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1.0.

0 INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR?
o Definition Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products.

o Need to understand:

Why consumers make the purchases that they make? What factors influence consumer purchases? The changing factors in our society.

Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for:

Buyers reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when and how consumers buy. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies.

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CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS


There are five stages in buying behavior process which is as under:

A. Problem Recognition: Perceiving a Need


o o

Perceiving a difference between a person's ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. Can be as simple as noticing an empty milk carton or it can be activated by marketing efforts.

B. Information Search: Seeking Value


The information search stage clarifies the options open to the consumer and may involve
o

Internal search two steps information search of

Scanning ones memory to recall previous experiences with products or brands. Often sufficient for frequently purchased products. When past experience or knowledge is insufficient The risk of making a wrong purchase decision is high The cost of gathering information is low.
2

o o o

External search

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The primary sources of external information are: o Personal sources, such as friends and family. o Public sources, including various product-rating organizations such as Consumer Reports. o Marketer-dominated sources, such as advertising, company websites, and salespeople

C. Alternative evaluation: assessing value


The information search clarifies the problem for the consumer by (1) Suggesting criteria to use for the purchase. (2) Yielding brand names that might meet the criteria. (3) Developing consumer value perception.
o

A consumer's evaluative criteria represent both The objective attributes of a brand (such as locate speed on a portable cd player) The subjective factors (such as prestige). These criteria establish a consumer's evoked set The group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware

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D. Purchase Decision: Buying Value


o

From whom to buy

which depends on such considerations Terms of sale Past experience buying from the seller Return policy. which can be influenced by store atmosphere time pressure a sale pleasantness of the shopping experience.

Three possibilities When to buy

Do not buy

E. Post purchase Behavior: Value in Consumption or Use


o o

o o o

After buying a product, the consumer compares it with expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction affects consumer value perceptions consumer communications repeat-purchase behavior. Many firms work to produce positive post purchase communications among consumers and contribute to relationship building between sellers and buyers. Cognitive Dissonance. The feelings of post purchase psychological tension or anxiety a consumer often experiences Firms often use ads or follow-up calls from salespeople in this post purchase stage to try to convince buyers that they made the right decision.

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FACTOR AFFECTING TO BUYING DECISION


A consumer, making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: 1. Personal 2. Psychological 3. Social

PERSONAL FACTOR
o Unique to a particular person. o Demographic Factors. Sex, Race, Age etc. o Who in the family is responsible for the decision making. Young people purchase things for different reasons than older people.

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS:
Psychological factors include:

Motivation
A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Actions are effected by a set of motives, not just one. If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. MASLOW hierarchy of needs!!
o o o o o

Physiological Safety Love and Belonging Esteem Self-Actualization

Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what motivates their purchases.

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Perception
What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning. Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. More likely if it is linked to an event, satisfies current needs, intensity of input changes (sharp price drop). Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received information, inconsistent with beliefs. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another), have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. A current example...MCI and AT&T...do you ever get confused? Selective Retention-Remember inputs that support beliefs, forgets those that don't. Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17,000 products in a shopping visit lasting 30 minutes-60% of purchases are unplanned. Exposed to 1,500 advertisements per day. Can't be expected to be aware of all these inputs, and certainly will not retain many. Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar, on knowledge that is stored in the memory.

Ability and Knowledge


Need to understand individuals capacity to learn. Learning, changes in a person's behavior caused by information and experience. Therefore to change consumers' behavior about your product, need to give them new information re: product...free sample etc. When making buying decisions, buyers must process information. Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise.

Attitudes
Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or activity-maybe tangible or intangible, living or non- living.....Drive perceptions

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Personality
All the internal traits and behaviors that make a person unique, uniqueness arrives from a person's heredity and personal experience. Examples include:
o o o o o o o o o o o

Compulsiveness Self confidence Friendliness Adaptability Ambitiousness Dogmatism Authoritarianism Introversion Extroversion Aggressiveness Competitiveness.

Traits effect the way people behave. Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers. There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behavior, this may be due to unreliable measures. Nike ads. Consumers buy products that are consistent with their self-concept.

Lifestyles
Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy, natural lifestyle.

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SOCIAL FACTORS
Consumer wants, learning, motives etc. are influenced by opinion leaders, person's family, reference groups, social class and culture.

