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Shewangizaw Wegayehu

Academic Speaking Problem in English Medium Schools in Ethiopia

Academic Speaking Problem in English Medium Schools in Ethiopia


Analysis of Content Teachers Views of High School Students Problems in Speaking English across Curriculum

Shewangizaw Wegayehu

LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing

Contents
Abbreviations and Acronyms Preface iv Dedication vi SECTION ONE 1. Introduction 1 2 2 4 8 8 iii

Background of the Study Statement of the problem Objectives of the study Research methodology SECTION TWO 9

2. Oral Communications

10 11 17 21 21 23

Academic speaking across curriculum Basic interpersonal communication 3. Significances of academic speaking Develop critical thinking and enquiry skills

Improve academic speaking skill for classroom discussion Enhance subject matter understanding in EMI Develop academic proficiency in EMI Promote oral interaction in a classroom 27 31 32 25

Promote oral interaction and extended academic talk Activate students background knowledge 34

Create opportunity for classroom oral communication Enrich with the language demand of the content subject Enhance exposure to content vocabulary
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35 36

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4. Academic Speaking and Learning Performance 5. Barriers of Academic speaking across Curriculum SECTION THREE 45

40 42

6. Views on the Status of Students Academic Speaking Skill Poor academic speaking proficiency in EMI Hamper the overall teaching learning in EMI Affect students learning performance 56 60 46 53

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Views to problems in speaking across curriculum Students poor EFL background Mother tongue medium instruction 60 64

7. Challenges in Foreign Language Medium classroom Challenges related to teachers Challenges related to students 71 75

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8. Teachers Attempts to Alleviate Academic Speaking Problem SECTION FOUR 82 83

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9. Real Problems in Speaking across Curriculum Content teachers misconception 83

Incompetency in language and teaching strategy 10. What Teachers Need to Do and Be Able to Do Raise awareness 89 93

85 88

Build language skills and teaching strategies Create collaboration Bibliography Appendices 99 104
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Abbreviations and Acronyms


EFL - English as a foreign language EMI - English as a medium of instruction CT also CST - Content teachers who teach content subjects, such as biology, history, chemistry, Geography in English as a medium of instruction

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Preface
The book presents a study which explores the academic speaking problems of Ethiopian students studying in English medium high schools. The interrelation between language, learning, and cognition; and the need in student centered and interactive learning for quality learning makes the need of academic speaking across curriculum central for effective and quality learning. On top of this, the rationale behind learning through mother tongue is the simplicity to communicate content subjects in the language the users know so well. However, as the medium of instruction shifts to a new language, students struggle to meet the requirements of the academic context, where they have to understand content subjects and demonstrate their understanding of the content in the language across the curriculum. Furthermore, it is widely believed that regular EFL classes alone are not adequate to develop students academic speaking proficiency as the meaning of academic language is bound to academic context of content subjects. Thus, the study tries to determine the academic speaking problem of Ethiopian students in English medium high schools. To this end, qualitative data was obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion with teachers, as well as classroom observation. The author focuses on content subject teachers with ten or more years of experience across curriculum in order to get more accurate picture of the problems in the actual classroom. In this light, the study concludes that high school students encounter problems in speaking English across curriculum as the medium of content instruction shifts from mother tongue to foreign language. It also draws a conclusion that the problem largely hinders the quality of learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Moreover, it reveals the misconceptions held towards the problem; and content teachers lack of teaching strategies and academic skills to alleviate problems students encounter in academic speaking across curriculum in foreign language medium instruction. Thus, it is the aim of this book to shade some lights on a long held beliefs to the problem, the impacts on the overall learning performance, and the attempts teachers made to alleviate the problem students encounter as the medium shifts from mother tongue to English, and to suggest appropriate ways that could help enhance students academic speaking proficiency across curriculum at high school. The book presents major themes, with multiple tools in qualitative
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analyses and interpretation, on academic speaking across curriculum problems that hinder the quality of learning in English as a medium of instruction. The book has five sections and ten chapters that presents in detail the role and status of English as a medium of instruction, the distinction between academic speaking and speaking in every day conversation, content teachers views, strategies, and attempts made to facilitate the problem in academic speaking across curriculum, overall impacts on students learning performance, academic language development in English as a medium of instruction. Thus, extensive personal reflections, group discussions with content teachers, and observations on the actual classroom are important part of the research for this book, and their views which are quoted throughout the text, provide valuable insights to understand the problem in depth. It is the authors hope that readers could gain invaluable insights to understand the prevalent views held to the problems in academic speaking across curriculum as the medium of instruction shifts from mother tongue to English; and related problems that hinder the quality of learning and academic language development. The book should appeal especially to content subject teachers whose medium of instruction is English, and should communicate content subjects in English. It is also essential to all teachers, policy makers, experts and researchers working in multilingual context where there is a transition in medium of instruction from mother tongue to foreign/second language as a medium of instruction. I am grateful to many people in my work. First and for most, I am indebted to my instructors for their invaluable comments, suggestions and support to materialize the study. My sincere gratitude also goes to all the content teachers, whose comments are quoted, for their keen interest, willingness and active participation in the study. I wish to thank my sweet heart, Sinidu Shimels Asfaw for her invaluable support from the research to writing the book. Finally, I am indebted to Mr. Ermias Legesse Reda, for his unreserved support and invaluable advice in writing the book.

Shewangizaw Wegayehu July 2012


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Dedicated to my dearest mother W/ro Tsige Woldehan Tessema

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Section One
The text of the book is organized around the main parts of the research report, and each section is by and large devoted to a particular part of the report. This section introduces the general and specific contexts of the study. In particular, it discusses the: Background of the study, Statement of the problem, Objectives, Research questions, Research Methodology

1. Introduction
The book presents a study that explores students problems in academic speaking across curriculum at high school as the medium instruction shifts from mother tongue to English medium. This chapter introduces the general and specific contexts of the study.

Background
English is used as a means of communication and as a medium of instruction worldwide. It is largely used as a global language to maintain communication among continents and countries at international level. On top of this, it is the language of modern science and technology to explore and communicate new knowledge globally. Similarly, English is taught in Ethiopia as a subject from grade one up to universities, and is a medium of instruction at secondary and preparatory schools, colleges and universities nationwide (Education and Training Policy 1994). As a foreign language, its main objective is to enable students achieve mastery of the skills and proficiency required to effectively and accurately communicate through English in and out of school. As a medium of instruction, it is the language that content subjects are communicated to explore new knowledge. Thus, academic speaking across curriculum in English as a medium of instruction refers to knowledge and awareness of the language of content subjects which both content subject teachers and students need to master to orally communicate effectively about the subject matter and actively participate in classroom discussions. In the same vein, English is taught as a language and is a medium of instruction at Chiro preparatory and secondary school in West Hararghe zone. Moreover, the policy advocates the shift in the mode of teaching from teachercentered to student-centered and from teacher-lecture to interactive learning that
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has made the need and role of academic speaking skill crucial for interactive learning of content subjects in the classroom. This is mainly because academic speaking skill can promote interactive learning to explore knowledge from content subjects through oral discussions in EMI. According to, (Burns & Joyce, (1997), speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. Thus, its academic significance is to facilitate students oral interaction and participation in cooperative learning and classroom discussions for deeper understanding of the subject matter thereby gradually improving their academic speaking skill in EMI. On top of this, it can promote classroom discussions between content subject teachers and students and among students which ultimately enhance their academic speaking confidence and competence in EMI. Stressing this, Brown (1994) underlined the central roles of academic speaking skill in contrast to other skills in EMI classroom. However, according to Cummins (1981, 1986) and Gibbons (2002), academic language is difficult and challenging compared to general English and English for every day conversation in social communications. In this light, Cummins, (2001), Collier, (1989) and Carrier, (2005) stated the difference between academic speaking and every day conversations. They stressed that academic speaking is difficult, challenging, and can develop gradually as its meaning is determined by the specific language of the content subjects. These researches imply that academic speaking across curriculum demands both content subject teachers and students to develop basic academic language knowledge and skill which refer to effective use of the forms and functions of the language of the subject matter such as specific and technical vocabulary, syntax and functions of the language pertinent to the content subject and knowledge of various sub-registers representing the specific subjects.

According to Chamot and OMalley (1994) academic language proficiency involves the knowledge and conventions of literacy in academic contexts. However, from the researchers experience as a teacher, content subject teachers and students often encounter academic speaking problems in the teaching and learning of content subjects in English. Thus, content subject teachers found difficult to orally communicate about content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. In the contrary, Lee (2004) suggested that content subject teachers need to have a broad range of knowledge and skills, including deep content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and knowledge of classroom organization to facilitate the academic speaking problems that students encounter in learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. The implication is that they need to make students aware of the specific language aspects of their subjects and enhance exposure and opportunity so that students can gradually build up their academic speaking skill in the medium of instruction in the classroom. Therefore, as content subject teachers have crucial roles to develop their students academic speaking in English from their content subjects perspectives, it is essential to assess their views about the students academic speaking across curriculum in EMI.

Statement of the problem


Academic speaking across curriculum plays vital roles in learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. It also promotes active participation in cooperative and interactive learning which is orally mediated through English as a medium of instruction. However, from the researchers experience as a teacher, content subject teachers in Chiro Preparatory and Senior Secondary school found difficult to orally communicate with their students about content subjects in
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English as a medium of instruction as their students transit from mother tongue as a medium of instruction to English as a medium of instruction at secondary high school. Thus, both content subject teachers and students in the target school orally communicate content subjects in mother tongue. This impedes students exposure and opportunity to the basic academic language inputs that can promote gradual improvement of students academic speaking across curriculum in English as a medium of instruction. Various researches also show the challenges of learning content subjects in second/foreign language as a medium of instruction. According to Cummins, (1981), Chamot and OMalley (1995), academic language differs from every day social conversations mainly because its meaning is determined by the language of the content subjects. This could put challenges upon content subject teachers to orally communicate with their students about content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. The implication is that they need to develop the academic use of English as a medium of instruction to academically talk about content subjects using the specific vocabulary, grammar, and function of the language relevant to specific content subjects. As Clegg (2009) and Cummins, (1981, 2000) stated students who shift from mother tongue to EMI often encounter dual challenges of learning content subjects and understanding a new language which is different from their mother tongue. On top of this, citing Fisher and Swindells, (1998), Amlaku (2010) stated that secondary high school students in Ethiopia are unable to communicate through English and to grasp a series of lectures as well. He stressed that students lack of English language proficiency and skills largely hinder students learning of content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. The implication is that they lack the English language skills and knowledge that effective academic speaking across curriculum requires. Moreover, researches by
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Dendir (1981) and Stoddart (1986) indicate that majority of secondary school students in Ethiopian secondary schools do not posses sufficient English to learn from their teachers, let alone to actively participate through their own speaking and writing due to their lack of the skills and proficiency to function through English. Dendir (1981) also added that majority of secondary school students fail due to their inability and lack of the skills to communicate about content subjects through English. On top of this, Heugh et al (2007) revealed the poor status and under resourced conditions of learning EFL that impede students academic speaking across curriculum in EMI. These problems reveal the challenges secondary school content subject teachers and students encounter due to academic language problems in English as a medium of instruction. This led content subject teachers and students to communicate content subjects through mother tongue at secondary schools. As content subject teachers resort to use mother tongue to communicate content subjects with their students, students fail to get the exposure and opportunity to learn, practice, and develop the academic language aspects pertinent to the specific subjects and to gradually improve their academic speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction. The study conducted by Amsalu (2010) focused on secondary school students and addressed their problems to orally communicate both at academic setting and every day social communications. Similarly, the research by Dendir (1981) and Stoddart, (1986) were done on secondary school students and their inability to learn and communicate through English. However, the current study is different in that it addressed content subject teachers views regarding their students academic speaking problems across curriculum in EMI. There might be few researches conducted on English as a medium of instruction at secondary schools. However, the researcher has not come across a study which
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addressed content subject teachers views concerning their students academic speaking problems across curriculum in English as a medium instruction. Thus, this study might initiate further in depth study to be conducted in the phenomena understudy. The researcher as a teacher at Chiro Preparatory and Senior Secondary school observed content subject teachers and students face challenges to orally communicate about content subjects with their students in English as a medium of instruction. He observed that classroom interactions in learning content subjects were largely mediated through mother tongue. Hence, students fail to engage in oral communication tasks such as asking and answering questions, expressing their understanding of the subject matter, participating in classroom discussions and oral presentations in the academic language of the content subjects, which is English. This observation has initiated the researcher to assess subject teachers views of their students problems in academic speaking across curriculum in teaching their subjects through English as a medium of instruction. The purpose of the study which is reported in this book has, therefore, been exploring content teachers views on students problems in academic speaking across curriculum as the medium of content instruction shifts from mother tongue to English at high school. To this end, the following leading questions have been formulated to be answered in the course of the study. 1. How do subject teachers view their students academic speaking across curriculum proficiency in learning subjects through English as a medium instruction? 2. What challenges do subject teachers encounter due to their students academic speaking across curriculum problems in English as a medium of instruction?
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3 What attempts do subject teachers make to alleviate their students academic speaking across curriculum problems in learning their subjects in English as a medium instruction?

Objectives of the Study


The general objective of the study is to assess content teachers views on their students problems in academic speaking across curriculum in foreign language medium at high school. The specific objectives of the study are: (a) to explore subject teachers views about the status of their students academic speaking across curriculum in learning subjects through English as a medium of instruction, (b) to explore subject teachers views on how their students academic speaking across curriculum problems affect the overall teaching learning output of content subjects in English as a medium of instruction, and (c) to assess subject teachers attempts to alleviate students academic speaking across curriculum problems in teaching their subjects in English as a medium of instruction.

Research methodology
The author used a qualitative research design and critically analyzes the data gathered through reflective questionnaire, focus group discussion, and classroom observation for triangulation to draw on valid conclusions to the problem under study.

Section Two
This section presents a review of relevant literature in the area of speaking a foreign language in general, and across curriculum in foreign language medium schools in particular. This is mainly presented in four chapters: oral communication, significances of academic speaking, the relation between academic speaking and learning performance barriers of academic speaking across curriculum

2. Oral Communications
Oral communication is a verbal interaction among people that involves the effective transmission of facts, ideas, feelings and values in their every day encounters. According to, Mojibur (2010) the language used for oral communication varies in form, function and the context it takes place. Thus, in the language of every day social communications, meaning can be drawn from participants interactions and what they bring to it. The cues, gestures, cultural norms and values are ingredients that facilitate negotiation of meaning between participants in every day conversations. However, unlike every day oral communications, the language of academic speaking is determined by academic settings and participants in academic communications. In other words, academic speaking refers to the language of school, classroom and of text book, that content teachers and students use in classroom interaction. Stressing this, Brown (1994) added that academic speaking is the ability to speak correctly the language of the content subjects in the classroom. Thus, academic speaking skill is given paramount importance, specially, in academic classrooms, and for learners with poor second or foreign language skills. This is mainly because oral communication skills help students to effectively comprehend, interpret, and analyze information, communicate clearly and persuasively, and express ideas. Thus, content subject teachers need to promote academic speaking in their classrooms in teaching content subjects in English as a medium of instruction as it facilitates learners critical thinking, oral interactions, and cooperative learning among learners. In general oral communication refers to the two distinct oral aspects of language, which are speaking across curriculum that content subject teachers and students make use of in classroom interaction, and conversational language which is used to
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interact in face to face oral communication supported by gestures, and cues at informal settings.

