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[T 12] S R R Blitzkrieg /blts.

.krig/ noun [ C ] A sudden attack involving aircraft and forces on the ground, which is intended to surprise and quickly defeat the enemy Umbrage /m.brd/ noun [ U ] SLIGHTLY FORMAL Take umbrage To feel upset or annoyed, usually because you feel that someone has been rude or shown no respect to you You don't think she'll take umbrage if she isn't invited to the wedding, do you? Burgeoning /b.d n./ /b-/ adjective Developing quickly The company hoped to profit from the burgeoning communications industry. The bourgeoisie /b.wzi/ /-br-/ noun [ S + sing/pl verb ] (in Marxism) the part of society, including employers and people who run large companies, which has most of the money and takes advantage of ordinary workers The new bourgeoisie, which was created by the Industrial Revolution, had money to spend and wanted to travel. Bungle /b.gl / verb [ T ] To do something wrong, in a careless or stupid way Evince /vn t s/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To make obvious or show clearly They have never evinced any readiness or ability to negotiate. In all the years I knew her, she never evinced any desire to do such a thing. Altercation / l.tk . n/ /l.t -/ noun [ C ] FORMAL A loud argument or disagreement According to witnesses, the altercation between the two men started inside the restaurant. Sham / m/ noun [ C usually singular ] DISAPPROVING Something which is not what it seems to be and is intended to deceive people, or someone who pretends to be something they are not It turned out that he wasn't a real doctor at all - he was just a sham. They claimed that the election had been fair, but really it was a sham.

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Sham / m/ adjective DISAPPROVING Only pretending to be real; false They made a fortune through some sham property deal. That jewellery looks sham to me. She's trapped in a sham (= not good or satisfying) marriage. Coterie /k.t r.i/ /k .t -/ noun [ C + sing/pl verb ] A small group of people with shared interests who often do not want other people to join them A coterie of writers Self-effacing /s lf.f .s/ adjective Not making yourself noticeable; not trying to get the attention of other people; modest The captain was typically self-effacing when questioned about the team's successes, giving credit to the other players. Dmarche noun a political step or initiative. Dossier /d s.i. / , /- r / /d.si. / noun [ C ] A set of papers containing information about a person, often a criminal, or on any subject The secret service probably has a dossier on all of us. Redaction noun 1 the process of editing text for publication. 2 a version of a text. DERIVATIVES Redactional adjective Double whammy /db.l wm.i/ noun [ C usually singular ] INFORMAL A situation when two unpleasant things happen at almost the same time Britain's farmers have faced the double whammy of a rising pound and falling agricultural prices. Recrimination /rkrm.n . n/ noun [ U ] ( ALSO recriminations ) Arguments between people who are blaming each other The peace talks broke down and ended in bitter mutual recrimination(s). Causeway /kz.w / /kz-/ noun [ C ] A raised path, especially across a wet area Remission /rm . n/ noun ILLNESS

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[T 12] S R R 1. [ C or U ] FORMAL a period of time when an illness is less severe Her cancer has been in remission for several years. Remission /rm . n/ noun REDUCTION 2. [ U ] UK LEGAL a reduction of the time that a person has to stay in prison He was given three months' remission for good behaviour. Remission /rm . n/ noun RELIGION 3. [ U ] FORMAL forgiveness for breaking religious laws or rules He believes that redemption is based on remission of sins. Bludgeon /bld. n/ verb [ T ] 1. To hit someone hard and repeatedly with a heavy weapon The two boys had been mercilessly bludgeoned to death . 2. To force someone to do something The children bludgeoned their parents into tak ing them to the zoo. Clandestine /klnd s.tn/ adjective FORMAL Planned or done in secret, especially describing something that is not officially allowed The group held weekly clandestine meetings in a church. He has been having a clandestine affair with his secretary for three years. She undertook several clandestine operations for the CIA. Pandemonium /pn.dm.ni.m/ /-m -/ noun [ U ] A situation in which there is a lot of noise and confusion because people are excited, angry or frightened Pandemonium reigned in the hall as the unbelievable election results were read out. The pandemonium of the school playground Peeve /piv/ verb [ T ] To annoy someone What peeved her most was his thoughtlessness. [ + that ] It peeves me that she didn't bother to phone. Caustic /k.stk/ /k-/ adjective CHEMICAL 1. Describes a chemical that burns or destroys things, especially anything made of living cells A caustic substance Caustic /k.stk/ /k-/ adjective WORDS

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2. Describes a remark or way of speaking that is hurtful , critical or intentionally unkind Caustic comments She's famous in the office for her caustic wit. Kowtow /kata/ verb [ I ] DISAPPROVING To show too much respect to someone in authority, always obeying them and changing what you do in order to please them (often kowtow to) be excessively subservient towards someone. Prescient /pr s.i.nt/ adjective FORMAL Knowing or suggesting correctly what will happen in the future A prescient warning Oblivious /blv.i.s/ adjective Not conscious of something, especially what is happening around you Absorbed in her work, she was totally oblivious of her surroundings. The government seems oblivious to the likely effects of the new legislation. Behove /bhv/ /-h v/ verb ( US behoove ) OLDFASHIONED FORMAL

It behoves sb to It is right for someone to do something It ill behoves you to (= You should not) speak so rudely of your parents. Capitulate /kpt.j.l t/ verb [ I ] 1. To accept military defeat Their forces capitulated five hours after the Allied bombardment of the city began. 2. To accept something or agree to do something unwillingly The sports minister today capitulated to calls for his resignation. Collegial adjective 1 another term for collegiate (in sense 1). 2 relating to or involving shared responsibility. DERIVATIVES Collegiality noun Plaintive /pl n.tv/ /-t v/ adjective Describes something which sounds slightly sad The plaintive sound of the bagpipes "What about me?" came a plaintive voice. Incense /n.s n t s/ noun [ U ] A substance that is burnt to produce a sweet smell, especially as part of a religious ceremony An incense burner/stick Incense /ns n t s/ verb [ T usually passive ] To cause someone to be extremely angry

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[T 12] S R R The editor said a lot of readers would be incensed by my article on abortion. I was so incensed by what he was saying I had to walk out. Animosity /n.m s..ti/ /-m.s.t i/ noun [ C or U ] Strong dislike, opposition, or anger Of course we're competitive but there's no personal animosity between us. In spite of his injuries, he bears no animosity towards his attackers. The European Community helped France and Germany forget the old animosities between them. Platitude /plt..tj d/ /plt ..t d/ noun [ C ]
DISAPPROVING

