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5 types of shizophrenia

paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, undiifferentiated

ABC Model

A: antecenent (situational factors or cues) B: Behavior C: consequences


inability to recognize and identity familiar objects and people

Albert Bandura: Social Learning Theory

personality develops from imitating behhavioral tendencies we observce in others. self efficacy (belief in our ability) influences our behaviors

albert ellis

rational emotive behavioral therapy. A- activating event, Bbelief, C- consequent affect, Ddisputing irrational belief, Eeffect

Alfred Adler

people have a universal drive to strive for superiority. This, no sexual pleasure is primary motivation for behavior. failure in meeting goals can cause feelings of inferiority. inferiority complex (parental pampering/neglect)


wanting and not wanting a particular change

anti psychotics

used to treat schizophrenia and other acute psychotic states. hallucinations and delusions experienced are a result of excess dopamine in brain. meeds inhibit activity at dopamine rreceptors Benzos: short term tx of anxiety symptoms, increase GABA activity. Neurotransmitter that inhibits activation throughout nervous system. Reducing the activation reduces anxiety.

Anti-Anxiety medications


deterioration in language functioning


process whereby we assign causes to both our own and others behavior. we do this to add predictability to the situation or interaction
helping ct learn new behaviors and eliminate troublesome ways of behaving. People repeat behaviors that are rewarded and abandon behaviors that are not rewarded or punished

Behavioral Theory

BF Skinner: Operant Conditioning

Personality development is based on behaviors that are either rewarded or punished in the environment. "personality" may just be sustained behavioral patterns.


stimulant-type effect. tx of MDD, ADHD, bipolar d/o, chronic fatigue

2 layers of unconscious. Personal unconscious: material that has been forgotten and not in conscious awareness. Collective unconscious: human race shares this. storehouse of latent memories inherited from ancestral past

Carl Jung

Carl Rogers: Client Centered Therapy

unconditional positive regard. responding positively but truuthfully to whatever ct has to say. therapist hopes to incease pts self esteem to where ct is able to be honest about even most difficult topics

childhood disintergrative disorder

development regression in multiple areas of function following at least 2 years of normal development
assisting ct to learn more realistic and positive ways of perceiving, thinking about, and interpreting own life experiences. Focus on interplay among thoughts, emotions, and behaviors

Cognitive Behavioral Theory

Cognitive Development: Adolescense and Adulthood

Piaget: Formal Operations Stage. ability to use formal logic, deductive resoning, and strategy planning. Info Processing View: gradual aquiring of skills

Cognitive Development: Infancy

Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage. Understanding derived from what they sense and do. Info-Processing view: behavior in infancy reflects memory limitations

Cognitive Development: Middle Childhood

Piaget: Concrete Operational Stage. Ability to perform concrete operations. Transform object, then return it to original state. Info Processing View: age varies for conservation tasks and ability to perform tasks happens gradually (language, math)
Piaget: Preoperational stage. Expand world beyond limits of immediate perceptions. ability to represent things mentally when object not physically present. Info processing View: those patterns of thought are caused by the childs limited info processing abilities

Cognitive Development: preschool age

cognitive dissonance

occurs when there is a discrepancy or inconsistency between 2 attitudes, attitude and a behavior, or b/w attitude and new piece of information. discrepancy creates psychological anxiety or tension that we are motivated to alleviate.

Cognitive Therapy: Beck

irrational thoughts stem from cognitive distortioons of reality. the way we interpret situations is syystematically biased. eliminate buas by treating our interpretattions as hypothesees to be tested.

concept of interface

meeting or overlapping of two or more systems


blurring boundaries b/w self an environment. belief that all people feel and think the same way. need for acceptance and approval. not experiencing ones own feelings.

coorelation coefficient

examines the degree to which variations or differences in one variable are related to variations or differences in another. if a correlation exists, a 2nd score may generally be predated from a known score.

counter transference

feelings aroused in therapist by client. feelings have to do with unresolved conflict from other relationships rather than theraputic relationship with ct.
Listen: Establish relationship, ID problems, explore emotions. Assessment: severity determined, SI/HI, ID past coping skills, determine pts reality perception, ID resources. Tx plan: approaches to planning, modify coping skills, resources. Termination: review progress, plan for using resources to suppoorts, f/u session.

Crisis Intervention Model

cultural pluralism

when small groups w/in a larger society maintain their unique cultural identity seeing aa value in all cultures

curative factors

used by Yalom. describes theraputic processes that bring about change. instillation of hope, universality, interpersonal learning, etc mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as borderline personality disorder

cyclothymic disorder

Death and Dying

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross: Denial, Anger, Barganing, Depression, Acceptance

avoiding contact and awareness by being vague and indirectlly using distraction. overuse of humor, abstract generalizations, asking questions, rather than making statements. diminished emotional experience as one seeks to live vicariously through others


dependent variable

variable that is measured. measures possible effects. variable observed by researcher, behavior of interest.


the amount by which a number differs from an average or other comparable number
transferring troublesome emotions and acting out behaviors from person arousing emotions to another less threatening/less powerful person or thing