Academic Speaking Across Curriculum


Academic speaking across curriculum refers to speaking about content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. It mainly comprises the genres and discourse, grammar and function of the language specific to each academic subject. It also refers to the academic language aspects fundamental for the oral interaction that teachers and students use to talk about the subject matter in the text book and the overall learning through EMI. Hence, it is the speaking skill that content subject teachers and students need to talk about content subjects in EMI classroom for effective learning and academic success. To this end, academic speaking across curriculum demands both teachers and students to clearly know, understand and use the unique language features that are basic to academic speaking skill. They have to know the academic language structures, forms, functions and contexts to effectively communicate about content subjects in EMI. Thus, academic speaking skill demands content subject teachers and students to develop and apply with immediate effect a range of academic communication skills so that they could participate effectively in the academic community they are entering. Academic speaking skills are, thus, the literacy, research, study and interpersonal skills that students require for effective engagement not only with their discipline, but also with the wider academic community that a university represents. These skills include the ability to give effective presentations, engage in academic debate and discussion, write reports, argue a position, locate library resources and work in teams. Thus, in learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction, oral communication skill refers to the academic speaking ability to correctly and confidently speak the language of the subject matter in the classroom interactions.
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Thus, it is the ability content subject teachers and students need to develop academic speaking across curriculum to effectively communicate about content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. This demands them developing the basic academic language knowledge and skills which are relevant to the specific content subjects that could build up academic speaking across curriculum for a better academic learning and performance in learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Academic speaking across curriculum in EMI could also enable students to effectively comprehend, interpret, analyze information, communicate clearly and persuasively, and express ideas about the subject matter in the language of the content subjects. As Brown (1994) stated, academic speaking is the ability to speak correctly the language of the content subjects in the classroom. Unlike other skills, academic speaking is widely used in classrooms by both teachers and students. Inside the classroom, speaking and listening are the most often used skill. Stressing the importance of developing learners speaking competence, he viewed speaking as critical for functioning in an English language context, both by teachers and learners. It is also logical instructional starting points when learners have low literacy levels (in English or their native language) or limited formal education. Thus, academic speaking skill is given paramount importance, specially, in academic classrooms, and for learners with poor second or foreign language skills. This is mainly because oral communication skills equip students to effectively comprehend, critique, and analyze information, communicate clearly and persuasively, and express ideas. Thus, content subject teachers need to promote academic speaking in their classroom in teaching content subjects in English as a medium of instruction as it facilitates learners critical thinking, oral interactions, and cooperative learning among learners.
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On top of this, Lucas et al. (2008), stated that academic language is the language of text book, of academic discussions, and of formal writing. Thus, it requires students to use linguistic skill to interpret and infer meaning from oral and written language to work out precise meaning and information from text, relate ideas and information, recognize conventions of various genres, and use a variety of strategies for distinct purposes. Moreover, Fillmore and Snow (2000) said that though much vocabulary and syntax may be acquired through informal interaction, the range of academic language skills, which includes the linguistic structures used to summaries, analyze, evaluate, combine sentences, interpret graphs and charts and word problems must not be left to chance encounters. It must be continuously developed and explicitly taught across all subject areas. Achieving full proficiency in English includes far more than mere fluency in conversation; it means English learners know English well enough to be academically competitive with native English speaking-peers. Academic language proficiency helps students achieve long term success in schools. Hence, subject teachers need to focus on the basic language aspects that could enhance students oral communication competence in learning subjects in English. In other words, as speaking in academic context is complex and challenging, especially, in case of students with poor English language background, subject teachers need to pay attention to provide appropriate vocabulary support and oral practice opportunity so that students can develop the speaking competence to effectively talk about their subjects in English. However, according to Cummins (2000), academic speaking across curriculum is difficult for students with limited English proficiency and poor English language background. Limited English proficient students are those students who do not have the basic academic language and skills to manage learning content subjects in EMI. Similarly, Cohen (1996) stated that in a context in which students first
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language differs from the medium of instruction, as is the case for students for whom English is a second language attending an English-medium institution, the task is twofold: they must continue to improve their English language proficiency while concurrently developing the necessary academic skills. Academic speaking is the ability to talk effectively and confidently to express ideas and exchange information at schools, colleges and universities. Thus, they always demand their content subject teachers support with the basic academic language resources relevant to the content of the subjects in EMI. The implication is that content subject teachers need to clearly know the specific language features relevant to the language of their subjects and provide language scaffolding to enhance students academic speaking across curriculum competence in learning content subjects through EMI. Stressing this, Lucas et al (2008), also said, Although content subject teachers who primarily responsible to teach students subject matter cannot be expected to be experts on language, they can learn and articulate the special characteristics of the language of their disciplines and make these explicit to their students (p. 6). In this view, content subject teachers need to make their students aware of the academic language knowledge to reduce the language barriers that impede their academic speaking across curriculum proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. Thus, content subject teachers need to provide students with technical vocabulary, specific grammar and sentence structures which are specific to content subjects so that students can have the basic academic language knowledge and academic speaking skills to effectively talk about the subject matter in the medium of instruction. It is through these knowledge and skills that they can enhance their students academic speaking across curriculum so that they will be able to orally communicate about the subject matter in EMI. In other words, content subject
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teachers need to provide academic language input to facilitate their students academic speaking in classroom interaction to ask and answer questions, ask for clarifications, express their thinking, gain quality learning through oral discussions and cooperative learning thereby by enhancing critical thinking for thorough learning and understanding of the subject matter. These demands subject teachers expertise in the language of learning and the pedagogy so that they will be able to alleviate the academic oral skill problems students encounter in EMI classes. According to Burns and Joyce (1997) speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. Thus, to effectively and academically speak about content subjects with their peers and content subject teachers, it is crucial to enhance students academic language knowledge and skills relevant to the language of content subjects. This is mainly because the meaning of academic language is mainly dependent on the context of the subject matter. Thus, knowledge of academic speaking across curriculum is crucial to effectively and confidently interact through a foreign language as a medium of instruction for efficient and quality learning out comes. Academic English and social English are not two separate languages. Academic English is more demanding and complex than social English. An ELL student with social English proficiency may not necessarily have the academic English proficiency. It is important for you, the teacher, to make this distinction. Academic English is the language necessary for success in school. It is related to a standardsbased curriculum, including the content areas of math, science, social studies, and English language arts. According to Cummins (2000), there are two levels of language proficiency: the basic interpersonal communicative skills and the cognitive academic language proficiency. The basic interpersonal communicative
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skills concept represents the language of natural, informal conversation. Basic interpersonal communicative skills are used by students when talking about everyday things in concrete situations, that is; situations in which the context provides cues that make understanding not totally dependent on verbal interaction alone. It has been found by Cummins (1992) and more recently by Rosenthal (1996) that in context embedded or contextualized communication, the conversation deals with familiar events or matters that require that the speakers react and respond to each other. However, according to Spurlin (1995), Rosenthal (1996) and Cummins, (2000), basic interpersonal communicative skills are the type of language proficiency needed to read textbooks, to participate in dialogue and debate, and to provide written responses to tests. Students who have not yet developed their cognitiveacademic language proficiency could be, according to these researchers, at a disadvantage in learning science or other academic subject matter. Cummins (1980) provides a multi-dimensional view of language proficiency by including cognitive demands alongside the formal/informal distinction in his characterization of oral language, a perspective reemphasized by Cummins (2000). The distinction contrasts Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS), acquired and used in everyday interactions, and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), acquired and used in the context of the classroom. For example, ELL students who are reasonably proficient speakers of everyday (BICS) English, but who have not had as extensive an exposure to complex syntax, idioms, and depth of vocabulary as native speakers of English of the same age, may find lessons more challenging because their language proficiency levels do not match the demands of the academic language of the classroom.

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Basic Interpersonal Communication


Unlike academic speaking across curriculum, basic interpersonal communication skills refer to oral exchange of opinions among people in dealing with their daily life encounters. It is typically different from speaking in academic settings. This is mainly because in interpersonal communication meanings can simply be predictable from the participants perspective and the setting it takes place. Research shows that speaking in first language or mother tongue is simpler and easier than speaking a second or foreign language. This is mainly because oral communication through mother tongue can be supported with cues and gestures and social contexts. Thus, in interpersonal communications of every day conversations, meaning is determined by the socio-cultural norms, values, and belief of the language community. In this case, people speak to exchange personal information, and the interaction is not determined only by verbal communications, rather supported by gestures and the contexts in which the oral interaction takes place. Hence, one needs to understand the values, norms and behavior of the sociocultural contexts to effectively communicate through the language. This appears to mislead teachers to view speaking in academic context as simple as interpersonal oral communication skills. Different research shows the differences between interpersonal every day speaking and academic speaking skills. To this end, Cummins (1981) and (2000), stresses that interpersonal every day speaking is simple and takes short time to develop compared to academic speaking skill, which is difficult and takes longer time to master to effectively communicate in academic setting. On top of this, Lucas et al., (2008) added that conversational language proficiency is fundamentally different from academic language proficiency, and it takes many more years for an ELL to become fluent in the latter than in the former. Some English learners may use their
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second language fluently in informal conversations but still experience considerable academic or literacy-related difficulties in school, because speaking in academic settings vary according to the context in which it is used and the genres of the specific courses. Social language, in contrast, is considered conversational, contextualized language and can be developed within two to three years. Furthermore, according to Thomas and Collier (2002) academic language is the combination of cognitive skills and content knowledge necessary for successful academic performance at secondary and university levels. In the context of

everyday conversations, speakers derive meaning not only from the words they hear but also from language cues in the oral communication settings such as, facial expressions, gestures such as pointing to items in the environment. Because the content of such conversations is often predictable and focuses on the speaker's awareness of the norms, values, behaviors, and experiences of cultural community, participants in the oral communication can easily exchange opinions and work out meaning effectively. However, as communication moves further away from the immediacy of personal and shared experiences, such as in academic discourse, it increasingly relies on language of the content subjects to convey meaning, thereby becoming more impersonal, more technical, and more abstract (Gibbons, 2002). The use of written text, which makes meaning increasingly becomes dependent on language itself, and adds another layer of abstraction. Thus, speaking in academic classrooms is the oral interactions between teachers and students and among students themselves in the teaching and learning of subjects in the classroom. As such, it needs content subject teachers and students to be aware of the academic contexts and the genes and discourse of each content subjects which are fundamental to effective and efficient oral communication in the language of the subject matter and in the academic setting. In other words,
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academic speaking skill is the oral proficiency that teachers and students need to have to effectively and meaningfully talk about the subject matter in the text book and the entire learning in the classroom. To this end, academic speaking skill demands both teachers and students to clearly know, understand and use the unique language features that are basic to academic speaking skill. They have to know the academic language structures, forms, functions and the academic setting so that they can effectively communicate about each content subjects in their unique language. Therefore, as speaking in academic context is difficult for students of limited English proficiency; students whose English is their second/foreign language, and for students with poor English language background, content subject teachers need to provide their students with appropriate academic language inputs which are pertinent to each content subjects so that their students can overcome their academic language and gradually improve their academic oral communication proficiency. Thus, subject teachers need to make students understand the technical vocabulary, the specific grammar and sentence structures unique to their subjects and the function of the language so that students can develop the basic academic language knowledge and academic speaking skills to effectively talk about the subject matter in the medium of instruction. It is through these knowledge and skills that students can orally communicate about the subject matter to ask and answer questions, ask for clarifications, express their thinking, gain quality learning through oral discussions and cooperative learning thereby by enhancing critical thinking for thorough learning and understanding of the subject matter. These demands subject teachers expertise in the language of learning and the pedagogy so that they will be able to alleviate the academic oral skill problems which students encounter in EMI classes.
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Thus, knowledge of oral communication skills is crucial to effectively and confidently interact through a second or foreign language medium of instruction for efficient and quality learning out comes. In general, academic speaking and basic interpersonal communication skills are different in form, purpose, and setting in which they are used. Academic speaking across curriculum is challenging and complex for students of mother tongue and weak EFL to orally communicate about content subjects in EMI. Thus, content subject teachers need to know these variations and equip themselves with academic language inputs relevant to the content subjects to enhance their students academic speaking across curriculum ability in EMI.

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3. Significances of Academic Speaking Skill


Academic speaking skill is essential for secondary school students to orally communicate, exchange ideas and express their thinking about academic subjects in a foreign/second language medium of instruction. Besides, it can help them to evaluate their learning performances, develop academic language knowledge and skills, and thorough understanding of the subject matter in English medium of instruction. On top of this, academic speaking skill in English as medium of instruction enable content subject teachers to evaluate their students understanding of the subject matter; evaluate their students learning performance in the overall learning process, and provide language scaffolding in English as medium of instruction. Furthermore, developing academic speaking skill of students in English as a medium of instruction, which is the language for learning subjects, can also promote students ability to ask and answer questions about content subjects; hold classroom discussions and oral presentations in classroom, thereby developing students critical thinking and academic oral proficiency and confidence English medium of instruction are, the main significances of academic speaking skill.

Develop critical thinking and enquiry skills


In learning academic subjects in a foreign/second language medium of instruction context, ability to participate in question and answer about the subject matter is one of the significances of academic speaking skill. Rosenthal (1996) defines a question as a semantic class used to seek information on a specific subject. This implies that students need to develop academic oral proficiency to ask and answer questions about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. On top of this, classroom questions and questioning skills and their attempt to provide
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different kinds of answers to the questions about the subject matter could also facilitate the development of their academic speaking skill and academic language knowledge development in general through broadening their vocabulary power which is a foundation for efficient and effective oral interaction in the academic classrooms. To this fact, students academic speaking skill and competence enable them to interactively learn the subject matter in English through questioning, answering, and classroom discussions about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. This could help students develop the language of the subject matter and broaden their vocabulary power which are the foundations of oral communication skills. On top of this, the opportunity and exposure to practise questioning and answering skills, and to take part in classroom discussions in the academic language of the specific content subjects in English as a medium of instruction could in turn help students develop their English that can foster their oral proficiency and competence, and enquiry skills for quality learning output. To this regard, research shows how teachers questions and questioning skills can help students develop their language knowledge and academic speaking skills. According to Brock (1996) referential and display questions facilitate learning in second language. Brock contends that referential questions increase the amount of learner output. However, display questions require short or even one-word answers and hence are less likely to get learners to produce large amounts of speech. Therefore, an increased use of referential questions by teachers may create discourse which can produce a flow of information from students to the teacher, and may create a more near-normal speech. Van Lier (1988) believes that classroom questions of whatever sort are designed to get the learners to produce language. However, research shows that in second language classrooms display questions which seek a one word answer are widely used by teachers and students
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Lynch (1991). This implies that, contrary to the recommendations of many writers on second language teaching methodologies, communicative use of the target language makes up only a minor part of typical classroom activities. In general, oral academic skill and competence can thus help learners to ask variety of questions, take part in classroom discussions, and hold classroom presentations about the lesson in EMI, thereby enhancing though understanding of the subject matter and develop their oral proficiency in the academic language.

