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CJC 61997

SAA HB102 1997

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COORDINATION OF POWER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOW FREQUENCY INDUCTION (LFI)


Application Guide to the LFI Code

This Publication was prepared under the authority of Standards Australia Committee ET/7, Coordinating Committee for Power and Telecommunications (CCPT), the successor to the Joint Committee for the Coordination of Power and Telecommunications Systems (CJC). It was published by Standards Australia on 5 November 1997.

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Review of this Publication Suggestions for improvement to this Publication, addressed to the head office Standards Australia are welcomed. Notication of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in this Publication should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

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COORDINATION OF POWER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOW FREQUENCY INDUCTION (LFI)

Application Guide to the LFI Code

First published by Telecom Australia and ESAA 1981. Reprinted 1984. Reset and redesignated SAA HB102 1997 (CJC 6). Incorporating: Amdt 11998

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7337 1467 6

ii

PREFACE
The publication APPLICATION GUIDE for THE LOW FREQUENCY INDUCTION CODE was prepared jointly by the Central Joint Committee for the Co-ordination of Power and Telecommunications Systems (CJC) at the direction of the then Telecom Australia and the Electricity Supply Association of Australia (ESAA) and adopted in November 1981. It was reprinted in November 1984. In 1997, Standards Australia agreed to reset, republish and distribute the Application Guide, making the following changes: (i) (ii) (iii)
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The title has been rearranged to fit in with a Series of publications on coordination. The term Electricity Utility has been used in place of Power Authority, in recognition of recent organizational changes in the Electricity Supply Industry. Telstra, the trading name of Telstra Corporation, has been used in place of Telecom Australia. The flow diagram (Figure 4) has been rearranged.

(iv)

This publication introduces no substantive change from the earlier edition. Accordingly that edition may continue to be used in parallel with this edition. However, Telstra and member bodies of ESAA are not bound to accept the contents of this Guide in their work practices or procedures. It is acknowledged that practices different from those described might be equally satisfactory depending on site circumstances. This publication was prepared under the authority of Standards Australia Committee ET/7, Coordinating Committee for Power and Telecommunications (CCPT), the successor to the Central Joint Committee for the Co-ordination of Power and Telecommunications Systems (CJC), and is one of a Series dealing with technical aspects of coordination which when complete will comprise: CJC 1 CJC 2 Joint Use of Poles: The placement on poles of power lines and paired cable telecommunications lines (SAA HB871997) Unbalanced High Voltage Power Lines: Code of practice for the mitigation of noise induced into paired cable telecommunications lines from unbalanced high voltage power lines (SAA HB881997) Unbalanced High Voltage Power Lines: Application Guide to the Code CJC 2 for the mitigation of noise induced into telecommunications lines (to be SAA HB89) Coordination of power and telecommunications: Manual for the establishment of safe work practices and the minimisation of operational interference between power systems and paired cable telecommunications systems (to be SAA HB100) Coordination of power and telecommunications Low Frequency Induction (LFI): Code of practice for the mitigation of hazardous voltages induced into telecommunications lines (SAA HB1011997) Coordination of power and telecommunications Low Frequency Induction (LFI): Application Guide to the LFI Code (SAA HB1021997) (this publication) Coordination of power and telecommunications Crossings Code: The arrangement of overhead power and telecommunications lines, pole stay wires, and suspension wires (SAA HB1031997)

CJC 3

CJC 4

CJC 5

CJC 6

CJC 7

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CONTENTS
Page

SECTION 1 SECTION 2

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MECHANISM OF LOW FREQUENCY INDUCTION AND CALCULATION OF INDUCED VOLTAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROCEDURES FOR MAKING CALCULATIONS AND DETERMINING BEST ENGINEERING SOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Appropriate Induced Voltage Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Factors Considered by the Electricity Utility in Selection of Power Line Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SECTION 3

5 5 7 7

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3.1 3.2 3.3

SECTION 4

EVALUATION OF FACTORS FOR CALCULATING INDUCED LONGITUDINAL VOLTAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Earth Fault Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Factors Affecting Fault Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Calculations of Fault Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mutual and Self Impedances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Formulas and Nomogram for Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Selection of Earth Resistivity Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shielding Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Fundamental Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Shielding Factors Relating to Power Lines and Power Cables . 4.3.3 Shielding Factors Relating to Telephone Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Shielding by Adjacent Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.5 Shielding by Cable Sheaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.6 Shielding by Magnetic Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.7 Shielding by Multiple Telecommunication Cables . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.8 Shielding by Environmental Metallic Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.9 Shielding by Earthing Spare Cable Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.10 Latent Shielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overvoltage Protection by Gas-Filled Protectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Length of Exposure and Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Zone of Exposure for which Calculations may not be Required 4.5.3 Examples Where Calculations are Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Summation of Exposure Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 General Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 10 11 14 14 15 16 16 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 25 25 25 26 26 27

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4 4.5

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SECTION 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Method of Making Detailed Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Calculation of Currents for a Fault in the Power Line . . 5.4.2 Length of Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.4 Earth Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.5 Average Mutual Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.6 Calculation of Induced Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.7 Calculation of Shielding Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.8 Resultant Induced Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.10 Calculation of Induced Voltages in the Protected Cable 5.4.11 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIELD TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements of the Testing Circuit . . . . . . . . . . Interpretation of Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ancillary Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.1 Evaluation of Soil Resistivity . . . . . . 6.6.2 Determining Shielding Factors . . . . . A Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.1 Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.2 Objects of the Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.3 Lay-out of the Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.4 Test Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.5 Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.6 Discussion and Summary of Results 6.7.7 Further Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.8 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 31 31 31 32 32 37 37 37 37 37 37 39 39 40 44 47 47 47 48 48 51 51 52 53 54 54 55 55 57 58 58 61 62

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SECTION 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

6.7

SECTION 7 SECTION 8

RECORD OF POWER EARTH FAULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

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APPENDICES 1 SHIELDING FACTORS OF EARTHED CONDUCTORS IN THE PROXIMITY OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 SHEATH RESISTANCE VERSUS EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 SHIELDING FACTOR VERSUS SHEATH RESISTANCE OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 CONVERSION CHART FOR SHEATH RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 SHIELDING FACTORS FOR LEAD-SHEATH CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 SHIELDING FACTORS FOR PLASTIC-JACKET, LEAD-SHEATH CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 SHIELDING FACTORS FOR MOISTURE-BARRIER CABLES . . . . . . . . . 76 SHIELDING FACTOR VERSUS DISTURBING FIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 RESISTANCE VALUES FOR CONDUCTORS OF STANDARD SIZES . . . 80 LATENT REDUCTION FACTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 JOINT COMMITTEE FOR THE COORDINATION OF POWER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS FAULT DOCKET . . . . . . . . . 82 ADDRESSES OF STATE POWER COORDINATION CONTACTS . . . . . . 83 INDUCED VOLTAGES DUE TO TEST FAULT CURRENTS . . . . . . . . . . 84

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Copyright

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia publications and software. Except where the Copyright Act allows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Australia may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia. Permission may be conditional on an appropriate royalty payment. Requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to the head office of Standards Australia. Standards Australia will permit up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard to be copied for use exclusively in-house by purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia. Standards Australia will also permit the inclusion of its copyright material in computer software programs for no royalty payment provided such programs are used exclusively in-house by the creators of the programs. Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified. The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia at any time.

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HB 102-1997 (CJC 6), Coordination of power and telecommunications - Low Frequency Induction (LFI): Application Guide to the LFI Code

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