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[ + speech ] "My husband doesn't know yet, but I'm going to leave him, " she confided. Confide in sb phrasal verb To share your feelings and secrets with someone because you trust them not to tell other people She's nice, but I don't feel I can confide in her. Vacillate /vs..l t/ verb [ I ] DISAPPROVING To be uncertain what to do, or to change often between two opinions Her mood vacillated between hope and despair. Sycophantic /sk.fn.tk/ adjective FORMAL
DISAPPROVING

A remark or statement that may be true but is boring and has no meaning because it has been said so many times before He doesn't mouth platitudes about it not mattering who scores as long as the team wins. Reconcile /r k. n.sal/ verb [ T ] 1. To find a way in which two situations or beliefs that are opposed to each other can agree and exist together It is sometimes difficult to reconcile science and religion. It's difficult to reconcile such different points of view. How can you reconcile your fur coat and/with your love of animals? 2. Be reconciled When two people are reconciled they become friendly again after they have argued They were finally reconciled with each other, after not speaking for nearly five years. Reconcile yourself to sth phrasal verb To accept a situation or fact although you do not like it She must reconcile herself to the fact that she must do some work if she wants to pass her exams. Reconciliation /r k. nsl.i . n/ noun 1. [ C or U ] when two people or groups of people become friendly again after they have argued It took hours of negotiations to bring about a reconciliation between the two sides. 2. [ U ] the process of making two opposite beliefs, ideas or situations agree Confide /knfad/ verb [ I or T ] To tell something secret or personal to someone who you trust not to tell anyone else [ + that ] He confided ( to her) that his hair was not his own.

(of a person or of behaviour) praising people in authority in a way that is not sincere, usually in order to get some advantage from them There was sycophantic laughter from the audience at every one of his terrible jokes. Sycophantic /sk.fn.tk/ adjective FORMAL
DISAPPROVING

(of a person or of behaviour) praising people in authority in a way that is not sincere, usually in order to get some advantage from them There was sycophantic laughter from the audience at every one of his terrible jokes. Sycophancy /sk..fn t .si/ noun [ U ] Sycophant /sk..fnt/ noun [ C ] The Prime Minister is surrounded by sycophants. Sycophant noun a toady; a servile flatterer. Toady /t.di/ /t -/ noun [ C ] DISAPPROVING A person who praises and is artificially pleasant to people in authority, usually in order to get some advantage from them Creed /krid/ noun [ C ] ( ALSO credo ) FORMAL A set of beliefs which expresses a particular opinion and influences the way you live Anecdotal /n.kd.t l/ /-d .t l/ adjective Describes information that is not based on facts or careful study Anecdotal evidence Anecdote /n.k.dt/ /-d t/ noun [ C ] A short often funny story, especially about something someone has done He told one or two amusing anecdotes about his years as a policeman. Tout /tat/ verb MAKE KNOWN

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[T 12] S R R 1. [ T ] to advertise, make known or praise something or someone repeatedly, especially as a way of encouraging their sale, popularity or development As an education minister, she has been touting these ideas for some time. He is being widely touted as the next leader of the Social Democratic party. Several insurance companies are now touting their services/wares on local radio. 2. [ I ] to repeatedly try to persuade people to buy your goods or services There were hundreds of taxis at the airport, all touting for business/custom. Tout /tat/ verb SELL UNOFFICIALLY 3. [ T ] UK ( US scalp ) to sell tickets for something such as a sports game or theatre performance unofficially, usually at a much higher price than the official price 30 seats for the match were being touted for 500. Lest /lest/ conjunction LITERARY In order to prevent any possibility that something will happen They were afraid to complain about the noise lest they annoyed the neighbours. Blas /blz / adjective Bored or not excited, or wishing to seem so He flies first class so often, he's become blas about it. Kilter /kl.t r / /-t / noun INFORMAL Out of kilter In a state of not working well Missing more than one night's sleep can throw your body out of kilter. Phlegmatic /fl gmt.k/ /-mt -/ adjective FORMAL Describes someone who doesn't usually get emotional or excited about things As a footballer his great asset was his calm, phlegmatic manner. Charg (d'affaires) / . .df r / / r. .df r/ noun [ C ] plural chargs (d'affaires) A person who represents the leader of his or her government, either temporarily while the ambassador is away, or permanently in a country where there is no ambassador The Belgian charg d'affaires/the charg d'affaires for Belgium Veracity /vrs..ti/ /v s..t i/ noun [ U ] FORMAL The quality of being true, honest or accurate

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Doubts were cast on the veracity of her alibi after three people claimed to have seen her at the scene of the robbery. Concoct /knk kt/ /-kkt/ verb [ T ] 1. To make something, usually food, by adding several different parts together, often in a way that is original or not planned He concocted the most amazing dish from all sorts of unlikely ingredients. 2. To invent an excuse, explanation or story in order to deceive someone He concocted a story about working late at the office. Contentious /knt n t . s/ adjective Causing or likely to cause disagreement A contentious decision/policy/issue/subject She has some rather contentious views on education. Farce /fs/ /frs/ noun PLAY 1. [ C ] a humorous play or film where the characters become involved in unlikely situations 2. [ U ] the style of writing or acting in this type of play The play suddenly changes from farce to tragedy. Farce /fs/ /frs/ noun SITUATION 3. [ C ] DISAPPROVING a silly or meaningless situation or action No one had prepared anything so the meeting was a bit of a farce. Farcical /f.s.k l/ /fr-/ adjective DISAPPROVING The whole situation has become farcical. Farcically /f.s.kli/ /fr-/ adverb DISAPPROVING Disquisition /ds.kwz . n/ noun [ C ] FORMAL A long and detailed explanation of a particular subject Acquiesce /k.wi s/ verb [ I ] FORMAL To accept or agree to something, often unwillingly Reluctantly, he acquiesced to/in the plans. Glean /glin/ verb [ T ] To collect information in small amounts and often with difficulty From what I was able to glean, the news isn't good. They're leaving on Tuesday - I managed to glean that much ( from them). Purport /p.pt/ /p.prt/ noun [ U ] FORMAL The general meaning of someone's words or actions I didn't read it all but I think the purport of the letter was that he will not be returning for at least a year.