Opinion leaders
Spokespeople etc. Marketers try to attract opinion leaders...they actually use (pay) spokespeople to market their products. Michael Jordon (Nike, McDonalds, Gatorade etc.)

Roles and Family Influences


Role...things you should do based on the expectations of you from your position within a group. People have many roles. Husband, father, employer. Individuals role are continuing to change therefore marketers must continue to update information. Family is the most basic group a person belongs to. Marketers must understand:
o o o o o

That many family decisions are made by the family unit Consumer behavior starts in the family unit Family roles and preferences are the model for children's future family (can reject/alter/etc.) Family buying decisions are a mixture of family interactions and individual decision making Family acts an interpreter of social and cultural values for the individual.

Reference Groups
Individual identifies with the group to the extent that he takes on many of the values, attitudes or behaviors of the group members. For example: Families, friends, sororities, civic and professional organizations.

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1.1.0 INTRODUCTION OF STATIONARY


Stationery, according to Websters Dictionary, is "paper cut to an appropriate size for writing letters, usually with matching envelopes." The word comes from its cousin "stationary," which was originally used to describe peddlers who sold goods from a fixed location, as opposed to the peddlers who travelled the countryside to sell their wares. In the Middle Ages, these "stationary" sellers were often bookshops licensed by universities. The Company of Stationers, was founded in 1556 and the term stationery was coined in approximately 1727. Even today, stationers sell much more than writing paper and envelopes. Pens, pencils, school supplies, maps, calendars, notebooks and hundreds of other items are considered stationery. Blank writing paper is cut to 8.5 x 11, the standard size for letters in the United States. Customized writing paper is known as Letterhead. Really, letterhead is simply the heading at the top of a sheet of writing paper. The term has come to mean the piece of paper itself, and not just the heading. Letterhead is usually part of a stationery suite, along with matching #10 envelopes, business cards and mailing labels. Buckslips and larger envelopes (9 x 12 or 10 x 13) are often part of a stationery suite with note pads and presentation folders making attractive and useful additions. In designing stationery suites, the logos, colors and fonts are usually the same or very similar. For letterhead designs, the font can be larger than for a normal business card, but the style of the font is the same. Corporate styles of plain white letterhead with black type usually carry through to the business cards and envelopes. If you design letterhead so that the company name is vertical, choosing to orient the business cards, envelopes and mailing labels the same way.

1.2.0 Navneet Publications (India) Limited


Navneet Publications (India) Limited, founded by the Gala Family, is in the business of Educational, Children and Naturopathy based Publication, Scholastic Paper Stationery and NonPaper Stationery products. Over the years, the company has built a strong brand in Publications and Stationery and gained a leadership position in Western India. Since 1959, NAVNEET has been a major force in the dissemination of knowledge. It is a dominant player in the field of publishing with more than 5,000 titles in English, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati and other Indian and Foreign Languages. Over the decades, Navneet has emerged as a leading manufacturer of Educational Products and provider of Educational Services in India. The company's products are sold under the brand

