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S Parameters of Optically Illuminated MOSFET

Jain Prerana
1
, Mishra B.K
2
, G.Phade
3

1
PhD Student SKVM,NMIMs, Mumbai,
2
TCET, Mumbai,
3
SNDT Mumbai,
1
jainpnj@gmail.com,
2
drbk.mishra@thakureducation.org,
3
gphade@gmail.com

Abstract S parameters of optically illuminated MOSFET are
presented considering physical effects of short channel MOSFET
at RF at varying gate voltage and different frequencies of interest
under dark and illuminated condition. I-V characteristics are
also investigated at RF for the multi-finger device. The S
parameters of the device are influenced by change in incident
optical power and this analysis will aid in stability analysis of the
device under varying frequency and optical flux.
I. INTRODUCTION
With recent fast growth in the RF communications market,
the demand for high performance but low cost RF solutions is
rising. CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
technology due to its scaling, high integration and low cost , is
potential contender at high frequency . However, with extreme
scaling down of CMOS, several serious issues, e.g. short-
channel and narrow width effects, impact ionization and gate
leakage current, etc hamper the performance .Hence optical
integration with CMOS devices offers optimized solution.
Optical devices can be widely used in the telecommunication
area due to special features which make them attractive due to
several reasons [Jaspritsingh book]. Silicon-based photo-
detectors have an added advantages in their monolithic
integration with low-cost complementary metaloxide
semiconductor (CMOS) technology. CMOS image sensors
have attracted much attention due to their advantages of low
power consumption, low cost, random sensor access, and
design flexibility [2]
The I-V characteristics are important at DC while
Scattering or S parameters are alternative to admittance or
impedance parameters for characterization at high frequency.
Admittance or impedance parameters require short circuit or
open circuit condition for measurement, which is difficult to
achieve at high frequency where lead inductance and
parasitic capacitances dominate the measurement.[3] S
parameters are relatively simple to measure, conceptually
simple, analytically convenient and capable of providing a
great insight into measurement or design problem
Investigations have been done on an MIS device which can
be modified to optically gated MISFET (OG-MISFET). One
of the key device structures is Si-SiO2, and the device is
called optically gated MOSFET (OG-MOSFET)[4]. The
device is modelled at higher range of frequency where
consideration to extrinsic components has to be given, as
against in low and medium frequency range.
II. THEORY
The structure under consideration is an optically
illuminated n MOSFET as shown in Fig-1.To reduce the
gate resistance, while reducing gate length, MOSFET with
multi-finger gates with small finger widths is used. The device
in Fig-1 represents a single finger device. Optical radiation is
made to fall in the gate region and is perpendicular to the
surface. The wavelength of radiation is higher than that of
silicon band-gap energy and is considered to be of 850 um for
simulation purpose. Optical radiation is assumed to be
incident in the non- metallic gate region which will be
absorbed in the depletion region.


Fig. 1 Schematic of MOSFET under Illumination
The I-V characteristics of the device are calculated from
total charge in channel region. The S parameters can be
determined by using Y-S conversions. The Y parameters of a
MOSFET in dark condition can be analytically evaluated from
the following equations which are valid for frequency range
upto 10 GHz. Any active device can be represented as a two
port network. Optically gated MOSFET is represented as two
port network and attempt has been made to develop an S
parameter equivalent circuit. The S parameters have the
definitions as described in [5]. S
11
is equivalent to the input
complex reflection coefficient or impedance of the device, S
21

is the forward complex transmission coefficient and represents
forward voltage gain of the network. Likewise S
22
is
equivalent to the output complex reflection coefficient or
output impedance of the device and S
12
is the reverse complex
transmission coefficient.[3] ,[5]
III. CALCULATION OF PHOTO VOLTAGE
In n-MOSFET, the ion implanted channel profile in the
active region of the device is represented by
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
exp
2
) (
o t o
Rp y Q
y N
(1)
Where Q is implanted dose, straggle parameter, Rp
projected range.
Illumination with source h >> Eg, causes the effective
potential of gate to change as photo voltage develops at the
MOS junction. This also causes change in channel
conductivity and total charge in channel is given by
Q
total
=Q
ion
+ Q
illumination
(2)
Q
ion
is charge due to ion implantation,
Q
illumination
is induced charge due to illumination.
The drain source current is calculated from Gradual channel
approximation as per[6]
0
ds
v
ds total
Z
I Q dv
L

