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Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of the data

gathered. The data gathered were based from the questionnaire provided by the researchers to the respondents including checklist and ranking. Table 1 Frequency of the Common Teaching Strategies used by the Clinical Instructors in the Classroom Setting.

Problem Solving

Written Report

Film Viewing

Group Work

Oral Report

Powerpoint

Visual Aids 0 0 3 6 9

Discussion

Recitation

Research

Role Play

Seatwork

Reading

Games

Level

1 2 3 4 Total

20 15 34 43 112

0 0 0 1 1

15 43 62 79 199

7 21 36 38 102

13 22 22 30 87

6 3 22 24 55

9 20 14 7 50

1 11 13 11 36

1 0 0 0 1

0 4 11 6 21

0 4 0 9 13

0 4 12 12 28

0 1 0 1 2

6 19 32 35 92

0 1 3 2 6

0 0 0 2 2

Interpretation: Table 1 shows the common teaching strategies used by the clinical instructors in the classroom teaching. The three (3) most common teaching strategies used by the students clinical instructors are discussion, oral report and role play. Discussion was identified to be one of the most common teaching strategies used since discussion is the most traditional method associated with teaching in which the teacher simply conveys the knowledge to the students in a one-way channel of communication. It can be an efficient means of introducing

Debate

Q&A

Quiz

learners to new topics. It is used to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge from several fields or sources and used to clarify difficult concepts (Tan, 2009). Oral Report is considered to be common among respondents because it allows clinical instructors to gauge students understanding of a given topic and the ability to formulate that understanding into oral discourse (Volle, 2005). Role Playing is common among the respondents since these are simulations used by the clinical instructors which are practical exercises for the students representing controlled manipulation of reality. These are exercises which learners engage in to know the real world without the risks of harm or injury and make learning enjoyable. These intend to help learners in decisionmaking and problem-solving, develop human interaction abilities and learn psychomotor skills in a safe and controlled setting. They can be used to achieve the various learning objectives (Tan, 2009). Table 2 shows the ranking of the different teaching strategies used by the clinical instructors in the classroom setting as perceived by the respondents. Discussion has the highest rank with a mean of 1.40. It is followed by Film Viewing with a mean rank of 1.52, Quiz with 1.89, Powerpoint with 1.95, Reading with 2.00, Question and Answer with 2.05, Role Play with 2.18, Games with 2.20, Group Work with 2.25, Oral Report with 2.31, Use of Visual Aids with 2.33, Recitation with 2.43, Seatwork with 2.46, Research and Problem Solving both have a mean rank of 2.50, and lastly with Written Report and Debate, both having a mean rank of 3.00.

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Table 2 Ranking of the Teaching Strategies used by the Clinical Instructors in the Classroom Setting.

Teaching Strategies Oral Report Written Report Discussion Role Play Recitation Powerpoint Games Quiz Reading Q&A Seatwork Film Viewing Research Group Work Problem Solving Visual Aids Debate Interpretation:

Level 1 Rank 2.00 0.00 1.21 2.29 2.54 2.33 1.88 2.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.33 0.00 0.00 0.00

Level 2 Rank 2.53 0.00 1.33 1.90 2.41 3.00 2.25 2.00 0.00 2.00 2.75 1.50 3.00 2.21 2.00 0.00 0.00

Level 3 Rank 2.29 0.00 1.34 2.28 2.45 2.14 2.43 2.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 1.82 0.00 1.97 2.67 3.00 0.00

Level 4 Rank 2.40 3.00 1.53 2.21 2.37 1.54 2.00 1.60 0.00 2.17 2.33 1.25 2.00 2.51 2.50 2.00 3.00

Mean Rank 2.31 3.00 1.40 2.18 2.43 1.95 2.20 1.89 2.00 2.05 2.46 1.52 2.50 2.25 2.50 2.33 3.00

Since there were already identified three (3) most common teaching strategies used, it was found out that among these three (3), the most effective according to their mean ranks was the use of discussion. This shows that the teacher acts as the discussion leader. She can create a conducive atmosphere that can enhance higher order thinking skills (Salandanan, 2001).