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[T 12] S R R Purport /ppt/ /pprt/ verb [ T + to infinitive ]


FORMAL

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2. [ T often passive ] FORMAL to combine or connect two things All these different political elements have somehow been yoked together to form a new alliance. Replete /rplit/ adjective [ after verb ] FORMAL 1. Full, especially with food After two helpings of dessert, Sergio was at last replete. 2. Well supplied This car has an engine replete with the latest technology. Heed /hid/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To pay attention to something, especially advice or a warning The airline has been criticized for failing to heed advice/warnings about lack of safety routines. Arson /.s n/ /r-/ noun [ U ] The crime of intentionally starting a fire in order to damage or destroy something, especially a building A cinema was burnt out in north London last night. Police suspect arson. Indemnity /nd m.n.ti/ /-t i/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL OR
SPECIALIZED

To pretend to be or to do something, especially in a way that is not easy to believe They purport to represent the wishes of the majority of parents at the school. The study purports to show an increase in the incidence of the disease. The tape recording purports to be of a conversation between the princess and a secret admirer. Obdurate / b.dj.rt/ /b.dr.t/ adjective FORMAL 1. DISAPPROVING extremely determined to act in a particular way and not to change despite what anyone else says The President remains obdurate on the question of tax cuts. 2. Describes a person who refuses to change their mind, or someone or something that is difficult to deal with or change The union remains obdurate that any redundancies must be voluntary. Several obdurate facts/differences remain, preventing a compromise solution. Intransigent /ntrn.z.d nt/ , /-trn-/ adjective
FORMAL

Refusing to be persuaded, especially refusing to change opinions that are strongly believed in Unions claim that the management continues to maintain an intransigent position. Intransigently /ntrn.z.d nt.li/ , /-trn-/ adverb Intransigence /ntrn.z.d n t s/ , /-trn-/ noun [ U] Venal /vi.n l/ adjective FORMAL 1. A venal person is willing to behave in a way that is not honest or moral in exchange for money A venal ruler 2. A venal activity is done in order to get money A venal regime They are accused of being involved in venal practices. Yoke /jk/ /j k/ noun [ C ] WOODEN BAR 1. A wooden bar which is fastened over the necks of two animals, especially cattle , and connected to the vehicle or load that they are pulling See picture yoke Yoke /jk/ /j k/ noun [ C ] CONNECTION 3. FORMAL something which connects two things or people, usually in a way that unfairly limits freedom The yoke of marriage Both countries had thrown off the communist yoke. Yoke /jk/ /j k/ verb CONNECT

Protection against possible damage or loss, especially a promise of payment, or the money paid if there is such damage or loss Indemnify /nd m.n.fa/ verb [ T ] To protect someone or something against possible damage or loss by paying an indemnity to cover the costs The insurance also indemnifies the house against flooding. Opportune / p..tj n/ /.p t n/ adjective FORMAL Happening at a time which is likely to give success or which is convenient This would seem to be an opportune moment for reviving our development plan. Would it be opportune to discuss the contract now? Opposite inopportune Consummate /k n.s.mt/ /kn-/ adjective [ before noun ] FORMAL Perfect, or complete in every way A life of consummate happiness He's a consummate athlete/gentleman/liar. Elephantine / l.fn.tan/ adjective FORMAL Very large She's so tiny she makes me feel elephantine.

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[T 12] S R R Charlatan / .l.t n/ / r.l.t n/ noun [ C ]


DISAPPROVING

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Adamance noun Adamancy noun Adamantly adverb Acquiesce /k.wi s/ verb [ I ] FORMAL To accept or agree to something, often unwillingly Reluctantly, he acquiesced to/in the plans. Dexterity /d kst r..ti/ /-t i/ noun [ U ] The ability to perform a difficult action quickly and skilfully with the hands, or the ability to think quickly and effectively He caught the ball with great dexterity. He answered the journalists' questions with all the dexterity of a politician. Dexterous , dextrous /d k.st r.s/ /-st -/ adjective A dexterous movement Dexterously , dextrously /d k.st r..sli/ /-st -/ adverb Aloof /l f/ adjective 1. Describes an unfriendly person who refuses to take part in things She seemed rather aloof when in fact she was just shy. 2. Not interested or involved, usually because you do not approve of what is happening Whatever is happening in the office, she always remains aloof. She kept herself aloof from her husband's business. Atone for sth phrasal verb FORMAL To do something that shows that you are sorry for something bad that you did The country's leader has expressed a wish to atone for his actions in the past. Apropos /p.rp/ /-p / adverb , preposition
FORMAL

A person who pretends to have skills or knowledge that they do not have, especially in medicine Quackery /kwk. r.i/ /- -/ noun [ U ] DISAPPROVING Medical methods that do not work and are only intended to make money Letters rogatory plural noun Law documents making a request through a foreign court to obtain information or evidence from a specified person within the jurisdiction of that court. Modality noun (plural modalities) 1 modal quality. 2 a means of attaining an end; a method. 3 a form of sensory perception. Merchandise /m.t n.das/ /m-/ noun [ U ] FORMAL Goods that are bought and sold Shoppers complained about poor quality merchandise and high prices. Japan exported $117 billion in merchandise to the US in 1999. Effete /fit/ adjective 1. LITERARY DISAPPROVING weak and without much power With nothing to do all day the aristocracy had grown effete and lazy. 2. DISAPPROVING more typical of a woman than of a man Debase /db s/ verb [ T ] 1. To reduce the quality or value of something Some argue that money has debased football. Our world view has become debased. We no longer have a sense of the sacred. 2. Debase the coinage/currency To lower the value of a coin by making it from a less valuable metal Abdicate /b.d.k t/ verb NOT DO 2. Abdicate responsibility FORMAL DISAPPROVING To stop controlling or managing something that you are in charge of She was accused of abdicating all responsibility for the project. Adamant adjective refusing to be persuaded or to change one's mind. noun archaic a legendary rock or mineral associated at times with both diamond and lodestones. DERIVATIVES

Used to introduce something which is related to or connected with something that has just been said I had a letter from Sally yesterday - apropos (of) which, did you send her that article? Apropos what you said yesterday, I think you made the right decision. Apropos /p.rp/ /-p / adjective [ after verb ]
FORMAL

Suitable in a particular situation or at a particular time Clothes which are apropos to the occasion Ardour UK , US ardor /.d r / /r.d / noun [ U ] Great enthusiasm or love His ardour for her cooled after only a few weeks. Arduous /.dj .s/ /r.d -/ adjective Difficult, needing a lot of effort and energy

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[T 12] S R R An arduous climb/task/journey Arrant /r. nt/ / r-/ adjective [ before noun ] OLDFASHIONED

