedtothestatusofdomestic animals. 175.Butsupposenowthatthecomputerscientistsdonotsucceedin developingartificialintelligence,sothathumanworkremains necessary.Evenso,machineswilltakecareofmoreandmoreofthe simplertaskssothattherewillbeanincreasingsurplusofhuman workersatthelowerlevelsofability.(Weseethishappening already.Therearemanypeoplewhofinditdifficultorimpossibleto getwork,becauseforintellectualorpsychologicalreasonsthey cannotacquiretheleveloftrainingnecessarytomakethemselves usefulinthepresentsystem.)Onthosewhoareemployed, everincreasingdemandswillbeplaced;Theywillneedmoreandmore training,moreandmoreability,andwillhavetobeevermore reliable,conforminganddocile,becausetheywillbemoreandmore likecellsofagiantorganism.Theirtaskswillbeincreasingly specializedsothattheirworkwillbe,inasense,outoftouchwith therealworld,beingconcentratedononetinysliceofreality.The systemwillhavetouseanymeansthatIcan,whetherpsychologicalor biological,toengineerpeopletobedocile,tohavetheabilities

thatthesystemrequiresandto"sublimate"theirdriveforpowerinto somespecializedtask.Butthestatementthatthepeopleofsucha societywillhavetobedocilemayrequirequalification.Thesociety mayfindcompetitivenessuseful,providedthatwaysarefoundof directingcompetitivenessintochannelsthatservethatneedsofthe system.Wecanimagineintochannelsthatservetheneedsofthe system.Wecanimagineafuturesocietyinwhichthereisendless competitionforpositionsofprestigeanpower.Butnomorethana veryfewpeoplewilleverreachthetop,wheretheonlyrealpoweris (seeendofparagraph163).Veryrepellentisasocietyinwhicha personcansatisfyhisneedsforpoweronlybypushinglargenumbers ofotherpeopleoutofthewayanddeprivingthemofTHEIRopportunity forpower. 176.Oncecanenvisionscenariosthatincorporateaspectsofmorethan oneofthepossibilitiesthatwehavejustdiscussed.Forinstance,it maybethatmachineswilltakeovermostoftheworkthatisofreal, practicalimportance,butthathumanbeingswillbekeptbusybybeing givenrelativelyunimportantwork.Ithasbeensuggested,forexample, thatagreatdevelopmentoftheserviceofindustriesmightprovide workforhumanbeings.Thuspeoplewillwouldspendtheirtime shinningeachothersshoes,drivingeachotheraroundinntaxicab, makinghandicraftsforoneanother,waitingoneachother'stables, etc.Thisseemstousathoroughlycontemptiblewayforthehumanrace toendup,andwedoubtthatmanypeoplewouldfindfulfillinglives insuchpointlessbusywork.Theywouldseekother,dangerousoutlets (drugs,,crime,"cults,"hategroups)unlesstheywerebiologicalor psychologicallyengineeredtoadaptthemtosuchawayoflife. 177.Needlesstoday,thescenariosoutlinedabovedonotexhaustall thepossibilities.Theyonlyindicatethekindsofoutcomesthatseem tousmotslikely.Butweecanenvisionnoplausiblescenariosthat areanymorepalatablethattheoneswe'vejustdescribed.Itis overwhelminglyprobablethatiftheindustrialtechnologicalsystem survivesthenext40to100years,itwillbythattimehavedeveloped certaingeneralcharacteristics:Individuals(atleastthoseofthe "bourgeois"type,whoareintegratedintothesystemandmakeitrun, andwhothereforehaveallthepower)willbemoredependentthanever onlargeorganizations;theywillbemore"socialized"thateverand theirphysicalandmentalqualitiestoasignificantextent(possibly toaverygreatextent)willbethosethatareengineeredintothem ratherthanbeingtheresultsofchance(orofGod'swill,or whatever);andwhatevermaybeleftofwildnaturewillbereducedto remnantspreservedforscientificstudyandkeptunderthesupervision andmanagementofscientists(henceitwillnolongerbetrulywild). Inthelongrun(sayafewcenturiesfromnow)itisitislikelythat neitherthehumanracenoranyotherimportantorganismswillexistas weknowthemtoday,becauseonceyoustartmodifyingorganismsthrough geneticengineeringthereisnoreasontostopatanyparticular point,sothatthemodificationswillprobablycontinueuntilmanand otherorganismshavebeenutterlytransformed.

178.Whateverelsemaybethecase,itiscertainthattechnologyis creatingforhumanbeginsanewphysicalandsocialenvironment radicallydifferentfromthespectrumofenvironmentstowhichnatural selectionhasadaptedthehumanracephysicallyandpsychological.If manisnotadjusttothisnewenvironmentbybeingartificially reengineered,thenhewillbeadaptedtoitthroughalonganpainful processofnaturalselection.Theformerisfarmorelikelythatthe latter. 179.Itwouldbebettertodumpthewholestinkingsystemandtakethe consequences. STRATEGY 180.Thetechnophilesaretakingusallonanutterlyrecklessride intotheunknown.Manypeopleunderstandsomethingofwhat technologicalprogressisdoingtousyettakeapassiveattitude towarditbecausetheythinkitisinevitable.Butwe(FC)don'tthink itisinevitable.Wethinkitcanbestopped,andwewillgivehere someindicationsofhowtogoaboutstoppingit. 181.Aswestatedinparagraph166,thetwomaintasksforthepresent aretopromotesocialstressandinstabilityinindustrialsocietyand todevelopandpropagateanideologythatopposestechnologyandthe industrialsystem.Whenthesystembecomessufficientlystressedand unstable,arevolutionagainsttechnologymaybepossible.Thepattern wouldbesimilartothatoftheFrenchandRussianRevolutions.French societyandRussiansociety,forseveraldecadespriortotheir respectiverevolutions,showedincreasingsignsofstressand weakness.Meanwhile,ideologieswerebeingdevelopedthatoffereda newworldviewthatwasquitedifferentfromtheoldone.Inthe Russiancase,revolutionarieswereactivelyworkingtounderminethe oldorder.Then,whentheoldsystemwasputundersufficient additionalstress(byfinancialcrisisinFrance,bymilitarydefeat inRussia)itwassweptawaybyrevolution.Whatweproposein somethingalongthesamelines. 182.ItwillbeobjectedthattheFrenchandRussianRevolutionswere failures.Butmostrevolutionshavetwogoals.Oneistodestroyan oldformofsocietyandtheotheristosetupthenewformofsociety envisionedbytherevolutionaries.TheFrenchandRussian revolutionariesfailed(fortunately!)tocreatethenewkindof societyofwhichtheydreamed,buttheywerequitesuccessfulin destroyingtheexistingformofsociety. 183.Butanideology,inordertogainenthusiasticsupport,musthave apositiveidealswellasanegativeone;itmustbeFORsomethingas

wellasAGAINSTsomething.Thepositiveidealthatweproposeis Nature.Thatis,WILDnature;thoseaspectsofthefunctioningofthe Earthanditslivingthingsthatareindependentofhumanmanagement andfreeofhumaninterferenceandcontrol.Andwithwildnaturewe includehumannature,bywhichwemeanthoseaspectsofthe functioningofthehumanindividualthatarenotsubjecttoregulation byorganizedsocietybutareproductsofchance,orfreewill,orGod (dependingonyourreligiousorphilosophicalopinions). 184.Naturemakesaperfectcounteridealtotechnologyforseveral reasons.Nature(thatwhichisoutsidethepowerofthesystem)isthe oppositeoftechnology(whichseekstoexpandindefinitelythepower ofthesystem).Mostpeoplewillagreethatnatureisbeautiful; certainlyithastremendouspopularappeal.Theradical environmentalistsALREADYholdanideologythatexaltsnatureand opposestechnology.[30]Itisnotnecessaryforthesakeofnatureto setupsomechimericalutopiaoranynewkindofsocialorder.Nature takescareofitself:Itwasaspontaneouscreationthatexistedlong beforeanyhumansociety,andforcountlesscenturiesmanydifferent kindsofhumansocietiescoexistedwithnaturewithoutdoingitan excessiveamountofdamage.OnlywiththeIndustrialRevolutiondid theeffectofhumansocietyonnaturebecomereallydevastating.To relievethepressureonnatureitisnotnecessarytocreateaspecial kindofsocialsystem,itisonlynecessarytogetridofindustrial society.Granted,thiswillnotsolveallproblems.Industrialsociety hasalreadydonetremendousdamagetonatureanditwilltakeavery longtimeforthescarstoheal.Besides,evenpreindustrial societiescandosignificantdamagetonature.Nevertheless,getting ridofindustrialsocietywillaccomplishagreatdeal.Itwill relievetheworstofthepressureonnaturesothatthescarscan begintoheal.Itwillremovethecapacityoforganizedsocietyto keepincreasingitscontrolovernature(includinghumannature). Whateverkindofsocietymayexistafterthedemiseoftheindustrial system,itiscertainthatmostpeoplewillliveclosetonature, becauseintheabsenceofadvancedtechnologythereisnototherway thatpeopleCANlive.Tofeedthemselvestheymustbepeasantsor herdsmenorfishermenorhunter,etc.,And,generallyspeaking,local autonomyshouldtendtoincrease,becauselackofadvancedtechnology andrapidcommunicationswilllimitthecapacityofgovernmentsor otherlargeorganizationstocontrollocalcommunities. 185.Asforthenegativeconsequencesofeliminatingindustrial societywell,youcan'teatyourcakeandhaveittoo.Togainone thingyouhavetosacrificeanother. 186.Mostpeoplehatepsychologicalconflict.Forthisreasonthey avoiddoinganyseriousthinkingaboutdifficultsocialissues,and theyliketohavesuchissuespresentedtotheminsimple, blackandwhiteterms:THISisallgoodandTHATisallbad.The revolutionaryideologyshouldthereforebedevelopedontwolevels.