=
}
(3)
The external photovoltage across the junction is obtained
using the relation
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
) 0 (
ln ln
Js
p qv
q
KT
Js
Jp
q
KT
Vop
y
(4)
Where
Js is the reverse saturation current ,
v
y
is the carrier along vertical direction perpendicular to the
device surface,
p(0) is number of holes crossing junction at y=0, given by[7].

)
2
2
2
1
(
4
) 0 ( YdD p YdS p Z p +
H
=
(5)
Where p
1
and p
2
are the constants dependant on carrier
lifetime under ac conditions
Y
dD
and Y
dS
is depletion width at drain and source res.
The calculation of photovoltage is important it modifies the
depletion width Y
dG
(depletion width at gate).Using abrupt
junction approximation the Y
dG
(under dark condition) and
Y
dG
under illumination are calculated as given below[7],[8]
( )
2 / 1
) (
2
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ A = GS B
dr
dG V x V
qN
x Y |
c
(6)

( )
2 / 1
) (
2
) ( '
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ A = op GS B
dr
dG V V x V
qN
x Y |
c
(7)


Where V(x) is channel voltage,
B
built in potential, is the
position of Fermi-level below conduction band. Due to the
photo voltage developed the effective bias across gate changes
to (V
GS
+V
OP
) from V
GS
.
IV. DEVICE MODELING
For the device under consideration, the analytical
expressions for Y parameters are as follows[9]

11

2

2
+

(8a)

12

2

(8b)

21

(8c)

22

+
2

(8d)

(8e)
C
gs
,C
gb
,C
gd
represent intrinsic, junction and overlap
capacitances appropriately, Cm represents transcapacitance
[10.] gm and gds are transconductance and drain conductance.
GB
total
gs
V
Q
C
c
c
=
(9a)
DB
total
gd
V
Q
C
c
c
=
(9b)
SB
total
gb
V
Q
C
c
c
=
(9c)

Q
total
is charge calculated from equation (2). Capacitance
calculations are done at operating voltages, with other
voltages constant[modelling book]. The transconductance and
drain conductance of the device is calculated as where Ids is
calculated as in equation (3)
GB
DS
m
V
I
g
c
c
=
(10a)
DB
DS
ds
V
I
g
c
c
=
(10b)
Bias dependence for all parameters is considered for
calculation under dark and illuminated condition. The S
parameters are calculated from Y parameter equation as
follows [5]
Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
S
A
+ +
=
) ) )( (( 21 12 22 0 11 0
11
(11a)
Y
Y
S
A
=
X 12
12
2
(11b)
Y
Y
S
A
=
X 21
21
2
(11c)
Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
S
A
+ +
=
) ) )( (( 21 12 22 0 11 0
22
(11d)
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Simulations has been carried out for an N-MOSFET device
with N
f
=10, W
f
= 12 m and L
f
= 0.36 m. The S parameters
of optically illuminated n MOSFET, have been calculated
from Y parameters by numerical simulation in Matlab. The
ion implanted channel profile in the active region of the
device is assumed to be non-uniformly doped with Guasssian
profile. N
f
is the number of fingers, W
f
and L
f
are effective
width and length of single finger. The parameters used for
simulation are for 0.25 m CMOS process. Numerical
calculations have been performed to evaluate the photo-
voltage generated due to optical illumination. The
capacitances and conductances are calculated considering bias
dependence. Y parameters are calculated for quiescent
condition of V
GS
= 1V, V
DS
=1 V and V
GB
=0 for the frequency
range varying from 100 MHz to 10 GHz.
The direct illumination of the gate results in generation of
excess electron hole pairs due to absorption of radiation in
depletion region. The excess carriers generated cause change
in gate voltage due to photo voltage, Vop.

