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Chapter 4 Selected Topics for Circuits and Systems

4-1 Poissons and Laplaces Equations


Poissions equation:

V E
2


Laplaces equation: If no charge exists, =0,
0
2
V
Eg. The two plates of a parallel-plate capacitor are separated by a distance d and
maintained at potentials 0 and V
0
. Assume negligible fringing effect at the edges,
determine (a) the potential at any point between the plates, (b) the surface charge
densities on the plates. []
(Sol.)
( ) ( ) y
d
V
V V d y V y V c y c V
dy
V d
0
0 2 1 2
2
, 0 0 , 0 +

E a E
d
V
y
dy
dV
y E
n n

,

0
At the lower plate:
d
V
y a
sl n
0
,

.
At the upper plate:
d
V
y a
ul n
0
,


Eg. The upper and lower conducting plates of a large parallel-plate capacitor are
separated by a distance d and maintained at potentials V
0
and 0, respectively. A
dielectric slab of dielectric constant
r
and uniform thickness 0.8d is placed over
the lower plate. Assuming negligible fringing effect, determine (a) the potential
and electric field distribution in the dielectric slab, (b) the potential and electric
field distribution in the air space between the dielectric slab and the upper plate.
[]
(Sol.) Set ( )
1 0 1 2 1

, c y D c y E c y c y V
r d d d
+

( )
3 0 3 4 3
, , c y D c y E c y c y V
a a a
+

( ) ( )
0
, 0 0 V d V V
a d

,
( ) ( ) d V d V
a d
8 . 0 8 . 0
, ( ) ( ) d D d D
a d
8 . 0 8 . 0
( ) ( )
( )
r
r
r
r
r
V
c d
V
c c
d
V
c

25 . 0 1
1
,
2 . 0 8 . 0
, 0 ,
2 . 0 8 . 0
0
4
0
3 2
0
1
+

+

+

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) d
V
y E V
d
d y
V b
d
V
y E
d
yV
V a
r
r
a
r
r r
a
r
d
r
d


+

+

+

+

4
5
,
4
1 4 5
4
5
,
4
5
0
0
0 0

Eg. Show that uniqueness of electrostatic solutions.
(Proof) Let V
1
and V
2
satisfy


1
2
V and


2
2
V . Define V
d
=V
1
-V
2
,
2
V
d
=0
1. On the conducting boundaries, V
d
=0

V
1
= V
2
2. Let f= V
d
,
A

=V
d
( ) ( )
2
2
d d d d d
V V V f A A f A f V V + +

( ) dv V ds a V V
s v
d n d d
2


2
2 2 1
,
1
,
1
, R ds
R
V
R
V V V R
d d

( )

0 , 0
2
dv V ds a V V
v
d
s
n d d
V
d
=0

V
1
= V
2
Image Theorem P(x,y,z) in the y>0 region is
( )

,
_


+
R R
Q
z y x V
1 1
4
, ,
0

, where R
+
and R
-
are
the distances from Q and Q to the point P,
respectively.
Eg. A point charge Q exists at a distance d above a large grounded conducting
plane. Determine (a) the surface charge density
s
, (b) the total charge induced on
the conducting plane. []
(Sol.)
( )
2 3
2 2
0
2
0
0 /
2
sin 2
4

r d
Qd
y
R
Q
y E
y
+

( )
( )
( ) Q rdr b
r d
Qd
E y a
s y s

+

0
2 3
2 2
0 /
2 ,
2



Eg. Two dielectric media with dielectric constants
1
and
2
are separated by a
plane boundary at x=0. A point charge Q exists in medium 1 at distance d from the
boundary. Determine Q
1
Q
2.
(Q & -Q
1
in medium 1, or Q & Q
2
in medium 2)
(Sol.)
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
1
1
2 2
1
1
4
) 0 ( ,
4 4
) 0 (
d s
Q Q
x V
d s
Q
d s
Q
x V
+
+

+

+


V
1
=V
2
,
2
2
1
1 2
2
1
1
0


Q Q Q Q
x at
x
V
x
V +

, and
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 2
1 2
2 1 2 1


+

+ +
Eg. A line charge density
l
located at a distance d from the axis of a parallel
conducting circular cylinder of radius a. Both are infinitely long. Find the image
position of line charge.
(Sol.) Assume
r
r
n dr
r
Edr V
o l
r
r
l
r
r
l i

0 0
2
1
2
,
0 0



r
r
n
r
r
n
r
r
n V
i l
i
l l
M

0
0
0
0
0
2 2 2


C
d
a
a
d
r
r
i i
d
a
d
i
2

Eg. A point charge Q is placed at a distance d to a conducting sphere. Find its


image.
(Sol.)
0
4
1
0

,
_

+
i
i
M
r
Q
r
Q
V

Q
d
a
Q
d
a
Q
Q
r
r
i
i i

,
d
a
d
d
a
a d
d a
i
i
2

4-2 Boundary-Value Problems in Rectangular Coordinates


0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2


z
V
y
V
x
V
V . Let V(x,y,z)=X(x)Y(y)Z(z), k
x
2
+k
y
2
+k
z
2
=0

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 0 , 0 , 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ + + z Z k
dz
z Z d
y Y k
dy
y Y d
x X k
dx
x X d
z y x
For X(x), 1. k
x
2
=0, X(x)=A
0
x+B
0
is linear.
2. k
x
2
>0, X(x)=A
1
sink
x
x+B
1
cosk
x
x, X(x=a) is finite, X(x=b) is finite
3. k
x
2
<0, X(x)=A
2
sinhk
x
x+B
2
coshk
x
x, X() is finite, X(-) is finite
Similar cases exist in Y(y) and Z(z).
Eg. Two grounded, semi-infinite, parallel-plane electrodes are separated by a
distance b. A third electrode perpendicular to and insulated from both is
maintained at a constant potential V
0
. Determine the potential distribution in the
region enclosed by the electrodes. []
(Sol.)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y Y x X y x V z y x V , , ,
B.C.:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0 , , 0 ,
0 0 , , , 0
0