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Engaging students in discussion deepens their learning and motivation by propelling them to develop their own views and hear their own voices. A good environment for interaction is the first step in encouraging students to talk (http://pedagogy.merlot.org). Role playing is one of the four types of simulation techniques according to Tan (2009) and these simulations enable students to solve real-world problems in a safe environment and enjoy themselves while doing so. It is viewed by the respondents to be effective since they do not only enjoy spontaneously act out roles through interaction as one of the respondents commented, Sometimes its more motivating for us students to have a role playing. More effective strategies for more participation. Next to Role playing is oral reporting. As one of the respondents said, When we do oral reporting, we feel like teachers too. Personally, it boosts my confidence in speaking in front of many people. Another respondent said, If our CI assigns a certain topic to be reported, Ill be able to study deeply in order to share the information to my classmates. With this, I have something to remember and a background of that topic. According to Mary Elizabeth (2011), an oral report is an opportunity for students to practice their speaking skills, but other skills may come into play as well. There are presentation skills, such as making eye contact with ones audience, listening skills of a question and answer session, and the skill of anticipating how to present something in a way that will be understandable as

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well as appealing to ones particular audience. Thus, being the reporter, information will be retained in ones mind. Table 3 Ranking of the Effectiveness of Teaching Devices. ChalkBlackboard and

Overhead Projector

LCD Projector

Manila Paper

Instruments

Level

1 2 3 4 Mean Rank

5.67 4.63 4.16 5.76 5.06

3.43 2.41 2.34 2.53 2.68

3.59 4.93 4.83 5.81

8.71 7.57 7.97 7.94

7.79 7.41 7.44 6.53

5.55 5.98 6.22 5.24

5.63 5.88 6.08 5.33

6.83 6.32 6.05 5.38

3.28 3.11 4.93 5.53

8.03 8.34 7.26 7.99

9.67 9.43 8.74 8.45

4.79 8.05 7.29 5.75 5.73 6.14 4.21 7.90 9.07

Interpretation: Among the eleven (11) teaching devices provided in Table 3, the students perceived the use of LCD Projector as the most effective teaching device the clinical instructors use in the classroom setting with a mean rank of 2.68. It is followed by a mean rank of 4.21 which refers to the use of Books, 4.79 for Blackboard and Chalk, 5.06 for Overhead Projector, 5.73 for Pictures, 5.75 for Hand-outs, 6.14 for Films, 7.29 for Instruments, 7.90 for Journals, 8.05 for Manila Paper, and lastly, with a mean rank of 9.07 for the use of Mannequins. Using audiovisual aids is a traditional method that can reinforce teaching and learning. It is used as a supplement to a lecture, as a prelude to discussion,
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Mannequin

Hand- outs

Journals

Pictures

Books

Films

or a part of questioning strategy (Clark, 2008). When used appropriately, audiovisuals can greatly enhance teaching and add to students interest and facilitates understanding of the subject matter in the classroom. When not used appropriately, these simply become time fillers and entertainers which make learning insufficient or difficult. Types of traditional audiovisual devices include: Hand-outs, Chalkboards, Overhead Projector, LCD Projector, Pictures, and Films. Table 4 on the next page shows the level of satisfaction of Nursing students on the teaching strategies indicators in terms of skills, knowledge, and attitude. The level 1 Nursing students are very highly satisfied with the teaching strategy skill indicator with a mean of 4.79. This is due to the delivery of the lesson with a correct grammar, presentation of lesson systematically, appropriately, spontaneously. Furthermore, level 2 Nursing students are highly satisfied with a mean of 3.89. They are highly satisfied because the clinical instructors can deliver the lesson with a moderate and clear voice, can pronounce words and terms correctly and fluently, uses different teaching strategies, and presents the lessons spontaneously. The level 3 Nursing students are also highly satisfied with a mean of 4.35 especially on the areas where clinical instructors have creative and systematic way of presenting the lesson and have the ability to achieve the set objectives.

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As perceived by the level 4 Nursing students, they are highly satisfied with a mean of 4.05 especially on the areas where clinical instructors ability to deliver lessons in a moderate and clear voice, present lessons in a systematic and spontaneous manner, as well as on their ability to achieve the set objectives within the given time. Table 4 Students Satisfaction in the Teaching Strategy Indicators of Clinical Instructors.