Ecosystems Perspective

maintain focus on concept of person in environment. various ways a ct system may adapt to a changing environment in order to cope, survive, compete for needed resources
reality bassed aspect of self. reasonable choices before pleasurable demaands. various intrapersonal processes that mediate between primitave desires (flight/fight) and demands of external reality and social norms. problem solcing part of personality


Ego Supportive Treatment

interventions that maintain and enhance problem solving and adjustment

Elavil (amitriptyline)

tricyclic antidepressant, tx depression, bulimia, chronic pain


describing the culture from within a culture. often a member of the culture


tendency of systems to become disorganized, to disintegrate

Social development. series of challenges that people face aat each of 8 stages from infancy to old age. Each challenge has an outcome that affects a persons social and personality development.

Erik Erickson


freud. driving force related to sexual urges and preservation of the species. sex, pleasure, physical contact w/others.

attentive to ethnic, cultural, Ethnic Sensitive Perspective and religious diversity among clients


scientificaly observing a culture from the outside to deliver intrinsic concepts and categorization of scientific nature. this concept addresses culture

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

Family Therapy: Communications approach

family problems are caused mostly by faulty communication.

focus on struggle of family members to simultaneously be a part of a family group and be individuals apart from the family system. Tendency of family to repeat patterns established in prior generations.

Family Therapy: Family Systems Approach

Family Therapy: Integrative model

using various approaches or types of family interventions. social functioning/family functioning is key
Focus on personal stories that people use as frames of reference to describe situation and create meaning and purpose.
concepts and techniques from behavioral therapy. Family conflicts and problems arise because members have not learned basic skills such as communication, conflict resolution, and appropriate behavior is not reinforces w/in a family system.

Family Therapy: Narrative Approach

Family Therapy: Social Learninng Approach

Family Therapy: Strategic Family Therapy

primary attention is given to family rules (unspoken/spoken) abouth how family members should think and behave, and distribution and use of power

Family Therapy: Structural Approach

focuses on family structureinteraction of spouses, parents, siblings. change occurs when roles and responsibilities are clarified and agreed on.


antidepressant, affects chemical messengers w/in brain (neurotransmitters). inhibits the release of serotonin. depression and OCD.
powerful, unconscious motivations exist in aall of us. personality is governed by conflict b/w opposing motives, anxiety over unacceptable motives, and defense mechanisms that prevent anxiety from becoming too great. all mental and bahvioral reactions are determined by our early experiences

Freud's Psychodynamic THeory

General Systems Perspective

mantaining a focus on dynamic interplay of biological and social systems that affect a cts behavior and functioning. cause and effect relationships are complex and not predictable. can move b/w theories. open to use of various models, theories, techniques, and focus on severel levels of intervention (micro to macro). based on problem, goals, situation, and size of systems targeted for change.

Generalist Perspective

Gestalt Therapy: Fritz Perls

uses conversational techniques (empty chair/2 chair techniques). to allow patient to present interpersonal conflict w/o need for transference. confront "empty chair"

Gordan Allport: Trait Theory Of Personality

heirarchy of traits that form the structure of personality. Cardinal traits (person organizes life around), Central traits (major characteristics of a person), secondary traits (personal features that help predict an individuals behavior, but not useful in understanding behavior.

Hans Eysenck: Personality Model

Personality is genetic. Single responses, habitual responses, traits, types


asserts relationshp b/w 2 variables. defines nature of relationship. includes empirical (number) way of measuring relationship. avoids value judgement.
primative, unconscious part of personality. storehouse of fundamental drives. irrational acts on impulse. pushes for expression and immediate gratification. driven by pleasure principle. primaryprocess thinking (primative, illogical, irrational, fantasy oriented


independent variables

measures possible causes. manipulated or controlled in a study by the researcher. factor in environment researcher hypothesizes to be cause affecting behaviors of interest.

Information processing view: approach to Cognitive Development

focuses on quantitative differences in how children proces information. Focus on how children mentally represent what they see and hear. Cognitive abilities develop gradually.


use of abstractions as a way of distancing one's self from emotional pain

Interaction Model

mediating the interactions b/w people. focus is on here and now experiences
describes motivations that derive from one's interest in the object of the motivation, rather than from rewards that one might gain.

intrinsic motivation


tendency to uncritically accept others beliefs and standards w/o assmilating to them. passive

latent functions

the unintended consequences of peoples actions that help keep a social system in equilibrium
nominal data: yes/no questions. ordinal data: can be ranked from low to high. interval/ratio data: categories divided into equal units. permit more precise measures.

levels of measurement


drug used to treat depression. depressed state in Bipolar d/o. can use on pts with convulsive disorders.
needs organized in hierarchal form. lower needs satisfied before we can attend to higher level needs. pysiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem, self actualization



measure of central tendency that requires interval/ration level data. sum of values for a variable divided by number of cases


used with ordinal or interval level data. midpoint in a distribution

milieu therapy

tx for socially and mentally disordered indiviiduals. takes place in an institution.

measure of central tendency. reflects catefory that includes most cases in a distribution (nominal data)
treat depression, bipolar, some personality d/o. target the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and/or serotonin (depleated in depression). increase availability of these neurotransmitters can reduce depressive symptoms.


mood stabilizers

Narrative Family Therapy

White and Epston. Narritive metaphor focuses on selfdefeating cognitions. consider alternative ways of looking at their problems

negative entropy

forces that preserve systems organization, promote development.


hear the ct clearly and let them know they have been heard
increasing self understanding and feelings of self worth through a non directive helping process that emphasizes intense listening and reflecting of cts thoughts and feelings.