b x V y V
x V V y V
x k x k x k
x
x x x
e D e D e D x X x X k
x d
x X d

+
2 2 1
2
2
2
) ( ) (
) (
( )
( ) ( ) y k A y Y y Y k
dy
y Y d
y y
sin
1
2
2
2

( ) , 5 , 3 , 1 , sin
1 4
,
:
0



n
b
y n
e
n
V
y x V
odd n
b
x n

for x>0, 0<y<b.


( )
( )
( )

'

'

'

even n
odd n
n
V
C
n m
n m
C
even m
odd m
m
bV
dy
b
y m
b
y n
C dy
b
y m
V
b
y n
C V y V
b
y n
e C y x V
n
b
n
k k y k e C y x V
n
n
b
n
n
b
n
n
b
x n
n n
y x y
x k
n n
x
: , 0
: ,
4
, 0
,
2
: , 0
: ,
2
sin sin sin
sin , 0
sin ,
3 , 2 , 1 , sin ,
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0

4-3 Boundary-Value Problems in Cylindrical Coordinates


0
1 1
2
2
2
2
2
2

,
_


z
V V
r r
V
r
r r
V

1. Assume 0
2
2

z
V
, then V(r,)=R(r)(),

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 0 , 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+

n
d
d
r R n
dr
r dR
r
dr
r R d
r
R(r)= A
r
r
n
+B
r
r
-n
, ()=A

sinn+ B

cosn
V
n
(r,)=r
n
(Asinn+Bcosn)+ r
-n
(Asinn+Bcosn), n0
V(r,)=
( ) ,
1
r V
n
n


2. Assume n=0,
( )

0
2
2

d
d
()=A
0
+B
0
,
R(r)=C
0
lnr+D
0
,
In the -independent case, V(r)=C
1
lnr+D
1
In the -dependent case, ()=A+B, V(r,)=(Clnr+D)(A+B)
Eg. Consider a very long coaxial cable. The inner conductor has a radius a and is
maintained at a potential V
0
. The outer conductor has an inner radius b and is
grounded. Determine the potential distribution in the space between the
conductors. []
(Sol.)
( ) ( )
0 2 1 2 1 0
) ( , 0 ) ( , 0 V C a n C C b n C V a V b V + +
( ) ( ) a b
b V
C
a b
V
C
ln
ln
,
ln
0
2
0
1

,
( )
( )

,
_

b
r
a b
V
r V ln
ln
0
Eg. Two infinite insulated conducting planes maintained at potentials 0 and V
0
form a wedge-shaped configuration. Determine the potential distributions for the
regions:
( )
( )

2
0
< <
< <
b
a
. []
(Sol.)
(a) V()=A+B,
( )
( )

'


0
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
V
A A V V
B V
( )

0 ,
0
V
V
(b)
( )
( )

'

+
+
1 1
1 1 0
2 0 2 B A V
B A V V


( ) ( )

2
2 2
2
,
2
0 0
1
0
1
V
V
V
B
V
A ,
2
Eg. An infinitely long, thin, conducting circular tube of radius b is split in two
halves. The upper half is kept at a potential V=Vo and the lower half at V=-Vo.
Determine the potential distributions both inside and outside the tube.
(Sol.)
( )

'

< <
< <

2 ,
0 ,
,
0
0
V
V
b V
a Inside the tube:
( ) n r A r V b r
n
n n
sin , <
( ) n r A r V
n
n
n
sin ,
1

'

< <
< <

2 ,
0 ,
sin
0
0
1
V
V
n b A b r
n
n
n
( )

<
,
_

'


odd n
n
n
n
b r n
b
r
n
V
r V
even n
odd n
b n
V
A
, sin
1 4
,
: , 0
: ,
4
0
0

b Outside the tube:


( ) n r B r V b r
n
n n
sin ,

> ( ) n r B r V
n
n
n
sin ,
1

'

< <
< <

2 ,
0 ,
sin
0
0
1
V
V
n b B b r
n
n
n
( )

>
,
_

'


odd n
n
n
n
b r n
r
b
n
V
r V
even n
odd n
n
b V
B
, sin
1 4
,
: , 0
: ,
4
0
0

Eg. A long, grounded conducting cylinder of radius b is placed along the z-axis in
an initially uniform electric field
0
E x E

. Determine potential distribution V(r,)


and electric field intensity ( ) , r E

outside the cylinder. Show that the electric field


intensity at the surface of the cylinder may be twice as high as that in the distance,
which may cause a local breakdown or corona (St. Elmos fire.) [
]
(Sol.)
( ) ( )

>> +
1
0 0 0
cos , , cos cos ,
n
n
n
r E V E x E b r At n r B r E r V

At
( )

+
1
0
0 cos cos , :
n
n
n
n b B b E r V b r . 1 0 ,
2
0 1
n for B b E B
n
Outside the cylinder,
( ) cos 1 , :
2
2
0

,
_


r
b
r E r V b r
( ) sin 1

cos 1

,
2
2
0
2
2
0

,
_

,
_

+
r
b
E a
r
b
E a V r E
r r

Eg. A long dielectric cylinder of radius b and dielectric constant


r
, is placed along
the z-axis in an initially uniform electric field
0
E x E

. Determine V(r,) and


( ) , r E

both inside and outside the dielectric cylinder.