187.Onthemoresophisticatedleveltheideologyshouldaddress itselftopeoplewhoareintelligent,thoughtfulandrational.The objectshouldbetocreateacoreofpeoplewhowillbeopposedtothe industrialsystemonarational,thoughtoutbasis,withfull appreciationoftheproblemsandambiguitiesinvolved,andofthe pricethathastobepaidforgettingridofthesystem.Itis particularlyimportanttoattractpeopleofthistype,astheyare capablepeopleandwillbeinstrumentalininfluencingothers.These peopleshouldbeaddressedonasrationalalevelaspossible.Facts shouldneverintentionallybedistortedandintemperatelanguage shouldbeavoided.Thisdoesnotmeanthatnoappealcanbemadeto theemotions,butinmakingsuchappealcareshouldbetakentoavoid misrepresentingthetruthordoinganythingelsethatwoulddestroy theintellectualrespectabilityoftheideology. 188.Onasecondlevel,theideologyshouldbepropagatedina simplifiedformthatwillenabletheunthinkingmajoritytoseethe conflictoftechnologyvs.natureinunambiguousterms.Butevenon thissecondleveltheideologyshouldnotbeexpressedinlanguage thatissocheap,intemperateorirrationalthatitalienatespeople ofthethoughtfulandrationaltype.Cheap,intemperatepropaganda sometimesachievesimpressiveshorttermgains,butitwillbemore advantageousinthelongruntokeeptheloyaltyofasmallnumberof intelligentlycommittedpeoplethantoarousethepassionsofan unthinking,ficklemobwhowillchangetheirattitudeassoonas someonecomesalongwithabetterpropagandagimmick.However, propagandaoftherabblerousingtypemaybenecessarywhenthesystem isnearingthepointofcollapseandthereisafinalstrugglebetween rivalideologiestodeterminewhichwillbecomedominantwhentheold worldviewgoesunder. 189.Priortothatfinalstruggle,therevolutionariesshouldnot expecttohaveamajorityofpeopleontheirside.Historyismadeby active,determinedminorities,notbythemajority,whichseldomhasa clearandconsistentideaofwhatitreallywants.Untilthetime comesforthefinalpushtowardrevolution[31],thetaskof revolutionarieswillbelesstowintheshallowsupportofthe majoritythantobuildasmallcoreofdeeplycommittedpeople.Asfor themajority,itwillbeenoughtomakethemawareoftheexistenceof thenewideologyandremindthemofitfrequently;thoughofcourseit willbedesirabletogetmajoritysupporttotheextentthatthiscan bedonewithoutweakeningthecoreofseriouslycommittedpeople. 190.Anykindofsocialconflicthelpstodestabilizethesystem,but oneshouldbecarefulaboutwhatkindofconflictoneencourages.The lineofconflictshouldbedrawnbetweenthemassofthepeopleand thepowerholdingeliteofindustrialsociety(politicians, scientists,upperlevelbusinessexecutives,governmentofficials, etc..).ItshouldNOTbedrawnbetweentherevolutionariesandthe massofthepeople.Forexample,itwouldbebadstrategyforthe revolutionariestocondemnAmericansfortheirhabitsofconsumption.

Instead,theaverageAmericanshouldbeportrayedasavictimofthe advertisingandmarketingindustry,whichhassuckeredhimintobuying alotofjunkthathedoesn'tneedandthatisverypoorcompensation forhislostfreedom.Eitherapproachisconsistentwiththefacts.It ismerelyamatterofattitudewhetheryoublametheadvertising industryformanipulatingthepublicorblamethepublicforallowing itselftobemanipulated.Asamatterofstrategyoneshouldgenerally avoidblamingthepublic. 191.Oneshouldthinktwicebeforeencouraginganyothersocial conflictthanthatbetweenthepowerholdingelite(whichwields technology)andthegeneralpublic(overwhichtechnologyexertsits power).Foronething,otherconflictstendtodistractattentionfrom theimportantconflicts(betweenpowereliteandordinarypeople, betweentechnologyandnature);foranotherthing,otherconflictsmay actuallytendtoencouragetechnologization,becauseeachsideinsuch aconflictwantstousetechnologicalpowertogainadvantagesover itsadversary.Thisisclearlyseeninrivalriesbetweennations.It alsoappearsinethnicconflictswithinnations.Forexample,in AmericamanyblackleadersareanxioustogainpowerforAfrican Americansbyplacingbackindividualsinthetechnological powerelite.Theywanttheretobemanyblackgovernmentofficials, scientists,corporationexecutivesandsoforth.Inthiswaytheyare helpingtoabsorbtheAfricanAmericansubcultureintothe technologicalsystem.Generallyspeaking,oneshouldencourageonly thosesocialconflictsthatcanbefittedintotheframeworkofthe conflictsofpowerelitevs.ordinarypeople,technologyvsnature. 192.ButthewaytodiscourageethnicconflictisNOTthroughmilitant advocacyofminorityrights(seeparagraphs21,29).Instead,the revolutionariesshouldemphasizethatalthoughminoritiesdosuffer moreorlessdisadvantage,thisdisadvantageisofperipheral significance.Ourrealenemyistheindustrialtechnologicalsystem, andinthestruggleagainstthesystem,ethnicdistinctionsareofno importance. 193.Thekindofrevolutionwehaveinmindwillnotnecessarily involveanarmeduprisingagainstanygovernment.Itmayormaynot involvephysicalviolence,butitwillnotbeaPOLITICALrevolution. Itsfocuswillbeontechnologyandeconomics,notpolitics.[32] 194.ProbablytherevolutionariesshouldevenAVOIDassumingpolitical power,whetherbylegalorillegalmeans,untiltheindustrialsystem isstressedtothedangerpointandhasproveditselftobeafailure intheeyesofmostpeople.Supposeforexamplethatsome"green" partyshouldwincontroloftheUnitedStatesCongressinanelection. Inordertoavoidbetrayingorwateringdowntheirownideologythey wouldhavetotakevigorousmeasurestoturneconomicgrowthinto economicshrinkage.Totheaveragemantheresultswouldappear disastrous:Therewouldbemassiveunemployment,shortagesof commodities,etc.Evenifthegrosserilleffectscouldbeavoided

