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Maria Angelica S.

Valencia LLB-1st year

ST. DOMINIC SAVIO COLLEGE


Legal Technique and Logic (Midterm Exam)

1. U.P. Law Library a. Filipiniana Section Citing Secondary Sources (e.g. Books) IV E. Paras, Civil Code of the Philippines Annotated 121 (5 th ed., 2004). L. Reyes, Criminal Law Reviewer 287 (1st ed., 1960). J. Bernas, The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentary 558 (1996). L. Reyes, The Revised Penal Code: Criminal Law 107 (17th ed., 2008). V G. Trinidad, Philippine Permanent and General Statutes 238 (Revised ed., 1971). II C. Magsino, Compendium of Philippine Jurisprudence: Supreme Court Decisions From 1945-1980 356 (1989).

4 4 4 4

Citing unofficial Philippine reports of cases PHILAJUR 675 (1990). PHILAJUR 411 (1990). PHILAJUR 357 (1990). PHILAJUR 506 (1990). b. SCRA Section Citing Case Reports People v. Panganiban 166 S.C.R.A. 436 (1988). Tropical Homes v. NHA, 152 S.C.R.A. 540 (1987). Bautista v. Salonga, 172 S.C.R.A. 160 (1989). c. PR Section Citing Case Reports People v. Jaurigue, 76 Phil. 174 (1946). Hebron v. Reyes, 104 Phil. 125 (1958). d. Foreign Collection Citing Foreign Sources particularly Secondary Materials International Development Strategy: Action Programme of the General Assembly for the Second United Nations Development Decade, U.N. Martendale Hubbel International Law Directory 52 (2003). Guotos v. United States, 552 F.2d 1992 (Ct. Cl. 1976). 42 Am. Jur. 2d Fraud Sec. 107 (2004).

12 C.J.S. Aliens and Immigration Sec. 53 (2002).

e. Reserve Section Citing Official Gazette People v. Apolinar, G.R. No. 153285, January 26, 2004, 38 O.G. 2870 (Feb., 2006). People v. Collantes, 37 O.G. 1804 (Court of Appeals 1926). Citing Periodical Articles E. Fernando, Introduction: L.J. 53 (1998).

The Need for Philisophy of Law, 73 Phil.

2. House of Representatives Library Bureau a. Philippine Legislative Documents

Representative Del Mar, House of Representatives Journal (May 22, 2002). H. Res. 6, 8th Cong. 1st Sess. (1987). H. No. 1890, 14th Cong., 1st Sess. (2009). R.A. No. 9497, 1st Cong., 14th Cong., 1st Sess. (2007). b. Circulation Area

R. Palabrica, Doubts about dual citizenship, Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 12, 2012, p. 7, col. 2. Philippine Star, Jan. 31, 2012, p. 8, col. 1 c. Filipiniana Section

II V.J. Francisco, Labor Laws in the Philippines: Annotated and Commented 23 (4th ed., 1967). Agbayani, Commentaries and Jurisprudence on the Commercial Laws of the Philippines 104 (1970). D.Y. Cenido, Philippine Income Taxation: Principles, Laws, Rulings, Applications 15 (1994). d. SCRA Section

Moscoso v. Quitco, 36 S.C.R.A. 256 (1970). Pascua v. Pablo, 82 S.C.R.A. 182 (1978). People v. Silong, 232 S.C.R.A. 495 (1994).

e. General Reference

X Micropaedia : Ready Reference and Index, Jurisprudence, 236 (1975). W.A. Nellson, Lectures on the Harvard Classics, 398 (1914).

f. Philippine Document Section


Phil. Local Government Development Foundation, Compilation of DENR Circulars, Policies and Regulations on the Environment 154 (1996). C. Miraflor, Statesmanship in Electoral Reforms 212 (1970).

g. Foreign Laws Section

P. Sarcevic & P. Volken, International Sale of Goods: Dubrovnik Lectures 462 (1986). G. Kohlik & E. Rovelstad, Digest of Commercial Laws of the World 12 (1966). U.S. Government Printing Office, Digest and Index of Decisions 36 (1946). h. United Nations Documents

i.

II U.N., Yearbook of the International Law Commission 170 (1969).

Official Gazette

People v. Cogulio, G.R. N. 107699, February 28, 1997, 54 O.G. 5516 (Mar., 1999).