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names of 'Navneet', 'Vikas', 'Gala', 'FfUuNn', 'Boss' and 'Navneet Nxt'. It's portfolio of Educational based Books include high quality supplementary books like Digests (Guides), Workbooks, Smart Workbooks and 21 Question Sets, most of which are published in four languages - English, Hindi, Marathi and Gujarati. The company has a dominant market share in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Also, with the new range of supplementary books targeting the students from CBSE and ICSE Boards, its educational products are now made available across India. The company also publishes various titles in the Children and General books category, which are not based on Educational, such as Activity Books for children, Board Books, Story Books, Health related Books, Cookery Books, Mehendi & Embroidery Books, etc. In 1993, the company saw opportunities in the area of exports of Stationery products, for which it now has the state-of-art manufacturing facilities in Vasai (near Mumbai) Daman and Silvassa (Union Territories bordering Maharashtra and Gujarat). In the same year Navneet launched its paper stationery products for the domestic market. Product range includes tight bind note books, long books, hard case bound books and drawing books. The company enjoys leading position in premiere stationery markets in India, the Middle East, parts of Africa, U.S.A. and Europe. Now, with more than 500 SKU's, Navneet is one of the largest paper stationery brand in India. In 2006, taking the success of the Paper Stationery products, Navneet launched its first range of Non-Paper Stationery FfUuNn Pencils. Over the years the Company has added many products under this brand ranging from erasers, sharpeners, rulers, compass boxes, crayons. Foreseeing the need and demand in digital space, the Company ventured into Digital Learning in 2008. eSense was set up to provide a better and a first in its type of experience for the teachers and students in the space of Digital Learning. Till December 2011, eSense had been installed in more than 850 institutions with more than 4,000 classes having the experience of digital learning. Leapbridge Education was conceived and promoted by Navneet in 2010. With this new initiative, Navneet has forayed into pre-primary education, and to start with, it has launched a chain of Pre-Schools under the brand name - Leapbridge. It has 3 pre-schools in Pune and 1 preschool recently launched in Mumbai. In 2011, the Company ventured into School Management Business in Hyderabad by taking a minority stake in a School Management Company in Andhra Pradesh. This company manages around 80 schools in Hyderabad under the brand Gowtham Model Schools. In mid 2012, the Company plans to launch its first retail product - a tablet for students, a revolutionary product which will empower the students to learn as well as evaluate themselves.

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1.3.0 India Tobacco Company Limited (ITC LTD)


ITC was incorporated on August 24, 1910 under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. As the Company's ownership progressively Indianised, the name of the Company was changed from Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited to India Tobacco Company Limited in 1970 and then to I.T.C. Limited in 1974. In recognition of the Company's multi-business portfolio encompassing a wide range of businesses - Cigarettes & Tobacco, Hotels, Information Technology, Packaging, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Agri-business, Foods, Lifestyle Retailing, Education & Stationery and Personal Care - the full stops in the Company's name were removed effective September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened 'ITC Limited'. In 2000, ITC forayed into the Greeting, Gifting and Stationery products business with the launch of Expressions range of greeting cards. A line of premium range of notebooks under brand Paperkraft was launched in 2002. To augment its offering and to reach a wider student population, the popular range of notebooks was launched under brand Classmate in 2003. Classmate over the years has grown to become Indias largest notebook brand and has also increased its portfolio to occupy a greater share of the school bag. Years 2007- 2009 saw the launch of Children Books, Slam Books, Geometry Boxes, Pens and Pencils under the Classmate brand. In 2008, ITC repositioned the business as the Education and Stationery Products Business and launched India's first environment friendly premium business paper under the Paperkraft Brand. Paperkraft offers a diverse portfolio in the premium executive stationery and office consumables segment. Paperkraft entered new categories in the office consumable segment with the launch of Textliners, Permanent Ink Markers and White Board Markers in 2009. ITC made its entry to the education and stationery business with its Paperkraft brand in the premium segment in 2002; and later expanded into the popular segment with its Classmate brand in 2003. By 2007, Classmate became the largest Notebook brand in the country. Together, Classmate and Paperkraft offer a range of products in the Education & Stationery space to the discerning consumer, providing unrivalled value in terms of product & price. Classmate and Paperkraft have become a natural extension of the consumer. Meticulous understanding of consumer needs helped creating a relevant and comprehensive portfolio satisfying the needs of different sets of consumers. ITC is the manufacturer of India's first Ozone treated environment friendly Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) pulp, paper and paperboard. It blends its knowledge of image processing, printing and conversion garnered from Packaging & Printing Business with its brand building and trade marketing & distribution strengths resident in its FMCG business to offer superior value products to consumers.

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2.0.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


2.1.0 RESEARCH DESIGN:The research has been conducted in two phase. Exploratory research Conclusive research

Exploratory Research:
Exploratory research design refers to gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations. There is Small number of non-representative cases. Exploratory research is unstructured. It does not use statistical method. Exploratory Research has been conducted using secondary data & qualitative Research. Secondary Data: Past Research Paper ( Proquest Computerized Data base)

Qualitative Research: In-depth interview:

5 Book store keeper Conclusive Research:


Descriptive Research: Survey Methods Interview Methods: Personal Interview Data Collection Tools: Questionnaire Target Population: All students who using full scrap note books Sampling Methods: Probability sampling method ---- Simple Random Sampling