SKILLS Level 1 2 3 4 MEAN AVERAGE Mean 4.79 3.89 4.35 4.05 4.27 KNOWLEDGE Level 1 2 3 4 MEAN AVERAGE Mean 4.86 4.23 4.43 4.29 4.46 ATTITUDE Level 1 2 3 4 MEAN AVERAGE Interpretation: Mean 4.93 4.26 4.53 4.33 4.51 Qualitative Description Very Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Qualitative Description Very Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Qualitative Description Very Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied

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The level 1 Nursing students are very highly satisfied with the teaching strategy knowledge indicator with a mean of 4.86. This is due to the ability of the clinical instructors to answer questions correctly, provide accurate, consistent, and evidence-based information, present meaningful and relevant ideas based on readings, researches, and experiences, and evaluate students learning through quizzes and/or exams. Level 2 Nursing students are highly satisfied with a mean of 4.23. They are highly satisfied because the clinical instructors can answer questions correctly; state principles applied in a certain concept or theory, and can connect and relate one subject matter to another. The level 3 Nursing students are also highly satisfied with a mean of 4.43 especially on the areas where clinical instructors are able to answer questions correctly, state principles applied in a certain concept or theory, and the ability to ask questions that enable students to exercise reflective thinking and enhance it with practical examples. Moreover, level 4 Nursing students are also highly satisfied with a mean of 4.29 especially in terms of the clinical instructors ability to answer questions correctly, state principles applied in a certain concept or theory, as well as on their ability to present meaningful and relevant ideas based on readings, researches, and experiences. The level 1 Nursing students have a mean rate of 4.93 on their clinical instructors teaching strategy attitude indicator. This rate signifies that they are very highly satisfied especially on the areas that the clinical instructor can easily be approached for consultation, has the ability to maintain students attention by cracking decent jokes, and to treat students equally and fairly. A mean of 4.26

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was rated by the level 2 Nursing students and this indicates a highly satisfied rating in terms of the clinical instructors ability to present the lesson with confidence, establish a good relationship with his/her students, and the ability to encourage students to verbalize opinions and suggestions. The level 3 Nursing students are highly satisfied with a mean rate of 4.53 especially on the areas where clinical instructors present the lessons with confidence, establish good relationship to his/her students, and cracks jokes to maintain students attention. Level 4 Nursing students are still highly satisfied with a mean rate of 4.33 especially on the clinical instructors confidence in presenting the lessons, ability to establish good relationship to his/her students, and to crack jokes in maintaining students attention. Table 5 Summary of Ranking of Students Satisfaction in the Teaching Strategy Indicators of Clinical Instructors.

Teaching Strategy Indicators SKILLS KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE MEAN RANK Interpretation:

Mean 4.27 4.46 4.51 4.41

Qualitative Description Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied Highly Satisfied

Table 5 shows the summary of the overall rating of the different teaching strategy indicators. Generally, the respondents from all year levels are highly satisfied with the clinical instructors skills in applying the different teaching strategies in the classroom setting with a mean rate of 4.27. Furthermore, the
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respondents are also highly satisfied with a mean rate of 4.46 on the clinical instructors knowledge relevant to the appropriateness of the teaching strategy being used. On the other hand, the respondents rated 4.51 to the clinical instructors attitude in terms of the manner of their interaction to the students with the use of the different teaching strategies. This rating implies that they are highly satisfied on this indicator. According to educators, teaching is an aggregate of organized instructional methodologies aimed at achieving a desired learning objective. Some of its objectives includes: acquisition of knowledge and information, development of skills and cultivation of values and attitudes. The ultimate objective is to enable students to learn and sustain continued learning for selfgrowth and development. The whole process which consists of teaching that (knowledge), teaching how (skills) and teaching to be (attitude) is pursued through systematically planned teaching methodologies and procedures (Salandanan, 2004). According to him, with learners at the center, teaching serves as the principal means of awakening and nurturing the students interest and learning potentials with an end view of inducing self- learning and self- reliance. A heightened consideration of their personalities, character and capacities are evident in the manifold teaching chores. The level of satisfaction perceived by the Nursing students regarding the teaching strategy indicators resulted to be highly satisfied in general. This satisfaction is dependent on the performance of the clinical instructors since

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according to Markham and Hagan (2007), teacher performance is seen as only one of a number of antecedents of satisfaction. The level of students satisfaction is attaining professional competence as they go through the different strategies used by a teacher. It is how clinical instructors teaching facilitates students learning by satisfying its 3 components such as the skills, knowledge and attitude. It presented ways towards an effective teaching and satisfaction.

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