3. National Library Bureau a. General Books Section

Oposa v. Factoran, 224 S.C.R.A. 792 (1993). Board of Commissioners v. Dela Rosa, 197 S.C.R.A. 853 (1991). Maceda v. Vasquez, 221 S.C.R.A. 464 (1993). Torres v. Gonzales, 152 S.C.R.A. 272 (1987).

b. Government Publication Section UP Law Center, World Bulletin: Bulletin of the International Studies Institute of the Philippiens 52 (1999). XI R. Velayo, Velayos Digest of Philippine Supreme Court and Court of Appeals Decisions (1942 to 1960, New Series) 36 (1979). E. Pineda, The Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure 45 (1st ed., 2003). 1 H. De Leon, Philippine Constitutional Law and Cases 102 (1st ed., 1999) A. Busto, Philippine Civil Service Law with Omnibus Rules Implementing Book V of Executive Order No. 292 and Other Pertinent Civil Service Laws 12 (2008).

Philippine Reports Adane v. Dagpin, 90 Phil. 789 (1955). Chavez v. Linan, 1 Phil. 12 (1903). U.S. v. Giner, 6 Phil. 407 (1906). In re: Cunanan, et al., 94 Phil. 534 (1954) U.S. v. Villafuerte, 4 Phil. 559 (1905). 4. Revised course syllabus for the subjects of College of Law, 1st year, 2nd Trimester, S.Y. 2011-2012.

Course Outline in Constitutional Law I


I. INTRODUCTION A. Definition and Divisions of Political Law Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 S.C.R.A. 77 (1982). B. Definition of Constitutional Law; Distinguished from Political Law C. Constitution 1. Definition and theoretical basis (The Social Contract Theory) 2. Function 3. Classification 4. Essential qualities of a written constitution 5. Parts of a constitution 6. Interpretation of the Constitution Francisco v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 160261, November 10, 2003. 7. Supremacy of the constitution Mutuc v. Comelec, 36 S.C.R.A. 228 (1970). Alih et al. v. Castro, 151 S.C.R.A. 279 (1987). Manila Prince Hotel vs. GSIS, G.R. 122156, February 3, 1997. II. AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION CONST. (1987), art. XVII, sec. 1, 2, & 3. A. Amendment v. Revision B. Proposal 1. By Congress 2. By Constitutional Convention Gonzales vs. Comelec, 21 S.C.R.A. 774 (1968). 3. By the people thru initiative (See R.A. 6735 August 4, 1989) Santiago vs. Comelec, G.R. 127325, March 19, 1997. Lambino v. Comelec, G.R. No. 174153, October 25, 2006. Lambino v. Comelec Resolution (November 21, 2006). C. Submission Tolentino vs. Comelec, 41 S.C.R.A. 702 (1971) D. Ratification - CONST. (1987), art. XVII, sec. 4, par. (1) & (2).

E. The position of the Convention in our system of government III. JUDICIAL REVIEW A. Theory and Justification of Judicial Review Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 (1936). Francisco v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 160261, November 10, 2003. B. Requisites of Judicial Review CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 5, par. (2). 1. Actual Case or Controversy Prematurity: PACU v. Secretary of Education, 97 Phil. 806 (1955). Mariano v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 119694, March 7, 1995. Cutaran v. DENR, G.R. No. 134958, January 31, 2001. Montesclaros v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 152295. July 9, 2002 Mootness: Atlas Fertilizer v. DAR, G.R. No. 93100, June 19, 1997. Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835. August 14, 2000. Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May 10, 2001. Defunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974) Exceptions to Mootness: Acop v. Guingona, G.R. No. 134855, July 2, 2002. Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. 159085, February 3, 2004. Pimentel v. Ermita, G.R. 164978, October 13, 2005. 2. Proper Party Joya vs PCGG, G.R. 96541, August 24, 1993. Agan v. PIATCO, G.R. No. 155001, May 5, 2003. CHR Employees Assoc. v. CHR, G.R. 155336, Nov. 25, 2004. Citizen Standing: Tanada vs. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985). Chavez v. PEA and Amari, G.R. 133250, July 9, 2002. Associational Standing: KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, G.R. 115381, December 23, 1994. John Hay PAC. v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, October 24, 2003. IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000. Executive Secretary v. CA, 429 SCRA 781, May 25, 2004. Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 S.C.R.A. 110 (1994). Taxpayers Standing: U.S. v. Richardson, 418 U.S. 166 (1974). ITF v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 159139. January 13, 2004. Voters Standing: Tolentino v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438, January 21, 2004 Legislative Standing: Ople v. Torres, 293 S.C.R.A. 141 (1998). Governmental Standing: People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56 (1937). Facial Challenge: Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, November 19, 2001. 3. Earliest Opportunity Umali v. Guingona, 305 S.C.R.A. 533 (1999). 4. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Questions