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Sample Size Determination:

Here I use the Likert scale so that the formula is n = Z22 D


2

Where = Max. - Min. 6

=51 6

= 0.67

Z =(/2) in z table Z = 0.95/2 = 0.475

(assume that z = 95% confidence level)

0.475 in Z table = 1.96 D = level of Dispersion (it is assume that level of dispersion is 5% n = Z2 2 D2 n = (1.96)2 (0.67)2 (0.185)2 n = 50

Data Analysis techniques: ANOVA Data Analysis Software: SPSS Scaling Techniques: Likert Scale

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3.0.0 DATA ANALYSIS


3) Are you purchase book in single or bulk? Table 3.1
Cumulative Frequency Valid SINGLE BULK Total 14 36 50 Percent 28.0 72.0 100.0 Valid Percent 28.0 72.0 100.0 Percent 28.0 100.0

CHART.3.1

INTERPRETATION: Here 36 respodent purchase full scrape book in bulk and other 14 respondent purchase in single. So we called that majority of people purchase book in bulk.

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4) How many times you purchase note book in year? Table 3.2
Cumulative Frequency Valid ONE TIME TWO TIME MORE THAN TWO Total 14 23 13 50 Percent 28.0 46.0 26.0 100.0 Valid Percent 28.0 46.0 26.0 100.0 Percent 28.0 74.0 100.0

CHART 3.2

INTERPRETATION: Here majority of people is two time purchasing a book in year. 23 respondent purchase book two time in year. And 14 respondent purchase book one time in year. And other are more than two time purchase book.

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7) Person who influenced to buy a notebook? Table 3.3


Cumulative Frequency Valid FRIENDS PARENTS SELF OTHER Total 12 5 31 2 50 Percent 24.0 10.0 62.0 4.0 100.0 Valid Percent 24.0 10.0 62.0 4.0 100.0 Percent 24.0 34.0 96.0 100.0

CHART 3.3

INTERPRETATION: Here 31 respondent says that purchase decision of books is self. So we called that most of people when goes to purchase notebook they take decision. And then after in second friend deside to which notebook can purchase.

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8) Your purchase decision is based on. Table 3.4


Cumulative Frequency Valid SELF STORE KEEPER FORCE Total 45 5 50 Percent 90.0 10.0 100.0 Valid Percent 90.0 10.0 100.0 Percent 90.0 100.0

CHART 3.4

INTERPRETATION: Here two option we purchase notebook our self and by storekeeper force. Here majority of people purchase book by self decision. Here data like 45 respondent has self decision of purchasing of notebook.

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9) Are you satisfied with product which purchased by you? Table 3.5
Cumulative Frequency Valid HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED MODERATE DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED Total 10 28 9 1 2 50 Percent 20.0 56.0 18.0 2.0 4.0 100.0 Valid Percent 20.0 56.0 18.0 2.0 4.0 100.0 Percent 20.0 76.0 94.0 96.0 100.0

CHART 3.5

INTERPRETATION: 28 respondent satisfied with product or notebook. 10 respondent highly satisfied with product. We says that people highly satisfied if its product performance is high like quality and utility.

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11) Gender Table 3.6


Cumulative Frequency Valid MALE FEMALE Total 36 14 50 Percent 72.0 28.0 100.0 Valid Percent 72.0 28.0 100.0 Percent 72.0 100.0

CHART 3.6

INTERPRETATION: Here we take 50 respondent in which 36 resondent are male and 14 respondent are female.

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12) Age Group Table 3.7


Cumulative Frequency Valid 10-15 YEAR 16-20 YEAR 21-25 YEAR Total 2 16 32 50 Percent 4.0 32.0 64.0 100.0 Valid Percent 4.0 32.0 64.0 100.0 Percent 4.0 36.0 100.0

CHART 3.7

INTERPRETATION: Here we take three type of age group. In which most of people is between 21 to 25. So we easily understand characteristic of people which age is between 21 to 25.

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13) Qualification Table 3.8


Cumulative Frequency Valid NON GRADUATE GRADUATE POST GRADUATE Total 14 28 8 50 Percent 28.0 56.0 16.0 100.0 Valid Percent 28.0 56.0 16.0 100.0 Percent 28.0 84.0 100.0

CHART 3.8

INTERPRETATION: Here most of respondent is graduate and then other is non graduate. 28 people is graduate and 14 respondent is non graduate. In purchase decision qualification is also affect because on knowlade based and skill we take perfect decision.