Fig 2 .Optical Voltage for illumination of 1=1 x 10
14
2=1 x 10
15,
of 1=1 x 10
16
Figure. 2 shows the plots of external photovoltage against
signal frequency at different optical flux densities. External
10
2
10
4
10
6
10
8
10
10
10
12
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
Frequency Hz
O
p
t
i
c
a
l

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

V
o
l
t
s
Incident power Vs Optical Voltage


Optical flux=10
14
Optical flux=10
15
Optical flux=10
16
photovoltage (Vop), remain more or less constant and
independent of signal frequency upto 100 MHz.
Figure. 3 shows the the I
DS
-V
DS
characteristics of the device
at V
GS
of 1V with under dark and illuminated condition. The
depletion region width under the gate increases under optical
illumination, modifying the channel conductivity and hence
drain to source current.[11][12]

Fig 3 .Current Voltage characteristics for dark and Optical flux of =10
14

The simulation for S parameters is done under dark and
illuminated photon flux of 1 x 10
14
for quiescent condition of
V
GS
= 1V, V
DS
=1 V and V
GB
=0 for the frequency range
varying from 100 MHz to 10 GHz using Y parameters
calculated in [].


Fig 4 Parameter S11 under dark and illuminated condition

Fig 5 Parameter S22 under dark and illuminated condition
The S
11
and S
22
can be interpreted directly with respect to
devices input and output impedance and hence are usually
plotted on Smith chart. Figure 4 and figure 5 show parameter
S
11
and S
22
in dark and illuminated condition .It can be seen
that illumination has no effect on S
11
and their is fall in
magnitude of parameter S
22
under optical radiation indicating
reduced power reflection from output port of the device.
Figure 6 is a plot of parameter S
12
which is almost constant
with illumination, thus indicating that the reverse transmission
does not get affected, as parameter Y
12
also remains
unchanged as reported in[4]


Fig 6 . Parameter S12 under dark and illuminated condition

Figure 7 indicates parameter S
21
, which signifies
increase in forward gain of the device. This rise is due to
increase in device transconductance in this region of device
operation. It can also be seen as indicated in figure 8 that
increase in optical power due to increase in optical flux also
improves forward device gain.


Fig 7 . Parameter S21 under dark and illuminated condition


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
V
DS
(V)
I
D
S

(
m
A
)
I
DS
V
DS
for V
GS
= 1V under dark and |= 10
14


Dark condition
Illuminated
0
.
2
0
.
5
1
.
0
2
.
0
5
.
0
+j0. 2
- j0. 2
+j0. 5
- j0. 5
+j1. 0
- j1. 0
+j2. 0
- j2. 0
+j5. 0
- j5. 0
0.0


S11 dark
S11 with |=10
14
0
.
2
0
.
5
1
.
0
2
.
0
5
.
0
+j0.2
-j0.2
+j0.5
-j0.5
+j1.0
-j1.0
+j2.0
-j2.0
+j5.0
-j5.0
0.0


S22 dark
S22 |=10
14
10
8
10
9
10
10
-65
-60
-55
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
Frequency (Hz)
S
1
2

(
d
B
)
Parameter S12 under dark and illumination |=10
14


dark
|=10
14
10
8
10
9
10
10
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Frequency (Hz)
S
2
1

(
d
B
)
Parameter S21 under dark and illumination |=10
14


dark
|=10
14


Fig 8 . Parameter S21 under dark and varying optical power

VI. CONCLUSIONS
S parameter of OG-MOSFET are theoretically investigated
under dark and illumination with varying optical power. The
device under consideration was a n-MOSFET with Gaussian
profile. The I-V characteristics represent operation at DC
under optical radiation. The S parameters model can be used
to obtain stability analysis of the device under illuminated
condition. The S parameters under illuminated condition make
the device attractive for optoelectronic applications.
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Semiconductor Structures, Cambridge University Press 2003
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Amplifier ICWET 2011 ACM 978-1-60558-812-4.
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