throughsuperhumanlyskillfulmanagement,stillpeoplewouldhaveto begingivinguptheluxuriestowhichtheyhavebecomeaddicted. Dissatisfactionwouldgrow,the"green"partywouldbevotedoutofof ficeandtherevolutionarieswouldhavesufferedaseveresetback.For thisreasontherevolutionariesshouldnottrytoacquirepolitical poweruntilthesystemhasgottenitselfintosuchamessthatany hardshipswillbeseenasresultingfromthefailuresofthe industrialsystemitselfandnotfromthepoliciesofthe revolutionaries.Therevolutionagainsttechnologywillprobablyhave tobearevolutionbyoutsiders,arevolutionfrombelowandnotfrom above. 195.Therevolutionmustbeinternationalandworldwide.Itcannotbe carriedoutonanationbynationbasis.Wheneveritissuggestedthat theUnitedStates,forexample,shouldcutbackontechnological progressoreconomicgrowth,peoplegethystericalandstartscreaming thatifwefallbehindintechnologytheJapanesewillgetaheadof us.HolyrobotsTheworldwillflyoffitsorbitiftheJapaneseever sellmorecarsthanwedo!(Nationalismisagreatpromoterof technology.)Morereasonably,itisarguedthatiftherelatively democraticnationsoftheworldfallbehindintechnologywhilenasty, dictatorialnationslikeChina,VietnamandNorthKoreacontinueto progress,eventuallythedictatorsmaycometodominatetheworld. Thatiswhytheindustrialsystemshouldbeattackedinallnations simultaneously,totheextentthatthismaybepossible.True,there isnoassurancethattheindustrialsystemcanbedestroyedat approximatelythesametimeallovertheworld,anditiseven conceivablethattheattempttooverthrowthesystemcouldlead insteadtothedominationofthesystembydictators.Thatisarisk thathastobetaken.Anditisworthtaking,sincethedifference betweena"democratic"industrialsystemandonecontrolledby dictatorsissmallcomparedwiththedifferencebetweenanindustrial systemandanonindustrialone.[33]Itmightevenbearguedthatan industrialsystemcontrolledbydictatorswouldbepreferable,because dictatorcontrolledsystemsusuallyhaveprovedinefficient,hence theyarepresumablymorelikelytobreakdown.LookatCuba. 196.Revolutionariesmightconsiderfavoringmeasuresthattendto bindtheworldeconomyintoaunifiedwhole.Freetradeagreements likeNAFTAandGATTareprobablyharmfultotheenvironmentinthe shortrun,butinthelongruntheymayperhapsbeadvantageous becausetheyfostereconomicinterdependencebetweennations.Iwill beeaiertodestroytheindustrialsystemonaworldwidebasisifhe worldeconomyissounifiedthatitsbreakdowninanyonmajornation willleadtoitsbreakdwoninalindustrializednations. thelongruntheymayperhapsbeadvantageousbecausetheyfoster economicinterdependencebetweennations.Itwillbeeasiertodestroy theindustrialsystemonaworldwidebasisiftheworldeconomyisso unifiedthatitsbreakdowninanyonemajornationwillleadtoits breakdowninallindustrializednations.

197.Somepeopletakethelinethatmodernmanhastoomuchpower,too muchcontrolovernature;theyargueforamorepassiveattitudeon thepartofthehumanrace.Atbestthesepeopleareexpressing themselvesunclearly,becausetheyfailtodistinguishbetweenpower forLARGEORGANIZATIONSandpowerforINDIVIDUALSandSMALLGROUPS.It isamistaketoargueforpowerlessnessandpassivity,becausepeople NEEDpower.Modernmanasacollectiveentitythatis,theindustrial systemhasimmensepowerovernature,andwe(FC)regardthisas evil.ButmodernINDIVIDUALSandSMALLGROUPSOFINDIVIDUALShavefar lesspowerthanprimitivemaneverdid.Generallyspeaking,thevast powerof"modernman"overnatureisexercisednotbyindividualsor smallgroupsbutbylargeorganizations.Totheextentthatthe averagemodernINDIVIDUALcanwieldthepoweroftechnology,heis permittedtodosoonlywithinnarrowlimitsandonlyunderthe supervisionandcontrolofthesystem.(Youneedalicensefor everythingandwiththelicensecomerulesandregulations).The individualhasonlythosetechnologicalpowerswithwhichthesystem choosestoprovidehim.HisPERSONALpowerovernatureisslight. 198.PrimitiveINDIVIDUALSandSMALLGROUPSactuallyhadconsiderable powerovernature;ormaybeitwouldbebettertosaypowerWITHIN nature.Whenprimitivemanneededfoodheknewhowtofindandprepare edibleroots,howtotrackgameandtakeitwithhomemadeweapons.He knewhowtoprotecthimselffromheat,cold,rain,dangerousanimals, etc.Butprimitivemandidrelativelylittledamagetonaturebecause theCOLLECTIVEpowerofprimitivesocietywasnegligiblecomparedto theCOLLECTIVEpowerofindustrialsociety. 199.Insteadofarguingforpowerlessnessandpassivity,oneshould arguethatthepoweroftheINDUSTRIALSYSTEMshouldbebroken,and thatthiswillgreatlyINCREASEthepowerandfreedomofINDIVIDUALS andSMALLGROUPS. 200.Untiltheindustrialsystemhasbeenthoroughlywrecked,the destructionofthatsystemmustbetherevolutionaries'ONLYgoal. Othergoalswoulddistractattentionandenergyfromthemaingoal. Moreimportantly,iftherevolutionariespermitthemselvestohaveany othergoalthanthedestructionoftechnology,theywillbetemptedto usetechnologyasatoolforreachingthatothergoal.Iftheygivein tothattemptation,theywillfallrightbackintothetechnological trap,becausemoderntechnologyisaunified,tightlyorganized system,sothat,inordertoretainSOMEtechnology,onefindsoneself obligedtoretainMOSTtechnology,henceoneendsupsacrificingonly tokenamountsoftechnology. 201.Supposeforexamplethattherevolutionariestook"social justice"asagoal.Humannaturebeingwhatitis,socialjustice wouldnotcomeaboutspontaneously;itwouldhavetobeenforced.In ordertoenforceittherevolutionarieswouldhavetoretaincentral organizationandcontrol.Forthattheywouldneedrapidlongdistance

transportationandcommunication,andthereforeallthetechnology neededtosupportthetransportationandcommunicationsystems.To feedandclothepoorpeopletheywouldhavetouseagriculturaland manufacturingtechnology.Andsoforth.Sothattheattempttoinsure socialjusticewouldforcethemtoretainmostpartsofthe technologicalsystem.Notthatwehaveanythingagainstsocial justice,butitmustnotbeallowedtointerferewiththeeffortto getridofthetechnologicalsystem. 202.Itwouldbehopelessforrevolutionariestotrytoattackthe systemwithoutusingSOMEmoderntechnology.Ifnothingelsetheymust usethecommunicationsmediatospreadtheirmessage.Buttheyshould usemoderntechnologyforonlyONEpurpose:toattackthe technologicalsystem. 203.Imagineanalcoholicsittingwithabarrelofwineinfrontof him.Supposehestartssayingtohimself,"Wineisn'tbadforyouif usedinmoderation.Why,theysaysmallamountsofwineareevengood foryou!Itwon'tdomeanyharmifItakejustonelittledrink..." Wellyouknowwhatisgoingtohappen.Neverforgetthatthehuman racewithtechnologyisjustlikeanalcoholicwithabarrelofwine. 204.Revolutionariesshouldhaveasmanychildrenastheycan.There isstrongscientificevidencethatsocialattitudesaretoa significantextentinherited.Noonesuggeststhatasocialattitude isadirectoutcomeofaperson'sgeneticconstitution,butitappears thatpersonalitytraitstend,withinthecontextofoursociety,to makeapersonmorelikelytoholdthisorthatsocialattitude. Objectionstothesefindingshavebeenraised,butobjectionsare feebleandseemtobeideologicallymotivated.Inanyevent,noone deniesthatchildrentendontheaveragetoholdsocialattitudes similartothoseoftheirparents.Fromourpointofviewitdoesn't matterallthatmuchwhethertheattitudesarepassedongenetically orthroughchildhoodtraining.IneithercasetheAREpassedon. 205.Thetroubleisthatmanyofthepeoplewhoareinclinedtorebel againsttheindustrialsystemarealsoconcernedaboutthepopulation problems,hencetheyareapttohavefewornochildren.Inthisway theymaybehandingtheworldovertothesortofpeoplewhosupport oratleastaccepttheindustrialsystem.Toinsurethestrengthof thenextgenerationofrevolutionariesthepresentgenerationmust reproduceitselfabundantly.Indoingsotheywillbeworseningthe populationproblemonlyslightly.Andthemostimportantproblemisto getridoftheindustrialsystem,becauseoncetheindustrialsystem isgonetheworld'spopulationnecessarilywilldecrease(see paragraph167);whereas,iftheindustrialsystemsurvives,itwill continuedevelopingnewtechniquesoffoodproductionthatmayenable theworld'spopulationtokeepincreasingalmostindefinitely. 206.Withregardtorevolutionarystrategy,theonlypointsonwhich weabsolutelyinsistarethatthesingleoverridinggoalmustbethe