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Financial aid is being provided to the country under the auspices of the International Monetary Fund. Pernicious /pn .s/ /p -/ adjective FORMAL Having a very harmful effect or influence The cuts in government funding have had a pernicious effect on local health services. Irreconcilable /r. k. nsa.l.bl / adjective Impossible to find agreement between or with; impossible to deal with Irreconcilable differences of opinion They have become irreconcilable, with both sides refusing to compromise any further. Reconcile /r k. n.sal/ verb [ T ] 1. To find a way in which two situations or beliefs that are opposed to each other can agree and exist together It is sometimes difficult to reconcile science and religion. It's difficult to reconcile such different points of view. How can you reconcile your fur coat and/with your love of animals? 2. Be reconciled When two people are reconciled they become friendly again after they have argued They were finally reconciled with each other, after not speaking for nearly five years. Conciliate /knsl.i. t/ verb [ I or T ] To end a disagreement or someone's anger by acting in a friendly way or slightly changing your opinions, or to satisfy someone who disagrees with you by acting in this way An independent adviser has been brought in to conciliate between the two sides involved in the conflict. These changes have been made in an attempt to conciliate critics of the plan. Pugnacious /pgn . s/ adjective FORMAL Wanting to start an argument or fight, or expressing an argument or opinion very forcefully I found him pugnacious and arrogant. Bedizen verb literary dress up or decorate gaudily. Gaudy adjective (gaudier, gaudiest) extravagantly or tastelessly bright or showy. DERIVATIVES Gaudily adverb Gaudiness noun Desolate adjective 1 giving an impression of bleak and dismal emptiness.

Total He dismissed the rumours as `arrant nonsense'. Cast aspersions on sb/sth FORMAL to criticize or make damaging remarks or judgments about someone or something His opponents cast aspersions on his patriotism. Aspersion noun an attack on someone's character or reputation: he has cast aspersions on our abilities. Slander /sln.d r / /sln.d / noun [ C or U ] A false spoken statement about someone which damages their reputation, or the making of such a statement The doctor is suing his partner for slander. She regarded his comment as a slander on her good reputation. Compare libel Sedulous adjective showing dedication and diligence. DERIVATIVES Sedulity noun Sedulously adverb Sedulousness noun Enervating / n..v .t/ /- .v .t / adjective FORMAL Causing you to feel weak and with no energy I find this heat very enervating. Venerable /v n. r..bl / adjective 1. FORMAL deserving respect because of age, high position or religious or historical importance A venerable tradition/company/family 2. INFORMAL MAINLY HUMOROUS describes something that has been in use, or someone who has been involved in something, for a long time In recent years there has been a noticeable decline in such venerable British institutions as afternoon tea and the Sunday roast. Fecund /f k.nd/ adjective FORMAL 1. Able to produce a lot of crops, fruit, babies, young animals, etc Fecund soil 2. Active and productive A fecund imagination Auspices /.sp.sz/ /-/ plural noun FORMAL Under the auspices of sb/sth With the protection or support of someone or something, especially an organization

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[T 12] S R R 2 utterly wretched and unhappy. verb make desolate. DERIVATIVES Desolately adverb Desolateness noun Desolation noun Desolator noun Belie /bla/ verb [ T ] belying , belied , belied To show something to be false, or to hide something such as an emotion Her calm face belied the terror she was feeling. Coax /kks/ /k ks/ verb [ T ] To persuade someone gently to do something or go somewhere, by being kind and patient, or by appearing to be Perhaps you could coax your father into tak ing you to the station. He has some information I want, so I'm going to try to coax it out of him over a drink. A mother was coaxing her reluctant child into the water. A coaxing voice Bland adjective 1 lacking strong features or characteristics and flavour or seasoning; insipid. 2 showing no strong emotion. DERIVATIVES Blandly adverb Blandness noun Blandishments /bln.d .mn t s/ plural noun FORMAL Pleasant words or actions used in order to persuade someone to do something She was impervious to his blandishments. Blatant /bl .t nt/ adjective Describes something bad that is very obvious or intentional A blatant lie The whole episode was a blatant attempt to gain publicity. Burgeoning /b.d n./ /b-/ adjective Developing quickly The company hoped to profit from the burgeoning communications industry. Burgeon /b.d n/ /b-/ verb [ I ] LITERARY To develop or grow quickly Love burgeoned between them. Calumny /kl.m.ni/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL

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(the act of making) a statement about someone which is not true and is intended to damage the reputation of that person He was subjected to the most vicious calumny, but he never complained and never sued. Chastise /t staz/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To criticize someone severely Charity organizations have chastised the Government for not do ing enough to prevent the latest famine in Africa. Rebuke /rbj k/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To speak angrily to someone because you disapprove of what they have said or done I was rebuked by my manager for be ing late. Rebut /rbt/ verb [ T ] -tt- FORMAL To argue that a statement or claim is not true She has rebutted charges that she has been involved in any financial malpractice. Cogent /k.d nt/ /k -/ adjective FORMAL Describes an argument or reason, etc. That is clearly expressed and persuades people to believe it Laconic /lk n.k/ /-k.nk/ adjective FORMAL Using very few words to express what you mean She had a laconic wit. Pompous /p m.ps/ /pm-/ adjective DISAPPROVING Too serious and full of importance He's a pompous old prig who's totally incapable of taking a joke. He can sometimes sound a bit pompous when he talks about acting. Deference /d f. r. n t s/ /- -/ noun [ U ] FORMAL Respect and politeness He treats her with such deference. She covered her head out of/in deference to (= because of a polite respect for) Muslim custom. Detractor /dtrk.t r / /-t / noun [ C ] Someone who criticizes something or someone, often unfairly His detractors claim that his fierce temper makes him unsuitable for party leadership. Liken sb/sth to sb/sth phrasal verb [ often passive ] To say that someone is similar to or has the same qualities as someone else She's been likened to a young Elizabeth Taylor. Demagogue , US ALSO demagog /d m..g g/ /-gg/ noun [ C ] DISAPPROVING a person, especially a political leader, who wins support by exciting people's emotions rather than by having good ideas Sully /sl.i/ verb [ T ] FORMAL

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[T 12] S R R 1. To spoil something which is pure or someone's perfect reputation His reputation, he said, had been unfairly sullied by allegations, half-truths and innuendos. 2. To make something dirty No speck of dirt had ever sullied his hands. Denouement /d n .m / /-m/ noun [ C ] The end of a story, in which everything is explained, or the end result of a situation Arson /.s n/ /r-/ noun [ U ] The crime of intentionally starting a fire in order to damage or destroy something, especially a building A cinema was burnt out in north London last night. Police suspect arson. Desuetude noun formal a state of disuse. Deride /drad/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To laugh at someone or something in a way which shows you think they are stupid or of no value He derided my singing as pathetic. This building, once derided by critics, is now a major tourist attraction. Gauze /gz/ /gz/ noun 1. [ U ] a very thin light cloth, used to make clothing, to cover cuts and to separate solids from liquids, etc A gauze skirt A piece of sterile gauze 2. [ C or U ] a material like a net formed by wires crossing over each other Wire gauze Diaphanous /daf. n.s/ adjective LITERARY Describes a substance, especially cloth, which is so delicate and thin that you can see through it A diaphanous silk veil Desultory /d s. l.t r.i/ /-tr-/ adjective FORMAL Without a clear plan or purpose and showing little effort or interest She made a desultory attempt at conversation. He wandered around, clearing up in a desultory way. Acrimonious /k.rm.ni.s/ /-m -/ adjective
FORMAL