(Sol.) For , b r ( )

+
1
0 0
cos cos ,
n
n
n
n r B r E r V
, b r
( )

1
cos ,
n
n
n i
n r A r V
( ) ( )
b r
i
r
b r
i
r
V
r
V
b V b V


0
0
, ,

( )
1 , ,
1 , ,
1 1
1
2
1 0
1
1
1 0
+
+
+

n b nA b nB A b B E
n b A b B b A b B b E
n
n r
n
n r
n
n
n
n

'

1 .. 0
1
1
,
1
2
0
2
1
0
1
n for B A
E b B
E
A
n n
r
r
r


( )
( )

'

,
_

cos
1
2
,
cos
1
1
1 ,
0
0 2
2
0
r E r V
r E
r
b
r V
r
i
r
r


r
V
a
r
V
a V E
r

( )

'

,
_

,
_

sin cos
1
2
sin
1
1
1 cos
1
1
1
0
2
2
0 2
2
0 0
a a E E
r
b
E a
r
b
E a E
r
r
i
r
r
r
r
r

4-4 Boundary-Value Problems in Spherical Coordinates


0
sin
1
sin
sin
1 1
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2

,
_

,
_


V
R
V
R R
V
R
R R
V
Assume -independent:
0
2
2

, V(r,)=R(r)()
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 sin 1 sin , 0 2
2
2
2
2
+ +
1
]
1

n n
d
d
d
d
r R k
dr
R dR
r
dr
r R d
r , and
k
2
=n(n+1) R(r)=A
n
r
n
+B
n
r
-n-1
, ()=P
n
(cos)V(r,)=[A
n
r
n
+B
n
r
-n-1
]P
n
(cos)
Table of Legendres Polynomials
n
( ) cos
n
P
0 1
1 cos
2
( ) 1 cos 3
2
1
2

3
( ) cos 3 cos 5
2
1
2

Eg. An infinite conducting cone of half-angle is maintained at potential V


0
and
insulated from a grounded conducting plane. Determine (a) the potential
distribution V() in the region <</2, (b) the electric field intensity in the region
<</2, (c) the charge densities on the cone surface and on the grounded plane.
(Sol.)
( )
2 1
1
2
tan
sin
, 0 sin C n C V
C
d
dV
d
dV
d
d
+
,
_


,
_


a
( )
0
4
tan
2
2
tan
2 1
0 2 1
+
,
_


,
_

+
,
_

C n C V
V C n C V

0
2
tan
2
0
1

1
]
1

,
_

C
n
V
C


( )
1
]
1

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

2
tan
2
tan
0

n
n V
V



sin
2
tan

0
1
]
1

,
_


n R
V
a
Rd
dV
a E

, c
( )
1
]
1

,
_


,
_


1
]
1

,
_


2
tan
2
:
2
sin
2
tan
:
0 0
0
0 0
0


n R
V
E
n R
V
E
s
s

Eg. An uncharged conducting sphere of radius b is placed in an initially uniform


electric field
0
E z E

. Determine the potential distribution V(R,) and the electric


field intensity ( ) , R E

after the introduction of the sphere. []


(Sol.)
( ) 0 , b V
If R>>b,
( ) cos ,
0 0
R E z E R V
( )
( )
[ ] ( )

+
+
0
1
cos ,
n
n
n
n
n
n
P R B R A R V
,
b R

0 1
1 , 0
E A
n A
n


( )
( )
( ) b R P R B RP E
n
n
n
n
+

+
, cos cos
0
1
1 0

sphere is uncharged,
0
0
B



( )
( ) b R P R B R E
R
B
n
n
n
n
+
,
_

, cos cos
1
2
0
2
1

( )
( ) 2 , 0 , cos cos 0 ,
3
0 1
1
2
0
2
1
+
,
_

n B b E B P b B b E
b
B
b R
n n
n
n
n

,

( ) b R R
R
b
E R V
1
1
]
1

,
_

, cos 1 ,
3
0

( ) ( )

,
_

+
,
_



R
V
a
R
V
a R V E a E a R E
R R R
, ,

b R
R
b
E a
R
b
E a
R

1
1
]
1

,
_


1
1
]
1

,
_

+ , sin 1 cos 2 1
3
0
3
0


A dipole moment
0
2
0
4 E b z P

is at the center of the sphere. Surface charge density


is
( ) cos 3
0 0 0
E E
b R R s


4-5 Capacitors and Capacitances
Q=CV

C=Q/V
Eg. A parallel-plane capacitor consists of two parallel conducting plates of area S
separate by uniform distance d, the space between the plates is filled with a
dielectric of a constant permittivity. Determine the capacitance.
(Sol.)
S
Q
s
,
S
Q
y y E
s



d
S
Q
dv y
S
Q
y l d E V
d y
y
d

,
_

,
_


0 0

d
S
V
Q
C . In this problem,
d
V
y E

Surface charge densities on the upper and conducting planes are


s
and -
s
,

s
=E
y
=V/d.
Eg. The space between a parallel-plate capacitor of area S is filled with dielectric
whose permittivity varies linearly from
1
at one plate (y=0) to
2
at the other plate
(y=d). Neglecting all the edge effect, find the capacitance. []
(Sol.) Assume Q on plate at y=d,
1
1 2

y
d
S
Q
y E
s
s

,
( )
( )




d
S
Qd
l d E V
0
1 2
1 2
ln


) ln(
) (
1
2
1 2


d
S
V
Q
C


Eg. A cylindrical capacitor consists of an inner conductor of radius a and an outer
conductor of radius b is filled with a dielectric of permittivity , and the length of
the capacitor is L. Determine the capacitance of this capacitor.
(Sol.)
Lr
Q
E a E
r r
2


