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INTRODUCTION
1.1 What is engineering? 1.2 What is technology?

1.3 Design To design is to imagine and specify things that do not exist, usually with the aim of bringing them into the work. The things may be tangible machines, buildings and bridges; they may be procedure plans of marketing scheme or an organization or manufacturing processes, or for solving the scientific research problem by experiments; they may be works of art paintings or music or sculpture. Virtually every professional activity has a large component of design, although usually combined with the tasks of bringing the designed things into the real world. - Herbert A. Simon, Carnegie Mellon University Foreword to the book Engineering Design [1] Engineering design is the systematic, intelligent generation and evaluation of specifications for artifacts whose form and function achieve stated objectives and satisfy specified constraints. - Clive Dym in Engineering Design [1] Engineering design is the organized, thoughtful development and testing of characteristics of new objects that have a particular configuration or perform some desired function(s) that meet our aims without violating any specified constraints. - Patrick Little in Engineering Design [1]

1.4 Factor of Safety (FS) Factor of safety is a factor introduced due to uncertainty or Ignorance. It is used: i. to reduce allowable strength, (due to uncertainty in material strength), ii. to increase the applied stress, (due to uncertainty in loading) and iii. as a comparison for the ratio of the allowable strength to the applied stress and it can be expressed as, Factor of safety = allowable strength / applied stress To take up the case of reduced allowable strength, the uncertainty in material strength is because: if 500 tension tests are conducted in the laboratory then 500 different yield strengths, will be obtained. The scatters in test results are: Very wide for some materials Reasonable guaranteed minimum for others A factor to take care of uncertainty of ignorance required Major difficulty in design - to decide the safety factor.

2 For example take the case of a fan rod of 12mm diameter supporting a fan of 200N. The material ia AISI 1010 CD with an yield strength of Syt 300MPa, the factor of safety = {Syt/ (stress in the fan rod)} will be around 150. How does one decide whether it is high or sufficient? If it is high then how to reduce it? Confusion - certain conditions unknown. Factor of safety is "Rooted in design experience"[2]. The prime requirement is that the product performance should be satisfactory. Choosing proper factor of safety is is one of the difficult and challenging aspect of design which a beginners face. The question is what one should do. One way is to study previous similar designs for similar application and take a decision based on this. Further it is very helpful, especially for a beginner/budding designer to systematically determine total factor of safety as product of individual factor of safety. To do this, for example: the variation of the following eight measures which influence the factor safety can be considered; others can be added based on experience. These are: 1. Material Properties (FSM) 2. Stress (FSS) 3. Geometry (FSG) 4. Failure Analysis (FSFA) 5. Desired Reliability (FSR) 6. Environmental Factors (FSE) 7. Danger to Personnel (FSD) And 8. Economic Impact (FSEI) These factors of safety arise dye to: 1. Contribution due to material properties (FSM) 2. Contribution due to incomplete knowledge of load/ stresses (FSS) 3. Contribution due to geometry resulting from tolerances (FSG) 4. Contribution due to accuracy of failure analysis and the confidence one has in them (FSFA) 5. Contribution because of reliability desired (FSR) 6. Contribution due to environment effect (FSE) 7. Factor to consider danger to personnel (FSD) 8. Factor to consider economic impact (FSEI) The product of these factors of safety yield the total factor of safety or the design factor of safety (FSd) and decided before proceeding with the design.

FSd = FSM FSS FSG FSFA FSR FSE FSD FSEI


Where, the subscripts stand for: M - Material FA -Failure Analysis D -Danger to Personnel S- Stress R -Reliability EI - Economic Index

G- Geometry E-Environment

Guidelines for the choice of the factors of safety [3]


1. Contribution for the material FSM=1.0; material properties are well known. (e.g. designer conducts test on material) FSM = 1.1; material properties from a handbook or are manufacturer's values. FSM = 1.2 - 1.4; material properties are not well known. (Some even suggest FSM value upto 1.6)

3 2. Contribution for the load stress FSS = 1.0 - 1.1; load is well defined FSS = 1.2 - 1.3; overload of 20 - 30 % FSS= 1.4 - 1.7; load is not well known or the stress analysis method is of doubtful accuracy FSS = 1.2 - 3.0; shock loading (depends on rate of load application)

3. Contribution for geometry FSG = 1.0; tolerances are tight FSG = 1.1; tolerances are average FSG = 1.2; dimensions are slack 4. Contribution for failure analysis FSFA = 1.0 -1.1; used failure theory is accurate FSFA = 1.2; used failure theory is inappropriate FSFA= 1.3- 1.5; failure analysis theory is not well developed 5. Contribution for reliability FSR = 1.1; reliability is less than 90% FSR= 1.2 - 1.3; reliability is in the range 92-98% FSR= 1.4 - 1.6; reliability greater than 99% 6. Contribution for environment FSE= 1.0 -1.6; temperature, corrosion etc. Two More Safety Factors as given by [2] are: Danger to personnel (FSD) and economic impact (FSEI) The guidelines for choosing values for these are provided in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 Guidelines to choose FSD and FSEI [2] FSD Not Serious Characteristics Serious Not Serious 1.0 1.2 Serious 1.0 1.3 Very Serious 1.2 1.4

FSEI

Very Serious 1.4 1.5 1.6

Other factors of safety in addition to the others may also be incorporated if they are important and information (guidelines) about them is available. However, the above stated individual factors of safety are the ones which are must commonly employed. * A better way of considering the contribution due to the load stress (FSS) is to include the service aspect also. For this purpose it is better to employ guidelines for the selection provided in Table 1.2.

The product of all the factors of safety FSd is: FSd = FSM FSS FSG FSFA FSR FSE FSD FSEI

4 Table1.2 Service cum Load Factor (FSS) [4] Prime Mover Light Duty (No shock loads) Rotary and centrifugal compressors Medium duty (Moderate pulsation) Reciprocating pumps and compressors with 3 or more cylinders Heavy Duty (Shock load) Reciprocating pumps and compressors with 1 or 2 cylinders

Domestic machines Like refrigerator and Concrete mixtures Crushers dish washers Cranes and hoists (Medium duty) Liquid agitator and Presses and extruders mixer Food and canning machinery Light machine tools precision tools like Medium to heavy duty precision watch lathe, lathes, milling machine Stone breaking PCB drilling machine and other tools, wood machinery Screens (light duty) working machinery Rotary kiln Steam, diesel and I.C. engines of 4 cylinders or more, steam and gas turbines, single phase AC motors Steam, diesel and I.C. engin engines of 4 cylinders DC motors (Shunt wound), high starting torque AC motors. Drives with clutches squirrel cage AC motors, series wound, DC motors Notes: If peak loads exist for significant duration of the time then suitable factors for over loading should also been used. The first value in the range of above recommended values of FSs may be assumed for 8 hours (or single shift) service: mid value for 8 16 hours; and last value for 3 shift of whole day service. References 1. Clive Dym and Patrick Little, Engineering design, John Willey, 2000. 2. B. J. Hamrock, Machine Design, McGraw Hill, 1999. 3. Kundra T.K., Personal communication.

1.0- 1.5

1.25- 1.75

1.5- 2.0

1.25 1.75

1.5 2.0

1.75 2.75

1.5 2.0

1.75 2.75

2.25 3.75