Improve academic speaking skill for classroom discussions


Classroom discussion is one of the learning techniques which involve oral interactions in the classroom between subject teachers and students and among students in learning academic subjects in English as a medium of instruction. As an oral learning skill, it demands students and teachers to have knowledge and command of the language as a medium of instruction, and the language demands of the specific content subjects. Thus, academic speaking is the ability that

promotes thorough understanding of the subject matter and a means that enhance classroom discussions in the academic language in academic settings. In other words, it creates opportunity for students oral interaction to think, reflect, exchange opinion and learn from each other about the subject matter of each content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Hence, it can help students develop their academic oral proficiency and competence in the specific language of the different subjects that comprise specific and technical vocabulary, grammar, and functions of the academic language, in particular. It can also help students to thoroughly understand the subject matter through cooperative and interactive learning with their peers, and their teachers as well. Moreover, classroom discussions could enable subject teachers and students evaluate the learning
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success, strengths and weaknesses in learning subjects in English as a medium of instruction. It could also help students to cooperatively learn from peers and have opportunities to orally practice the language specific to the subject matter. Discussion is a fundamental human activity. It is a unique form of oral interaction, where people join together to talk about a common concern. Stressing this, Brown (1994) describes discussion as a talk consists of advancing and examining different proposals over the issue for better understanding, wiser judgment and a firmer resolve. Van Lier (1988) also summarizes it in the context of teaching and learning, and he stated that discussion provides a chance for teacher to view the thinking skills of their students for providing correction and feedback. On the other hand, it also provides student a chance to hear their own thinking and to monitor their own thinking process. They actively build knowledge over existing knowledge. He further says, discussion is not a full-blown teaching model rather a teaching procedure for almost all teaching models. Hence, discussion as a key to effective learning and fundamental for effective and efficient learning, it also create opportunity for students and content subject teachers to improve their academic speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction. Moreover, Fisher and Swendiles (1998) found discussion as a critical mirror for the teacher and students. They underscored that where students ask questions each other for

reasons, evidences and experiences behind the comment each makes, they discover, develop and scrutinize new ideas, facts and perspectives that others bring and share during discussion. Hence, discussion is a process which develops communicative competence, promotes involvement and engagement, and develops better understanding by allowing verbalizing their thinking instead of recite or memorizing facts and details. Such scientific understanding is best assisted by a careful examination of peer group interaction and expert guidance by the teacher.

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On top of this, Filmore and Snow (2000) identified multifaceted uses of discussion, to initiate inquiry session, review material previously covered, explain or predict the results of laboratory experiments, solve problems and allow students to plan future class activities. This means that teachers need to initiate and sustain discussion of an exploratory nature in their science classroom by using especially developed hands-on practical work activities, share knowledge-based promptposter and the ensuing discussion would have an effect on learning cognitive development. In general, discussion plays vital roles for effective and cooperative learning. Thus, there need be awareness and, knowledge, and skills of promoting and practicing discussions which is mediated orally among students and teachers. Therefore, content subject teachers need to provide their students with academic language inputs, which are central to understanding their subjects and can help facilitate oral interaction so that their students can overcome the oral communication problems that arise from lack of appropriate vocabulary, grammar, and function of the language pertinent to the specific language of each content subjects in English as a medium of instruction.

Enhance understanding of the subject matter in EMI


Academic speaking skill and proficiency in the medium of instruction could help students thoroughly understand and comprehend the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. As students orally interact in learning the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction classes, they exchange information and share knowledge among themselves which promotes deeper understanding of the subject matter. Moreover, academic speaking skill and competence in English as a medium of instruction help learners to orally interact and learn the content subjects cooperatively through sharing their prior knowledge which is related to the new knowledge in the content subjects, and learn from each other though oral
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interaction. This can foster not only their academic speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction but also help promote better understand of the content subject knowledge. Researches show that the main strength of cooperative learning is that it is student-centered because it promotes learner independence by encouraging them to learn from each other, and not just from their teachers. In other words, academic progress involves learning from peers through cooperative and interactive way which is mainly mediated through oral communication. Thus, students are largely supposed to orally communicate in English as a medium of instruction for better understanding of the content subjects and for improving their oral skill in the academic language of the content subjects. However, researches show that teachers do most of the talking in traditional classrooms which could harm students engagement and participation in cooperative learning that could provide them with the opportunity to apply new information, including linguistic knowledge, which is particularly important for ESL students (Echevarria et al., 2004). According to Fereires and Vygotskys cited in (Echevarria et al , 2004), cooperative learning is characterized by its student-centeredness, thus, encourages students to gain independence from the teacher. Moreover, it encourages ESL students to become responsible learners who are actively involved in the acquisition of linguistic and content knowledge at the same time that they become aware of their roles as members of a class community. Evidence from research demonstrates the multiple benefits of cooperative learning. Findings from 25 different studies (Slavin, 1980) show that cooperative learning techniques are more effective than traditional ones for student achievement. The studies show that the aspects of structure, individual accountability and group rewards increase lower level learning outcomes, and that higher level learning outcomes are also improved by the components of autonomy and group decision-making. In addition to cognitive improvements, the studies also reveal affective benefits. Cooperative
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learning results in students feeling greater mutual concern for each other and an overall greater liking of school, as compared to students who receive traditional teaching techniques. In sum, cooperative and interactive learning can foster students for better understanding of the content subject knowledge and promote their oral interaction in the academic setting. Thus, students need to have the exposure and opportunity to engage in oral communication so that they could develop their academic speaking skill across curriculum in English as a medium of instruction.

Develop academic speaking proficiency in EMI


One of the significances of academic speaking skill in second/foreign language as a medium of instruction is improving students academic oral proficiency and confidence so that they can orally express, discuss, question and answer, and share knowledge in learning content subjects. When students are encouraged in the learning activities, get adequate opportunity and exposure to the language of the content subject, and provided with language scaffolding in the language demands of the subject matter, they will be able to build up their academic oral proficiency in English as a medium of instruction classroom. The more students get the opportunity to speak English as a medium of instruction and the more they get language scaffolding from subject teachers, they will be motivated to speak about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. In other words, content subject teachers scaffolding in the academic language of the content subjects, hence, help students to build up not only their academic speaking proficiency and oral competence but also their confidence to address their thinking and the theme of the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. In short, academic speaking skill can help learners to orally communicate about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction with confidence and enhance their participation
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and motivation in asking and answering questions, asking for clarifications, participate in classroom discussions and oral presentations, which are fundamentals to enhance their academic speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction. Research also shows that students make gains in language acquisition by interacting with speakers of the English language in meaningful contexts, and their English language oral fluency increases as they begin to respond and sustain communication in the target language just as accuracy in reading and writing develops with daily involvement in purposeful application. In this light, Hernandez, (2003) stated that when language is regarded as a medium of learning, it offers a context for communicating the thinking process in the subject matter without the need to translate content. Accordingly, content subject teachers need to establishing discussion routines, for example, asking students to paraphrase one another, provide structures for discussions and teach students to be active listeners. They should also write key terms or phrases on the board, and give their students language resources which are relevant to their content subjects so that students can orally communicate in the language of the content subject which is English as a medium of instruction. Content subject teachers need to use variety of ways that can facilitate their students language problems, their academic speaking skill, in particular. By encouraging ELLs to share their thoughts with a partner before reporting to the whole class, teachers promote both the students' language learning and their confidence in speaking out (Short and Echevarria, 2005). Calling attention to language use in content lessons will be valuable to ELLs as they work to develop academic language proficiency. In sum, academic speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction has various significances for effective and quality learning performance in learning content subjects in EMI.
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Academic speaking skill is the oral skill which students and teachers use in the classroom to orally communicate about the subject matter and express their thinking in relation to contents that they learn through English as a medium of instruction. Hence, developing students academic speaking skill and competence in English as a medium of instruction context is crucial to enable them effectively communicate about the subject matter in English and develop their oral skills. In schools where English as a foreign language is used as a medium of instruction, students need to develop the basic academic language skills and knowledge to effectively learn and gain a better learning in English as a medium of instruction. As secondary school students have poor English language speaking skills and lack the academic speaking skill and competence to talk about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction, subject teachers need to employ effective learning strategies that could help to enhance students oral interaction and create opportunities for classroom interaction in English as a medium of instruction. They need to use interactive and cooperative methods of teaching their subjects so that students can have opportunities to learn the subject matter cooperatively and develop the academic speaking skill relevant to the specific subjects. In other words, to help students with poor English language speaking skill and competence in English as a medium of instruction, it is crucial that subject teachers need to use teaching approaches and techniques that promote students oral interaction, such as group and pair work, and classroom discussions, to promote their subject matter understanding and academic speaking skill development. Moreover, it is essential for students to clearly know and understand the general and specific vocabulary of the different subjects, have knowledge of the grammar of the specific subjects, and be familiar to the function of the language so that they will have the oral skill and competence to communicate their views and
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understanding of the lesson/ subject matter taught in English as a medium of instruction. Chamot and OMalley (1994) said that academic language consists primarily of the language functions needed for authentic academic content. Academic language functions are the tasks that language users must be able to perform in the different content areas. According to Lucas et al., (2008), because of inexperience with the linguistic demands of the tasks of schooling and unfamiliarity with ways of structuring discourse that are expected in school, most students, but especially ELLs, experience school language as being more complex and cognitively demanding than conversational language. The language of science emphasizes objectivity and procedures; the language of history expresses past events and the temporal relationships among them; and the language of mathematics serves to articulate precise relationships and procedures involving numbers. In addition, there are general functions of language that apply across academic disciplines. In school, students are expected, for example, to use language to argue, to compare and contrast ideas, to draw inferences and conclusions, and to persuade audiences of the merits of a writer's or speaker's ways of thinking. Each use of language requires special linguistic forms that students must learn if they are to master these academic skills. Therefore, discussion provides a chance for teacher to view the thinking skills of their students for providing correction and feedback. On the other hand, it also provides student a chance to hear their own thinking and to monitor their own thinking process. They actively build knowledge over existing knowledge.

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Promote oral interaction in the classroom


To enhance students academic speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction classes, subject teachers need to make the teaching and learning of their subjects interactive. Making lessons interactive can help promote oral interaction among students. It provides students with opportunity to talk about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction thereby by developing the language aspects of the specific subjects and practice academic speaking skill to talk about the subject matter in the academic language relevant to the subject. Moreover, it can help students develop the academic vocabulary, the specific grammar, and function of the language that the specific subject matter demands them to develop. Furthermore, it is essential for students to clearly know and understand the general and specific vocabulary of the different subjects, have knowledge of the grammar of the specific subjects, and be familiar to the function of the language so that they will have the oral skill and competence to communicate their views and understanding of the lesson/ subject matter taught in English as a medium of instruction. Research shows that an interactive lesson in second/ foreign language medium of instruction help students learn the new language interactively in the real situation and for real purposes. Stressing this, Krashen (1982) in acquisitionlearning hypothesis states that infants acquire language subconsciously rather than cognitively learning the language. This implies the need of providing students with ample opportunity to practice speaking the language of the content subject in the real classroom for real academic purposes so that they can build up their competence in speaking the language. When learning content subjects in a foreign language as a medium of instruction, students need instructional approaches that allow them to interact with and construct meaning from lessons presented in class. In this light, Hernandez, (2003) stated that language is the medium for learning and
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communicating important subject matter. Thus, to effectively communicate about the content subjects in a foreign language, students need to gain the exposure and take part in interactive, authentic, and meaningful oral communications through ample opportunities to hear and respond in the target language and to get feedback from their teachers and their partners in the language of learning the content subjects.

Promote oral interaction and extended academic talk


Students can access new knowledge and develop their language skill and competence through oral interaction. They need the oral skill and competence to talk to, ask and answer questions, and seek for clarifications, and participate in classroom discussions and oral presentations in learning subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Moreover, they need to talk to each other and with their teachers in English as a medium of instruction to develop the academic speaking skill. Their oral skill can help them acquire literacy skills, access new information and can build up their oral skill and proficiency to extended oral interaction to talk, argue, and express their views in the language of the content subject. Because much classroom instruction involves discussions, teachers need to encourage ELLs to join in academic talk during class. Teachers should also talk less and engage students in extended discussions so that their students can give more than oneword responses and practice speaking in stretches of words and expressions. By establishing discussion routines (for example, asking students to paraphrase one another), teachers provide structures for discussions and teach students to be active listeners. By writing key terms or phrases on the board, teachers give students a resource to use in their own speech. By encouraging ELLs to share their thoughts with a partner before reporting to the whole class, teachers promote both the students' language learning and their confidence in speaking out (Short and
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Echevarria, 2005). This implies that teachers need to talk less and employ variety of ways that help their students engage in extended talk which foster their academic speaking skill and master the academic language knowledge which are basic for quality learning in English as a medium of instruction Moreover, subject teachers need to employ learning strategies that promote students active participation and oral interaction in English as a medium of instruction for effective comprehension of the subject matter. Classroom interaction, thus, comprises teacher-learner and learner-learner interaction, which is one of ten principles of effective teaching and these are, create an active learning environment; focus attention; connect knowledge; help students organize their knowledge; provide timely feedback; demand quality; balance high expectations with student support; enhance motivation to learn; encourage faculty- student and student-student interaction and communication; and help students to productively manage their time. Learners will get more knowledge from the lessons when they actively participate in their learning. To this end, subject teachers should employ variety of interactive techniques and approaches to make their classroom interactive. Moreover, research shows that variety of interactive ways can be employed in English as a medium of instruction to provide students with oral practice opportunities to enhance their academic speaking skill development and for thorough understanding of the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. In general, students academic speaking skill and competence in English as a medium of instruction could help them participate in cooperative and interactive learning strategies to effectively learn and understand the subject matter. Besides, the academic oral skill and competence could help them actively participate in group and pair work, classroom discussions, oral presentations that promote not only their critical thinking and logical
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argument, which pave the way for developing their skills for extended academic talk but also to learn from each other and their teachers through the language of the subject matter, English as a medium of instruction in this case, in a better way. Research shows that highly interactive classes that emphasize problem solving through thematic experience provide the social setting for language acquisition and academic development.

Activate students background knowledge


Students brought to classes with different linguistic and cognitive knowledge from their previous learning experiences. They come to school knowledge of their mother tongue and academic knowledge that they learned through mother tongue medium of instruction. Research shows that students can transfer language skills and knowledge from mother tongue to second/foreign language medium of instruction if they developed academic skills in their mother tongue. Thus, they can transfer the academic, linguistic and cognitive skills and knowledge to English as a medium of instruction context. Therefore, research suggests subject teachers to activate students prior knowledge in their mother tongue and consolidate it with a new learning. This can motivate students so that they will be able to have the language resource to orally communicate about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. Slavin (1990) reminds us that ESL students have background knowledge related to three areas: content (topic schema), language (linguistic schema) and text structure and organization (text schema). In learning a first language, ESL students develop strong schemata of language-based elements that parallel aspects of English. At the same time, teachers should be aware that there are different ways of knowing that are culturally bound. Care should be taken not to reject answers that appear on the
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surface to be incorrect. Instead, teachers must find out what the students thinking has been and how she/he arrived at her/his answer. According to Cummins, (1994) and (2000), content subject teachers can take advantage of students existing literacy frameworks, as well as their rich cultural backgrounds, to provide instructional scaffolds for integrated learning. Many English language learners struggle with curriculum content because they lack background knowledge of the topic or have gaps in the information they have learned. Chamot and OMalley, (1994) also stressed that content subject teachers can help students using their prior knowledge through brainstorming discussions about the topic, using graphic organizers, or participating in a cooperative activity. This will help student share what they know already so that the teachers can get a better understanding of their students cognitive knowledge.