,


,
_

,
_


a
b
r r
a r
b r
ab
dr a
Lr
Q
a l d E V
2

,
_

a
b
L
Q
ln
2
,

,
_


a
b
L
V
Q
C
ab
ln
2
Eg. A spherical capacitor consists of an inner conducting sphere of radius R
i
and
an outer conductor with a spherical wall of radius R
o
. The space in between them
is filled with dielectric of permittivity . Determine the capacitance.
(Sol.)
2
4 R
Q
a E a E
r r r



V=

,
_

,
_




o i
R
R
R
R
r
R R
Q
dR
R
Q
dR a E
i
o
i
o
1 1
4 4
2

o i
R R
V
Q
C
1 1
4



.
For an isolating conductor sphere of a radius:
i o i
R C R R 4 , ,
Eg. Assuming the earth to be a large conducting sphere (radius=6.3710
3
km)
surrounded by air, find (a) the capacitance of the earth, (b) the maximum charge
that can exist on the earth before the air breaks down.
(Sol.) (a) ( ) ) ( 10 08 . 7 10 10 37 . 6 10
36
1
4 4
4 3 3 9
0
F R C


(b)
) ( 10 35 . 1
4
10 3
10
2
0
6
C Q
R
Q
E
Max
Max
b

Eg. Determine the capacitance of an isolated conducting sphere of radius b that is


coated with a dielectric layer of uniform thickness d, the dielectric has an electric
susceptibility
e
.
(Sol.)
( )
2
0
1 4
,
R
Q
a E d b R b
e
r
+
+ < <

,
2
0
4
,
R
Q
E R d b

< +

( )

,
_

+
+ +


b d b
Q
l d E V
e
e
b
1
1 4
0


,
( )
b d b
V
Q
C
e
e
1
1 4
0
+
+
+


Eg. A cylindrical capacitor of length L consists of coaxial conducting surface of
radii r
i
and r
o
. Two dielectric media of different dielectric constants
r1
and
r2
, and
fill the space between the conducting surface. Determine the capacitance. [
]
(Sol.)
( ) L E rL
l r r
+
2 0 1 0
( )
2 1 0 r r
l
r
E

+

( )

,
_

i
o
r r
l
r
r
r
r
Edr V
i
o
ln
2 1 0

( )
( )
i o
r r l
r r
L
V
L
C
ln
2 1 0
+

Eg. The radius of the core and the inner radius of the outer conductor of a very
long coaxial transmission line are r
i
and r
o
respectively. The space between two
conductors is filled with two coaxial layers of dielectrics. The dielectric constants
of the dielectrics are
r1
for r
i
<r<b and
r2
for b<r<r
o
. Determine its capacitance per
unit length.
(Sol.)
b r r
r
a E
i
r
l
r
< <

,
2
1 0
1

,
o
r
l
r
r r b
r
a E < <

,
2
2 0
2

1
]
1

,
_

,
_


b
r
r
b
r d E V
o
r i r
l
r
r
i
o
ln
1
ln
1
2
2 1 0

,
) / (
ln
1
ln
1
2
2 1
0
m F
b
r
r
b
V
C
o
r i r
l

,
_

,
_




Eg. Determine the capacitance per unit length between two long, parallel, circular
conducting wires of radius a. The axes of the wires are separated by a distance D.
[]
(Sol.)
d
a
n V
d
a
n V

2
,
2
1 2

( )
( )
2 2
2
2 1
4
2
1
, , a D D d
d
a
D d D d
a d n V V
C
i
+


C=
( ) ( )
1
]
1

+ 1 2 2
2
a D a D n

( ) a D 2 cosh
1


(F/m)
Eg. A straight conducting wire of radius a is parallel to and at height h from the
surface of the earth. Assume that the earth is perfectly conducting; determine the
capacitance and the force per unit length between the wire and the earth.
(Sol.) D=2h,
( ) ( )
( )
m
F
a h a D
C
1
0
1
0
cosh 2 cosh



Eg. A capacitor consists of two coaxial metallic cylindrical surface a length 30mm
and radii 5mm and 7mm. The dielectric between the surfaces has a relative
permittivity
r2
=2+(4/r), where r is measured in mm. Determine the capacitance of
the capacitor.
(Sol.) ( ) 2 4 4
2 2
2
0
0
+

,
_

+


r
a
r
r
a
r
a E
l
r
l
r
l
r

( )

,
_


7
9
ln
4 5
7
2 ln
4
0 0

l l
r
r
r
r
r r d E V
i
o
,
0
0
1500
7
9
ln
4

,
_


L
V
L
C
l
Series or parallel connection of capacitance:
n sr n sr
C C C C C C
Q
C
Q
C
Q
C
Q
C
Q
V
1 1 1 1 1
3 2 1 3 2 1
+ + + + + + + +
n
Q Q Q Q + + +
2 1
V C V C V C V C
n
+ + +
2 1 //
n
C C C C + + +
2 1 //
4-6 Electrostatic Energy
To remove Q
1
from infinite to a distance R
12
from Q
2
, the amount of work required is
( )
2 2 1 1 1 1
12 0
2
1
12 0
1
2 2 2 2
2
1
4 4
V Q V Q V Q
R
Q
Q
R
Q
Q V Q W +