WORD LIST - DV
Hawkish /h.k / /h-/ adjective Supporting the use of force in political relationships rather than discussion or other more peaceful solutions The president is hawkish on foreign policy. Pecuniary /pkj .nj r.i/ /-ni.er-/ adjective FORMAL Relating to money Pecuniary interest/loss/benefit A pecuniary matter Irreverent /r v. r. nt/ /- -/ adjective Not showing the expected respect for official, important or holy things An irreverent comment/approach/attitude Irreverent thoughts Obfuscate / b.fs.k t/ /b.f.sk t/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To make something less clear and harder to understand, especially intentionally She was criticized for using arguments that obfuscated the main issue. Vide verb see; consult (used as an instruction in a text to refer the reader elsewhere). Seclusion /skl . n/ noun [ U ] When someone is alone, away from other people He's been living in seclusion since he retired from acting. In some societies women are kept in seclusion, so that they are hardly ever seen in public. After being with a tour group all week I was glad to return to the seclusion of my own home. Pit sb/sth against sb/sth phrasal verb To cause one person, group or thing to fight against or be in competition with another It was a bitter civil war, that pitted neighbour against neighbour. [ R ] The climbers pitted themselves against the mountain. Gambit /gm.bt/ noun [ C ] CLEVER ACTION 1. A clever action in a game or other situation which is intended to achieve an advantage and usually involves taking a risk Her clever opening gambit gave her an early advantage. Their promise to lower taxes is clearly an electionyear gambit. 2. SPECIALIZED a way of beginning a game of chess , in which you intentionally lose a pawn (= game piece) in order to win some other form of advantage later Gambit /gm.bt/ noun [ C ] REMARK 3. A remark that you make to someone in order to start a conversation

Full of anger, arguments and bad feeling An acrimonious dispute Their marriage ended eight years ago in an acrimonious divorce . Imprecation /m.prk . n/ noun [ C ] FORMAL A swear word The old woman walked along the street muttering imprecations.

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[T 12] S R R "I hear you're a friend of Jamie's," was her opening gambit. Effusive /fj .sv/ adjective FORMAL Expressing welcome, approval or pleasure in a way that shows very strong feeling They gave us such an effusive welcome it was quite embarrassing. Exogenous adjective relating to or developing from external factors. Often contrasted with endogenous. DERIVATIVES Exogenously adverb Paucity /p.s.ti/ /p.s.t i/ noun [ S ] FORMAL When there is too little of something There is a paucity of information on the ingredients of many cosmetics. Triage noun (in medical use) the assessment of wounds or illnesses to decide the order of treatment of a large number of patients or casualties. verb decide the order of treatment of (patients or casualties). Travails /trv. lz/ , /trv lz/ plural noun OLDFASHIONED OR LITERARY

WORD LIST - DV
Changing mood or behaviour suddenly and unexpectedly A capricious child He was a cruel and capricious tyrant. Noose /n s/ noun Noose 1. [ C ] one end of a rope tied to form a circle which can be tightened round something such as a person's neck to hang (= kill) them They put him on the back of a horse and looped a noose around his neck. 2. [ S ] a serious problem or limit The noose of poverty was tightening (= becoming more serious) daily. Spectre UK , US specter /sp k.t r / /-t / noun 1. The spectre of sth The idea of something unpleasant that might happen in the future The awful spectre of civil war looms over the country. Drought and war have raised the spectre of food shortages for up to 24 million African people. 2. [ C ] LITERARY a ghost Interdict noun 1 Law, chiefly Scottish a court order forbidding an act. 2 (in the Roman Catholic Church) a sentence debarring a person or place from ecclesiastical functions and privileges. verb chiefly North American 1 prohibit or forbid. 2 intercept (a prohibited commodity). 3 Military impede (an enemy force), especially by bombing lines of communication or supply. DERIVATIVES Interdiction noun Interdictor noun Inebriated /ni.bri. .td/ /-t d/ adjective FORMAL Having drunk too much alcohol In her inebriated state, she was ready to agree to anything. Malaise /ml z/ noun [ S or U ] FORMAL A general feeling of being ill or having no energy, or an uncomfortable feeling that something is wrong, especially with society, and that you cannot change the situation They claim it is a symptom of a deeper and more general malaise in society. We were discussing the roots of the current economic malaise.

The difficulties that are experienced as part of a particular situation The travails of the British car industry are seldom out of the news. Afoot /ft/ adjective [ after verb ] Happening or being planned or prepared There are plans afoot to launch a new radio station. Tug /tg/ noun [ C ] BOAT 1. ( ALSO tugboat ) a boat with a powerful engine which can change direction easily and is used to pull large ships into and out of port Lexicon /l k.s.kn/ noun [ C ] SPECIALIZED (a list of) all the words used in a particular language or subject, or a dictionary Predilection /pri.dl k. n/ /pr d. l k-/ noun [ C ]
SLIGHTLY FORMAL

A strong liking Ever since she was a child, she has had a predilection for spicy food. Intransigent /ntrn.z.d nt/ , /-trn-/ adjective
FORMAL

Refusing to be persuaded, especially refusing to change opinions that are strongly believed in Unions claim that the management continues to maintain an intransigent position. Capricious /kpr .s/ adjective LITERARY