eliminationofmoderntechnology,andthatnoothergoalcanbe allowedtocompetewiththisone.Fortherest,revolutionariesshould takeanempiricalapproach.Ifexperienceindicatesthatsomeofthe recommendationsmadeintheforegoingparagraphsarenotgoingtogive goodresults,thenthoserecommendationsshouldbediscarded. TWOKINDSOFTECHNOLOGY 207.Anargumentlikelytoberaisedagainstourproposedrevolution isthatitisboundtofail,because(itisclaimed)throughout historytechnologyhasalwaysprogressed,neverregressed,hence technologicalregressionisimpossible.Butthisclaimisfalse. 208.Wedistinguishbetweentwokindsoftechnology,whichwewill callsmallscaletechnologyandorganizationdependenttechnology. Smallscaletechnologyistechnologythatcanbeusedbysmallscale communitieswithoutoutsideassistance.Organizationdependent technologyistechnologythatdependsonlargescalesocial organization.Weareawareofnosignificantcasesofregressionin smallscaletechnology.ButorganizationdependenttechnologyDOES regresswhenthesocialorganizationonwhichitdependsbreaksdown. Example:WhentheRomanEmpirefellaparttheRomans'smallscale technologysurvivedbecauseanyclevervillagecraftsmancouldbuild, forinstance,awaterwheel,anyskilledsmithcouldmakesteelby Romanmethods,andsoforth.ButtheRomans'organizationdependent technologyDIDregress.Theiraqueductsfellintodisrepairandwere neverrebuilt.Theirtechniquesofroadconstructionwerelost.The Romansystemofurbansanitationwasforgotten,sothatuntilrather recenttimesdidthesanitationofEuropeancitiesthatofAncient Rome. 209.Thereasonwhytechnologyhasseemedalwaystoprogressisthat, untilperhapsacenturyortwobeforetheIndustrialRevolution,most technologywassmallscaletechnology.Butmostofthetechnology developedsincetheIndustrialRevolutionisorganizationdependent technology.Taketherefrigeratorforexample.Withoutfactorymade partsorthefacilitiesofapostindustrialmachineshopitwouldbe virtuallyimpossibleforahandfuloflocalcraftsmentobuilda refrigerator.Ifbysomemiracletheydidsucceedinbuildingoneit wouldbeuselesstothemwithoutareliablesourceofelectricpower. Sotheywouldhavetodamastreamandbuildagenerator.Generators requirelargeamountsofcopperwire.Imaginetryingtomakethatwire withoutmodernmachinery.Andwherewouldtheygetagassuitablefor refrigeration?Itwouldbemucheasiertobuildanicehouseor preservefoodbydryingorpicking,aswasdonebeforetheinvention oftherefrigerator.

210.Soitisclearthatiftheindustrialsystemwereoncethoroughly brokendown,refrigerationtechnologywouldquicklybelost.Thesame istrueofotherorganizationdependenttechnology.Andoncethis technologyhadbeenlostforagenerationorsoitwouldtake centuriestorebuildit,justasittookcenturiestobuilditthe firsttimearound.Survivingtechnicalbookswouldbefewand scattered.Anindustrialsociety,ifbuiltfromscratchwithout outsidehelp,canonlybebuiltinaseriesofstages:Youneedtools tomaketoolstomaketoolstomaketools....Alongprocessof economicdevelopmentandprogressinsocialorganizationisrequired. And,evenintheabsenceofanideologyopposedtotechnology,there isnoreasontobelievethatanyonewouldbeinterestedinrebuilding industrialsociety.Theenthusiasmfor"progress"isaphenomenon particulartothemodernformofsociety,anditseemsnottohave existedpriortothe17thcenturyorthereabouts. 211.InthelateMiddleAgestherewerefourmaincivilizationsthat wereaboutequally"advanced":Europe,theIslamicworld,India,and theFarEast(China,Japan,Korea).Threeofthosecivilizations remainedmoreorlessstable,andonlyEuropebecamedynamic.Noone knowswhyEuropebecamedynamicatthattime;historianshavetheir theoriesbuttheseareonlyspeculation.Atanyrate,itisclearthat rapiddevelopmenttowardatechnologicalformofsocietyoccursonly underspecialconditions.Sothereisnoreasontoassumethat longlastingtechnologicalregressioncannotbebroughtabout. 212.WouldsocietyEVENTUALLYdevelopagaintowardan industrialtechnologicalform?Maybe,butthereisnouseinworrying aboutit,sincewecan'tpredictorcontrolevents500or1,000years inthefuture.Thoseproblemsmustbedealtwithbythepeoplewho willliveatthattime. THEDANGEROFLEFTISM 213.Becauseoftheirneedforrebellionandformembershipina movement,leftistsorpersonsofsimilarpsychologicaltypeareoften unattractedtoarebelliousoractivistmovementwhosegoalsand membershiparenotinitiallyleftist.Theresultinginfluxofleftish typescaneasilyturnanonleftistmovementintoaleftistone,so thatleftistgoalsreplaceordistorttheoriginalgoalsofthe movement. 214.Toavoidthis,amovementthatexaltsnatureandopposes technologymusttakearesolutelyantileftiststanceandmustavoid allcollaborationwithleftists.Leftismisinthelongrun inconsistentwithwildnature,withhumanfreedomandwiththe eliminationofmoderntechnology.Leftismiscollectivist;itseeksto bindtogethertheentireworld(bothnatureandthehumanrace)intoa

unifiedwhole.Butthisimpliesmanagementofnatureandofhumanlife byorganizedsociety,anditrequiresadvancedtechnology.Youcan't haveaunitedworldwithoutrapidtransportationandcommunication, youcan'tmakeallpeopleloveoneanotherwithoutsophisticated psychologicaltechniques,youcan'thavea"plannedsociety"without thenecessarytechnologicalbase.Aboveall,leftismisdrivenbythe needforpower,andtheleftistseekspoweronacollectivebasis, throughidentificationwithamassmovementoranorganization. Leftismisunlikelyevertogiveuptechnology,becausetechnologyis toovaluableasourceofcollectivepower. 215.Theanarchist[34]tooseekspower,butheseeksitonan individualorsmallgroupbasis;hewantsindividualsandsmallgroups tobeabletocontrolthecircumstancesoftheirownlives.Heopposes technologybecauseitmakessmallgroupsdependentonlarge organizations. 216.Someleftistsmayseemtoopposetechnology,buttheywilloppose itonlysolongastheyareoutsidersandthetechnologicalsystemis controlledbynonleftists.Ifleftismeverbecomesdominantin society,sothatthetechnologicalsystembecomesatoolinthehands ofleftists,theywillenthusiasticallyuseitandpromoteitsgrowth. Indoingthistheywillberepeatingapatternthatleftismhasshown againandagaininthepast.WhentheBolsheviksinRussiawere outsiders,theyvigorouslyopposedcensorshipandthesecretpolice, theyadvocatedselfdeterminationforethnicminorities,andsoforth; butassoonastheycameintopowerthemselves,theyimposedatighter censorshipandcreatedamoreruthlesssecretpolicethananythathad existedunderthetsars,andtheyoppressedethnicminoritiesatleast asmuchasthetsarshaddone.IntheUnitedStates,acoupleof decadesagowhenleftistswereaminorityinouruniversities,leftist professorswerevigorousproponentsofacademicfreedom,buttoday,in thoseuniversitieswhereleftistshavebecomedominant,theyhave shownthemselvesreadytotakeawayfromeveryoneelse'sacademic freedom.(Thisis"politicalcorrectness.")Thesamewillhappenwith leftistsandtechnology:Theywilluseittooppresseveryoneelseif theyevergetitundertheirowncontrol. 217.Inearlierrevolutions,leftistsofthemostpowerhungrytype, repeatedly,havefirstcooperatedwithnonleftistrevolutionaries,as wellaswithleftistsofamorelibertarianinclination,andlater havedoublecrossedthemtoseizepowerforthemselves.Robespierre didthisintheFrenchRevolution,theBolsheviksdiditinthe RussianRevolution,thecommunistsdiditinSpainin1938andCastro andhisfollowersdiditinCuba.Giventhepasthistoryofleftism, itwouldbeutterlyfoolishfornonleftistrevolutionariestodayto collaboratewithleftists. 218.Variousthinkershavepointedoutthatleftismisakindof religion.Leftismisnotareligioninthestrictsensebecause leftistdoctrinedoesnotpostulatetheexistenceofanysupernatural