N
k j j jk
j
k
N
k
k k e
method
induction
R
Q
V where V Q W
) ( 1 0 1
4
1
,
2
1

Eg. Determine the work done in carrying a -2C charge from P


1
(2,1,-1) to P
2
(8,2,-
1) in the field
x y y x E

+
along (a) the parabola x=2y
2
, (b) the straight line
joining P
1
and P
2
.
(Sol.) dy y dx x l d +

,
) (

+

xdy ydx q l d E q W
(a) Along ) ( 28 14 6 4 , 2
2
1
2 2
J q dy y q W ydy dx y x

.
(b) Along ( ) ) ( 28 14 4 12 6 , 4 6
2
1
J q dy y q W dy dx y x

Eg. Find the energy required to assemble a uniform charge of radius b and volume
charge density . []
(Sol.)
R
Q
V
R
R
0
4


3
3
4
R Q
R

dR R dQ
R
2
4 ,
dR R dQ V dW
R R
4 2
0
3
4


0
5 2
0
4 2
0
15
4
3
4

b
dR R dW W
b


3
3
4
b Q

,
) (
20
3
0
2
J
b
Q
W

Eg. According to W
e
=


,
_



' '
2
1
2
1
v v
Vdv D Vdv
, show that the stored electric
energy is



'
2
1
v
e
dv E D W
(Proof)
V D D V D V +

,
_



,
V D D V D V

,
_

,
_


' ' ' '
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
v s
n
v v
e
dv E D ds a D V Vdv D dv D V W
When
2
2
1
,
1
, ,
R
D
R
V R S R

0
2
1
'



s
n
ds a D V



'
2
1
v
e
dv E D W
If

E D
, then

' '
2
'
2
2
1
2
1
v
e
v v
e
dv w dv
D
dv E W

Note: 1. SI unit for energy: Joule(J) and 1 eV =1.610


-19
J.
2. Work (or energy) is a scalar, not a vector.
Electrostatic energy density: w
e
=

2 2
1
2
1
2
2



D
E E D
Eg. A parallel-plate capacitor of area S and separation d is charged by a d-c
voltage source V. The permittivity of the dielectric is . Find the stored
electrostatic energy.
(Sol.)
d
V
E , ( )
2
2
'
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
V
d
S
Sd
d
V
dv
d
V
W
v
e

,
_

,
_

,
_



Eg. Use energy formulas to find the capacitance of a cylindrical capacitance
having a length L, an inner conductor of radius a, an outer conductor of inner
radius b, and dielectric of permittivity

.
(Sol.)
Lr
Q
a E
r
2

, ( )


,
_

b
a
e
rdr L
Lr
Q
W

2
2 2
1
2

,
_

a
b
L
Q
r
dr
L
Q
b
a
ln
4 4
2 2

,

,
_

,
_

a
b
L
C
a
b
L
Q
C
Q
ln
2
ln
4 2
2 2

Eg. Find the electrostatic energy stored in the region of space R>b around an
electric dipole of moment p.
(Sol.)
( )


sin cos 2
4
2
0
a a
R
p
E
R
+

,
3
0
2
2
0
12 2
1
b
p
v d E W
v



4-7 Electrostatic Forces and Torques
Electrostatic force and torque due to the fixed charge:

l d F dW
Q
is mechanic work done by the system, it costs the stored energy.

( )

l d W l d F dW dW
e Q e
,
) (N W F
e Q

l
C
C
Q
C
Q
l l
W
F
e
l
Q

,
_

,
_


2
2 2
2 2
,
( ) ( )


e
z
Q
z
Q
W
T d T dW
Electrostatic force and torque due to the fixed potential:

k
k k s
dQ V dW
,

l d F dW
v
,
s
k
k k e
dW dQ V dW
2
1
2
1


( )

+ l d W l d F dW dW dW dW dW dW
e v e s s e
2
1

( )

e
z v e v
W
T W F ,
,
l
C
C
Q
l
C V
CV
l l
W
F
e
l
v

,
_

,
_


2
2 2
2
2 2 2
1
Eg. Determine the force on the conducting plates of a charged parallel-plate
capacitor. The plates have an area S and separate in air by a distance x.
(Sol.) (a) Assuming fixed charge, x QE QV W
x e
2
1
2
1
,
( )
S
Q
x QE
x
F
x
x
Q
0
2
2 2
1

,
_


(b) Assuming the fixed potential,
( )
2
2
0 0
2
2
2 2 2
1
x
SV
x
S
x
V
CV
x x
W
F
e
x v


,
_

,
_


x
SV
CV Q
0

,
( ) ( )
x v
x
Q
F F
Eg. A parallel-plate capacitor of width w, length L, and separation d is partially
filled with a dielectric medium of dielectric constants
r
. A battery of V
0
volts is
connected between the plates. (a) Find
D

,
E

,
s
in each region. (b) Find distance x
such that the electrostatic energy stored in each region is the same. []
(Sol.)a
d
V
d
V
y D
d
V
y E
r s r
0
0 1
0
0 1
0
1
, ,

d
V
d
V
y D
d
V
y E
s
0
0 2
0
0 2
0
2
, ,

b
1
1
2
1
+

r
r
e
e
L
x
x L
x
W
W

Eg. A parallel-plate capacitor of width w, length L, and separation d has a solid


dielectric slab of permittivityin the space between the plates. The capacitor is
charged to a voltage V
0
by a battery. Assuming that the dielectric slab is
withdrawn to the position shown, determine the force action on the slab. (a) with
the switch closed, (b) after the switch is first opened. []
(Sol.)
(a)
( ) [ ] ( )
0
2
0
2
0
0
2
0
2

