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Study Guide for Exam 1

Classification of Living Things

Define the word taxonomy. Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerning identifying naming and classifying organisms.

What is the Binomial System of naming organisms? What are some of the rules that we follow under the binomial system? A system derived from Linnaeus to name organisms , the first work is genus name (Homo) second is more specific (sapiens)

Define the following terms; systematics (Study of diversity of organisms using info from cellular to population levels)

Phylogeny (is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms)

phylogenetic tree (representation of lines of decent with branching points from a common ancestor)

, primitive character (things common to all members of group, such as mammals having 4 legs)

derived character (specific to one species , such as loss of a tail)

homology (the same organ in different animals with a variety of function, such as eyes in people bats bugs etc) What is the difference between homologous and analogous structures? Homologous structures are found in many animals of same ancestor , analogous are found in many but have different evolutionary ancestors , for examplele wings in bats an bugs.

What is convergent evolution? The acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages , for example bats and birds have wings but are unrelated species

What are the different sources we use in systematics to construct a phylogenetic tree? Fossil record, rRna sequences, homology

What can you say about the evolutionary relationships between baboons, chimpanzees and humans? They are from a common ancestor

How many kingdoms are included under Whittaker’s system of classification? 5 kingdoms , monera protista plante fungi animalia

What kingdom includes prokaryotes under Whittaker’s system of classification? MONERA

In the three domain system, what domains include prokaryotic organisms? Archaea , bacteria

How are the prokaryotic domains different in three domain classification system? Theyre split in two groups , bacteria and archea

Why was it necessary to split the kingdom that included prokaryotes under Whittaker’s system into two different domains in 3 domain system of classification? Because of differences in rRna genes from those two types of organisms

How are bacteria and archeae different? How are they similar? Theyre both microorganisms, they are autotrophs, theyare different cause arch live in harsher enviorments

How are prokaryotes different from eukaryotes?

What are the eukaryotic kingdoms in the most recent system of classification? protozoa chromista plantae fungi animalia

Under kingdoms, what are the additional classification categories for eukaryotic organisms?

Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic cells do. The main difference to remember is that everything in a eukaryotic cell is much larger and more complex than what would be found in a prokaryotic cell. Bacteria is made of prokaryotic cells. Plants and animals are made of eukaryotic cells.

List all classification categories starting from the most inclusive to the least inclusive.


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Viruses, Bacteria and Archeae

Biologists have been arguing about whether viruses are living or non-living. List some of the properties of viruses that support the argument that viruses are non-living. What are some of the properties of viruses that argue for viruses to be living?

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a virus that infects plants and was the first virus to be identified. Is this statement true or false? TRUE

Viruses can be crystallized, true or false? TRUE

What is the structure of a virus?

Viruses can be crystallized, true or false? TRUE What is the structure of a virus? What

What kind of genetic material does virus contain? What is a naked virus? What are the criteria used to classify viruses? Viruses are defined as obligate intracellular parasites. What does it mean? What is a bacteriophage? Virus that infect bacteria

List all different stages of lytic life cycle of a bacteriophage? Explain the following terms in
Explain the
following terms in the context of lytic life cycle of a virus; attachment, penetration, biosynthesis,
maturation, and lysis.
How is lysogenic cycle different from lytic life cycle of a virus? What is the phage called in its
latent stage? OR What is a prophage? Lysogenic life cycle can revert back to lytic cycle under
certain conditions, true or false?
What is a retrovirus? What retrovirus causes AIDS in humans? What is the function of reverse
transcriptase enzyme? What immune cells are the targets of HIV in humans?

What are viroids? Viroids

are plant pathogens


consist of a short stretch



hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA

What are prions? Mismolded protein that is infectious Name the disease caused by prions in humans and in cattle. Mad cow disease

What is the difference between a capsule and a slime layer in bacterial cells? Name the structure used by bacterial cells for movement. FLAGELLA How do bacterial cells attach to various surfaces? What is a nucleoid?

What is binary fission? Is binary fission sexual or asexual means of reproduction? What do you understand by the following terms; conjugation, transformation and transduction? What are plasmids? What are endospores?

Define the following terms; obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, chemoheterotrophs. What is symbiosis? What the three different types of symbiotic relationships that bacteria have with other organisms? What are the two ways in which antibacterial compounds or antibiotics target bacterial cells?

What is gram staining? List the main differences between gram negative and gram positive bacteria. After gram staining, what is the color of gram positive and gram negative cells respectively and why? What are three basic shapes of bacterial cells? What are cyanobacteria?

What are the main differences between bacteria and archeae? What are methanogens, halophiles, and thermoacidophiles?

Protista: Algae and Protozoans

Why are plants considered to be closer to algae in evolution? Are all algae photosynthetic? Are all algae unicellular? List one example of the following; unicellular green algae, colonial form of green algae, multicellular green algae, and filamentous green algae. What are seaweeds? List some commercial uses of red algae. What are diatoms? What protozoans have pseudopods? How does amoeba obtain their food? List the name of disease caused by the following protozoans; Trypanosoma brucie, Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Plasmodium vivax.