Create opportunity for classroom oral communication


Learning content subjects in English as a foreign/ second language medium of instruction is difficult for students with poor English language background. Though students learn English as a foreign language in lower grades, they cannot talk about the subject matter in English at secondary level. Moreover, lack of awareness and understanding of the characteristic of academic language skill of English as a medium of instruction could make them unable to orally interact about the subject in English. Researches show that academic language is unique in its structure and function compared to general or social language. Cummins (1981) has described academic language as cognitively demanding, its most obvious feature being that it is relatively de-contextualized. It relies on broad knowledge of words, phraseology, grammar, and pragmatic conventions for expression, understanding, and interpretation (Filimore and Snow, 2000).
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Academic English is, thus, the language used in this test was the language ordinarily used in textbooks and discussions about science, mathematics, literature, or social studies. To reduce the language problems that students encounter in learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction, subject teachers need to create opportunity for oral interaction and academic vocabulary development. They need to adopt strategies that center on learners and provide them with opportunities to orally interact about the new knowledge of the subject that they learn in English medium. Moreover, teachers need to introduce technical and general vocabulary specific to their subjects and help students to learn their and understand the meaning in order to talk about the subject in English. Expanding ELLs' academic vocabulary knowledge requires moving beyond the highlighted words in a textbook to include words crucial to conceptual understanding of a topic, not only technical terms but also expressions like in comparison and as a result, which act like connective tissue in text. As Short and Echevarria, (2005) underlined students need multiple opportunities to practice using these words orally and in print. Reading glossary definitions is not sufficient. Strategies such as word walls, semantic webs, and structural analysis can help students organize the new words in meaningful ways. Other vocabulary techniques include demonstrations, illustrations, art projects, and letting students select specific vocabulary words to study.

Enrich with the language demand of the content subject


Academic English is the language necessary for success in school. It is related to a standards-based curriculum, including the content areas of math, science, social studies, and English language arts. Teachers must recognize that a focus on language no matter what subject they are teaching is crucial. They must engage
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children in classroom discussions of subject matter that are more and more sophisticated in form and content. And they must know enough about language to discuss it and to support its development in their students. Stressing this, Filimore and Snow, (2000) said that academic language is learned through frequent exposure and practice over a long period of time from the time children enter school to the time they leave it. Thus, content-area teachers should examine their curriculums from a language perspective. What aspects of English do students need to know and apply to succeed in the class? For example, does the course require students to write comparison/contrast or problem/solution essays? Read a textbook and take notes? Give oral presentations using technical vocabulary? All these common classroom tasks require facility with academic language. By reflecting on the language demands of their courses, teachers can begin to support students in learning the features of academic English.

Enhance Exposure to Content Vocabulary


According to Carrier, (2005) proper language development depends on the explicit and implicit language of the curriculum. We employ explicit language when we teach language arts through standards, the language skills learned progressively at each grade level. Implicit language is engaged when language is the medium and not the objective of the lesson. Language is embedded in the curriculum, allowing for authentic continuous language development and exposure to the target language during content learning. It is essential to familiarize English language learners with clear content vocabulary related to the unit of study. Excessive vocabulary, however, impedes students ability to understand lessons or materials

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presented in class by obscuring the message and overloading students with sentence complexity and difficult vocabulary unrelated to the content standard. According to Cloud et al (2000), Content-obligatory language is related to mastery of content standards; it is the vocabulary required to understand and communicate about the content (P.216). Content-obligatory language can be entered in student journals as it is introduced in lessons; students can then be asked to explain and illustrate obligatory language through examples. Vocabulary charts also can be hung in the classroom as environmental print for English language learners to reference as needed. More abstract vocabulary can be introduced by providing concrete experiences such as observing metamorphosis in a lab setting or walking along a stream to learn about erosion supplemented by visual aids such as pictures, photographs, diagrams, videotapes, and transparencies, and by having students create their own graphic organizers. Teacher manuals and support materials can provide numerous other suggestions for teaching vocabulary development. Content-compatible language stretches, refines, and expands language growth beyond the students present levels of attainment. Compatible language is not required for the mastery of content; its acquisition is driven by students expected growth in English language development and subject-area learning. Rich experiences in vocabulary developmentsuch as learning multiple word meanings, doing word studies, using word banks, or making semantic mapscan yield rich word usage and an understanding of the contexts in which words appear. Students can also enter content-compatible vocabulary in journals, learning logs, and study guides. In daily writings, students can demonstrate understanding of key elements of language by comparing and contrasting definitions, providing synonyms or antonyms, writing their own definitions, or summarizing information using the new vocabulary. When reading in content
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areas, students can attempt to read entire paragraphs even if they encounter unfamiliar words, so as to determine whether certain words are essential to the comprehension of a passage.

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4. Academic Speaking Skills and Learning Performance


The relationship between students overall academic achievement in the content areas and their language proficiency has been examined by scholars. Thomas and Collier (2002), compared students performance in content areas to concurrent performance on a language proficiency test and found a correlation between the two. Burns and Joyce (1997) examined the relationship between Hispanic students performance in English language tests and their achievement in Mathematics and discovered that the language test data were not very useful in predicting achievement in Mathematics. Bayliss and Raymond (2004) examined the link between academic success and second language proficiency and concluded that the relationship between academic achievement and language proficiency disappears as students approach native-like proficiency levels. As a result of the conflicting findings, it is pertinent to further examine the extent to which senior secondary school students proficiency in English language will predict their overall academic achievement. Researches indicate that there is a correlation between academic language proficiency and learning performance. According to Zakaria et al., (2011) a lack of proficiency in the language of instruction has harmful effects on students ability to deal with content area texts. In a similar vein, Noraidah (2001) and Yong (2003) revealed the underachievement of science at primary and secondary schools due to lack of proficiency in English to learn science concepts. Yong (2003) reviewed a corpus of research literature and reported that ESL students encounter problems in teaching science subjects in English due to lack of proficiency in the language of instruction. The research findings above indicate the relationship between language proficiency and academic learning performance of learning content subjects in
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English as a medium of instruction. In general, proficiency in the language of instruction has a correlation with learning achievements in that students with high language proficiency achieve high learning performance in learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. The implication is that proficiency in high academic speaking across curriculum can result high academic performance in learning content subjects in EMI.

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5. Barriers of Academic Speaking Across Curriculum


Learners participation in class is one of the aspects of classroom interaction (Brown, 1994). It is a process in which opportunities are created for learners to practice the L2 and to produce output. When the second language is learned as a foreign language in the classroom, it is one of the few ways to determine how well they learn and one of the rare chances to communicate. However, not all students are active to involve, though abstract and rather difficult to observe directly, motivation has a decisive impact on learners willingness to learn, even to use the target language and consequently on the success or failure in language learning. It will inevitably affect learners behavior in class, their participation. On the other hand, according to Brown, (2000), success or failure in any task can be considered to reflect learners motivation. Accordingly, to what extent students participate in class reveals their motivation in the process. In this study, classroom participation is specified as learners response by making oral participation in class and taken as an indicator of the unobservable motivation. With the approach of L2 motivation research, this study tries to determine the influential factors by figuring out the relationship between them and classroom oral participation. In light with the above discussion the following implications can be drawn towards the classroom teaching. Since perceived competence affects learners selfconfidence and determines their willingness to communicate the teachers task is to strengthen learners belief that competence can be developed through experience and the process of development is controllable. In practice, attention should be paid to tasks or questions of different levels if emphasis is laid on what learners can do rather than cannot. For instance, in training the listening ability of these learners, it might be more motivating to have them repeat a short sentence in
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authentic materials after they listen to it, then go on to longer ones and short paragraphs than to have them begin with the retelling of a passage. The same technique may be applied if the teacher would like to get students response to some challenging questions, with Yes/No questions coming first, then What followed up by Why or How, so as to allow them time to ponder or reflect and arouse their interest as well. To draw students involvement and stimulate their reaction as well as offer them chances to experience success is part of the efforts teachers should make to improve learners competence, confidence as well as participation. Encouragement is what learners badly in need after their performance. Mature and experienced and motivated as they are, encouragement is the positive persuasive expression of the belief from the teacher to confirm them of their capability of achieving a goal and it is also a guide or support in the learning process. In a word, accomplishment and encouragement are the crux in the improvement of learners self-competence. Accordingly desire cannot be separable from the forming of motivation, and the function of desire in L2 communication is limited by macro and micro context. According to, Cummins, (2000) and Gibbons, (2002), to motivate learners and bring the function of desire into play in oral participation demands teachers to maintain and enhance students interest and desire in

classroom learning. The roles both sides play result in an seemingly irreducible physical and emotional distance between them, it helps to explain why teachers always stay near the platform, that is, unconsciously to retain the distance, besides a negligence in motivating their learners. To shorten the distance, teachers should relieve themselves from copying or reading the materials so that they will be able to focus their attention on students. As the teacher-learners are adults with learning and working experience, teachers should trust their abilities to handle the task of
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previewing the lesson and consulting the dictionary if only teachers can assign the tasks properly among the learners, say, through negotiation or by choice. When it is time to talk about the assignments, students can be asked to report to the class what they have done. It will be much better than the teacher going over the answers by him or herself, or few of the students contributing most of the time. More time can be spent on interactions among students or even between students and teachers. Teachers may move around, checking the comprehension, sharing their understanding of certain points and making feedbacks. Apart from teachers giving timely encouragement and positive feedback, students can even be invited to comment on in-class activities. By doing so can teachers roles change in these activities, from authority or transmitter to an accepting, supportive professional, whose function is to supply the expressed needs of the learners rather than to impose a predetermined program. With teachers concern about learners competence and confidence, timely encouragement and feedback, properly assigned tasks and activities that increase learner involvement, a harmonious and pleasant classroom climate can be set up. The change in teaching methodology and classroom climate will greatly involve learners in the learning process, provide opportunities for students to make contribution and arouse their desire to participate. In sum, teachers views and beliefs to students academic speaking across curriculum problems, teachers academic language proficiency and teaching skills and strategies are major barriers that impede the role and significance of academic speaking in EMI and the overall learning of content subjects in classroom.

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Section Three
This section presents the authors critical analysis of the findings of the study. The content subject teachers responses, which are quoted throughout the section, are organized and interpreted in themes generated from the literature. The analysis of the findings is presented in three chapters. The first of these focuses on the participants views regarding the status of the students academic speaking skills. The next two chapters describe and examine the measures taken to solve the students speaking problems and the challenges encountered due to students problems across curriculum. Thus, this section presents the: analysis of content teachers views on the status of students speaking across curriculum, challenges teachers encountered due to students problems in speaking across curriculum, and analysis of the attempts content teachers made to alleviate problems in academic speaking across curriculum in foreign instruction academic academic students language

6. Views on Status of Students Academic Speaking


Under this section, the discussion and interpretation of the data obtained through reflective questionnaire, focus group discussion and classroom observations concerning teachers views regarding the status of their students academic speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction, how their students lack of academic speaking proficiency in English affect the overall teaching of content subjects in their classroom, and their views regarding the underlying problems of their students academic speaking skill was analyzed and discussed separately. The section starts with the discussion of the data obtained through reflective questionnaire, focus group discussion and the result of classroom observations were integrated for validation of the results. The analyses and interpretations are done in this section to achieve the first objective of the study. The data obtained through each tool were discussed and analyzed in various sub-themes. In general, this theme attempts to answer the first research question How do teachers view/perceive their students academic speaking skill in learning subjects through English medium instruction? Thus, the results obtained through each instrument are discussed as follows.

Poor academic speaking proficiency in EMI


Teachers were asked to reflect on their experiences about their students academic speaking skill in teaching their subjects through English medium instruction, whether their students are able to speak about content subjects in English as a medium of instruction, how they promote academic speaking across curriculum in EMI, how classroom/school situations are conducive for developing students academic speaking in English as a medium of instruction, Accordingly, the results obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion were
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presented, analyzed and discussed, and the results of classroom observations were finally integrated to validate the data/draw on conclusions. Participants were asked to reflect on their classroom experiences regarding their students academic speaking skill in learning subjects through English, and in their reflection they all were of the opinion that their students are unable to speak about the subject matter in English. They said that their students are unable to explain ideas regarding the lessons that they learn in English. They cannot ask and answer questions, and participate in classroom discussions with their peers and their teachers. One of the respondents, for example, stated

My students cannot orally communicate about the lessons in English medium instruction. They are unable to talk to their peers and with their teacher, cannot ask and answer questions about the lesson that they learn in English, and cannot express their understandings of the lesson. They have poor English language background at elementary school. Due to this, they found difficult to orally communicate about the subject that they learn in English medium instruction (P. 4).

Inherent in this reflection is the view that the participant appears to be aware of students poor oral communication skills in learning the subjects through English. The implication of this reflection is that teachers found difficult to make their students orally communicate with their peers and the teacher for effective and efficient learning due to their students inability to communicate through English. This implies that students do not have the oral proficiency to communicate about the content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Nevertheless, Omaggio (1986) stated that oral proficiency is the ability to communicate verbally in a
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functional and accurate way. Omaggio emphasizes that academic speaking proficiency is the ability to communicate in a functional and accurate way in a language in the right context and for the right purpose. From this reflection, one can also infer that teachers seem to be aware of the poor status of their students academic speaking proficiency as students are unable to speak about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. However, they do not seem aware of the challenges and complexity of academic language with the language of every day communication. Academic language is the language for teaching subjects in which its meaning can be determined by the language of the subject matter. Schleppegrell (2004) said that academic language is different from the language of every day conversation for its meaning and functions are determined by the language of the subject matter. Hence, subject teachers need to be aware of the complex nature of academic language skills so that they can facilitate the problems their students encounter in learning their subjects through English. Another respondent also reflected Students cannot express concepts and ideas about the subjects that they learn in English. It is difficult for them to answer and ask questions, and to make discussions about the subject matter in English. Majority of them cannot pronounce words correctly in English. Though English is the medium of instruction at secondary high school, it is difficult to make students orally communicate about the subject matter in English (P. 6) The main essence in this reflection is the view that teachers were of the opinion that their students are unable to speak about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction due to their poor English language background. Similarly, Gibbons (2002) stated that communication in academic context is difficult and
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challenging for students who do not develop the academic function of the language for learning different subjects compared to the language of every day communication as its meaning and form is determined by the language of the subject matter. From this reflection, it is possible to infer that teachers aware of their students inability to orally communicate about the subject matter through English as a medium of instruction. The results also indicated that the poor status of students academic speaking in English as a medium of instruction. One of the participants, for example, reflected It is difficult for students to orally communicate about the subject matter in English medium instruction because they do not develop speaking skills at elementary level as English language teachers focus on teaching grammar and do not teach oral communication skills. As a result, they communicate about the subject matter in their mother tongue (P.8). Inherent in this reflection is the teachers view that students have poor oral communication proficiency which resulted from traditional approach of learning grammar and lack of oral communication skill practice at lower grades. In this reflection, the participant seems to be aware of the poor status of students oral communication skills and the poor background of learning English that was focused on grammar and the lack of oral communication practice at lower grades. However, Lucas et al., (2008) shows the difference between academic language proficiency and the language of every day conversation, and concluded that academic language skills and proficiency can develop gradually in academic classes when students are engaged to function through it with the help of the subject teacher and mastering the language of the subject matter. Various
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researches also show the unique characteristic of academic language compared to general English and English for every day conversations (Cummins, 1994; Chamot & O Malley, 1994). Gibbons (2002) also stated that communication in academic discourse relies on language itself to convey meaning, thereby becoming more impersonal, more technical and more abstract. In general, the results discussed so far revealed that subject teachers are of the opinion that students in the target schools have poor oral communication skills to interact about the subject matter in English medium instruction. The implication is that teachers in the target schools found difficult to teach content subject through English as a medium of instruction due to their students poor oral communication skills. However, Filimore and Snow, (2000) stated that teachers need to make their students more aware of how language functions in various modes of communications across the curriculum. However, content subject teachers in the target schools appeared to be unable to make their students aware of the language demands of their content subjects to reduce the academic language problems students encountered in English as a medium of instruction. Similarly, the results obtained from the group discussion indicated teachers negative impression regarding their students academic speaking across curriculum in teaching their subjects through English as a medium of instruction. The results showed the participants views of their students poor English language background and the lack of competence to speak about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction classrooms. One of the participants in the group discussion, for example, said Students have poor English language background. Therefore, they are unable to orally communicate in English about the lessons with their
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peers as well as their teacher in the classroom. As a result, I found difficult to make them orally communicate about the lesson in English (P. 3). In this reflection, the participant stated the poor status of students speaking proficiency and the lack of speaking skill practice in their EFL classroom are problems behind their students academic speaking across curriculum inability to discuss with their peers and their teachers to actively participate and engage in the overall learning process in learning subjects through English as a medium of instruction. However, according to Brown (1994), speaking is a dynamic interactive process that involves the effective transmission of facts, ideas, feelings and values. Thus, students poor status of academic speaking proficiency is a challenge that impedes the overall teaching learning output of content subjects through English as a medium of instruction. The study also showed students poor speaking proficiency in English as a medium of instruction which was resulted from lack of vocabulary and grammar and the speaking skills in English language learning classroom. For instance, one of the participants reflected Students have poor English language background to orally communicate with each other and with their teachers in English. They do not have adequate knowledge of vocabulary and grammar and the speaking skills to communicate through English. Thus, it is difficult to involve them in classroom discussions to learn the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction classroom (P. 5).