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6) Which factor affecting to you for buying books? Table 3.9


N Q_6_1 Q_6_2 Q_6_3 Q_6_4 Q_6_5 Valid N (listwise) 50 50 50 50 50 50 Mean 3.4200 3.3600 3.2800 4.0400 3.0200

INTERPRETATION: Here more then two factor affecting to buying behavior like availability, price, brand, look and colours etc. Here mean of performance is high which is 4.04 means performance is most affect to buying behavior. We says that people first priority give to performance or quality or utility. Second number is availability if we want product which is we like but its not availble we can not purchase it. Most of people not see the brand but they want performance. So we called that brand is less affected to book buying behavior.

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HYPOTHESIS TESTING

H0 : There is no difference in satisfaction level with aspect to various information source. H1 : There is difference in satisfaction level with aspect to various information source.
Table 3.10
ANOVA Q_9 Sum of Squares Between Groups Within Groups Total 5.634 34.386 40.020 df 3 46 49 Mean Square 1.878 .748 F 2.512 Sig. .070

INTERPRETATION: Here as per my research the level of significance is 0.05 and the calculated value is 0.07. There is calculated value 0.07 is more than significance level. It lise outside from significance level so that we accept H0 So we conclude that there is no difference in satisfaction level with aspect to various information source.

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4.0.0 CONCLUSION
Consumer behavior is most important things for each and every business because chances of change behavior of consumer. So we require a study of consumer behavior. On the basis of our research me and my group conclude that there are some factor affecting to purcase decision of full scrape note-book like price, availability, performance, look and colour of note book. We based on data find that there are performance have highes maen value so we conclude that performance is most affected to purchase decision. Then after availability of product is affect. If product is not available in market we switch over on another product so availability is second things which affect to decision. Price is affect less than availability. There is its mean is less than availability mean. Here mean of brand is less than all other so we conclude that people when purchase notebook they are not consider brand. We use hypothesis testing. On the basis hypothesis testing we conclude and find that there is no difference in satisfaction level with aspect to various information source. So we can says that there is no relationship between satisfaction level and information source.

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5.0.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Richard I.Levin and David S. Rubin, Statistics for Management,Pearson Education, Inc. and Dorling Kindersley Publishing Inc., seventh edition. 298, 591- 603. Naresh K. Malhotra and Satyabhushan Dash, Marketing Research, Parson Education, Inc., Sixth Edition. 70 -76, 97,136,176,268,327-343,362 368, 485-489.

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6.0.0 ANNEXURE
Questionnaire of Consumer Behavior towards Full scrap Books Purchasing
1) Do you purchase full scrap note book? YES NO

2) Which brand prefer? NAVANEET CLASSMATE CAMEL LUXOR OTHER

3) Are you purchase book in single or bulk? SINGLE BULK 4) How many times you purchase note book in year? ONE TIME TWO TIMES MORE THAN TWO 5) Indicate a 1= Strongly Disagree, 2= Disagree, 3=Neither agree nor disagree, 4=Agree, 5= Strongly Agree No. Statement 1 2 3 4 I want to long book which attract to people I feel utility matter and not the look of product I feel good quality means price I prefer branded product 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5

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6) Which factor affecting to you for buying books? Indicate a 1= Highly Unimportant, 2= Unimportant, 3=Neutral, 4=Important, 5= Highly Important Statement AVAILABILITY PRICE LOOK OR COLOUR PERFORMANCE BRAND 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5

7) Person who influenced to buy a notebook? FRIENDS 8) Your purchase decision is based on. SELF STOREKEEPER FORCE PARENTS SELF OTHER

9) Are you satisfied with product which purchased by you? HIGHLY SATISFIED MODERATE HIGHLY DISSATISFIED SATISFIED DISSATISFIED

10) Name

11) Gender MALE 12) Age Group 10-15 YEAR 16-20 YEAR 21-25 YEAR FEMALE

13) Qualification NON GRADUATE GRADUATE POST GRADUATE

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