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[T 12] S R R Botched /b t t/ /bt t/ adjective ( UK ALSO bodged ) Describes something, usually a job, that is done badly Our landlord redecorated the bedroom, but it was such a botched job that we decided to redo it. Thousands of women are infertile as a result of botched abortions . Botch /b t / /bt / verb [ T ] ( UK ALSO bodge ) To spoil something by doing it badly We botched (up) our first attempt at wallpapering the bathroom. Indiscretion /n.dskr . n/ noun 1. [ U ] when a person or their behaviour is indiscreet Jones was censured for indiscretion in leaking a secret report to the press. 2. [ C ] something, especially a sexual relationship, that is considered embarrassing or morally wrong We should forgive him a few youthful indiscretions. Indiscreet /n.dskrit/ adjective Saying or doing things which tell people things that should be secret or which embarrass people In an indiscreet moment, the president let his genuine opinions be known. They have been rather indiscreet about their affair. Indiscriminate /n.dskrm..nt/ adjective Not showing careful thought or planning, especially so that harm results An indiscriminate terrorist attack on civilians The indiscriminate use of fertilizers can cause longterm problems. Tote /tt/ /t t/ verb [ T ] INFORMAL To carry something, especially something heavy or awkward She usually toted the baby around in a backpack. The building was surrounded with bodyguards toting sub-machine guns . Gun -toting security men were posted at all the entrances. Pentavalent adjective Chemistry having a valency of five. Morbid adjective 1 characterized by or appealing to an abnormal and unhealthy interest in unpleasant subjects, especially death and disease. 2 Medicine of the nature of or indicative of disease. DERIVATIVES Morbidity noun Morbidly adverb

WORD LIST - DV
Morbidness noun Morbid /m.bd/ /mr-/ adjective DISAPPROVING Too interested in unpleasant subjects, especially death A morbid fascination with death Debilitate /dbl..t t/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To make someone or something physically weak Chemotherapy exhausted and debilitated him. Schizophrenia /skt.sfri.ni./ noun [ U ] 1. A serious mental illness in which someone cannot understand what is real and what is imaginary Paranoid schizophrenia 2. INFORMAL behaviour in which a person appears to have two different personalities Tedium /ti.di.m/ noun [ U ] When you feel bored Soldiers often say that the worst thing about fighting is not the moments of terror, but all the hours of tedium in between. Marquee /mki/ /mr-/ adjective [ before noun ] US Being the main performer or sports person in a show, film, sports event, etc. Or being the performer, etc. Whose name will attract most people to the show, film, etc The studio chiefs wanted a marquee name in the lead role, not some unknown. Marquee /mki/ /mr-/ noun [ C ] TENT 1. UK a large tent used for eating and drinking in at events held mainly outside that involve a lot of people We're planning to hold the wedding reception in a marquee in the garden. Marquee /mki/ /mr-/ noun [ C ] ROOF 2. US a roof-like structure which sticks out over the entrance to a public building, especially a theatre, and on which there is usually a sign Frailty /fr l.ti/ /-t i/ noun 1. [ U ] weakness and lack of health or strength Though ill for most of her life, physical frailty never stopped her from working. 2. [ C or U ] moral weakness Most of the characters in the novel exhibit those common human frailties - ignorance and greed. Tolerant of human frailty in whatever form, she almost never judged people. Quid pro quo /kwd.prkw/ /-pr kw / noun [ C usually singular ] plural quid pro quos FORMAL Something that is given to a person in return for something they have done The government has promised food aid as a quid pro quo for the stopping of violence.

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[T 12] S R R Consummation /k n.sjm . n/ /kn.s-/ noun [ U ] SEX 1. LEGAL when a marriage or romantic relationship is made complete by having sex Consummation /k n.sjm . n/ /kn.s-/ noun [ U ] COMPLETION 2. FORMAL when something is made complete or perfect Boondoggle /b nd g.l / /-d.gl / noun [ C ] US
INFORMAL

WORD LIST - DV
Consternation /k n t .stn . n/ /kn t .st -/ noun [U] A feeling of worry, shock or confusion The prospect of so much work filled him with consternation. To his consternation, when he got to the airport he found he'd forgotten his passport. Heckle /h k.l / verb [ I or T ] To interrupt a public speech or performance with loud unfriendly statements or questions A few angry locals started heckling (the speaker). Despondent /dsp n.d nt/ /-spn-/ adjective Unhappy and with no hope or enthusiasm because you feel you are in a difficult situation He became/grew increasingly despondent when she failed to return his phone calls. She started to feel despondent about ever finding a job. Jugular (vein) /dg.j.lv n/ /-l -/ noun [ C ] Any of several large veins in the neck that carry blood from the head to the heart Go for the jugular To make serious effort to defeat someone, usually by criticizing them or harming them in a cruel way Cunningham went straight for the jugular, telling him that his work was a complete disaster. Acrimonious /k.rm.ni.s/ /-m -/ adjective
FORMAL

An unnecessary and expensive piece of work, especially one which is paid for by the public The senator called the new highways proposal "...a fraud and a boondoggle that the taxpayer should not tolerate". Brazen /br .z n/ adjective Obvious, without any attempt to be hidden There were instances of brazen cheating in the exams. He told me a brazen lie . Salacious /sl . s/ adjective DISAPPROVING Causing or showing a strong interest in sexual matters A salacious film/book/joke/comment Ream /rim/ noun 1. [ C ] SPECIALIZED 500 sheets of paper 2. [ C usually plural ] INFORMAL a lot of something, especially writing She's written reams of poetry. Oxymoron / k.sm.r n/ /k.smr.n/ noun [ C ] Two words used together which have, or seem to have, opposite meanings Peroration noun the concluding part of a speech; the summing up. Confound /knfand/ verb [ T ] To confuse and very much surprise someone, so that they are unable to explain or deal with a situation An elderly man from Hull has confounded doctors by recovering after he was officially declared dead. The singer confounded her critics with a remarkable follow-up album. Confounded /knfan.dd/ adjective [ before noun ] OLD-FASHIONED INFORMAL Used to express anger What a confounded nuisance! Presage /pr s.d/ , /prs d/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To show or suggest that something, often something unpleasant, will happen But still the economy is not showing signs of any of the excesses that normally presage a recession.

Full of anger, arguments and bad feeling An acrimonious dispute Their marriage ended eight years ago in an acrimonious divorce . Abashed /b t/ adjective [ after verb ] Embarrassed He said nothing but looked abashed. Unabashed /n.b t/ adjective Without any worry about possible criticism or embarrassment She is to this day unabashed in her patriotism. He is an unabashed capitalist. Compare abashed Unabated /n.b .td/ /-t d/ adjective [ usually after verb ] FORMAL Without becoming weaker in strength or force The fighting continued unabated throughout the night. Compare abate Odyssey / d..si/ /.d-/ noun [ C usually singular ]
LITERARY