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The main essence in this reflection is the teachers view about the poor status of students speaking skill due to their poor background knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, and lack of speaking practice in English as foreign language learning. The implication of this view is that the participant however, appears to be aware of the poor status of students oral proficiency in English as a medium of instruction, he does not seem aware of his due roles equally important as English language teachers to facilitate the oral communication skill problems students encounter in learning content subjects in English. In line to this, Hernandez (2003) stated that subject teachers need to be aware of the language demands of their students and develop the strategies and skills that help them facilitate the language problems that their students encounter in English as a medium of instruction classrooms. The results discussed so far elaborate the findings obtained through reflective questionnaire, that teachers in the target schools all underlined the poor oral communication skills of their students in learning their subjects through English and the impacts of the problems on their teaching. Stressing the role and responsibility of subject teachers to facilitate their students academic language skills and knowledge in English as a medium of instruction context, Shleppergrell (2004) stated that students who are yet learning English found difficult to communicate content subjects through English as a medium of instruction because of their lack of the linguistic demands of the tasks of schooling and unfamiliarity with ways of structuring discourse that are expected in schools. The results obtained through classroom observations showed the poor status of students speaking proficiency in learning content subjects as they found difficult to speak about the lessons in English as a medium of instruction. Similarly, teachers were observed excessively using mother tongue in classroom discussions. It was also noted that teachers excessively speak mother tongue to communicate
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content subjects with their students. The result also indicated that the oral interaction between the teacher and students were teacher centered and mediated through mother tongue. The results indicated that content subject teachers found difficult to talk about their content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Thus, it might be difficult to conclude that it was only students who orally communicate through mother tongue, and as teachers excessively use mother tongue in teaching content subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Teachers seem to be concerned of their content subjects than helping their students with the language skills and knowledge to facilitate their oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. However, though in the classroom

observations it was noted that students remain silent and passive to orally communicate through English; it is difficult to conclude that they have the exposure and opportunity to English as a medium of instruction as teachers unnecessarily communicate in mother tongue. Contrary to this, Probyn (2001) stated that because the classroom in many cases is the only place where learners get exposure to English, teachers have to use English as much as possible. Stressing this, Crandal (1998) suggested that subject teachers need to provide their students with the language of their subjects and promote interactive and cooperative learning so that their students could understand academic concepts in English medium of instruction. Hernandez (2003) also suggested that content are teachers need to make their classroom communicative as communication based instruction help learners to access concepts of the subject matter.

Hamper the overall teaching learning in EMI


The researcher wanted to explore teachers views regarding the impacts of their students poor academic speaking proficiency upon their teaching outcome in teaching their subject through English as a medium of instruction. Accordingly, in
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the reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion, participants reflected that their students poor academic speaking proficiency in English as a medium of instruction hinder their teaching endeavors in English as a medium of instruction. The result of the study revealed students poor academic speaking proficiency in English as a medium of instruction as an impediment for teachers while attempting to use academic speaking skill as a tool for teaching content subjects in their classroom. They stated that they found difficult to make their students orally communicate with their peers and the teacher about the lesson in English. They explained that students are unable to engage in oral discussions, participate in questions and answers to demonstrate their understanding, learn from others and ask for clarifications through English. They also added that as a result of their students academic speaking inability, they could not evaluate their students learning success, their preparation and evaluation of their lessons. Besides, as students could not speak and understand in English, they are made to translate the lessons in to their students mother tongue which made them lag behind to cover the lesson as they scheduled. For instance, one participant stated Students come to school with poor English language background from the beginning. They cannot speak about the lessons with their peers and the teacher in English as a medium of instruction. Due to this, they always ask me to revise and translate the subject matter in their mother tongue. This made me not to complete my lesson as schedule (P. 8). From this reflection one can note the view that students poor English language proficiency may hinder the overall teaching of the subject matter through English as teachers swing between two languages and lag behind their lesson schedule.
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Nevertheless, Hong (2008) stated that the use of mother tongue instruction has to be limited and selective in nature as consistent reliance on translation will not only affect the learners language development but also discourage learners from using the target language. Another most challenging impediment subject teachers encounter due to their students poor oral communication skill was students lack of motivation to engage in oral interaction in English medium instruction. They stressed that students are lack motivation and interest to orally communicate about the subject matter in English. For example, one participant reflected Students have poor speaking skill background. They cannot speak to each other in English. When I ask them to speak to each other in English, they sit passive and could not talk in English. They talk to each other and with the teacher in their mother tongue (P. 3). The main essence in this reflection is the teachers view that students are not motivated to orally communicate through English. They rather prefer to talk to each other and their teacher in their mother tongue. However, studies in second language acquisitions have shown that second language is best learned through content when learners have a purpose for learning and when language use is authentic and meaningful (Crandal, 1992). From this reflection, one can infer that students lack of motivation to orally communicate through English as a medium of instruction might be because they use their mother tongue for learning, and have no purpose created by the teacher that can motivate them to interact through English. Another most challenging impediment on teachers overall teaching performance was the impact of students poor oral communication skills was the

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poor score/achievement they score during exam as a result of communicating lessons in their mother tongue. One of the participants, for example, reflected Students have poor speaking skill in English as a medium of instruction. They are unable to understand concepts in English. They always ask for translation and I have to tell them. Otherwise, they could not understand concepts of the lesson/the subject matter. However, majority of them score poor results during examination. They know the concept in their mother tongue, but could not understand them and explain through English. As a result, I revise a lesson many times (P. 9). The central message of this reflection is that though students orally communicate about the lesson in their mother tongue and teachers translate concepts in their mother tongue, they could not understand concepts and demonstrate their understanding of the subject matter through English as a medium of instruction. To this fact, Harmer (1991) argues that translation into students L1 in English lessons restricts the students exposure to English. Thus, from the results above it can be understood that students poor oral communication skill impedes their classroom teaching performance.

Affect students learning performance


The results obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion revealed teachers views that the poor status of their students oral communication skills affects their learning performance. Accordingly, the results obtained from the analyses of the data through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion, are presented and discussed in this section.

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The data obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion indicated that subject teachers were of the opinion that their students poor oral communication skills are affecting their students learning performances in teaching their subjects through English as a medium of instruction. The results of the analyses of each instrument indicated teachers views of how their students academic speaking problem is affecting their learning performances. In their reflection, they stated that their students cannot orally interact with their classmates and their teachers about the lesson in English. They cannot express their opinion and share their knowledge with their peers in learning a subject through English. Moreover, they reflected that their students are unable to engage in interactive and cooperative learning to gain new knowledge through discussions. As a result, they found difficult to learn and understand the subject matter and gain new knowledge in English as a medium of instruction. One of the participants, for example, reflected

Students have poor English language background. They cannot speak about the lessons they learn through English with their teacher and their peers. They cannot explain their understanding of ask and answer questions about the subject matter in English to gain new knowledge from the lesson they learn through English as a medium of instruction. (P. 5).

Inherent in this reflection is the teachers view that students poor status of academic skill and inability to engage in and participate in oral discussions through English affect their students learning performances in English as a medium of instruction. The implication of this view is that students can not engage in

cooperative and interactive learning to broaden their comprehension of the subject


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matter through discussions with their peers and the teacher in English. Stressing this, Lucas et al (2008) stated that language learners are disadvantaged in the academic world because their limited language proficiency hinders their understanding and negatively affects their performance. David and Ogunsiji (2009) also indicate the correlation between proficiency in the language of instruction and overall academic achievement of learner. The implication of the results, thus, indicated that the poor status of students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction negatively affects their learning performances. The results also indicated the teachers views about their students low English language proficiency and the negative impact it had up on their learning performance. One of the participants for example, explained the link between students poor oral communication skills and their learning poor learning performances as follows:

Students poor English language background has direct relation to their poor learning performances. In my subject, they are very poor to express concepts of the lesson in English. They cannot understand, ask and answer questions about the lessons in English. They even do not understand instruction in English. As a result of their poor English language skills, majority of them achieve low results in their exam (P. 10). Inherent in this reflection is the participants view that their students poor oral communication proficiency impedes their learning performance. The implication of this view is that students poor status of oral communication proficiency negatively affects their learning performances in English as a medium of instruction. From the results so far, one can possibly infer that students are not
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able to communicate through English as a medium of instruction, and their lack of the oral communication proficiency and the current practice of using mother tongue negatively affect their learning performances. The results through classroom observations also indicated that students were unable to communicate through English about the subject matter/lessons in the classroom. In the classroom observations, it was noted that the overall teaching learning largely conducted through mother tongue (See Appendix C). Teachers seem to be concerned of the content knowledge rather than the language as a medium of instruction. The results obtained through classroom observations also indicated that teachers were not able to provide comprehensible input and exposure to their students in English as a medium of instruction. From the results in the classroom observations, one can conclude that both teachers and students lack of oral communication proficiency affect students learning performance. Stressing this, Gonzalez and Sibayan (1998) stated that the science learning is hindered by the low English proficiency of teachers and students. The study also indicted that participants awareness about their roles to improve their students oral communication skills. They reflected that subject teachers have roles to enhance their students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. One of the participants, for example, reflected

Subject teachers have roles to improve their students oral communication proficiency by speaking through English and avoid translation in to mother tongue because the medium of instruction at secondary school is English (P. 12).

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In this reflection the participant appears to be aware of teachers roles in improving their students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. However, they do not seem aware of the teaching skills and strategies that help to overcome the problem. In general, the analysis and discussions of the results presented above indicate that teachers in the target schools appear to be aware of the impacts of their students low oral communication proficiency on their learning performances. The implication of the results so far was that students poor learning performance in English as a medium of instruction was due to teachers and students poor oral communication proficiency.

Views to problems in speaking across curriculum


The researcher wanted to explore teachers views about the underlying problems of their students oral communication skill problems in learning subjects through English as a medium of instruction classroom. The results obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion indicated that teachers were of the opinion that students poor English language background, the impact of learning subjects through mother tongue as a medium of instruction at lower grades, and the current trend of teaching content subjects through mother tongue at secondary high school are the major problems that weaken students academic language skills and knowledge in English as a medium of instruction.

Students poor EFL background


Participants were asked to reflect on why their students are unable to orally communicate in English as a medium of instruction classroom, and the results from reflective questionnaire indicated that teachers were of the opinion that the poor
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status of learning English as a foreign language the traditional mode of teaching that English language teachers use are one of the major problems for their students poor oral communication skills in English as a medium of instruction classroom. One of the participants, for example, explained Students do not practice conversation in English classes at primary school. English language teachers are not well qualified to teach speaking skills. They do not speak with their students in English. Due to this problem students come to secondary school with poor English language speaking skill (P. 6). The main essence of this reflection is the view that the quality of learning English and English language teachers at primary school are the problems that hinder students English language proficiency at secondary school. In other words, students do not learn and practice speaking skills at primary school. In this reflection, the respondent seems to be aware of the impact of English language learning and language teachers at primary school up on their students English language ability at secondary school. However, participants do not seem aware of the difference between academic language and the language of every day conversation. Cummins, (2000) states the difference between academic language and the language of every day conversation. According to Cummins, social conversational skills are not sufficient for classroom based academic learning. Academic language is challenging, complex and can adversely affect learners academic performance even though he/she is fluent in every day conversations. From this reflection one can infer that teachers were of the opinion that their students inability to orally communicate through English as a medium of instruction is due to the poor status of learning English language at primary school. Another participant also reflected
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English language teachers at primary school are not fluent in speaking English. They talk to their students in Afan Oromo and Amharic languages. They also translate the English lesson in to Afan Oromo and Amharic. So, students at primary school have poor oral communication skill in English (P.5). Inherent in this reflection is the participants view that that the underlying problem behind students inability to communicate through English at secondary school is the poor quality of teaching English and English language teachers at primary school. In this reflection it is also stated that English language teachers are unable to communicate with their students in English. Another participant also stated English language teachers at primary school are not proficient to orally communicate with their students in English. They translate English in to their students mother tongue. So, students are unable to orally communicate in English as a medium of instruction (P.2). This reflection shows that that students inability to communicate through English as a medium of instruction at secondary school is due to the problems of learning English at primary school. Similarly, the results obtained through group discussion indicate that participants were of similar views regarding the underlying problems behind their students inability to orally communicate through English as a medium of instruction. In their discussions, participants stated problems their students encounter at secondary school are resulted from the poor quality of leaning English and the poor quality of English language teachers at primary school. One of the participants, for example, stated

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Students do not have oral communication practice at primary school. This is mainly because English language teachers at primary schools are not proficient in English speaking skills. They teach English through traditional method. So, students do not learn and practice speaking skills (P.7). Inherent in this reflection is the participants view that the poor status of English language learning and the poor quality of English language teachers at primary school are the underlying problems for their students oral communication skills problems in English as a medium of instruction at secondary school. The results also indicated the teachers views that claim the traditional mode of teaching that English language teachers adopt and their focus on teaching grammar, rather than oral communication skill practice as the underlying problems behind students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. One of the participants, for example, reflected English language teachers at primary schools employ traditional method that focus on teaching grammar. They do not have the teaching skills and language proficiency to teach their students practice speaking skills in English classes. Students do not practice speaking to each other in English. So, when they come to high school, they cannot orally communicate in English as a medium of instruction (P.10). In this reflection, the participant appears to be of the opinion that English language teachers and the teaching of English language at primary school are problems that make students unable to develop the English language skills and proficiency to
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communicate through English as a medium of instruction at secondary schools. From the discussions of the findings above, it is possible to conclude that teachers in the target schools held the view that the problem that their students inability to orally communicate through English as a medium of instruction at secondary school resulted from the poor status of learning English at primary school, and the English language teachers lack of English language proficiency and the traditional method that they employ to teach English language at primary schools. However, though English language learning and the skills and competence of English language teachers are contributing factors for students English language proficiency and competence, participants do not seem aware of their own roles and the difference between academic English, that is the language for learning academic subjects and general English, English for social conversations. Moreover, Carrier (2005) shows the difference between academic English and language for every day conversation that is academic English, English for reading, writing, speaking and listening takes longer time to master than conversational proficiency in English (Collier, 1989; Cummins, 2001). Carrier (2005) also added that the English language proficiency that our students need for learning academic subjects, it means the level of English required to comprehend academic content and to participate in activities and assignments.

