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Cooling Load Calculation

Internal Cooling Loads:


A.) Heat Gain from Occupants
QSensible
= (SHG)(P)(CLF Sensible)
QLatent = (LHG)(P)(CLF Latent)
Where:
SHG
LHG
P
CLF

= Sensible Heat Gain


= Latent Heat Gain
= Number of People/Occupants
= Cooling Load Factor

From Table 1 of ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005 at moderately active


office work,
SHG = 75 Watts
LHG = 55 Watts
From Table 4-9, p74 of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning by Stoecker & Jones
at both 8 hours after each entry into space and total hours in space,
CLFSensible
CLFLatent
Room 1:
QSensible

= 0.84
= 1.0

= (75

)(2 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(2 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(5 Occupants)(0.84)

=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 2:
QSensible
=

QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(5 Occupants)(1.0)

=
=

Room 3:
QTotal = 0 , since it has no occupant.
Room 4:
QSensible

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 5:
QSensible
=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 6:
QTotal = 0 , since it has no occupant.
Room 7:
QSensible

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 8:
QSensible
=
QLatent

QTotal

=
=

Room 9:
QSensible

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 10:
QSensible = (75

)(3 Occupants)(0.84)

=
QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(3 Occupants)(1.0)

=
=

Room 11:
QSensible= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

=
QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(4 Occupants)(0.84)

=
=

Room 12:
QSensible
=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 13:
QSensible
=

QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(4 Occupants)(1.0)

=
=

Room 14:
QSensible= (75

)(2 Occupants)(0.84)

=
QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(2 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(2 Occupants)(0.84)

=
=

Room 15:
QSensible
=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 16:
QSensible
=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 17:
QSensible
=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 18:
QSensible

=
QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(2 Occupants)(1.0)

=
=

Room 19:
QTotal = 0 , since it has no occupant.
Room 20:
QSensible

= (75

)(10 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(10 Occupants)(1.0)

=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 21:
QSensible= (75

)(2 Occupants)(0.84)

=
QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(2 Occupants)(1.0)

= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

=
=

Room 22:
QSensible
=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 23:
QSensible= (75

)(1 Occupants)(0.84)

=
QLatent
QTotal

= (55
=
=

)(1 Occupants)(1.0)

Room 24:
QSensible

= (75

)(4 Occupants)(0.84)

= (55

)(4 Occupants)(1.0)

=
QLatent
QTotal

=
=

Room 25:
QSensible= (75

)(3 Occupants)(0.84)

=
QLatent
QTotal

= (55

)(3 Occupants)(1.0)

=
=

B.) Heat gain from Lightings


Q = (W)(Fu)(Fb)(CLF)
Where:
W
Fu
Fb
CLF

= Lamp rating in Watts


= Utilization factor or Fraction of installed lamps in use
= Ballast factor = 1.2 for Flourescent lamps
= Cooling load factor

From Table 4-6, p72 of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker & Jones
at Fixture Y, 10 hours max and 8 hours after lights are turned on;
CLF = 0.95
Room 1:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 2:
Q = ( 40 x 6)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=

Room 3:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 4:
Q = ( 40 x 1)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 5:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 6:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 7:
Q = ( 40 x 1)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 8:
Q = ( 40 x 3)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 9:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 10:
Q = ( 40 x 8)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 11:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 12:
Q = ( 40 x 4)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=

Room 13:
Q = ( 40 x 6)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 14:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 15:
Q = ( 40 x 1)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 16:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 17:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 18:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 19:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 20:
Q = ( 40 x 4)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 21:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 22:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=

Room 23:
Q = ( 40 x 2)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 24:
Q = ( 40 x 4)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=
Room 25:
Q = ( 40 x8)(1)(1.2)(0.95)
Q=

C.) Heat gain from Equipments/Appliances


Room 1:
Two Computers = 2(200)
QTotal =
Room 2:
Television
Small radio
Two computers = 2(200)
Printer
Water dispenser
QTotal

= 400 Watts

= 130 Watts
= 40 Watts
= 400 Watts
= 110 Watts
= 150 Watts
=

Room 3:
Electric stapler
= 1250 Watts
Hydraulic polar motor cutter = 1200 Watts
QTotal =
Room 4:
Computer
Photocopier
QTotal

= 200 Watts
= 560 Watts
=

Room 5:
Copy printer

= 180 Watts
QTotal =

Room 6:
Heidelberg letter phrase = 1250 Watts
QTotal =
Room 7:
Computer
QTotal

= 200 Watts
=

QTotal

= 200 Watts
=

QTotal

= 2(200) = 400 Watts


= 2(110) = 220 Watts
= 40 Watts
=

QTotal

= 200 Watts
= 110 Watts
= 150 Watts
=

QTotal

= 5(200) = 1000 Watts


= 110 Watts
=

QTotal

= 40 Watts
=

Room 8:
Computer

Room 9:
None
Room 10:
Two computers
Three printers
Refrigerator

Room 11:
None
Room 12:
Computer
Printer
Water dispenser

Room 13:
Five computers
Printer

Room 14:
Small radio

Room 15:

Refrigerator
QTotal

= 270 Watts
=

QTotal

= 560 Watts
= 200 Watts
= 2(110) = 220 Watts
=

QTotal

= 27.5 Watts
= 2(110) = 220 Watts
=

QTotal

= 200 Watts
= 110 Watts
=

QTotal

= 270 Watts
= 150 Watts
=

QTotal

= 200 Watts
=

Room 16:
Photocopier
Computer
Two printers

Room 17:
Laptop
Two printers

Room 18:
Computer
Printer

Room 19:
Refrigerator
Water dispenser

Room 20:
None
Room 21:
None
Room 22:
None
Room 23:
Computer

Room 24:
Four computers = 4(200) = 800 Watts
Three printers = 3(110) = 330 Watts

Television
Water dispenser
QTotal

= 130 Watts
= 150 Watts
=

Room 25:
Three computers = 3(200)
= 600 Watts
Three Printers = 3(110) = 330 Watts
Photocopier
= 560 Watts
QTotal =
External Cooling Loads:
D.) Heat Gain from Windows
Q=A(SHGFmax)(SC)(CLF)
Where:
A
SHGFmax
SC
CLF

= Area of the Window Exposed


= Maximum Solar Heat Gain Factor
= Shading Coefficient
= Cooling Load Factor

From Table 4-10, p75 of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning by Stoecker & Jones
at 32o North Latitude in March, September,
SHGFmax for:
North East/North West: 330 W/m2
South East/South West: 700 W/m2
From Table 4-11, p76 of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning by Stoecker & Jones
at Single glass, Regular Sheet with Light Venetian blinds,
SC = 0.55
From Table 4-12, p77 of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning by Stoecker & Jones
at 9:00 am & 2:00 pm Solar Time,
CLF
CLF
CLF
CLF

= 0.58 for Northeast Facing window at 9:00 am


= 0.81 for Southeast Facing window at 9:00 am
= 0.75 for Southwest Facing window at 2:00 pm
= 0.30 for Northwest Facing window at 2:00 pm

Room 1:
Southwest Facing window,
Q = 12m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.75)
Q=
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 6m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Room 2:
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 12m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 18m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Northwest Facing window,
Q = 12m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.30)
Q=
Room 3:
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 8m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Room 4:
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 8m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Northwest Facing window,
Q = 6m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.30)
Q=
Room 5:
None

Room 6:
Northwest Facing window,
Q = 1.25m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.30)
Q=
Room 7:
Northwest Facing window,
Q = 3m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.30)
Q=
Room 8:
None
Room 9:
None
Room 10:
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 6m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 12m2(330W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Room 11:
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 6m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Room 12:
Southwest Facing window,
Q = 12m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.75)
Q=
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 6m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=

Room 13:
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 12m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Room 14:
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 6m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Room 15:
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 6m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Room 16:
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 8m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Room 17:
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 8m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=
Northwest Facing window,
Q = 8m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.30)
Q=
Room 18:
Northwest Facing window,
Q = 8m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.30)
Q=
Southwest Facing window,
Q = 8m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.75)
Q=
Room 19:
Southwest Facing window,

Q = 8m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.75)
Q=
Room 20:
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 16m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Room 21:
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 8m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Room 22:
None
Room 23:
Northwest Facing window,
Q = 6m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.30)
Q=
Room 24:
Southwest Facing window,
Q = 12m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.75)
Q=
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 6m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Room 25:
Southeast Facing window,
Q = 12m2(700 W/m2)(0.55)(0.81)
Q=
Northeast Facing window,
Q = 12m2(330 W/m2)(0.55)(0.58)
Q=

E.) Heat Gain from Walls


Q = UA(To - Ti)
Where:
U
A
To
Ti

= Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient


= 1/R ; R = Thermal Resistance
= (Height x Width of the Wall) Window Area
= Outside Design Temperature
= Inside Design Temperature

From Table 4-4, p68 of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning by Stoecker & Jones
for Concrete Block, sand and gravel aggregate, 200 mm Exterior material,
R

= 0.18 m2. K/W

Since,
U

= 1/0.18 m2. K/W


= 5. 556 W/m2. K

From Philippine Society of Mechanical Engineers (PSME) Code 1898,


To
Ti

= 35oC
= 24oC

Room 1:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(17 m2)[(35oC+273) (24oC+ 273)]K
Q=
Room 2:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(29.75m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 3:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 4:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K

Q=
Room 5:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.25 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 6:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(12.75 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 7:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.25 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 8:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.25 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 9:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 10:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(12.75 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 11:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.25 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 12:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(12.75 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 13:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 14:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.25 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K

Q=
Room 15:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 16:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 17:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 18:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 19:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 20:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 21:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(4.5m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 22:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 23:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(8.5 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=
Room 24:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(12.75 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=