2
,
2
1

+
d
w
x
x
C
x W F x L x
d
w
C CV W
V V
e x e

(b)
Eg. The conductors of an isolated two-wire transmission line, each of radius b, are
spaced at a distance D apart. Assuming D>>b and a voltage V
0
between the lines,
find the force per unit length on the lines.
(Sol.)
( )
( )
( )
( ) [ ]
2
2
0 0
2
0 0
0
0 0
2 1 0
0 0
ln 2

2
,
ln
ln ln ,
2 2

b
D
D
V
x
D
C V
x W F m F
b
D
V
C
b
D
x
b
b D
x d E V V V
x D x
x E
e
l
l l b D
b
l l


1
]
1


4-8 Resistors and Resistances
Ohms law: V=RI
RI I
S
V
V
S
I
J JS S d J I
V
E E V
s

,
_

,

S
R

S
R
G
1
Power dissipation:


v ss
R I VI S d J d E dv J E P
2


Eg. A long round wire of radius a and conductivity is coated with a material of
conductivity 0.1. (a) What must be the thickness of the coating so that the
resistance per unit length of the uncoated wire is reduced by 50%? (b) Assuming a
total current I in the coated wire, find J and E in both the core and the coating
material. []
(Sol.)
] ) [(
1
,
1
2 2
2
2
1
a b a
R
a
R
+


(a) ( )a b R R 1 11
2 1
, (b)
( ) [ ]
2
2
2
2 1
2
1 2 1
1 . 0
2
,
2
,
2
E
b b a
I
J E
a
I
J
I
I I


+

2 1 2 1
, 10 E E J J
Eg. A d-c voltage of 6V applied to the ends of 1km of a conducting wire of 0.5mm
radius results in a current of 1/6A. Find (a) the conductivity of the wire, (b) the
electric field intensity of the wire, (c) the power dissipation in the wire, (d) the
electron drift velocity, assuming electron mobility in the wire to be
( ) s V m
2 3
10 4 . 1 .
(Sol.) (a) ( ) m S
SV
I
I
V
S
R
7
10 54 . 3

, (b)
( ) m V
V
E
3
10 6

, (c)
1 VI P Watt, (d) sec) / ( 10 4 . 8
6
m E v
e


Calculation of resistance:
I V R ds J I E J V E V V / 0
2


Eg. A conducting material of uniform thickness h and conductivity , has the


shape of a quarter of a flat circular washer, with inner radius a and outer radius b.
Determine the resistance between the end faces. []
(Sol.)
0
2
V
, V=0 at
0
, V=V
0
at
2


0
2
2

d
V d
, V=c
1
+c
2
,

0
2V
V
,
r
V
a
r
V
a V E J



0
2



a
b hV
r
dr
h
V
s I
b
a
ln
2 2
d J
0 0
S

,
_


a
b
h
I
V
R
ln 2
0

Eg. A ground connection is made by burying a hemispherical conductor of radius


25mm in the earth with its base up. Assuming the earth conductivity to =10
-6
S/m,
find the resistance of the conductor to far-away points in the ground. [
]
(Sol.)
2
2

R
I
a J
R

,
2
2

R
I
a E
R

=>
b
I
EdR V
b
2
0

6
3 6
10 36 . 6
) 10 25 )( 10 ( 2
1
2
1
0



b I
V
R
.
Eg. The space between two parallel conducting plates each having an area S is
filled with an inhomogeneous ohmic medium whose conductivity varies linearly
from
1
at one plate (y=0) to
2
at the other plate (y=d). And d-c voltage V
0
is
applied across the plates. Determine the total resistance between the plates.
(Sol.)
o J y J
=>
) (

y
J
y
J
E
o

,
d
y
y ) ( ) ( 1 2 1 + ,
1
2
1 2
0
0
ln dy
0

d J
y E V
d
,
) ln(
) ( 1
2
1 2
0 0

S
d
S J
V
I
V
R
o

Relation between R and C:


L L
l d E
s d E
l d E
s d D
V
Q
C
s



S
L
S
L
s d E
l d E
s d J
l d E
I
V
R

, RC=

G
C
Eg. Find the leakage resistance per unit length (a) between the inner and outer
conductors of a coaxial cable that has an inner conductor of radius a, an outer
conductor of inner radius b, and a medium with conductivity , and (b) of a
parallel-wire transmission line consisting of wires of radius a separated by a
distance D in a medium with conductivity . []
(Sol.) (a)
) ln(
2
a
b
C

,
,
_


,
_

a
b
C
R ln
2
1 1

(b)
)
2
( cosh
1
a
D
C


,
)
2
( cosh
1 1
1
a
D
C
R


,
_

Eg. Find the resistance between two concentric spherical surfaces of radii R
1
and
R
2
(R
1
<R
2
) if the space between the surfaces is filled with a homogeneous and
isotropic material having a conductivity .
(Sol.)
2 1
1 1
4
R R
C

RC =>


C
R
1
=> )
1 1
(
4
1
2 1 R R
R

4-9 Inductors and Inductances


Mutual flux:
1 12 2 1 12
2
d I L S B
S



(Wb)
General mutual inductance:
1
12
1
12 2
12
I I
N
L

(H)
Self-Inductance:
1
11
11
I
L

Eg. Assume that N turns of wire are tightly wound on a toroidal frame of a
rectangular cross section. Then, assuming the permeability of the medium to be
0
,
find the self-inductance of the toroidal coil. []
(Sol.)