Mother tongue medium instruction


The results drawn from reflective questionnaire indicated that participants were of the opinion that their students oral communication skill problems in English as a medium of instruction at secondary school is resulted from the impact of learning through mother tongue medium of instruction at primary school. One of the participants, for example, reflected

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Students at primary school learn all academic subjects in their vernacular language, Afan Oromo and Amharic. Therefore, until they can develop their ability to learn subjects through English, they speak in their mother tongue at secondary school (P.8). The main essence in this reflection is the teachers view that students found difficult to orally communicate through English at grade nine since they used to learn content subjects at primary school in their mother tongue. The reflection also holds the view that students are unfamiliar to English medium instruction and do not have the English language skills and knowledge that guarantees for learning content subjects. Form this reflection one can infer that teachers seem to be aware of their students inability to orally communicate about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. The implication of the results so far is that students do not have the English language skills and proficiency adequate for learning content subjects. Similarly, Carrier (2005) stated that students with limited English proficiency found difficult to learn through English because developing academic English demands them long time to master and they are learning new language and content subject at the same time. Students have poor English language background. They cannot orally communicate about the lessons in English as a medium of instruction. This is mainly because they learn all content subjects in their mother tongue as a medium of instruction at primary school. Besides, they learn through mother tongue from grade one up to grade eight. So, they do not have adequate time to develop their English at grade nine (P.10).

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This reflection holds the view that students inability to communicate content subjects through English as a medium of instruction is due to learning subjects in their mother tongue at primary school. In this reflection it is also stated that students do not have sufficient time to develop their English language skills as they learn through mother tongue from grade one up to grade eight. The implication of this reflection is that mother tongue is wrongly perceived and misused in schools, and considers as an impediment than being a useful learning resource. Similarly, there is a scholarly debate with regard to mother tongue. Rollnick and Rutherford (1996) stated that the use of first language is a powerful means of getting learners explore ideas and avoid confusions and misunderstandings. In contrast, Ovando and Collier (1998) argue that classroom is the only place that students get exposure to English; thus, teachers need to communicate with their students through English and only use mother tongue as a final remedy.

In their reflections regarding students oral communication skill problems that students encounter at secondary school in learning content subjects through English as a medium of instruction, participants were of the opinion that subject teachers communicate with their students about their lessons in their students mother tongue. They teach their lessons, make classroom discussions, ask and answer questions about their lessons largely in mother tongue. For example, one of the participants reflected Subject teachers at secondary school do not communicate with their students through English. They all want to speak in their mother tongue in the classroom. They teach their lessons and make classroom discussions in their students mother tongue. Subject teachers have

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left their students English language problems to English language teachers (P. 5). The central point in this reflection is that subject teachers at secondary school communicate with their students in their mother tongue while the medium of instruction is English. On top of this, they take the claim of students English language problems to English language teachers. However, Uys et al., (2007) states that it is generally accepted that teachers of English play a leading role in providing learners with the knowledge, skills and understanding they need to read, write, speak and listen effectively. However, Goodwyn and Findlay (2003) point out that all teachers have a stake in effective literacy. Learners may fail to understand academic concepts through the language that they are still learning because their subject content teachers are incapable of assisting them to do so (Crandall, 1992:18). From the results so far, one can conclude that teachers in the target schools do not seem aware of the underlying problems behind their students oral communication skill problems in English as a medium of instruction and the significances of using mother tongue at lower grades and in their classrooms at secondary school level. The study also revealed that majority of the teachers at secondary school are not proficient in English, and they communicate with their students about the subject matter in their mother tongue. They are unable to teach their subjects in English as a medium of instruction. For example, one of the participant, stated

Subject teachers teach their subjects through other languages out of English. They do not have English language proficiency to talk about their subject lessons with their students. In other words, they teach
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their subjects through Afan Oromo and Amharic, even though English is the medium of instruction at secondary school (P. 9). The main point in this reflection is the teachers view that secondary school teachers themselves do not have the English language skills and knowledge to teach their subjects in English as a medium of instruction. Similarly, Nel and Muller (2010) stated that teachers are responsible for an inadequate language input due to their own limited English language proficiency. This reflection holds the view that secondary school teachers are not able to communicate through English due to their poor oral proficiency, and the teaching of content subjects is communicated in mother tongue. From the results so far, one can infer that the problems behind students oral communication problems in English as a medium of instruction classrooms are not only limited to the problems that they experienced at primary school. Equally important, the secondary school subject teachers language and language proficiency that they use to communicate with their students are the impediments for students poor oral communication skills at secondary school. Similarly, the results in the focus group discussion indicated that teachers were of the opinion that students cannot orally communicate about the lesson in English as they have poor English background and as a result of learning through mother tongue. For example, one of the participants explained Students poor English language background and the impact of learning through mother tongue medium of instruction at lower grade are the reasons for their speaking skill problems in learning subjects through English at secondary school (P. 3).
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Inherent in this reflection is the teachers view that students low proficiency in English is the result of mother tongue medium of instruction and their poor English language background. This reflection holds the view that mother tongue as a medium of instruction and the poor background of learning English language are the underlying problems behind the low status of their students oral proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. However, according to Scarcella (2007) academic language is the language of school and of print English that students need to know to be successful in their schooling. Thus, it is different from general English and the language of every day conversations. With regard to mother tongue, Fadili et al., (2009) shows a study that teaching instruction in the mother tongue does not impede the development of second language. The results also revealed the teachers views that students poor oral proficiency to communicate about the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction has negatively affect their learning performance. One of the participants, for example, said Students are unable to orally communicate in the overall process of learning academic subjects through English. They cannot ask or answer questions about the subject in English. They cannot participate in oral discussions and presentation of their

understanding of the subject matter of the lesson that they have learned through English. Thus, I found difficult to orally communicate with my students about the lessons I teach in English (P. 8). In general, from the results so far, it is possible to conclude that participants were of the opinion that the poor quality of teaching EFL and EFL teachers traditional mode of teaching, and mother tongue medium of instruction at lower grades are the underlying problems for students speaking skill problems at secondary school in learning subjects through English. On the other hand, they do not seem aware of
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their roles in improving students oral communication competence and skill in English medium of instruction. The results of classroom observations also revealed that the classroom interaction between teachers and students was largely mediated through mother tongue (See Appendix C). Though teachers reflected that the status of their students oral proficiency in English as a medium of instruction is low, and they are unable to communicate through English, it was noted that teachers opt to use mother tongue excessively as their students. The implication of the results in the classroom observation is that teachers were not providing their students with comprehensible language inputs so that their students can get exposure to the language of the subject matter. From the results so far, it is possible to conclude that teachers are communicating their subjects through mother tongue, and this might hinder students oral proficiency development in English as a medium of instruction. As stated in Lucas, et al (2008), one of the major difficulties experienced by learners when learning science is learning the language of science. In general the results so far indicated that teachers were of the opinion that the status of their students oral communication proficiency is low, and they are unable to communicate their subject matter in English as a medium of instruction. The underlying problems behind students poor oral communication proficiency were poor English language learning background and the use of mother tongue as a medium at lower grades and secondary school level.

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7. Challenges in Foreign Language Medium Classroom


The second objective of this research was aimed at exploring teachers views about the challenges encountered in the classroom due to the poor status of students oral communication skill in English as a medium of instruction. To this end, the researcher collected data through reflective questionnaire, focus group discussion and classroom observations with the intention of answering the second research question. Thus, this theme attempts to analyze the data collected about the challenges encountered in the classroom due to the poor status of students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. Accordingly, the main theme and sub-themes are presented and discussed as follows.

Challenges related to teachers


It is essential to assess teachers views about the challenges they encounter due to the poor status of their students oral communication skills in English as a medium of instruction to have an in depth understanding of the problem on the overall teaching learning output in English as a medium of instruction. The results obtained from reflective questionnaire and focus group discussions showed that all the participants were of similar opinion about the challenges they encounter due to the poor status of their students oral communication skills. In their reflections, all of the participants of the study stressed that they found difficult to effectively underway their work through English as a medium of instruction due to their students inability to orally communicate about the subject matter in English. For example, one of the participants stated When I teach my lesson through English, my students are unmotivated and confused. When I invite them to ask and answer questions in
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English, majority of the class remains silent. They always ask for translation in their mother tongue. So, I present my lesson in English and finally translate in their mother tongue so that they can understand the main points of the lesson. This made me lag behind my lesson plan (P.2). From this reflection, one can note the view that teachers found difficult to teach content subjects through English as a medium of instruction due to the poor status of their students oral communication proficiency. The reflection also holds the view that students lack the motivation to orally communicate about the subject matter in English. Gardner (2006) stated that students will be motivated if they have purposes to achieve in their learning. This implication is that teachers might not make their students motivated as they translate and communicate subject matter learning in to mother tongue. So, students may not be motivated as they may not have tasks set by their teachers that they achieve through English. The study also showed that teacher found difficult to teach content subjects through English for students at grade nine. In their reflections, they stressed that students cannot communicate about the subject matter through English, and they have to translate lessons presented in English in to their mother tongue which they found difficult and time consuming. One of the participants, for example, stated It is difficult to teach students through English at grade nine. When I present my lesson in English, they cannot listen, understand and cannot take notes correctly from the black board. When I ask them questions about the lesson that I discussed in English, they cannot tell anything about the lesson. They always ask for translation in their

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mother tongue. It is difficult and time consuming to translate a lesson presented in English in to their mother tongue (P.10). In this reflection the participant was of the opinion that it is difficult to teach students in English as a medium of instruction. The reflection also holds the view that teachers waste their time translating lessons in mother tongue. The implication of this reflection is that teachers were not seem aware of the teaching skills and knowledge to address the oral proficiency problems that students encounter in English as a medium of instruction. Filimore and Snow (2000) stated teachers need to understand how to design the classroom language environment so as to optimize language and literacy and to avoid linguistic obstacles to content area learning. Another serious challenge teachers encounter in teaching their subjects through English as a medium of instruction was students expectation of translation from English in to their mother tongue. The result showed that teachers found difficult to translate their lessons to their students divers first languages. One of the participants, for example, reflected My students do not have enough English knowledge and skills to learn through English. When I write a topic on the board and ask them to discuss, they cannot even understand my instructions. When I ask them questions they cannot answer unless I translate in to their mother tongue. It is difficult to translate the lessons in to Afan Oromo and Amharic. I cannot speak both languages (P.7). The main point in this reflection is that students expectation of translation from English in to their mother tongue and the challenges the problem laid upon their teaching. As Hong (2008) stated consistent reliance on mother tongue not only

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affect the learners language development but also discourage the learners from using the target language. Thus, from the result above, it can be understood that teachers encountered a significant challenge in teaching their subjects through English due to the poor status of their students inability to orally communicate through English. However, the results in classroom observation indicated that teachers do not seem to have the language proficiency to communicate their subjects in English as a medium of instruction (Appendix C) The study also showed that teachers found difficult to evaluate their students learning success in teaching content subjects through English due to the poor status of their students oral communication proficiency. One of the participants, for example, reflected I cannot evaluate whether my students understood my lesson or not, what is clear and what is not clear for them through English. They could not make discussions, ask and answer questions in English. They always expect for translation. So, when they take exam, majority of them score poor results (P.1). The central message of this reflection is that teachers found difficult to evaluate their students learning success and weaknesses in teaching their subjects through English as a medium of instruction. In the reflection it is also stated that majority of their students fail in exam because they do not attend lessons in English and could not develop their English as they always want to learn through their mother tongue. Thus, it can be understood from the result above that the poor status of students oral communication proficiency was a challenge that subject teachers encounter in teaching their subjects through English as a medium of instruction.
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Challenges related to students


The results obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion revealed teachers views that their students encounter series challenges, such as, lack of English language skills and knowledge, lack of motivation and interest to listen to and speak about the lessons in English, inability to learn from each other and the teacher through English, and poor performance, due to their poor status of oral communication skill in learning content subjects through English as a medium of instruction. One of the participants, for example, reflected Students found difficult to orally communicate about the lessons in English. They are not motivated and interested to listen to the lessons presented in English. They do not play their roles to explain concepts, ask and answer questions regarding the lessons presented in English. They always expect the teacher to translate and revise concepts in their mother tongue (P. 3). This reflection shows the teachers view that students lack interest and motivation to listen to and speak about the subject matter due to the poor status of their oral communication skills in English as a medium of instruction. The other series challenge that students encounter due to the poor status of their oral communication skills in English as a medium of instruction is the poor learning performance they achieve as a result of inability to understand concepts in English. For instance, one of the participants stated Students are unable to communicate concepts of the subject matter in English. They do not have English language knowledge and skills to make discussions, ask and answer questions about the lessons in
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English. Though they learn the lessons in their mother tongue, they score poor results during exams (P. 7). The implication of this reflection is the view that students are achieving poor results in academic subject because they cannot communicate and understand English as a medium of instruction. Another series challenge that students encounter due to their poor status of oral communication skills in English as a medium of instruction was inability to engage in cooperative and interactive learning to learn from their peers and their teachers for effective comprehension of the subject matter in English. One of the participants, for example, stated Students found difficult to grasp concepts of the lessons in English. They cannot involve in group and pair work activities to learn from their partners to deepen their understanding. They cannot demonstrate their understanding and ask for clarifications in learning subjects through English (P.11). Inherent in this reflection is the view that students found difficult to engage in cooperative and interactive and participate in classroom discussions due to their poor English language skills and proficiency in learning content subjects through English as a medium of instruction. The implication of this result is the view that students encounter challenges to gain through knowledge of the subject matter due to their poor oral communication skills. Similar to the results obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion, it is evident from the classroom observations that students encounter series challenges in learning subjects through English as a medium of instruction. The results obtained through classroom observation on the basis of observation variables, such as, student-student and teacher- student interaction, students
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motivation and interest to communicate through English, their attempt and active participation in classroom discussions, questions and answers in learning a subject in English as a medium of instruction revealed that students found difficult to communicate through English about the subject matter in English. However, in the classroom observations, it was noted that teachers present their lessons and translate into their mother tongue. Contrary to the results obtained through reflective questionnaire and focus group discussion, the results obtained through classroom observations indicated that teachers present their lessons in English and translate in to students mother. From the classroom observations it was also noted that teachers focus on contents of the subject matter than facilitating ways to motivate their students communicate through English. In general, the results discussed so far indicated the challenges students encounter due to their poor oral communication skills in learning subjects through English as a medium of instruction.