being.Butfortheleftist,leftismplaysapsychologicalrolemuch likethatwhichreligionplaysforsomepeople.TheleftistNEEDSto believeinleftism;itplaysavitalroleinhispsychological economy.Hisbeliefsarenoteasilymodifiedbylogicorfacts.Hehas adeepconvictionthatleftismismorallyRightwithacapitalR,and thathehasnotonlyarightbutadutytoimposeleftistmoralityon everyone.(However,manyofthepeoplewearereferringtoas "leftists"donotthinkofthemselvesasleftistsandwouldnot describetheirsystemofbeliefsasleftism.Weusetheterm"leftism" becausewedon'tknowofanybetterwordstodesignatethespectrumof relatedcreedsthatincludesthefeminist,gayrights,political correctness,etc.,movements,andbecausethesemovementshavea strongaffinitywiththeoldleft.Seeparagraphs227230.) 219.Leftismistotalitarianforce.Whereverleftismisinaposition ofpowerittendstoinvadeeveryprivatecornerandforceevery thoughtintoaleftistmold.Inpartthisisbecauseofthe quasireligiouscharacterofleftism;everythingcontrarytoleftists beliefsrepresentsSin.Moreimportantly,leftismisatotalitarian forcebecauseoftheleftists'driveforpower.Theleftistseeksto satisfyhisneedforpowerthroughidentificationwithasocial movementandhetriestogothroughthepowerprocessbyhelpingto pursueandattainthegoalsofthemovement(seeparagraph83).Butno matterhowfarthemovementhasgoneinattainingitsgoalsthe leftistisneversatisfied,becausehisactivismisasurrogate activity(seeparagraph41).Thatis,theleftist'srealmotiveisnot toattaintheostensiblegoalsofleftism;inrealityheismotivated bythesenseofpowerhegetsfromstrugglingforandthenreachinga socialgoal.[35] Consequentlytheleftistisneversatisfiedwiththegoalshehas alreadyattained;hisneedforthepowerprocessleadshimalwaysto pursuesomenewgoal.Theleftistwantsequalopportunitiesfor minorities.Whenthatisattainedheinsistsonstatisticalequality ofachievementbyminorities.Andaslongasanyoneharborsinsome cornerofhismindanegativeattitudetowardsomeminority,the leftisthastoreeducatedhim.Andethnicminoritiesarenotenough; noonecanbeallowedtohaveanegativeattitudetowardhomosexuals, disabledpeople,fatpeople,oldpeople,uglypeople,andonandon andon.It'snotenoughthatthepublicshouldbeinformedaboutthe hazardsofsmoking;awarninghastobestampedoneverypackageof cigarettes.Thencigaretteadvertisinghastoberestrictedifnot banned.Theactivistswillneverbesatisfieduntiltobaccois outlawed,andafterthatitwillbealcohotthenjunkfood,etc. Activistshavefoughtgrosschildabuse,whichisreasonable.Butnow theywanttostopallspanking.Whentheyhavedonethattheywill wanttobansomethingelsetheyconsiderunwholesome,thenanother thingandthenanother.Theywillneverbesatisfieduntiltheyhave completecontroloverallchildrearingpractices.Andthentheywill moveontoanothercause.

220.SupposeyouaskedleftiststomakealistofALLthethingsthat werewrongwithsociety,andthensupposeyouinstitutedEVERYsocial changethattheydemanded.Itissafetosaythatwithinacoupleof yearsthemajorityofleftistswouldfindsomethingnewtocomplain about,somenewsocial"evil"tocorrectbecause,onceagain,the leftistismotivatedlessbydistressatsociety'sillsthanbythe needtosatisfyhisdriveforpowerbyimposinghissolutionson society. 221.Becauseoftherestrictionsplacedontheirthoughtsandbehavior bytheirhighlevelofsocialization,manyleftistsofthe oversocializedtypecannotpursuepowerinthewaysthatotherpeople do.Forthemthedriveforpowerhasonlyonemorallyacceptable outlet,andthatisinthestruggletoimposetheirmoralityon everyone. 222.Leftists,especiallythoseoftheoversocializedtype,areTrue BelieversinthesenseofEricHoffer'sbook,"TheTrueBeliever."But notallTrueBelieversareofthesamepsychologicaltypeasleftists. Presumablyatruebelievingnazi,forinstanceisverydifferent psychologicallyfromatruebelievingleftist.Becauseoftheir capacityforsinglemindeddevotiontoacause,TrueBelieversarea useful,perhapsanecessary,ingredientofanyrevolutionarymovement. Thispresentsaproblemwithwhichwemustadmitwedon'tknowhowto deal.Wearen'tsurehowtoharnesstheenergiesoftheTrueBeliever toarevolutionagainsttechnology.Atpresentallwecansayisthat noTrueBelieverwillmakeasaferecruittotherevolutionunlesshis commitmentisexclusivelytothedestructionoftechnology.Ifheis committedalsotoanotherideal,hemaywanttousetechnologyasa toolforpursuingthatotherideal(seeparagraphs220,221). 223.Somereadersmaysay,"Thisstuffaboutleftismisalotofcrap. IknowJohnandJanewhoareleftishtypesandtheydon'thaveall thesetotalitariantendencies."It'squitetruethatmanyleftists, possiblyevenanumericalmajority,aredecentpeoplewhosincerely believeintoleratingothers'values(uptoapoint)andwouldn'twant tousehighhandedmethodstoreachtheirsocialgoals.Ourremarks aboutleftismarenotmeanttoapplytoeveryindividualleftistbut todescribethegeneralcharacterofleftismasamovement.Andthe generalcharacterofamovementisnotnecessarilydeterminedbythe numericalproportionsofthevariouskindsofpeopleinvolvedinthe movement. 224.Thepeoplewhorisetopositionsofpowerinleftistmovements tendtobeleftistsofthemostpowerhungrytypebecausepowerhungry peoplearethosewhostrivehardesttogetintopositionsofpower. Oncethepowerhungrytypeshavecapturedcontrolofthemovement, therearemanyleftistsofagentlerbreedwhoinwardlydisapproveof manyoftheactionsoftheleaders,butcannotbringthemselvesto opposethem.TheyNEEDtheirfaithinthemovement,andbecausethey cannotgiveupthisfaiththeygoalongwiththeleaders.True,SOME

leftistsdohavethegutstoopposethetotalitariantendenciesthat emerge,buttheygenerallylose,becausethepowerhungrytypesare betterorganized,aremoreruthlessandMachiavellianandhavetaken caretobuildthemselvesastrongpowerbase. 225.ThesephenomenaappearedclearlyinRussiaandothercountries thatweretakenoverbyleftists.Similarly,beforethebreakdownof communismintheUSSR,leftishtypesintheWestwouldseldom criticizethatcountry.IfproddedtheywouldadmitthattheUSSRdid manywrongthings,butthentheywouldtrytofindexcusesforthe communistsandbegintalkingaboutthefaultsoftheWest.Theyalways opposedWesternmilitaryresistancetocommunistaggression.Leftish typesallovertheworldvigorouslyprotestedtheU.S.militaryaction inVietnam,butwhentheUSSRinvadedAfghanistantheydidnothing. NotthattheyapprovedoftheSovietactions;butbecauseoftheir leftistfaith,theyjustcouldn'tbeartoputthemselvesinopposition tocommunism.Today,inthoseofouruniversitieswhere"political correctness"hasbecomedominant,thereareprobablymanyleftish typeswhoprivatelydisapproveofthesuppressionofacademicfreedom, buttheygoalongwithitanyway. 226.Thusthefactthatmanyindividualleftistsarepersonallymild andfairlytolerantpeoplebynomeanspreventsleftismasawhole formhavingatotalitariantendency. 227.Ourdiscussionofleftismhasaseriousweakness.Itisstillfar fromclearwhatwemeanbytheword"leftist."Theredoesn'tseemto bemuchwecandoaboutthis.Todayleftismisfragmentedintoawhole spectrumofactivistmovements.Yetnotallactivistmovementsare leftist,andsomeactivistmovements(e.g..,radicalenvironmentalism) seemtoincludebothpersonalitiesoftheleftisttypeand personalitiesofthoroughlyunleftisttypeswhooughttoknowbetter thantocollaboratewithleftists.Varietiesofleftistsfadeout graduallyintovarietiesofnonleftistsandweourselveswouldoften behardpressedtodecidewhetheragivenindividualisorisnota leftist.Totheextentthatitisdefinedatall,ourconceptionof leftismisdefinedbythediscussionofitthatwehavegiveninthis article,andwecanonlyadvisethereadertousehisownjudgmentin decidingwhoisaleftist. 228.Butitwillbehelpfultolistsomecriteriafordiagnosing leftism.Thesecriteriacannotbeappliedinacutanddriedmanner. Someindividualsmaymeetsomeofthecriteriawithoutbeingleftists, someleftistsmaynotmeetanyofthecriteria.Again,youjusthave touseyourjudgment. 229.Theleftistisorientedtowardlargescalecollectivism.He emphasizesthedutyoftheindividualtoservesocietyandthedutyof societytotakecareoftheindividual.Hehasanegativeattitude towardindividualism.Heoftentakesamoralistictone.Hetendstobe forguncontrol,forsexeducationandotherpsychologically

