Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 29

2nd International FLAC/DEM Symposium

Lateral Earth Pressures with Layered Backfill


Jim S. Shiau, PhD (Newcastle)
Senior Lecturer in Geotechnical Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Surveying University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba, QLD, Australia

USQ, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia

1.5 hr drive to Brisbane


2.0 hrs drive to Gold Coast

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

Background to research

To make use of the existing resources at USQ ( both 2D and 3D FLAC licences), we aim to develop numerical models for various geotechnical applications. Research at USQ also involves developing various physical models for teaching purposes, so as to complement the numerical approach using computer modeling.

13 July 2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

Background to research
USQ Geotechnical Stability Testing Rigs

P
Pu

13 July 2011 Dr. Jim Shiau 4

13 July 2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

What is physical model?

A landslide model to simulate the failure pattern of a slope.


7/13/2011 Dr. Jim Shiau 6

Bonsai vs. Physical Model

Bonsai

The knowledge gained in the process of Bonsai making would help to understand the behaviour of a real tree.
13 July 2011 Dr. Jim Shiau 7

USQ Geotechnical Stability Testing Rigs

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

Various Stability Models using FLAC

Classical earth pressure problems Slotted wall Trapdoor Tunnel heading Uplift of buried pipe Uplift of ground anchor
JOB TITLE :

FLAC (Version 4.00)


LEGEND

JOB TITLE :

FLAC (Version 4.00)


LEGEND

4.500

3.000

6-Jul-06 20:30 step 100000 -3.900E-01 <x< 7.410E+00 -2.400E+00 <y< 5.400E+00

3.500

JOB TITLE : shear strain-rate Max.


0.00E+00 3.70E-07 FLAC (Version 4.00) 7.40E-07 1.11E-06 1.48E-06 LEGEND 1.85E-06 2.22E-06 8-Jun-06 20:23 2.59E-06 step 72142 2.96E-06 3.33E-06 -1.111E+00 <x< 2.111E+01
6.500

8-Dec-04 16:35 step 5500 -3.333E+00 <x< 3.333E+00 -2.833E+00 <y< 3.833E+00

2.000

2.500 (*10^1)

4.00)

Material model mohr-coulomb Velocity vectors Max Vector = 1.005E-04 0 Boundary plot 2E -4

1.000

1.500

1.200
5.500

4E+00 44E+00

0.500

0.000

4.500

0
3.500

2E 0
-0.500

-7.111E+00 <y< 1.511E+01 Max. shear strain-rate 0.00E+00 2.80E-08 5.60E-08 8.40E-08 USQ 1.12E-07 USQ 1.40E-07 1.68E-07 1.96E-07 2.24E-07 4.500 5.500 6.500 7.500 Contour interval= 7.00E-09

Contour interval= 1.00E-08


2.500

0.800
-1.000

1.500

-1.500
-2.000

0E-09

0.400
0.500

0.500
-0.500

1.500

2.500

3.500

Computational Engineering Researc


4.500 5.500 6.500
-2.500 -1.500 -0.500 0.500 1.500 2.500

0.500

1.500

2.500

3.500

0.000

13 July 2011

Dr. Jim Shiau


-0.400

Background to research

Had some experience in Upper and Lower Bound Limit Analyses during my stay in Newcastle Geotechnical Group during 19982003. Overall, my research interests at USQ To develop stability models using FLAC. To develop stability models using Upper and Lower limit analyses. Physical modeling using simple stability testing rigs at USQ.

Two papers in this symposium:

Earth Pressures with Layered Backfill


13 July 2011 Dr. Jim Shiau 10

Modeling Uplift of Plate Anchor

Goal and Objective

Lateral Earth Pressures with Layered Backfill

To investigate the situation of active and passive earth pressures on the back of a retaining wall with layered backfill. To compare FLAC results with those using classical earth pressure theory and FE Limit Analyses - Upper and Lower Limt Analyses.

FLAC Rankine/Coulomb/Log Spiral Upper and Lower bounds

For smooth and rough wall cases!

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

11

The problem definition

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

12

The problem definition

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

13

To solve a static system using the dynamic equation of motion, an artificial nodal damping is needed so that kinetic energy can be gradually removed.

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

14

Smooth case - Active wall

FLAC solution Textbook solution Rankine Upper and Lower bound solutions

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

15

Textbook solution of the problem


Active wall smooth wall case Rankines solution
2.71 kPa

16.12 kPa 25.46 kPa

73.16 kPa

Active Pressure Diagram

Rankine: Total horizontal active thrust = 176.18 kN/m FLAC solution = 167.20 kN/m
7/13/2011 Dr. Jim Shiau 16

Upper and lower bound solutions of the problem


Active wall smooth wall case

FLAC solution = 167.20 kN/m

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

17

Smooth case - Passive wall

FLAC solution Textbook solution Rankine Upper and Lower bound solutions

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

18

Textbook solution of the problem


Passive wall Smooth wall case Rankines solution
36.9 kPa

219.6 kPa

93.0 kPa

140.2 kPa

Active Pressure Diagram

Rankine: Total horizontal passive thrust = 734.55 kN/m FLAC solution = 744.50 kN/m
7/13/2011 Dr. Jim Shiau 19

Upper and lower bound solutions of the problem


Passive wall smooth wall case

FLAC solution = 744.50 kN/m

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

20

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

21

Rough case - Active wall

FLAC solution Textbook solution Coulomb Upper and Lower bound solutions

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

22

Upper and lower bound solutions of the problem


Active wall rough wall case

FLAC solution = 127.60 kN/m

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

23

Rough case - Passive wall

FLAC solution Textbook solution Coulomb Upper and Lower bound solutions

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

24

Upper and lower bound solutions of the problem


Passive wall rough wall case

FLAC solution = 837.20 kN/m

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

25

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

26

Results Summary

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

27

Summary

FLAC results favorably compared with upper and lower bound solutions in all cases. Classical earth pressure theories favorably compared with FLAC and upper and lower bound solutions only in smooth wall cases (active and passive) and rough active wall case. For the rough passive wall case, the log-spiral failure surface Shields & Tolunays (1973) theory is not particularly accurate for the layered problem. Its on the unsafe side with some 20% overestimation ~ needless to mention Coulombs solution with linear slip assumtion.

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

28

Future Work

Pressure distribution behind the wall. Velocity jump and change of velocity direction across layered media. Shear stresses across the layered media for the passive + rough wall case

7/13/2011

Dr. Jim Shiau

29