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8. Teachers Attempt to Alleviate Speaking Problems


The researcher tried to know the attempts that participants were making in their classrooms to alleviate the problems their students encounter due to their students poor oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction and to notice their responses in reflective questionnaire and focus group discussions from the actual spot in light of the phenomena understudy. The study showed that participants do not make any practical effort to alleviate their students oral communication problems in English as a medium of instruction though they stated they employ some strategies to enhance their students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. Participants were also asked to reflect on how they encourage oral communication in their classrooms to help their students orally communicate through English as a medium of instruction, and they reflected that they motivate and encourage their students to talk to their teachers and their peers through English. One of the respondents, for example, stated I motivate students to ask questions with the instructional media as much as possible. I also try to use only English as a medium during teaching learning process (P. 11). However, the results through classroom observations indicated that teachers implemented teacher-centered approach which made passive and only listen to the teachers lecture. Besides, from the classroom observation results it was noted that there was no oral interaction among students in English. Though participants reflected that their students only speak in their mother tongue due to their poor oral proficiency in English, it was also observed that teachers themselves excessively use mother tongue in content subject classroom. The implication of this result is
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that teachers lack the teaching strategies and approaches to facilitate the barriers that their students encounter due to their poor oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction. The participants reflected that they provide opportunities for their students to discuss ask and answer questions in English and tell them to avoid speaking in their mother tongue. One of the participants, for example, reflected I give my students chance to ask and answer questions in English. I also make discussions in English because the medium of instruction at secondary school is English. I always tell my students to avoid speaking in their mother tongue and try to speak in English (P.9). However, the results in classroom observations indicated that teachers do not made any attempt to provide their students with opportunities to orally communicate through English. In the classroom observation it was noted that teachers could not provide a comprehensible input in English so that students have the exposure to English as a medium of instruction. On the contrary, it was noted that the classroom interaction was excessively communicated through mother tongue and teacher dominated approach. The implication of the results so far was that though teachers appears to be aware of the significances of providing oral communication opportunities to their students through English, in practice it was noted that they could not realize this in the actual classroom practice. The results of classroom observation also indicated that teachers lack teaching strategies and techniques that help students engage in oral communication in English as a medium of instruction. In the classroom observations it was noted that teachers ask closed questions and largely mother tongue during classroom
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discussions. From this result, one can infer that teachers could not provide opportunities for their students to orally communicate about their lessons in English. The study also revealed that there were no student-student interaction and the classroom atmosphere was not motivating students to actively participate in learning the subject matter in English. In the classroom observed it was noted that teachers did not use interactive and cooperative methods, such as pair work, group work that could motivate learners to orally communicate about the subject matter in English. Participants also reflected that teachers, both subject teachers and English teachers, are responsible for students academic language development because they have to develop students English language development. However, the result of classroom observation indicated that they seem concerned about making the subject matter clear to their students in mother tongue rather than helping them develop their academic language proficiency as the entire learning is communicated through mother tongue. Participants also reflected that the situations in their schools do not motivate students to orally communicate through English. One of the participants, for example, reflected Teachers in the school and classroom communicate through mother tongue. Moreover, there was no English club, English day and questions and answer competitions in schools that can motivate students to develop their oral communication skill (P. 4).

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This reflection holds the view that participants are aware of how promoting communication through English can enhance their students oral communication proficiency in their school. When participants were asked to reflect on what to suggest to overcome the problems encountered due to students oral communication proficiency in EMI, they suggested that teaching English language need to be improved and translation into mother tongue need to be avoided. One of the participants, for example, reflected Teaching of English language need to be improved and teacher need to avoid translations in to mother tongue (P. 1). In general, though participants appear to be aware of the poor status of their students oral communication proficiency, the study revealed that teachers in the target school orally communicate with their students in their mother tongue, and this might implies that content subject teachers might not have the academic speaking across curriculum to effectively communicate with their students in EMI. Moreover, the traditional mode of teaching that mainly focused on translation from English into students mother tongue, and teacher centered that allows only teachers to speak, could not help them facilitate the academic speaking barriers students encountered in English as a medium of instruction.

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Section Four
In this section the author summarizes the major factors that hamper students academic speaking across curriculum in foreign language medium instruction, and considers possible ways, including ideas from the literature, that may help improve students academic speaking skill in foreign language medium schools. Accordingly, in this section, the author discusses: the real problems behinds students problems in academic speaking across curriculum in foreign language medium schools, and ways that help improve students skill in speaking across curriculum in foreign language medium instruction

9. Real Problems in Speaking across Curriculum


Misconception, Incompetency in Language and Teaching Strategy
In multilingual contexts it is widely seen that different indigenous languages along with foreign or second language can serve as a medium of instruction. In other words, mother tongue can be used for learning content subjects and later the medium of instruction transits to foreign or second language. In a context where students have limited proficiency in the second/foreign language and where the foreign/second language is used as a medium of instruction, it is common that learners face problems to communicate content subjects in a new language that they are still learning. What makes the problem worse is the nature and function of academic language apart from students poor EFL background. On top of this, content teachers views towards students academic speaking across curriculum problems, their own understanding to the nature, function, and role of academic language, and their own academic language proficiency; and the teaching strategies they use in foreign language medium classrooms are the main challenges that hamper students overall learning performance in English as a medium of instruction.

Content teachers Misconception


Research shows the difference between general language that students can develop in language classes and academic language which is the language of academic subjects and classroom. The language skills and knowledge students learn and develop in language classes is general English which is used for every day conversation in both formal and informal contexts. Moreover, the basic difference between EFL and academic language is that the language in EFL classes is supported with paralinguistic features, such as gestures that oil the wheels to effective oral communication. In contrast, academic language is bound to academic
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language of specific subjects. Thus, students can only derive meaning if they are familiar with the specific genres and discourse of the specific content subjects. However, content subject teachers view students academic speaking across curriculum problems as a problem that stem from students poor English language background and poor quality of learning EFL. This implies that content teachers are not aware of the distinction between academic language and general language for every day formal and informal communication. Thus, they limit their role to transferring the subject matter of content subjects, leave language problems to EFL teachers. However, research shows their significant roles in developing students academic language problems as their roles in teaching content subjects. To this end, Short and Echevarria (2005), stressed that content teachers can play roles to make their lessons rich and meaningful to promote the literacy of students learning in English. They stressed that content teachers need to understand their students linguistic needs, and provide rich, and meaningful lessons that support their academic language growth. They need to encourage students in the new language to interact with their peers and discuss ideas and work on projects that help them understand the content covered in class. However, what is actually going on in content teachers classroom in English as a medium of instruction is the contrary. Content teachers largely view their students problem in academic speaking across curriculum wrongly as a problem of their poor EFL background and as a result resort to communicating content subjects in students mother tongue which hinders students overall learning performance and academic language skills development in English as a medium of instruction. According to Short and Echevvaria (2005), content teachers in second/foreign language as a medium of instruction need specific preparation in working with English language learners. They need to know who the students are and what their prior education experiences were like.
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Similarly, Goodwyn and Findlay (2007) cited in Uys, M. et al (2007), point out that all teachers have a stake in effective literacy. This clearly indicates the wrong views content teachers hold to their students problems in academic speaking across curriculum, and the wrong claims of relating the problems to their students poor EFL background. Crandal (1998) cited in Uys et al (2007) state how students lack of academic language support from their content teachers affect their understanding of academic concepts in the language they are still learning. Unlike content teachers views, Stein (1996) stressed content teachers roles in developing academic speaking skills of their students as they play great roles in teaching concepts of content subjects. Stressing their roles in developing their students academic language skills and knowledge in learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction, Short and Echevarria (2005) also added that content teachers need specific preparation in working with students that learn content subjects in a new language as a medium of instruction.

Incompetency in command of the language and teaching strategy


In the research, it was attempted to explore the teaching skills and strategies content teachers adopt in their content teaching classes in English as a medium of instruction. In their reflections and group discussions, they were of the opinion that found difficult to communicate with their students in English as a medium of instruction due to their students poor EFL background. Majority of the participants explained that they are made to use students mother tongue to communicate content subjects. In the classroom observation, it was also noticed that teachers explain content subjects in local languages instead of English as a medium of instruction. During the observation, some teachers were observed attempting to present their lessons in
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English, but the way they presented their content lessons were generally teacher dominated. The way they present their lessons was unhelpful for students to grasp the content knowledge and practice the academic language. Teachers simply read their lessons in English from the board without providing any academic language support and with no opportunity for their students to participate in the learning process. The research indicates these teachers lack the teaching strategies for interactive classroom but also their lack of the academic language command to provide adequate language support that their students required. As a result of these problems, content teachers overwhelmingly use mother tongue as a strategy to communicate their content subjects in foreign language medium schools. This implies that content teachers lack the academic language skills and the teaching strategies become additional barriers to students problems in academic speaking across curriculum in foreign language medium classes. In other words, content teachers lack of academic language knowledge and skills, and the teacher dominated teaching strategy which is predominantly used in teaching content subjects make students academic language problem in foreign language medium more severe. These problems, in turn, led students to lack of exposure to the specific genres of each content subject, and opportunity to practice the academic language in foreign language content classes. Thus, content teachers lack of appropriate teaching strategies and academic language skills, the basics, to communicate content subjects in foreign language medium are additional problems that hamper students overall learning in foreign language medium. In a similar vein, these problems make students unable to access concepts of the content subjects and to develop the academic language skill across curriculum in foreign language medium instruction. To this end, Marino, and Laurie, ( 2007) emphasize the use of various teaching strategies, such as, teachers speaking clearly,
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emphasizing and repeating key points, defining key vocabulary in context, and coupling talks with gestures, drawings, graphs, and charts as a useful ways to reduce the academic language loads that students encounter in learning content subjects in foreign language medium schools. According to Marino and Laurie, (2007), content teachers should enrich themselves with variety of teaching strategies and a working command of academic language across curriculum so that they can skillfully and effectively provide their students with appropriate academic language scaffolding to ensure content is comprehensible to their students in the language of the content subjects. Stressing this, Marino and Laurie (2007) noted that content subjects in foreign language medium instruction can be effective if it can be used in a way that can provide students with opportunities for interactive learning and to enhance their academic language knowledge and skill. Thus, content teachers in foreign language medium required to be aware of such teaching strategies to reinforce learning and promote the production of academic language, including content specific terms, structure and function of the language of each content subjects. However, the results of the study generally indicate content teachers lack of the academic language skills and teaching strategies to help students gain content knowledge in foreign language medium instruction and develop their academic language knowledge and skill across curriculum.

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10. What Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do


There is a distinction between learning content subjects in mother tongue and foreign/second language as a medium of instruction. Students can easily learn content subjects in mother tongue medium and can also display their understanding easily because they know the language and can easily communicate through it. This familiarity with their own language makes them find classroom instruction easy content learning and oral communication simple helps them to easily access content knowledge. It also helps them to focus on communicating concepts of the content subjects and gain new knowledge. In the contrary, it is difficult for students to learn content subjects in foreign language medium instruction. This is mainly due to students limited proficiency in foreign language, and the complex and specific nature of language of content subjects. Though students learn foreign language in language classes, language classes alone cannot help them develop the academic language skill that is required to communicate content subjects in foreign language medium. This is mainly because unlike mother tongue, foreign language medium instruction poses special challenges for learners. It makes them strive to learn content subjects and know the foreign language at the same time. With the language they do not develop, students are required to learn different contents, demonstrate their understanding, make arguments and draw conclusions, and assessed by their content teachers. However, according to (Tamaras, 2008), each of these classroom tasks, demands the use of specialized vocabulary and particular language forms which are unique to each content subject. Stressing this, Tamaras (2008), shows the difficult learning situation that students with poor command of foreign language experience because of the complex and cognitively demanding nature of foreign language medium instruction. Thus, content teachers in foreign language instruction need to be aware of students problems in foreign language
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medium instruction; the difference between mother tongue and foreign language medium to provide their students with academic language support that is required to accomplish academic tasks in foreign language medium classes. To skillfully provide academic language support to students whose academic language skill is not adequate to communicate content subjects in foreign language, content teachers need to be able to identify and articulate the special characteristic of the language of their subjects and make these explicit to their students. Moreover, content teachers in foreign language medium schools need to brush up their academic language proficiency and use variety of teaching strategies for effective instruction of content subjects in foreign language medium. They should be able to reduce the academic language load of each content subjects that students encounter in foreign language medium instruction and use various techniques to create opportunity for classroom interaction to promote students academic language knowledge and skill development. Therefore, it is essential for content teachers to be aware of the core problems behind their students academic language across curriculum in foreign language medium school; build academic language skills and variety of teaching strategies; and work in collaboration with EFL teachers to promote their students academic language and skill across curriculum in foreign language medium instruction.

Raise awareness
Content teachers need to be aware of their students academic language across curriculum problems in foreign language medium school. Moreover, they need to clearly know the basic difference between academic language and the language of every day conversations. This can help them know the structure, function, purpose, context, and complexity of academic language across curriculum to provide
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appropriate support that students require for effective learning. On top of this, they also need to know the role and significance of mother tongue medium prior to the shift into foreign language. This can help them realize that mother tongue medium is not the real cause for students academic language across curriculum problem. This awareness can also help content teachers to have a clear understanding of the barriers behind students academic language across curriculum. As a result, they will be e able to use their repertoire to train their students with the required academic skill to effectively learn content subjects in foreign language as a medium of instruction.

To this end, the study indicates that content teachers are not aware of the real problems behind students academic speaking across curriculum problems. They are of the opinion that mother tongue medium instruction at lower level and students poor EFL background are the real problems that make students unable to communicate content subjects in foreign language as a medium of instruction. However, according to Tamaras (2008), content teachers need to be aware of their students academic language background, problems students encounter in learning through foreign language, the basic principles of second language learning so that they can provide effective classroom instruction in foreign language medium.

Language is the medium through which students gain access to the curriculum and through which they display and are assessed for what they have learned. Therefore, content teachers in foreign language medium schools need to know that language cannot be separated from what is taught and learned at school. So, they need to have a good knowledge of the nature of academic language, the academic language needs of their students, and their role and responsibility to facilitate their students academic language across curriculum problems in foreign language medium
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instruction. This awareness can make teachers provide appropriate support to students in foreign language medium schools because these students are learning English while learning the content of the curriculum.

Thus, content teachers who teach students in foreign language medium need to be aware of their students academic language problems, and equip themselves with key principles of second language learning so that they can help their students with the required academic language resources. They also need to be aware of the basic difference between every day conversational language that students can learn and develop easily, and the academic language which is complex, cognitively demanding and limited to the specific language of the content subject. Moreover, they should know that as communication moves away from every day conversation to academic language of content subject, students can come across academic language problems to communicate content subject because the academic communication increasingly relies on language itself to convey meaning thereby becoming more impersonal, more technical, and more abstract.

Besides, content teachers should know how students can best learn content subjects in the foreign language, English in our case, and how they can reduce the problems students encounter in using the language for various school purposes. They need to know that such knowledge gives them important tools for making the content subjects they teach accessible to their students who learn content subjects in foreign language medium. Stressing this, Freeman and Freeman (2000) stated that teachers who are working with multilingual and multicultural students need to be informed about second language acquisition theory and issues related to language problems and learning so that they will be able to realize how students can deal with foreign language problems in their learning.
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Content teachers also need to be aware of the benefits of mother tongue medium instruction and know when and how to use it in foreign language medium classes. They need to realize that proper use of mother tongue in foreign language medium classes cannot harm content learning and academic language development if properly and skillfully used as a last solution to facilitate students understanding of the content. In addition, they need to realize how mother tongue can hinder students exposure to foreign language medium and development of their academic skill when it is used overwhelmingly in foreign language medium classes. They also need to know that content subjects in foreign language medium provide students with real and authentic language use to develop academic language knowledge, form and structure pertinent to the specific content subjects. Thus, they need to realize that they have some language tasks that they should do to lay smooth ground for their struggling students so that their students acquire the specific language genres of their content subjects. In this light, Lucas, et al (2008) stressed that content teachers need to identify and articulate the language of their disciplines and make this explicit to their students in the language of the content subjects. This can help their students to know the basic academic language structure, function, and the academic language in puts that can help them improve their academic language across curriculum skill and better comprehend content subjects in foreign language medium. To sum up, teachers awareness about students problems in academic speaking across curriculum is central for content teachers to alleviate the challenges students encounter in foreign language medium content classes.