"enlightened"educationalmethods,forplanning,foraffirmative action,formulticulturalism.Hetendstoidentifywithvictims.He tendstobeagainstcompetitionandagainstviolence,butheoften findsexcusesforthoseleftistswhodocommitviolence.Heisfondof usingthecommoncatchphrasesoftheleftlike"racism,""sexism," "homophobia,""capitalism,""imperialism,""neocolonialism" "genocide,""socialchange,""socialjustice,""social responsibility."Maybethebestdiagnostictraitoftheleftistishis tendencytosympathizewiththefollowingmovements:feminism,gay rights,ethnicrights,disabilityrights,animalrightspolitical correctness.AnyonewhostronglysympathizeswithALLofthese movementsisalmostcertainlyaleftist.[36] 230.Themoredangerousleftists,thatis,thosewhoaremost powerhungry,areoftencharacterizedbyarroganceorbyadogmatic approachtoideology.However,themostdangerousleftistsofallmay becertainoversocializedtypeswhoavoidirritatingdisplaysof aggressivenessandrefrainfromadvertisingtheirleftism,butwork quietlyandunobtrusivelytopromotecollectivistvalues, "enlightened"psychologicaltechniquesforsocializingchildren, dependenceoftheindividualonthesystem,andsoforth.These cryptoleftists(aswemaycallthem)approximatecertainbourgeois typesasfaraspracticalactionisconcerned,butdifferfromthemin psychology,ideologyandmotivation.Theordinarybourgeoistriesto bringpeopleundercontrolofthesysteminordertoprotecthisway oflife,orhedoessosimplybecausehisattitudesareconventional. Thecryptoleftisttriestobringpeopleundercontrolofthesystem becauseheisaTrueBelieverinacollectivisticideology.The cryptoleftistisdifferentiatedfromtheaverageleftistofthe oversocializedtypebythefactthathisrebelliousimpulseisweaker andheismoresecurelysocialized.Heisdifferentiatedfromthe ordinarywellsocializedbourgeoisbythefactthatthereissomedeep lackwithinhimthatmakesitnecessaryforhimtodevotehimselftoa causeandimmersehimselfinacollectivity.Andmaybehis (wellsublimated)driveforpowerisstrongerthanthatoftheaverage bourgeois. FINALNOTE 231.Throughoutthisarticlewe'vemadeimprecisestatementsand statementsthatoughttohavehadallsortsofqualificationsand reservationsattachedtothem;andsomeofourstatementsmaybe flatlyfalse.Lackofsufficientinformationandtheneedforbrevity madeitimpossibleforustofomulateourassertionsmorepreciselyor addallthenecessaryqualifications.Andofcourseinadiscussionof this kindonemustrelyheavilyonintuitivejudgment,andthatcan sometimesbewrong.Sowedon'tclaimthatthisarticleexpressesmore thanacrudeapproximationtothetruth.

232.Allthesamewearereasonablyconfidentthatthegeneral outlinesofthepicturewehavepaintedhereareroughlycorrect.We haveportrayedleftisminitsmodernformasaphenomenonpeculiarto ourtimeandasasymptomofthedisruptionofthepowerprocess.But wemightpossiblybewrongaboutthis.Oversocializedtypeswhotryto satisfytheirdriveforpowerbyimposingtheirmoralityoneveryone havecertainlybeenaroundforalongtime.ButweTHINKthatthe decisiveroleplayedbyfeelingsofinferiority,lowselfesteem, powerlessness,identificationwithvictimsbypeoplewhoarenot themselvesvictims,isapeculiarityofmodernleftism.Identification withvictimsbypeoplenotthemselvesvictimscanbeseentosome extentin19thcenturyleftismandearlyChristianitybutasfaraswe canmakeout,symptomsoflowselfesteem,etc.,werenotnearlyso evidentinthesemovements,orinanyothermovements,astheyarein modernleftism.Butwearenotinapositiontoassertconfidently thatnosuchmovementshaveexistedpriortomodernleftism.Thisisa significantquestiontowhichhistoriansoughttogivetheir attention. NOTES 1.(Paragraph19)WeareassertingthatALL,orevenmost,bulliesand ruthlesscompetitorssufferfromfeelingsofinferiority. 2.(Paragraph25)DuringtheVictorianperiodmanyoversocialized peoplesufferedfromseriouspsychologicalproblemsasaresultof repressingortryingtorepresstheirsexualfeelings.Freud apparentlybasedhistheoriesonpeopleofthistype.Todaythefocus ofsocializationhasshiftedfromsextoaggression. 3.(Paragraph27)Notnecessarilyincludingspecialistsinengineering "hard"sciences. 4.(Paragraph28)Therearemanyindividualsofthemiddleandupper classeswhoresistsomeofthesevalues,butusuallytheirresistance ismoreorlesscovert.Suchresistanceappearsinthemassmediaonly toaverylimitedextent.Themainthrustofpropagandainoursociety isinfavorofthestatedvalues. Themainreasonswhythesevalueshavebecome,sotospeak,the officialvaluesofoursocietyisthattheyareusefultothe industrialsystem.Violenceisdiscouragedbecauseitdisruptsthe functioningofthesystem.Racismisdiscouragedbecauseethnic conflictsalsodisruptthesystem,anddiscriminationwastesthe talentofminoritygroupmemberswhocouldbeusefultothesystem. Povertymustbe"cured"becausetheunderclasscausesproblemsforthe systemandcontactwiththeunderclasslowersthemoraloftheother classes.Womenareencouragedtohavecareersbecausetheirtalents areusefultothesystemand,moreimportantlybecausebyhaving

regularjobswomenbecomebetterintegratedintothesystemandtied directlytoitratherthantotheirfamilies.Thishelpstoweaken familysolidarity.(Theleadersofthesystemsaytheywantto strengthenthefamily,buttheyreallymeanisthattheywantthe familytoserveasaneffectivetoolforsocializingchildrenin accordwiththeneedsofthesystem.Weargueinparagraphs51,52that thesystemcannotaffordtoletthefamilyorothersmallscalesocial groupsbestrongorautonomous.) 5.(Paragraph42)Itmaybearguedthatthemajorityofpeopledon't wanttomaketheirowndecisionsbutwantleaderstodotheirthinking forthem.Thereisanelementoftruthinthis.Peopleliketomake theirowndecisionsinsmallmatters,butmakingdecisionson difficult,fundamentalquestionsrequirefacinguptopsychological conflict,andmostpeoplehatepsychologicalconflict.Hencetheytend toleanonothersinmakingdifficultdecisions.Themajorityof peoplearenaturalfollowers,notleaders,buttheyliketohave directpersonalaccesstotheirleadersandparticipatetosomeextent inmakingdifficultdecisions.Atleasttothatdegreetheyneed autonomy. 6.(Paragraph44)Someofthesymptomslistedaresimilartothose shownbycagedanimals. Toexplainhowthesesymptomsarisefromdeprivationwithrespectto thepowerprocess: Commonsenseunderstandingofhumannaturetellsonethatlackof goalswhoseattainmentrequireseffortleadstoboredomandthat boredom,longcontinued,oftenleadseventuallytodepression.Failure toobtaingoalsleadstofrustrationandloweringofselfesteem. Frustrationleadstoanger,angertoaggression,oftenintheformof spouseorchildabuse.Ithasbeenshownthatlongcontinued frustrationcommonlyleadstodepressionandthatdepressiontendsto causeguilt,sleepdisorders,eatingdisordersandbadfeelingsabout oneself.Thosewhoaretendingtowarddepressionseekpleasureasan antidote;henceinsatiablehedonismandexcessivesex,with perversionsasameansofgettingnewkicks.Boredomtootendsto causeexcessivepleasureseekingsince,lackingothergoals,people oftenusepleasureasagoal.Seeaccompanyingdiagram.Theforegoing isasimplification.Realityismorecomplex,andofcourse deprivationwithrespecttothepowerprocessisnottheONLYcauseof thesymptomsdescribed.Bytheway,whenwementiondepressionwedo notnecessarilymeandepressionthatissevereenoughtobetreatedby apsychiatrist.Oftenonlymildformsofdepressionareinvolved.And whenwespeakofgoalswedonotnecessarilymeanlongterm,thought outgoals.Formanyormostpeoplethroughmuchofhumanhistory,the goalsofahandtomouthexistence(merelyprovidingoneselfandone's familywithfoodfromdaytoday)havebeenquitesufficient.