rd a l d

,
r
NI
B NI rB Br l B
o
o
C


2
2 d d


) ln(
2
d
2
d
a
b NIh
r
r NIh
s B
o
b
a
o
S

, ) ln(
2
2
a
b h N
I
N
L
o

Eg. Find the inductance per unit length of a very long solenoid with air core
having n turns per unit length. And S is the cross-sectional area.
(Sol.)
nI B
o

,
nSI BS
o

SI n n
o
2
' , S n L
o
2
'
Eg. Two coils of N
1
and N
2
turns are would concentrically on a straight cylindrical
core of radius a and permeability . The windings have lengths l
1
and l
2
,
respectively. Find the mutual inductance between the coils.
(Sol.)
1
2
1
1
12
) )( ( I a
N


,
1
2
2 1
1
12 2 12
I a N N N


=>
2
2 1
1 1
12
12
a N N
I
L

Eg. Determine the mutual inductance between a very long, straight wire and a
conducting circular loop. []
(Sol.)
B at p is
) cos ( 2
0

r d
I
+
) (
) (
2
2 cos 2
2 2
0
2 2
0
0 2 2
0
0
2
0
0
b d d L
b d d I
r d
rdr I
r d
dr rd I
b b


Eg. Determine the mutual inductance between a conducting triangular loop and a
very long straight wire.
(Sol.)
r
I
a B

2 0
2

,


S
s d B

, where
zdr a S d

z= ) ( 3 r b d +
] ) / 1 ln( ) [(
2
3
] ) / 1 ln( ) [(
2
3
) (
1
2
3
0
0 0
b d b b d
I
L
b d b b d
I
dr r b d
r
I
b d
d
+ +

+ + +

Eg. Determine the mutual inductance between a very long, straight wire and a
conducting equilateral triangular loop. []
(Sol.)
)]
2
3
1 ln(
2
3
[
3
)]
2
3
1 ln(
2
3
[
3
) (
3
2

0
0
2
3
0
d
b
d b
I
L
d
b
d b
I
dr d r B
B a
r
I
a B
b d
d
+

Eg. Find the mutual inductance between two coplanar rectangular loops with
parallel sides. Assume that h
1
>> h
2
(h
2
> w
2
> d). ()
(Sol.)
]
) (
) )( (
ln[
2
) ln(
2
)
1 1
(
2
2 1
2 1 2 0 12
12
2 1
1 2 2 0
0
1
2 0
12
2
d w w d
d w d w h
I
L
d w w
d w
d
d w I h
dx
x d w x d
I h
w
+ +
+ +

+ +
+

+ +

Neumaun formula:

1 2
2 1 2 1 0
12
4
C C
R
d d N N
L

L
12

2 2
2 1
1
2
2 1
1
2
2 1
1
2
1
12 2
) (
C S S
d A
I
N
S d A
I
N
S d B
I
N
I
N

1
1
1 1 1 0
1
4
C
R
d I N
A

1 2
2 1 2 1 0
12
4
C C
R
d d N N
L

Eg. A rectangular loop of width w and height h is situated near a very long wire
carrying a current i
1
. Assume i
1
to be a rectangular pulse. Find the induced current
i
2
in the rectangular loop whose self-inductance is L.
(Sol.)
2
2 1
12
Ri
dt
di
L
dt
di
L + ,
where
) 1 ln(
2 2
0 1 0
1 1
12
12
d
w h
dr
r
i
i
h
i
L
w d
d
+

t=0,
t
L
R
e I
L
L
i t I L Ri
dt
di
L
) (
1
12
2 1 12 2
2
) (

+
t=T,
L
RT
e I
L
L
i

1
12
2
, when I
1
is applied
t>T,
) )( (
1
12
2
T t
L
R
e I
L
L
i


4-10 Magnetic Energy
W
m
=




'
1 1 1
'
2
1
2
1
2
1
V
N
k
k k
N
j
k j
N
k
jk
dv J A I I I L

Let
1 1
2
1 1
0
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1 1
2
1
2
1 1


I I L di i L dt i V W
dt
di
L V
I
: Magnetic energy
Similarly,
2 1 21
0
2 1 21 1 21 21
2
21 21
2
I I L di I L dt I V W
dt
di
L V
I


And
2
2 2 2
2
1
I L W


+ +
2
1
2
1
2
2 2 2 1 21
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
j
k j
k
jk m
I I L I L I I L I L W
Generally,



N
k
k k
N
j
k j
N
k
jk m
I I I L W
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
when


N
j
j jk k
I L
1



k k
S C
k n k
d A S d B

'

'
1
'
2
1
2
1
V
N
k
C
k k m
dv J A l d A I W
k

) ' ' ) ' ( ' (
k k k k k
v J dl a J dl I
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( H A A H H A H A A H H A


And ) ( H A B H J A H J




' '
' ) (
2
1
'
2
1
S
n
V
m
dS a H A dv B H W


as ,
1
R
A R

2
1
R
H

,
0 ' ) (
2
1
'
2


S
n
dS a H A R S d




' '
' '
2
1
V
m
V
m
dv w dv B H W

Magnetic energy density:
2
2
| |
2
1
2
| |
2
1
H w
B
w
B H w
m
m
m



and L=
2
2
I
W
m
.
Eg. Determine the inductance per unit length of an air coaxial transmission line
that has a solid inner conductor of radius a and a very thin outer conductor of
radius b. []
(Sol.)
W
m1
=