Room 25:
Q = (5. 556 W/m2.K)(17 m2)[(35oC+274) (24oC+ 274)]K
Q=

F.) Heat Gain from Roofs


Q = (U)(A)(CLTDadjusted)
Where:
U

= Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient


= 1/R ; R = Thermal Resistance
A
= Area of the Roof
CLTDadjusted = Adjusted Cooling Load Temperature Difference
CLTDadjusted = CLTD + (25-Ti) + (Tave-29)
Ti
= inside design dry-bulb temperature, oC
Tave = Average outdoor dry-bulb temperature, oC
From Table 4-4, p68 of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning by Stoecker & Jones
for Built-up, 10 mm Roofing,
R

= 0.06 m2. K/W

Since,
U

= 1/0.06 m2. K/W


= 16.667 W/m2. K

From Table 4-14, p81 of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker &
Jones at Roof Type 1 with suspended ceilings and 2:00 pm Solar Time,
CLTD
= 43 K
Since,
CLTDadjusted = CLTD + (25-Ti) + (Tave-29)
= 43 K + [( 25 + 273) (24 + 273)]K + [(35 + 273) (29
+ 273)]K
CLTDadjusted = 50 K

Room 1:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(17. 2 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 2:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(110.94 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 3:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(71.38 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 4:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(8.6 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 5:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(8.6 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 6:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(33. 2 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 7:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(7. 5 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 8:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)( 24.08 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 9:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(8.6 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 10:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(61.06 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 11:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(12.9 m2)( 50 K)

Q=
Room 12:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)( 36.98 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 13:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(45.58 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 14:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(8.6 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 15:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(8.6 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 16:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(16.34 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 17:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(22.79 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 18:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(22.79 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 19:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)( 16.34 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 20:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(86 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 21:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(14.19 m2)( 50 K)
Q=

Room 22:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(17. 2 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 23:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(12.9 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 24:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(37.84 m2)( 50 K)
Q=
Room 25:
Q = (16.667 W/m2. K)(8.97 m2)( 50 K)
Q=

G.) Heat Gain due to Infiltration


Q = 1.23Qv(To Ti)
Where:
Qv
To
Ti

= Volumetric Flow Rate of Outside Air, L/s


= Outside Design Temperature, oC
= Inside Design Temperature, oC

Assumptions:
1.) Windows are always close
2.) Doors are also always close except when someone enters/exits.
From ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals:
Let Qv = 30 L/s
All Rooms:
Q = 1.23(30 L/s)(35 24)oC
Q=

Calculations:
A.)

Mass flow rate of Supply air


QT

Where:
QT
ma
Cp
W4
T

= maCpT

= Total Heat Gain, kW


= mass of air, kg/s
= Specific heat of the supply air, kJ/kg.K
=1.0 + 1.88WR
= Humidity ratio of air at Temperature 4
= Temperature Difference between Room temperature (Ti)
and Supply temperature (TS), K

From Psychometric Chart at TR = 24oC and 50% Relative Humidity,


WR

= 0.00925 kg m/kg da

Since,
Cp
Cp

= 1.0 + 1.88WR
= 1.0 + 1.88(0.00925 kg/kg)
= 1.0173 kJ/kg.K

Assume Temperature of Supply air before entering the room is,


TS

= 13oC

T
T

= (24 oC + 273) (13 oC + 273)


= 11 K

Then,

Solving for the mass of air (ma),


ma

We could now get the Volume flow rate of Supply air (Va),
Va

= (ma)(Vf)

Where:
ma = Mass of air
Vf = Specific Volume of Supply Air
From Table A 2 of Psychometric Chart for Moist Air at TS = 13oC,
Vf =
Solving for the Volume of air needed per room:
For Each Rooms:
Room 1:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()
=

Room 2:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 3:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 4:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 5:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()
=

Room 6:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 7:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 8:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 9:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()
=

Room 10:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 11:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 12:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 13:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()
=

Room 14:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 15:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 16:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 17:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()
=

Room 18:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 19:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 20:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 21:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()
=

Room 22:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 23:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 24:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()

=
Room 25:
ma

ma

Va

= ()()
=

For the Whole Building:


Solving for the Total mass of air in in the Building,
mT

mT

Solving for the Total Volume of air (VT) needed by the fan or passing through the
main duct,
VT

= ()()
=
It should be equal to the summation of all Volume of air needed in every room,

= VT

B.) Size of Motor required to drive the fan


Pa = VTaha

(eq. 1)

Where:
Pa
VT
a
ha

= Power output or Air power of fan


= Total Volume of air handled by the fan
= Density of air
= Total heads

but:
Pressure of air
=
Pa
=
aha =

Pressure of water
Pw
whw

From this we get,


ha

Substituting (eq. 2) in (eq. 1),

(eq. 2)

Pa

= (VT)(a

Pa

= (VT)(w)(hw)

From Figure 12-38, p437 of Power Plant Engineering by Frederick T. Morse at VT


=