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Objectives: - To investigate relationships between frequency, wavelength and energy of emitted photons of light.

- To understand how discharge lamps are engineered to produce electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - To determine Rydberg constant.

Instructions: 1. Go to the Neon Lights and other Discharge lamps simulation available at PhET website: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/discharge-lamps 2. Investigate screen and experiment with the situations. Recommended to eventually have the spectrophotometer and squiggles on. 3. Predict what will happen under the following situations: a. In multiple molecule mode with the heater at a given percentage predict what will happen when the voltage is increased? (Students are to predict) ________________________________________________________________________ b. Again in multiple molecule mode with the voltage at a given amount, what will happen when the heater percentage is reduced? (Students are to predict) ________________________________________________________________________ c. If conditions are set so that light is being produced in multiple molecule mode, what will happen in single atom mode? (Students are to predict) ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Check your predictions. Address any variation from your prediction. a. In multiple molecule mode with the heater at a given percentage predict what will happen when the voltage is increased? When the voltage is increased (potential between the two plates is increased), the electrons move faster which indicating higher kinetic energy. b. Again in multiple molecule mode with the voltage at a given amount, what will happen when the heater percentage is reduced? When the heater percentage is reduced, the number of electrons emitted from the cathode decreases. However, the speed of the electrons are not affecting. c. If conditions are set so that light is being produced in multiple molecule mode, what will happen in single atom mode? The number of photons produced is limited in the single atom mode. However, the spectrometer indicates that the wavelengths of the photons emitted by the atom are the same as in the multiple molecule mode but building at a slower pace.

5. Directions: Click on the Multiple Atoms tab on the model. Make sure that the Spectrometer and Squiggle options are checked. For each of the available gases given in the drop down menu on the right side of the model, record the colors and intensities of light in the visible spectrum emitted by each element. Hydrogen Emission Spectra Mercury Emission Spectra

Sodium Emission Spectra

Neon Emission Spectra

a. Does the spectrophotometer indicate unique spectrums for each gas? Yes, each gas will have its own unique spectrum due to the difference in the energy levels available in each gas. b. Based upon your observations using this atomic model, which colors of visible light are highest in energy? Justify your response. Purple colour as it has the shortest wavelength which gives the highest in energy. c. Cite observations from the model to explain relationships between the following: (I) Frequency and energy Frequency is direct proportional to the energy. (II) Wavelength and energy Wavelength is inversely proportional to the energy. (III) Frequency and wavelength Frequency is inversely proportional to the wavelength.

6. Answer the following questions: a. What condition(s) must be met in order for light to be produced by a discharge lamp? Electrons with sufficient energy (induced by higher potential difference) to collide with atoms in the discharge tube, with at least the E1 energy level of the atoms. The number of electrons and atoms must be more than enough in order to have sufficient brightness.

b. What event(s) occurs to actually produce the light we see? Paying particular attention to the energy diagram in the model of single atom mode, describe the process by which the emission of electromagnetic radiation (light) occurs. High energy electrons collide with atoms in their way to positive terminal. If the energy absorbed is enough for the electrons in the atoms to be excited to higher energy levels, the energy will be absorbed by the electrons at the ground state in the atoms and get excited. However, the excited electrons are of meta-stable and will fall back directly or indirectly through one or few lower energy levels to its initial ground state energy level. As the electrons fall from higher to lower energy levels or ground state, energy will be given out in a form of photons of different wavelengths depending on the amount of energy due to the path.

c. What evidence(s) do you see which suggests that light is emitted in quantized amounts? Explain. Only certain wavelengths of photons are emitted as shown in the simulation, the energy diagram and recorded in the spectrophotometer.

d. Is it possible for a single electron to collide with the atom of hydrogen which results in more than one photon (particle) of light being emitted? If yes, explain how. [Utilize the slow motion option for this!] Yes. When the electron with high energy that is able to excite a ground state electron to energy level higher than 2. As the meta-stable excited electrons of higher energy level may fall directly or indirectly back to ground state through one or few lower energy levels, energy released in a form of photons will be different and as such, of different wavelengths or colours.

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Imagine that an electron with the energy shown in figure collides with an atom of hydrogen. How many possible types of electromagnetic waves could be produced? Explain. Three. One type of electromagnetic wave due to the excited electron falls from level 3 to level 1 (Ground state), the other two types of electromagnetic waves due to the excited electron falls from level 3 to level 2 follows by level 2 to level 1 (Ground state).

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How could this phenomenon be used by astronomers? Astronomers can predict/indentify the elements available in a star/planet based on the spectrums observed.

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Based on the wavelengths and the path of the excited electrons of hydrogen gas, compute the Rydberg constant. (Hint: Make use of equations of Lyman, Balmer and Paschen series) Pay attention to the energy diagram on right and observe the path of the electron falls (n to n1) and the colour of the photon emitted. Referring to the spectrophotometer to obtain the wavelength of visible light and substitute into the following equation: where n > n1 For Lyman series, n1 = 1 Balmer series, n1 = 2 Paschen series, n1 = 3

R determined should be close to 10 973 731.6 m-1 Additional notes: The electrons emitted must gain sufficient kinetic energy in order to excite the electrons in the atoms. As observed in Neon gas, when the atoms move close to the cathode, the emitted electrons have yet to gain sufficient energy and thus, although the electrons do collide with the atoms but no or very few electrons in the atoms are being excited to lower levels compare to the atoms close to anode which are mostly being excited to levels above 5.