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Build skills and strategies


Teaching content subjects in foreign language as a medium of instruction is challenging. It needs content teachers to know content knowledge and foreign language skill to effectively communicate with their students in academic setting. It also needs them to equip themselves with variety of teaching strategies to reduce the language barriers their students experience in learning content subjects in foreign language medium classes. Stressing this, Lucas, T (2008) stated that language is the medium through which students gain access to the curriculum and through which they display their understanding of the content subject and are assessed for what they have learned. Thus, content subject teachers need to know the linguistic load of their content subjects; the academic language barriers that hinder their students; and use their repertoire to create a fertile learning situation that promote students academic skill development and content understanding in foreign language medium instruction. Thus, content teachers need to clearly know and evaluate the language of their content subjects and make all the preparation to make their lesson presentation meaningful and manageable to their students. Such knowledge can easily give content teachers important tools for making their disciplines that they teach in foreign language medium accessible to their students. According to Short and Echevarria (2005), content teachers need to understand their students linguistic needs, and provide rich, meaningful lessons that can enhance their students academic language growth. Hernandez (2003) also stated that content teachers need to adopt communication based instruction so that their students orally interact about the lessons in the language of the content subjects. According to, Hernandez (2003) content teachers need to promote oral communication in their content classroom so that students can improve their academic language across curriculum skills and comprehend concepts of the
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content subjects through peer interaction. Hernandez (2003) relies on Krashens (1982) acquisition-learning hypothesis that states infants acquire language subconsciously than cognitively learning the language. Thus, content teachers need to adopt instructional approaches that create opportunities and exposure to learn and develop academic language across curriculum skill through real interactions for authentic classroom tasks. As Language is the medium for learning and communicating important subject matter, teachers need to need to make their classroom suitable for classroom effective communication, which is is interactive, authentic, and meaningful, with ample opportunities for their students to hear and respond in the target language. Content teachers should also adopted certain effective strategies that EFL teachers employ in their language classes to create the exposure and provide their students with ample opportunities to learn and practice the academic language of content subjects. They should know and used variety modes of classroom organization to organize their students in groups, pairs, and whole class discussion to promote effective oral communication in the medium of content subjects. According to Hernandez (2003), content teachers need to consider the academic language of their content subjects and create a situation that allows students to make use of the language to learn content subjects. Similarly, Short and Echevarria (2005), stated that content area teachers should examine their curriculum from language a perspective. They are required to identify the language demands of their students in light of their content subjects and should support them in learning the features of academic English along with content subjects. In the same vein, content teachers need to promote oral interaction in foreign language medium content classes. Oral language development can help learners acquire literacy skills and access new information. Because much classroom
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instruction involves discussion, teachers need to encourage their students to join in academic talk during class. They should also talk less and engage students in extended discussions so that students use stretches of words than giving one word in their classroom talk. Content teachers can employ variety ways of promoting students oral communication in foreign language medium classes. They should establish discussion routines and provide structures for discussions to make their students become active speakers and listeners in academic interactions. By writing key terms or phrase on the board, they should also give students a resource to use in their own speech. By encouraging students to share their thoughts with a partner, teachers promote both the students language learning and their confidence to speak out in the language of the content subject. Content teachers are usually skillful in giving feedback to students on their content comprehension, but less experienced in giving feedback on the students language abilities. However, these teachers are in an excellent position to tell students how scientists talk about scientific experiments or how historians report on past events. We do not expect content teachers to become linguistic experts, but they can talk explicitly with students about word choice, ways to compare information, and techniques for explaining solutions, and to induce academic language resources in their foreign language medium content classes so that their students can improve their academic speaking across curriculum skill.

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Create Collaboration
Learning content subjects in foreign language medium is difficult to students who do not develop their foreign language skill. Thus, content teachers need to work with EFL teachers on various teaching strategies to facilitate the academic language problems their students encounter in content subject classes. Students learn foreign language in their language classes. However, research shows that academic language is the language of schooling, and text book which its meaning is limited to the context of the content subjects. On top of this, EFL teachers and content teachers make their instruction through language. The main task of EFL teachers is to train students to effectively communicate in the foreign language. Similarly, content teachers in foreign language medium instruction use the foreign language to communicate their content subjects. Both EFL teachers and content teachers use foreign language as a medium of communication and instruction to talk to and enable their students to communicate through foreign language. However, in reality content teachers mostly focus on content subjects and do not consider language as an integral part of their lessons. They hold the opinion teaching language is the job of EFL teachers, and students academic language problems are the result of students poor EFL background and EFL learning. As a result, they resort to communicate content subjects in mother tongue though foreign language is the medium of content instruction. In the classroom observation it was also noted content teachers communicate content subjects in mother tongue. They do not make exposure and create opportunities so that their students can communicate their content subjects in foreign language. The study also indicates that content teachers lack the academic
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language skills and teaching strategies to help their students improve their academic language across curriculum proficiency in foreign language medium instruction. As content teachers stated in their reflection, the poor quality of teaching foreign language and the traditional method EFL teachers use in EFL classroom may have its own impact on students foreign language proficiency. However, content teachers need to be aware of the nature and complexity of academic language; the language demands of their content subject, and the needs of their students to provide the academic language support their students required. Nevertheless, there are areas that content and EFL teachers can collaboratively work to facilitate academic language knowledge and skills that students encounter in foreign language medium school. Moreover, as in foreign language learning, the only exposure and opportunity for students is the classroom, both EFL and content teachers need to collaboratively work to enhance students academic language skill. Thus, content teachers need to adopt the basic principles of second language learning; mode of organization, and ways to brush up their academic language skill. They also need to collaboratively work with EFL teachers on what the language demands of their content subject; the language needs of their students, and creating interactive classroom. They should also work with EFL teachers on how use oral communication; how to pre teach key vocabulary; and how and why to use variety ways of questioning. On top of this, content teachers need to adopt variety ways of interactive learning that are used in EFL classes to efficiently organize their students in groups, pairs, and whole class discussions. This can help content teachers to have the skills and strategies to enable their student get the exposure and opportunity to learn, practice

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and develop academic language skill and knowledge in the language aspects specific to each content subject. Content teachers should also know how they can identify the specific genres of their content courses, the function of the language which is central in learning their content subjects, and use variety of teaching strategies to integrate the academic language features with content lessons. Besides, content teachers can identify the language demands of their content subjects and the academic language barrier that hamper their students academic competence and collaboratively work with EFL teachers so that EFL teachers can focus on these academic language aspects in their language teaching. They also need to adopt ways on how they can easily improve their interpersonal communication skill so that they can communicate with their students, and motivate their students to gradually move to the complex and demanding academic language skills. Content teachers can also work collaboratively with EFL teachers to get support on how to conduct small discussions with their students in English; how to use simplified language to talk to their students than resort to mother tongue; and ways that help reduce the academic language load students encounter, such as diagrams, pictures, charts, tables, captions. In general, content teachers and EFL teachers should be aware of the fundamental difference between the language of every day conversation and the cognitively demanding academic language. They also need to be aware of problems students encounter in academic language across curriculum; the language demand of their content subjects; the language needs of their students, and collaboratively work to overcome the challenges students encounter in foreign language medium across curriculum.

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APPENDICES
Appendix A Written Reflection Questionnaire to Be Completed by Grade - 9 Subject Teachers Instruction Below are given ten reflection questions. So, you are kindly requested to take time to thoroughly reflect on your experiences and then, respond genuinely to the questions. You do not need to worry. There is no right or wrong answers. Just reflect on your real classroom experiences in light of the questions and briefly write your answers legibly in the given blank spaces. 1. As a subject teacher, what is your experience about your students speaking skill in teaching your subjects through English? -Are they good at speaking or not? 2, If not, why do you think so? 3. How can your students oral communication skill problems affect teaching content subject in English as a medium of instruction? 4. How do your students oral communication problems affect students learning performance in learning subjects through English as a medium of instruction? 5, How do you make your students orally communicate in learning your subjects through English as a medium of instruction? 6. Do you think subject teachers have roles to promote students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction? Why and how? 7. How conducive are your school situations to promote your students oral communication proficiency for learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction? 8. As a subject teacher how do you facilitate the oral communication skills problems your students encounter in learning your subjects through English as a medium of instruction? 9. In your opinion, who do you think are responsible to improve students oral communication skills in English as a medium of instruction classroom? Why and how?
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10. From your experience as a subject teacher, what do you advise/comment need to be done to alleviate students speaking skill problems in English medium subject classrooms?

Appendix B Sample responses from the written reflection questionnaire 1. As a subject teacher, what is your experience about your students speaking skill in teaching your subjects through English? Are they good at speaking or not? My students cannot orally communicate about the lessons in English medium instruction. They are unable to talk to their peers and with their teacher, cannot ask and answer questions about the lesson that they learn in English, and cannot express their understandings of the lesson. They have poor English language background at elementary school. Due to this, they found difficult to orally communicate about the subject that they learn in English medium instruction (P. 4). 2, If not, why do you think so? Students have poor English language background. Therefore, they are unable to orally communicate in English about the lessons with their peers as well as their teacher in the classroom. As a result, I found difficult to make them orally communicate about the lesson in English (P. 3).

3. How can your students oral communication skill problems affect teaching content subject in English as a medium of instruction? Students have poor English language background to orally communicate with each other and with their teachers in English. They do not have adequate knowledge of vocabulary and grammar and the speaking skills to communicate through English. Thus, it is difficult to involve them in classroom discussions to learn the subject matter in English as a medium of instruction classroom (P. 5) 4. How do your students oral communication problems affect students learning performance in learning subjects through English as a medium of instruction?

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Students have poor English language background. They cannot orally communicate about the lessons they learn through English with their teacher and their peers. They cannot explain their understanding of ask and answer questions about the subject matter in English to gain new knowledge from the lesson they learn through English as a medium of instruction. (P. 5).

5. How do you make your students orally communicate in learning your subjects through English as a medium of instruction? I motivate students to ask questions with the instructional media as much as possible. I also try to use only English as a medium during teaching learning process (P. 11). 6. Do you think subject teachers have roles to promote students oral communication proficiency in English as a medium of instruction? Why and how? Subject teachers have roles to improve their students oral communication proficiency by speaking through English and avoid translation in to mother tongue because of the medium of instruction at secondary school is English (P. 12).

7. How conducive are your school situations to promote your students oral communication proficiency for learning content subjects in English as a medium of instruction? Teachers in the school and classroom communicate through mother tongue. Moreover, there was no English club, English day and questions and answer competitions in schools that can motivate students to develop their oral communication skill (P. 4). 8. As a subject teacher how do you facilitate the oral communication skills problems your students encounter in learning your subjects through English as a medium of instruction? I give my students chance to ask and answer questions in English. I also make discussions in English because the medium of instruction at secondary school is English. I always tell my students to avoid speaking in their mother tongue and try to speak in English (P.9). 9. In your opinion, who do you think are responsible to improve students oral communication skills in English as a medium of instruction classroom? Why and how? Teachers, both subject teachers and English teachers, are responsible for students academic language development because they have to develop students English

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language development through teaching effectively and communicating through English (P. 9). 10. From your experience as a subject teacher, what do you advise/comment need to be done alleviate students speaking skill problems in English medium subject classrooms? Teaching of English language need to be improved and teacher need to avoid translations in to mother tongue ( P. 1). to

Appendix C Focus Group Discussion Questions 1. What is your impression about teaching your subjects in English at grade nine? -Do students find it difficult? If so, why do you think so? 2. How important is students speaking competence in learning your subjects through English? 3. How long have you been teaching your subjects through English? - What problems have you faced in teaching your subjects in English which are resulted from your students English language speaking inability? 4. Which language do students speak in your subject classrooms? English or their native/mother tongue? Why? - How is this as a problem affecting students' learning achievements? - Does the problem affect the quality of your lesson preparation? How? And Why? 5. Based on your experience as a subject teacher, in what ways students speaking skill problems are affecting their own learning endeavors in terms of: - participating in the classroom learning? - evaluating their leaning progresses? - asking for clarification, answering to questions, explaining about concepts understood? 6. How do you think students speaking skill problems in learning subjects through English are affecting their learning performance? - In what ways are the problems affecting students English Language improvement? - In students independent learning?
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- In learning from others through oral interaction? 7. In what ways students speaking skill problems are affecting their understanding of the lessons that they learn through English? - What relationship have you experienced between students speaking skill problems and their learning achievements in teaching your subject through English? 8. How do you think students speaking skill problems can be alleviated to improve their academic success in English medium classrooms? - Who do you think are the stakeholders to alleviate students speaking skill problems in English medium subject classrooms? - What do you think subject teachers have to do to alleviate students problems? 9. Is there anything else you would like to add about any issue we have not really covered which you feel reflects an important aspect of your teaching experiences concerning students speaking skill problems in English medium subject classrooms?

Appendix D Sample of transcribed focus group discussion results KEY AREA/Question-1 Students have poor English language background. Therefore, they are unable to orally communicate in English about the lessons with their peers as well as their teacher in the classroom. As a result, I found difficult to make them orally communicate about the lesson in English (P. 3). KEY AREA/Question-2 It is difficult for students to orally communicate about the subject matter in English medium instruction because they do not develop speaking skills at elementary level as English language teachers focus on teaching grammar and do

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not teach oral communication skills. As a result, they communicate about the subject matter in their mother tongue (P.8). KEY AREA/Qestion-3 Students are unable to orally communicate in the overall process of learning academic subjects through English. They cannot ask or answer questions about the subject in English. They cannot participate in oral discussions and presentation of their understanding of the subject matter of the lesson that they have learned through English. Thus, I found difficult to orally communicate with my students about the lessons I teach in English (P. 8). KEY AREA/Questions-4 Students have poor English language background. They cannot orally communicate about the lessons they learn through English with their teacher and their peers. They cannot explain their understanding of ask and answer questions about the subject matter in English to gain new knowledge from the lesson they learn through English as a medium of instruction. (P.5). KEY AREA/Question-5 Students are unable to communicate concepts of the subject matter in English. They do not have English language knowledge and skills to make discussions, ask and answer questions about the lessons in English. Though they learn the lessons in their mother tongue, they score poor results during exams (P. 7). KEY AREA/Question-6 Students have poor English language background. They cannot orally communicate about the lessons they learn through English with their teacher and their peers. They cannot explain their understanding of ask and answer questions about the subject matter in English to gain new knowledge from the lesson they learn through English as a medium of instruction. (P.5).

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KEY AREA/Question-7 Students poor English language background has direct relation to their poor learning performances. In my subject, they are very poor to express concepts of the lesson in English. They cannot understand, ask and answer questions about the lessons in English. They even do not understand instruction in English. As a result of their poor English language skills, majority of them achieve low results in their exam (P. 10). KEY AREA/Question-8 Subject teachers need to motivate their students to orally communicate through English by avoiding speaking in their mother tongue. Moreover, the need to give chances for their students to ask and answer questions, participate in classroom discussions in English (P. 6).

Appendix E Classroom Observation Checklist The checklist was prepared in such a way that it specifies the observation variables, and the observation questions with sufficient space for the observers comment 1. Classroom language - What language is the teacher is Speaking most of the time? - What language are students speaking? 2. Language support - What language support is the teacher providing at the beginning of the lesson? - How is the teacher helping students speak about the subjects that they learn in English? 3. Opportunities for students interaction - How is the teacher providing opportunities for students to talk about the subjects that they learn in English? - How are students interacting in the classroom? - With whom? What is the propose? - What language are they speaking?
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- How is the teacher providing students with oral interaction opportunities? 4. Teachers Questions - What kind of questions is the teacher asking? - Are the questions encouraging students oral interactions in English? - What various forms of questions are the teacher using in questioning the students? 5. Students Questions - What language are students using for asking questions? - What are the purposes of the questions? 6. Student Interaction - How are students interacting in learning subjects through English? - Who are students interacting with? - How is the teacher facilitating the students interaction? - What language are they speaking during the classroom interaction? 7. Classroom Atmosphere - How is the classroom atmosphere helping students oral interaction? - What kind of interactive/cooperative learning is taking place in the classroom?

Any useful observations __________________________________________

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