7.(Paragraph52)Apartialexceptionmaybemadeforafewpassive, inwardlookinggroups,suchastheAmish,whichhavelittleeffecton thewidersociety.Apartfromthese,somegenuinesmallscale communitiesdoexistinAmericatoday.Forinstance,youthgangsand "cults".Everyoneregardsthemasdangerous,andsotheyare,because themembersofthesegroupsareloyalprimarilytooneanotherrather thantothesystem,hencethesystemcannotcontrolthem.Ortakethe gypsies.Thegypsiescommonlygetawaywiththeftandfraudbecause theirloyaltiesaresuchthattheycanalwaysgetothergypsiesto givetestimonythat"proves"theirinnocence.Obviouslythesystem wouldbeinserioustroubleiftoomanypeoplebelongedtosuch groups.Someoftheearly20thcenturyChinesethinkerswhowere concernedwithmodernizingChinarecognizedthenecessityofbreaking downsmallscalesocialgroupssuchasthefamily:"(AccordingtoSun Yatsen)TheChinesepeopleneededanewsurgeofpatriotism,which wouldleadtoatransferofloyaltyfromthefamilytothestate.. .(AccordingtoLiHuang)traditionalattachments,particularlytothe familyhadtobeabandonedifnationalismweretodeveloptoChina." (ChesterC.Tan,ChinesePoliticalThoughtintheTwentiethCentury," page125,page297.) 8.(Paragraph56)Yes,weknowthat19thcenturyAmericahadits problems,andseriousones,butforthesakeofbrevietywehaveto expressourselvesinsimplifiedterms. 9.(Paragraph61)Weleaveasidetheunderclass.Wearespeakingof themainstream. 10.(Paragraph62)Somesocialscientists,educators,"mentalhealth" professionalsandthelikearedoingtheirbesttopushthesocial drivesintogroup1bytryingtoseetoitthateveryonehasa satisfactorysociallife. 11.(Paragraphs63,82)Isthedriveforendlessmaterialacquisition reallyanartificialcreationoftheadvertisingandmarketing industry?Certainlythereisnoinnatehumandriveformaterial acquisition.Therehavebeenmanyculturesinwhichpeoplehave desiredlittlematerialwealthbeyondwhatwasnecessarytosatisfy theirbasicphysicalneeds(Australianaborigines,traditionalMexican peasantculture,someAfricancultures).Ontheotherhandtherehave alsobeenmanypreindustrialculturesinwhichmaterialacquisition hasplayedanimportantrole.Sowecan'tclaimthattoday's acquisitionorientedcultureisexclusivelyacreationofthe advertisingandmarketingindustry.Butitisclearthatthe advertisingandmarketingindustryhashadanimportantpartin creatingthatculture.Thebigcorporationsthatspendmillionson advertisingwouldn'tbespendingthatkindofmoneywithoutsolid proofthattheyweregettingitbackinincreasedsales.Onememberof FCmetasalesmanageracoupleofyearsagowhowasfrankenoughto tellhim,"Ourjobistomakepeoplebuythingstheydon'twantand don'tneed."Hethendescribedhowanuntrainednovicecouldpresent

peoplewiththefactsaboutaproduct,andmakenosalesatall,while atrainedandexperiencedprofessionalsalesmanwouldmakelotsof salestothesamepeople.Thisshowsthatpeoplearemanipulatedinto buyingthingstheydon'treallywant. 12.(Paragraph64)Theproblemofpurposelessnessseemstohavebecome lessseriousduringthelast15yearsorso,becausepeoplenowfeel lesssecurephysicallyandeconomicallythantheydidearlier,andthe needforsecurityprovidesthemwithagoal.Butpurposelessnesshas beenreplacedbyfrustrationoverthedifficultyofattaining security.Weemphasizetheproblemofpurposelessnessbecausethe liberalsandleftistswouldwishtosolveoursocialproblemsby havingsocietyguaranteeeveryone'ssecurity;butifthatcouldbe doneitwouldonlybringbacktheproblemofpurposelessness.Thereal issueisnotwhethersocietyprovideswellorpoorlyforpeople's security;thetroubleisthatpeoplearedependentonthesystemfor theirsecurityratherthanhavingitintheirownhands.This,bythe way,ispartofthereasonwhysomepeoplegetworkedupaboutthe righttobeararms;possessionofagunputsthataspectoftheir securityintheirownhands. 13.(Paragraph66)Conservatives'effortstodecreasetheamountof governmentregulationareoflittlebenefittotheaverageman.For onething,onlyafractionoftheregulationscanbeeliminated becausemostregulationsarenecessary.Foranotherthing,mostofthe deregulationaffectsbusinessratherthantheaverageindividual,so thatitsmaineffectistotakepowerfromthegovernmentandgiveit toprivatecorporations.Whatthismeansfortheaveragemanisthat governmentinterferenceinhislifeisreplacedbyinterferencefrom bigcorporations,whichmaybepermitted,forexample,todumpmore chemicalsthatgetintohiswatersupplyandgivehimcancer.The conservativesarejusttakingtheaveragemanforasucker,exploiting hisresentmentofBigGovernmenttopromotethepowerofBigBusiness. 14.(Paragraph73)Whensomeoneapprovesofthepurposeforwhich propagandaisbeingusedinagivencase,hegenerallycallsit "education"orappliestoitsomesimilareuphemism.Butpropagandais propagandaregardlessofthepurposeforwhichitisused. 15.(Paragraph83)Wearenotexpressingapprovalordisapprovalof thePanamainvasion.Weonlyuseittoillustrateapoint. 16.(Paragraph95)WhentheAmericancolonieswereunderBritishrule therewerefewerandlesseffectivelegalguaranteesoffreedomthan therewereaftertheAmericanConstitutionwentintoeffect,yetthere wasmorepersonalfreedominpreindustrialAmerica,bothbeforeand aftertheWarofIndependence,thantherewasaftertheIndustrial Revolutiontookholdinthiscountry.Wequotefrom"Violencein America:HistoricalandComparativeperspectives,"editedbyHugh DavisGrahamandTedRobertGurr,Chapter12byRogerLane,pages

476478:"Theprogressiveheighteningofstandardsofproperty,and withittheincreasingrelianceonofficiallawenforcement(in19th centuryAmerica)...werecommontothewholesociety...[T]hechange insocialbehaviorissolongtermandsowidespreadastosuggesta connectionwiththemostfundamentalofcontemporarysocialprocesses; thatofindustrialurbanizationitself..."Massachusettsin1835had apopulationofsome660,940,81percentrural,overwhelmingly preindustrialandnativeborn.It'scitizenswereusedtoconsiderable personalfreedom.Whetherteamsters,farmersorartisans,theywere allaccustomedtosettingtheirownschedules,andthenatureoftheir workmadethemphysicallydependentoneachother...Individual problems,sinsorevencrimes,werenotgenerallycauseforwider socialconcern..."Buttheimpactofthetwinmovementstothecity andtothefactory,bothjustgatheringforcein1835,hada progressiveeffectonpersonalbehaviorthroughoutthe19thcentury andintothe20th.Thefactorydemandedregularityofbehavior,alife governedbyobediencetotherhythmsofclockandcalendar,the demandsofforemanandsupervisor.Inthecityortown,theneedsof livingincloselypackedneighborhoodsinhibitedmanyactions previouslyunobjectionable. Bothblueandwhitecollaremployeesinlargerestablishmentswere mutuallydependentontheirfellows.asoneman'sworkfitinto another's,sooneman'sbusinesswasnolongerhisown."Theresults oftheneworganizationoflifeandworkwereapparentby1900,when some76percentofthe2,805,346inhabitantsofMassachusettswere classifiedasurbanites.Muchviolentorirregularbehaviorwhichhad beentolerableinacasual,independentsocietywasnolonger acceptableinthemoreformalized,cooperativeatmosphereofthelater period...Themovetothecitieshad,inshort,producedamore tractable,moresocialized,more'civilized'generationthanits predecessors." 17.(Paragraph117)Apologistsforthesystemarefondofcitingcases inwhichelectionshavebeendecidedbyoneortwovotes,butsuch casesarerare. 18.(Paragraph119)"Today,intechnologicallyadvancedlands,men liveverysimilarlivesinspiteofgeographical,religiousand politicaldifferences.ThedailylivesofaChristianbankclerkin Chicago,aBuddhistbankclerkinTokyo,aCommunistbankclerkin Moscowarefarmorealikethanthelifeanyoneofthemislikethat ofanysinglemanwholivedathousandyearsago.Thesesimilarities aretheresultofacommontechnology..."L.SpraguedeCamp,"The AncientEngineers,"Ballentineedition,page17. ThelivesofthethreebankclerksarenotIDENTICAL.Ideologydoes haveSOMEeffect.Butalltechnologicalsocieties,inorderto survive,mustevolvealongAPPROXIMATELYthesametrajectory.