A long exciting journey

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[T 12] S R R The film follows one man's odyssey to find the mother from whom he was separated at birth. FIGURATIVE a spiritual odyssey Co-opt /k pt/ /k pt/ verb [ T ] 1. (of an elected group) to make someone a member through the choice of the present members She was co-opted on to the committee last June. 2. To include someone in something, often against their will Although he was reluctant to get involved, he was co-opted onto the committee in 1998. 3. To use someone else's ideas Rock 'n' roll music was largely co-opted from the blues. Imprimatur /m.prm .t r / /-t / noun [ S ] FORMAL Official permission to do something that is given by a person or group in a position of power When he suspended the constitution and dissolved Congress, he had the imprimatur of the armed forces. Encumber /nkm.b r / /-b / verb [ T ] FORMAL To weigh someone or something down, or to make it difficult for someone to do something Today, thankfully, women tennis players are not encumbered with/by long, heavy skirts and high-necked blouses. Zionism /za.n.z m/ noun [ U ] A political movement which had as its original aim the creation of a country for Jewish people, and which now works to help the development of Israel Wring /r/ verb [ T ] wrung , wrung 1. To hold something tightly with both hands and twist it by turning your hands in opposite directions 2. ( ALSO wring out ) to twist a cloth or piece of clothing with your hands to remove water from it She wrung out the shirt and hung it out to dry. 3. Wring sth's neck To kill a bird or other animal by twisting and breaking its neck Rivet /rv.t/ verb [ T ] 1. To fasten together with a rivet Many parts of an aircraft are riveted together . 2. Be riveted To not be able to stop looking at something because it is so interesting or frightening It was an amazing film - I was absolutely riveted. His eyes were riveted on the television. He pulled out a gun and I was riveted to the spot (= so frightened that I could not move) . Trudge /trd/ verb [ I usually + adv/prep ] To walk slowly with a lot of effort, especially over a difficult surface or while carrying something heavy

WORD LIST - DV
We trudged back up the hill. I'd had to trudge through the snow. Nonchalant /n n. T l. nt/ /nn. lnt/ adjective Behaving in a calm manner, often in a way which suggests you are not interested or do not care A nonchalant manner/shrug Expound /kspand/ verb [ I or T ] FORMAL To give a detailed explanation of something He's always expounding on what's wrong with the world. She uses her newspaper column to expound her views on environmental issues. Cogent /k.d nt/ /k -/ adjective FORMAL Describes an argument or reason, etc. That is clearly expressed and persuades people to believe it Condone /kndn/ /-d n/ verb [ T ] To accept or allow behaviour that is wrong If the government is seen to condone violence , the bloodshed will never stop. Augur /.g r / /.g / verb [ I + adv/prep T ] FORMAL To be a sign of especially good or bad things in the future The company's sales figures for the first six months augur well for the rest of the year. Do you think that this recent ministerial announcement augurs (= is a sign of) a shift in government policy? Sporadic /sprd.k/ adjective Happening sometimes; not regular or continuous Sporadic gunfire A sporadic electricity supply More than 100 people have been killed this year in sporadic outbursts of ethnic violence. Vacillate /vs..l t/ verb [ I ] DISAPPROVING To be uncertain what to do, or to change often between two opinions Her mood vacillated between hope and despair. Accrual /kr .l/ noun [ C or U ] A gradual increase in an amount of money Abate /b t/ verb [ I ] FORMAL To become less strong The storm/wind/rain has started to abate. The fighting in the area shows no sign of abating. See also unabated Rancour , US rancor /r.k r / /-k / noun [ U ] FORMAL A feeling of hate and continuing anger about something in the past They cheated me, but I feel no rancour towards/against them. Ferment /fm nt/ /f -/ verb [ I or T ]

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[T 12] S R R To (cause something to) change chemically through the action of living substances, such as yeast or bacteria You make wine by leaving grape juice to ferment until all the sugar has turned to alcohol. Ferment /f.m nt/ /f-/ noun [ U ] LITERARY A state of confusion, change, and lack of order or fighting The resignation of the president has left the country in ferment. Erratum /r.tm/ /-t m/ noun [ C ] plural ERRATA
FORMAL

WORD LIST - DV
2. [ U ] FORMAL the general meaning, character or pattern of something What was the general tenor of his speech? Indict /ndat/ verb [ T ] LEGAL If a law court or a grand jury indicts someone, it accuses them officially of a crime UK He was indicted on drug charges at Snaresbrook Crown Court. US Five people were indicted for mak ing and sell ing counterfeit currency. Indictment /ndat.mnt/ noun 1. [ C usually singular ] a reason for giving blame This seems to me to be a damning indictment of education policy. 2. [ C ] LEGAL a formal statement of accusing someone The charges on the indictment include murder and attempted murder. Eloquent / l..kw nt/ adjective Giving a clear, strong message She made an eloquent appeal for action. The pictures were an eloquent reminder of the power of the volcano. Splinter /spln.t r / /- / noun [ C ] A small sharp broken piece of wood, glass, plastic or similar material The girl had got a splinter ( of wood) in her toe. Splinter /spln.t r / /- / verb [ I ] To break into small, sharp pieces The edges of the plastic cover had cracked and splintered. FIGURATIVE The danger is that the Conservative Party may splinter into several smaller political parties. Piper /pa.p r / /-p / noun [ C ] Someone who plays a pipe (= a short narrow tube played by blowing through it) or the bagpipes We could hear a lone piper player playing in the distance. Dribble /drb.l / verb [ I or T ] FLOW SLOWLY 1. To (cause a liquid to) flow very slowly in small amounts The water was barely dribbling out of the tap. Dribble the remaining olive oil over the tomatoes. Assail /s l/ verb FORMAL 1. [ T ] to attack someone violently or criticize someone strongly The victim had been assailed with repeated blows to the head and body. He was assailed with insults and abuse as he left the court.

A mistake in a printed or written document

Deprecate /d p.r.k t/ verb FORMAL NOT APPROVE 1. [ T not continuous ] to not approve of something or say that you do not approve of something We deprecate this use of company funds for political purposes. Deprecate /d p.r.k t/ verb FORMAL NOT VALUE 2. [ T ] to say that you think something is of little value or importance He always deprecates my achievements. Deprecating /d p.r.k .t/ /-t / adjective ( ALSO deprecatory ) NOT VALUING 1. Showing that you think something is of little value or importance Her deprecating smile clearly showed that she thought I'd said something stupid. See also self-deprecating 2. Showing that you feel embarrassed, especially by praise She reacted to his compliments with a deprecating laugh. Behove /bhv/ /-h v/ verb ( US behoove ) OLDFASHIONED FORMAL

It behoves sb to It is right for someone to do something It ill behoves you to (= You should not) speak so rudely of your parents. Behove (United States behoove ) verb (it behoves someone to do something) formal it is a duty, responsibility, or appropriate response for someone to do something. Tenor /t n. r / /- / noun MUSIC 1. [ C ] a male singer with a high voice, or (especially in combinations) a musical instrument which has the same range of notes as the tenor singing voice A tenor saxophone Tenor /t n. r / /- / noun CHARACTER