16 4
2
2
1
2
0
0
3
0
4
2
0 2
1
0
I
dr r
a
I
rdr B
a a


W
m2
=
a
b I
dr
r
I
rdr B
b
a
b
a
ln
4
1
4
2
2
1
2
0
2
0 2
2
0



,
a
b
W W
I
L
m m
ln
2 8
) (
2
'
0 0
2 1
2

+ +
Eg. Consider two coupled circuits having self-inductance L
1
and L
2
, which carry
currents I
1
and I
2
, respectively. The mutual inductance between the circuits is M.
a) Find the ratio I
1
/I
2
that makes the stored magnetic energy W
m
a minimum.
b) Show that
2 1
L L M . []
(Sol.)
2
2 2 2 1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
I L I MI I L W
m
+ +
(a)
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1 2
2
1
1
2
2
], 2 [
2
] ) ( 2 ) ( [
2 I
I
x L Mx x L
I
L
I
I
M
I
I
L
I
W
m
+ + + +
1 2
1
1
2
2
) 2 2 (
2
0
L
M
I
I
x M x L
I
dx
dW
m
+
for minimum W
m
(b) (W
m
)
min
=
2 1 2
1
2 2
2
0 ) (
2
L L M L
L
M I
+
4-11 Magnetic Forces and Torques
Force due to constant flux linkage:
m m m
W F d W dW d F


) ( and


m
z
W
T ) (
Force due to constant current:
m k
k
k s
dW dW d I dW +

'
l d W dW l d F dW dW I dW
m m I s
k
k k m



) (
2
1
2
1
m I
W F

Torque in terms of mutual inductance:
2
2 2 2 1 12
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
I L I I L I L W
m
+ + ) (
12 2 1
L I I F
I
,

12
2 1
L
I I T
I
Eg. One end of a long air-core coaxial transmission line having an inner an
conductor of radius a and an outer conductor of inner radius b is short-circuited
by a thin, tight-fitting conducting washer. Find the magnitude and the direction of
the magnetic force on the washer when a current I flows in the line.
(Sol.)
2
2
1
LI W
m
,

b
a
b
a
a
b x
dr
r
I
I
x
dr B
I
x
I
L ln
2 2
0 0

) ln(
4
)
2
(
2
0
2
a
b I
x
x
L I
x
x
W
x F
m
I

Eg. A current I flows in a long solenoid with n closely wound coil-turns per unit
length. The cross-sectional area of its iron core, which has permeability , is S.
Determine the force acting on the core if it is withdrawn to the position. [
]
(Sol.)
S I n
x
W
F
x S I n x S I n I n x W x x W dv H W
r
m
x I
r r m m m
2 2 0
2 2
0
2 2
0
2 2
0
2
) 1 (
2
) (
) 1 (
2
1
)
2
1
2
1
( ) ( ) ( ,
2
1


Magnetic torque:
B m T


(B=B

+B

, mB

=>mB

=0)
d B Ib x b IdlB x b dF x T d
2
||
2
||
sin 2 sin 2 ) sin ( sin 2

B m T
mB x B b I x d B Ib x T d T





//
0
//
2 2
//
2
) ( sin 2


Eg. A rectangular loop in the xy-plane with sides b
1
and b
2
carrying a current I has
in a uniform magnetic field
z y x
B z B y B x B + +

. Determine the force and torque


on the loop.
(Sol.)
) (
2 1 x y
B y B x b Ib B m T

4-12 Magnetic Circuits


Define NI V
m
: mmf, BS : magnetic flux,
S
l


: reluctance
(1)


k
k k j j
I N
. (2)
0 B
,
0

j
j
Eg. (a) Steady current I
1
and I
2
flow in windings of N
1
and N
2
turns, respectively,
on the outside legs of the ferromagnetic core. The core has a cross-sectional area S
c
and permeability . Determine the magnetic flux in the center leg.
(Sol.)
C
S
l

1
1

,
C
S
l

2
2

,
C
S
l

3
3


Loop 1:
2 1 1 3 1 1 1
) ( + + I N
Loop 2:
2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
) ( + + I N I N
3 2 3 1 2 1
2 2 1 1 1 2
1
+ +
+

I N I N
Eg. A toroidal iron core of relative permeability 3000
0
has a mean radius R=
80mm and a circular cross section with radius b=25mm. An air gap l
g
=3mm exists,
and a current I flows in a 500-turn winding to produce a magnetic flux of 10
-5
Wb.
Neglecting flux leakage and using mean path length, find (a) the reluctances of the
air gap and of the iron core, (b) B
g
and H
g
in the air gap, and B
c
and H
c
in the iron
core, (c) the required current I.
(Sol.) (a)
6
2 7
3
10 21 . 1
) 025 . 0 ( 10 4
10 3

S
l
o
g
g
(
1
H
)
4
2 7
10 75 . 6
) 025 . 0 ( ) 10 4 ( 3000
003 . 0 08 . 0 2

c
(
1
H
)
(b)
3
2
5
10 09 . 5
025 . 0
10

a a B B c g
(T)
0

g
g
B
H
,
0
3000
c
c
B
H
(c)
( ) 0256 . 0 + I NI
g C
(A)
Eg. Consider the electromagnet in Figure. In which a current I in an N-turn coil
produce a flux in the magnetic circuit. The cross-sectional area of the core is S.
Determine the lifting force on the armature.
(Sol.)
I
R
NI
N
I
N
L
dy
S
Sdy
B
W d dW
S
y
c
airgap m m
0
2
0
2
0
2
)
2
( 2 ) (


S
y
dy
dW
y F
m
0
2

and
S
y
S y R
NI
S
y LI
dy
d
y F
c
I
0
2
2
0 0
2
)
/ 2
(
1
)
2
1
(