19.(Paragraph123)Justthinkanirresponsiblegeneticengineermight createalotofterrorists. 20.(Paragraph124)Forafurtherexampleofundesirableconsequences ofmedicalprogress,supposeareliablecureforcancerisdiscovered. Evenifthetreatmentistooexpensivetobeavailabletoanybutthe elite,itwillgreatlyreducetheirincentivetostoptheescapeof carcinogensintotheenvironment. 21.(Paragraph128)Sincemanypeoplemayfindparadoxicalthenotion thatalargenumberofgoodthingscanadduptoabadthing,wewill illustratewithananalogy.SupposeMr.AisplayingchesswithMr.B. Mr.C,aGrandMaster,islookingoverMr.A'sshoulder.Mr.Aof coursewantstowinhisgame,soifMr.Cpointsoutagoodmovefor himtomake,heisdoingMr.Aafavor.ButsupposenowthatMr.C tellsMr.AhowtomakeALLofhismoves.Ineachparticularinstance hedoesMr.Aafavorbyshowinghimhisbestmove,butbymakingALL ofhismovesforhimhespoilsthegame,sincethereisnotpointin Mr.A'splayingthegameatallifsomeoneelsemakesallhismoves. ThesituationofmodernmanisanalogoustothatofMr.A.Thesystem makesanindividual'slifeeasierforhimininnumerableways,butin doingsoitdepriveshimofcontroloverhisownfate. 22.(Paragraph137)Hereweareconsideringonlytheconflictof valueswithinthemainstream.Forthesakeofsimplicityweleaveout ofthepicture"outsider"valuesliketheideathatwildnatureis moreimportantthanhumaneconomicwelfare. 23.(Paragraph137)SelfinterestisnotnecessarilyMATERIAL selfinterest.Itcanconsistinfulfillmentofsomepsychological need,forexample,bypromotingone'sownideologyorreligion. 24.(Paragraph139)Aqualification:Itisintheinterestofthe systemtopermitacertainprescribeddegreeoffreedominsomeareas. Forexample,economicfreedom(withsuitablelimitationsand restraints)hasprovedeffectiveinpromotingeconomicgrowth.But onlyplanned,circumscribed,limitedfreedomisintheinterestofthe system.Theindividualmustalwaysbekeptonaleash,evenifthe leashissometimeslong(seeparagraphs94,97). 25.(Paragraph143)Wedon'tmeantosuggestthattheefficiencyor thepotentialforsurvivalofasocietyhasalwaysbeeninversely proportionaltotheamountofpressureordiscomforttowhichthe societysubjectspeople.Thatiscertainlynotthecase.Thereisgood reasontobelievethatmanyprimitivesocietiessubjectedpeopleto lesspressurethantheEuropeansocietydid,butEuropeansociety provedfarmoreefficientthananyprimitivesocietyandalwayswon outinconflictswithsuchsocietiesbecauseoftheadvantages conferredbytechnology.

26.(Paragraph147)Ifyouthinkthatmoreeffectivelawenforcement isunequivocallygoodbecauseitsuppressescrime,thenrememberthat crimeasdefinedbythesystemisnotnecessarilywhatYOUwouldcall crime.Today,smokingmarijuanaisa"crime,"and,insomeplacesin theU.S..,soispossessionofANYfirearm,registeredornot,maybe madeacrime,andthesamethingmayhappenwithdisapprovedmethods ofchildrearing,suchasspanking.Insomecountries,expressionof dissidentpoliticalopinionsisacrime,andthereisnocertainty thatthiswillneverhappenintheU.S.,sincenoconstitutionor politicalsystemlastsforever. Ifasocietyneedsalarge,powerfullawenforcementestablishment, thenthereissomethinggravelywrongwiththatsociety;itmustbe subjectingpeopletoseverepressuresifsomanyrefusetofollowthe rules,orfollowthemonlybecauseforced.Manysocietiesinthepast havegottenbywithlittleornoformallawenforcement. 27.(Paragraph151)Tobesure,pastsocietieshavehadmeansof influencingbehavior,butthesehavebeenprimitiveandoflow effectivenesscomparedwiththetechnologicalmeansthatarenowbeing developed. 28.(Paragraph152)However,somepsychologistshavepublicly expressedopinionsindicatingtheircontemptforhumanfreedom.And themathematicianClaudeShannonwasquotedinOmni(August1987)as saying,"Ivisualizeatimewhenwewillbetorobotswhatdogsareto humans,andI'mrootingforthemachines." 29.(Paragraph154)Thisisnosciencefiction!Afterwriting paragraph154wecameacrossanarticleinScientificAmerican accordingtowhichscientistsareactivelydevelopingtechniquesfor identifyingpossiblefuturecriminalsandfortreatingthembya combinationofbiologicalandpsychologicalmeans.Somescientists advocatecompulsoryapplicationofthetreatment,whichmaybe availableinthenearfuture.(See"SeekingtheCriminalElement",by W.WaytGibbs,ScientificAmerican,March1995.)Maybeyouthinkthis isOKbecausethetreatmentwouldbeappliedtothosewhomightbecome drunkdrivers(theyendangerhumanlifetoo),thenperhapstopeelwho spanktheirchildren,thentoenvironmentalistswhosabotagelogging equipment,eventuallytoanyonewhosebehaviorisinconvenientforthe system. 30.(Paragraph184)Afurtheradvantageofnatureasacounterideal totechnologyisthat,inmanypeople,natureinspiresthekindof reverencethatisassociatedwithreligion,sothatnaturecould perhapsbeidealizedonareligiousbasis.Itistruethatinmany societiesreligionhasservedasasupportandjustificationforthe establishedorder,butitisalsotruethatreligionhasoften providedabasisforrebellion.Thusitmaybeusefultointroducea religiouselementintotherebellionagainsttechnology,themoreso becauseWesternsocietytodayhasnostrongreligiousfoundation.

Religion,nowadayseitherisusedascheapandtransparentsupportfor narrow,shortsightedselfishness(someconservativesuseitthis way),oreveniscynicallyexploitedtomakeeasymoney(bymany evangelists),orhasdegeneratedintocrudeirrationalism (fundamentalistProtestantsects,"cults"),orissimplystagnant (Catholicism,mainlineProtestantism).Thenearestthingtoastrong, widespread,dynamicreligionthattheWesthasseeninrecenttimes hasbeenthequasireligionofleftism,butleftismtodayis fragmentedandhasnoclear,unifiedinspiringgoal. Thusthereisareligiousvaccuuminoursocietythatcouldperhapsbe filledbyareligionfocusedonnatureinoppositiontotechnology. Butitwouldbeamistaketotrytoconcoctartificiallyareligionto fillthisrole.Suchaninventedreligionwouldprobablybeafailure. Takethe"Gaia"religionforexample.DoitsadherentsREALLYbelieve initoraretheyjustplayacting?Iftheyarejustplayactingtheir religionwillbeaflopintheend. Itisprobablybestnottotrytointroducereligionintotheconflict ofnaturevs.technologyunlessyouREALLYbelieveinthatreligion yourselfandfindthatitarousesadeep,strong,genuineresponsein manyotherpeople. 31.(Paragraph189)Assumingthatsuchafinalpushoccurs. Conceivablytheindustrialsystemmightbeeliminatedinasomewhat gradualorpiecemealfashion.(seeparagraphs4,167andNote4). 32.(Paragraph193)Itisevenconceivable(remotely)thatthe revolutionmightconsistonlyofamassivechangeofattitudestoward technologyresultinginarelativelygradualandpainless disintegrationoftheindustrialsystem.Butifthishappenswe'llbe verylucky.It'sfarmoreprobablythatthetransitiontoa nontechnologicalsocietywillbeverydifficultandfullofconflicts anddisasters. 33.(Paragraph195)Theeconomicandtechnologicalstructureofa societyarefarmoreimportantthanitspoliticalstructurein determiningthewaytheaveragemanlives(seeparagraphs95,119and Notes16,18). 34.(Paragraph215)Thisstatementreferstoourparticularbrandof anarchism.Awidevarietyofsocialattitudeshavebeencalled "anarchist,"anditmaybethatmanywhoconsiderthemselves anarchistswouldnotacceptourstatementofparagraph215.Itshould benoted,bytheway,thatthereisanonviolentanarchistmovement whosemembersprobablywouldnotacceptFCasanarchistandcertainly wouldnotapproveofFC'sviolentmethods. 35.(Paragraph219)Manyleftistsaremotivatedalsobyhostility,but thehostilityprobablyresultsinpartfromafrustratedneedfor

power. 36.(Paragraph229)Itisimportanttounderstandthatwemeansomeone whosympathizeswiththeseMOVEMENTSastheyexisttodayinour society.Onewhobelievesthatwomen,homosexuals,etc.,shouldhave equalrightsisnotnecessarilyaleftist.Thefeminist,gayrights, etc.,movementsthatexistinoursocietyhavetheparticular ideologicaltonethatcharacterizesleftism,andifonebelieves,for example,thatwomenshouldhaveequalrightsitdoesnotnecessarily followthatonemustsympathizewiththefeministmovementasit existstoday. Ifcopyrightproblemsmakeitimpossibleforthislongquotationtobe printed,thenpleasechangeNote16toreadasfollows: 16.(Paragraph95)WhentheAmericancolonieswereunderBritishrule therewerefewerandlesseffectivelegalguaranteesoffreedomthan therewereaftertheAmericanConstitutionwentintoeffect,yetthere wasmorepersonalfreedominpreindustrialAmerica,bothbeforeand aftertheWarofIndependence,thantherewasaftertheIndustrial Revolutiontookholdinthiscountry.In"ViolenceinAmerica: HistoricalandComparativePerspectives,"editedbyHughDavisGraham andTedRobertGurr,Chapter12byRogerLane,itisexplainedhowin preindustrialAmericatheaveragepersonhadgreaterindependenceand autonomythanhedoestoday,andhowtheprocessofindustrialization necessarilyledtotherestrictionofpersonalfreedom. _________________________________________________________________