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[T 12] S R R 2. [ T often passive ] to cause someone to experience a lot of unpleasant things To be assailed by doubts/fears/problems Anomaly /n m..li/ /-n.m-/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL A person or thing that is different from what is usual, or not in agreement with something else and therefore not satisfactory Statistical anomalies can make it difficult to compare economic data from one year to the next. The anomaly of the social security system is that you sometimes have more money without a job. Anomalous /n m..ls/ /-n.m-/ adjective In a multicultural society is it not anomalous to have a blasphemy law which only protects one religious faith? Anomalously /n m..l.sli/ /-n.m-/ adverb Partake /pt k/ /pr-/ verb [ I ] partook , partaken EAT/DRINK 1. OLD-FASHIONED OR HUMOROUS to eat or drink Would you care to partake of a little wine with us? Partake /pt k/ /pr-/ verb [ I ] partook , partaken TAKE PART 2. OLD-FASHIONED OR FORMAL to become involved with or take part in something She was happy to partake in the festivities. Quintile noun 1 Statistics each of five equal groups into which a population can be divided according to the distribution of values of a variable. 2 Astrology an aspect of 72 (one fifth of a circle). Stoke /stk/ /st k/ verb [ I or T ] ( ALSO stoke up ) 1. To add fuel to a large closed fire and move the fuel around with a stick so that it burns well and produces a lot of heat Once the fire had been stoked up, the room began to get warm. 2. To encourage bad ideas or feelings in a lot of people He's been accused of stoking up racial hatred in the region. Rumours of an emergency meeting of the finance ministers stoked the atmosphere of crisis. Hiatus /ha .ts/ /-t s/ noun [ C usually singular ]
FORMAL

WORD LIST - DV
Too obviously showing your money, possessions or power, in an attempt to make other people notice and admire you They criticized the ostentatious lifestyle of their leaders. An ostentatious gesture/manner Secede /ssid/ verb [ I ] FORMAL To become independent of a country or area of government There is likely to be civil war if the region tries to secede from the south. Secession noun The action of seceding from a federation or organization.(the Secession) historical the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the US Union in 1860, leading to the Civil War. Cessation /s s . n/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL Ending or stopping Religious leaders have called for a total cessation of the bombing campaign. See also cease Blasphemy /bls.f.mi/ noun [ C or U ] Something which you say or do that shows you do not respect God or a religion To be accused of blasphemy FIGURATIVE HUMOROUS Elvis Presley fans think that any criticism of him is blasphemy. Sedition /sd . n/ noun [ U ] FORMAL Language or behaviour that is intended to persuade other people to oppose their government Cessation /s s . n/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL Ending or stopping Religious leaders have called for a total cessation of the bombing campaign. See also cease Masquerade /ms.k r d/ /-kr d/ noun [ C or U ] Behaviour that is intended to prevent the truth about something unpleasant or not wanted from becoming known They kept up the masquerade of being happily married for over thirty years. Masquerade as sb/sth phrasal verb To pretend or appear to be someone or something Hooligans masquerading as football fans have once again caused disturbances. Extenuate /kst n.j . t/ verb [ T ] FORMAL To cause a wrong act to be judged less seriously by giving reasons for it

A short pause in which nothing happens or is said, or a space where something is missing The company expects to resume production of the vehicle again after a two-month hiatus. Ostentatious / s.t nt . s/ /.stn-/ adjective
DISAPPROVING

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[T 12] S R R He was unable to say anything that might have extenuated his behaviour. Ambience , ambiance /m.bi. n t s/ /m.bin t s/ noun [ S ] LITERARY The character of a place or the quality it seems to have Despite being a busy city, Dublin has the ambience of a country town. Specious /spi. s/ adjective FORMAL DISAPPROVING Seeming to be right or true, but really wrong or false A specious argument/claim Specious allegations/promises Remiss /rms/ adjective [ after verb ] FORMAL Careless and not doing a duty well enough You have been remiss in your duties. [ + to infinitive ] It was remiss of me to forget to give you the message. Ignominy /g.n.m.ni/ noun [ U ] LITERARY Public embarrassment The Workers' Coalition experienced the ignominy of total defeat in the last election. Ignominious /g.nmn.i.s/ adjective LITERARY (especially of events or behaviour) embarrassing because of being a complete failure An ignominious defeat/failure/retreat Dispense with sth/sb phrasal verb To get rid of something or someone or stop using them because you do not need them They've had to dispense with a lot of luxuries since Mike lost his job. Taint /t nt/ verb [ T ] To spoil something, especially food or blood, by adding a harmful substance, or to spoil people's opinion of someone His reputation was permanently tainted by the financial scandal. Vendetta /v nd t./ /-d -/ noun [ C ] A long and violent argument between people or families in which one group tries to harm the other in order to punish them for things that have happened in the past He saw himself as the victim of a personal vendetta being waged by his political enemies. August /gst/ /-/ adjective FORMAL Having great importance and especially of the highest social class The society's august patron, the Duke of Norfolk Dismay /dsm / noun [ U ] A feeling of unhappiness and disappointment

WORD LIST - DV
Aid workers were said to have been filled with dismay by the appalling conditions that the refugees were living in. The supporters watched in/with dismay as their team lost 6-0. She discovered, to her dismay, that her exam was a whole month earlier than she'd expected. Contrite /kn.trat/ /kn-/ adjective FORMAL Feeling very sorry and guilty for something bad that you have done A contrite apology/expression Enigma /ng.m/ noun [ C ] Something that is mysterious and seems impossible to understand completely She is a bit of an enigma. The newspapers were full of stories about the enigma of Lord Lucan's disappearance. Dubious /dj .bi.s/ /d -/ adjective 1. Thought not to be completely true or not able to be trusted These claims are dubious and not scientifically proven. He has been associated with some dubious characters. Ruth Ellis has the dubious (= bad) distinction of being the last woman to be hanged in Britain. 2. Feeling doubt or not feeling certain I'm dubious about his promises to change his ways. Diabolical /dab l..k l/ /-b.l.k l/ adjective ( US ALSO diabolic ) 1. INFORMAL extremely bad or shocking Conditions in the prison were diabolical. His driving is diabolical! 2. Evil, or caused by the Devil Homeric adjective 1 of or in the style of the Greek poet Homer (8th century BC) or the epic poems ascribed to him. 2 of Bronze Age Greece as described in these poems.

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