Person Centered Theory

Personal Integrated Eclectic Model

theraputic style that can adapt to each member in an unique way. perspective is based on concepts and techniques from various theories
"boot camp". therapy where basic structure of ct is restructured to create an integrated individual. Therapy makes the unconscious conflict conscious and examines them.

personality reconstruction


Cognitive Development. Schema: infants born with mental structure that organizes perceptual input and connect it to appropriate response. assimilation: incorporating new information into existing schema. accomodation: alteration of existing schema to adapt to new information. equilibration: change in thinking allows child to fit pieces of knowledge together


eating of nutrious substances

positive reinterpretation

reframing a members negative behavior into a positive light. member is able to view his behavior as more manageable. leader able to see behavior in compassionate light.

Principle of equifinality

same end. a single effect or outcome may result from several different causes

principle of multifinality

many ends. a single action (one cause) may produce many different effects or outcomes.


reports likelihood of a particular distribution occuring by chance if a normal distribution is assumed


others are seen as being responsible for one's own shortcomings or unacceptable behavior
helping individuals understand better their thoughts and conflicting feelings. recognizes power of emotions and inner conflicts that arise in trying to cope with them in a socially acceptable manner

Psychodynamic Theory

reaction formation

person defends against troublesome thoughts, feelings, impulses by rigidly adhering to exactly opposite set of thoughts and behaviors


re-stating the effective section of cts msg. demonstrate emotional awareness so ct feels understood.


consistancy, stability, and dependability


we may do something to self that one really wanted to do or would have done to someone else head growth deceleration, loss of hand skills, impairments in coordination

rhetts disorder

rumination disorder

repeated regurigitation, rechewing of food w/o the apparent nausea or disgust.

self preservation

strive to meet the needs of hunger and thirst

Social Development: Adolescense

Identity vs. Role Confusion (ages of adolescense). opportunity to develop an integrated sense of self as distinct from other people

Social Development: Death and Dying

1) reponse to death of loved one and 2) response to our own impending death

Social Development: Early Adulthood

Intimacy vs Isolation. main concern is to develop capacity to share intimacy with others. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1-3yrs). Toilet training and some independence

Social Development: Early Childhood

Social Development: Infancy

Trust vs. Mistrust: (1st yr) care and attachment

Social Development: Middle Adulthood

generativity vs Stagnation. sense of responsibility to guide the next generation and be meaningfully productive in one's work.
Industry vs Inferiority (6-11 yrs). children start learning skills of their culture. social funtioning extends beyond family to school and neighborhood

Social Development: Middle Childhood

Social Development: Old Age

Self Integrity vs despair. reflect on lives and see themselves as productive and satisfying
Initiative vs Guilt (ages 3-6). function socially w/in family, try new activities, learning to balance initiative against others desires and needs

Social Development: Preschool age

Solution Focused Model

brief therapy; 1-12 sessions. focuses on nature of ct's solutions to a problem rather than nature of the problem. emphasizes solution finding by the ct.

standard deviation

tells how much dispersion from the mean exists in the scores of the sample being studies. the more the scores deviate from the mean, greater the SD score
Erickson and Haley. brief therapy. focus on the process, not the past. focus on communication- report vs. command. goals of therapy: 1) define resolvable complaints. 2) identify attempted solutions. 3) understand languate for describing problems

Strategic Family Therapy

Strengths Perspective

Purpose is to ensure that sowkr is attentive to client strengths. Provides conterbalance to ct problems and pathology
giving adequate and appropriate attention to cts social environment and to social change. Change cts environment first. problems viewed as manifestation of inadequate social arrangements

Structural Model

Super Ego

storehouse of an individuals values and moral attitudes learned from society and parents. morality principle; insists on doing what is right

Task Centered Model

use of an intervention structure that emphasizes action steps by the ct. belief that people are more likely to change as a result of taking action than as a result of simply discussing their thoughts and feelings.
Eric Berne. Focuses on interactions of ppl. Relies on Id, Ego, Superego, thepry of personality, and an organized system of interactional therapy. We make current decisions based on past premises that were at one time appropriate for our survival

Transactional Analysis


a clients thoughts, feelings, and conflicts from past and current relationships onto the therapist


meaningful, actually meaning what you intend to measure


measures degree of dispersion or scatter

what to do next questions

Feelings, Assess, Refer, Educate, Advocate, Facilitate, Intervene