Arceta v. Mangrobang, G.R. No. 152895. June 15, 2004. Mandatory Notice Mirasol v. CA, G.R. No. 128448, February 1, 2001. C. Functions of Judicial Review Mitra vs COMELEC, 104 S.C.R.A. 58 (1981). Salonga vs Cruz-Pano, 134 S.C.R.A. 438 (1985). Javier v. COMELEC, 144 S.C.R.A. 194 (1988). D. The Exercise of Judicial Review Ynot vs. IAC, 148 S.C.R.A. 659 (1987). E. Effect of Declaration of Unconstitutionality New Civil Code, Article 7 Serrano de Agbayani vs PNB, 38 S.C.R.A. 429 (1972). F. Partial Unconstitutionality Salazar vs Achacoso, 183 S.C.R.A. 145 (1986). IV. THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT A. Legislative Department 1. Composition, Qualification and Term of Office a. Senate - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 2, 3 & 4. b. House of Representatives - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 5, 6, 7 & 8. Powell v. McCormack, 395 U.S. 486 (1969). Macias v. COMELEC, 3 S.C.R.A. 1 (1961). Tan v. COMELEC, 142 S.C.R.A. 727 (1986). Bagong Bayani v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001. Aquino v. COMELEC, 248 S.C.R.A. 400 (1995). Marcos v. COMELEC, 248 S.C.R.A. 300 (1995). Dumpit Michelena v. Boado, G.R. No. 163619, November 17, 2005. 2. Election a. Regular election - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 8. b. Special election - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 9. R.A. No. 6645, December 28, 1987 3. Organizations and Sessions a. Election of Officers - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 16, par. (1). Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. 134577, November 18, 1998 Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 (1949) Pacete v. Commission on Appointments, 40 S.C.R.A. 58 (1971) Arroyo v. De Venecia, G.R. 127255, August 14, 1997 Alejandrino v. Quezon, 46 Phil. 83 (1924) Osmena v. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863 (1960) Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. 126055, April 19, 2001 De Venecia v. SB, G.R. No. 130240, Feb. 5, 2002 e. Journal and Record - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 16, par. (4). 1. The Enrolled Bill Theory Casco Chemical Co. v. Gimenez, 7 S.C.R.A. 347 (1963). 2. Probative Value of the Journal United States v. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 (1916). 4. Journal Entry Rule v. Enrolled Bill Theory 5. Congressional Record 4. Salaries, Privileges and Disqualifications a. Salaries

CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 10. CONST. (1987), art. XVIII, sec. 17 PHILCONSCA v. Mathay, 18 S.C.R.A. 300 (1966). Ligot v. Mathay, 56 S.C.R.A. 823 (1974). b. Freedom from Arrest CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 11. c. Speech and Debate Clause Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 S.C.R.A. 876 (1966). d. Disqualifications Puyat v. De Guzman, 113 S.C.R.A. 31 (1982). e. Duty to Disclose 5. Electoral Tribunals Abbas v. SET, 166 S.C.R.A. 651 (1988). Sampayan v. Daza, 213 S.C.R.A. 807 (1992). Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 S.C.R.A. 792 (1991). Pena v. HRET, G.R. No. 123037, March 21, 1997. Guerrero v. Comelec, G.R. No. 137004 (July 26, 2000). Codilla v. De Venecia, G.R. 150605, December 10, 2002. 6. Commission on Appointments Cunanan v. Tan, 5 S.C.R.A. 1 (1962) Daza v. Singson, 180 S.C.R.A. 496 (1989) Coseteng vs. Mitra, Jr. 187 S.C.R.A. 377 (1990) Guingona vs. Gonzales, 214 S.C.R.A. 789 (1992) 7. Powers of Congress a. General Plenary Powers b. Limitations on the Legislative Power 1. Substantive limitations 2. Procedural limitations 8. Legislative Process a. Requirements as to bills 1. As to titles of bills - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 26, par. (1). Tio vs Videogram Regulatory Board, 151 S.C.R.A. 208 Lidasan vs. Comelec, 21 S.C.R.A. 479 (1967) 2. Requirements as to certain laws a. Appropriation laws - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 25. Demetria v. Alba, 148 S.C.R.A. 208 (1987) Guingona v. Caraque, 196 S.C.R.A. 221 (1991) Tolentino v. Sec. of Finance, G.R. 115455, August 25, 1994 Philconsa v. Enriquez, G.R. 113105, August 19, 1994 d. Tax laws CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 28.; CONST. (1987), art. XIV, sec. 4, par. (3). Abakada Guro v. Ermita, G.R. No. 168207, October 18, 2005 Lung Center v. Q. C., G.R. No. 144104, June 29, 2004 Tan v. Del Rosario, 237 S.C.R.A. 324 (2000) Garcia v. Executive Secretary, 211 S.C.R.A. 219 (1992) John Hay PAC v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, October 24, 2003 c) Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court (CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 30. First Lepanto Ceramics v. CA, 237 S.C.R.A. 519 (1994) Fabian v. Desierto, G.R. No. 129742, September 16, 1998 b. Procedure for the passage of bills CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 26 & 27.

Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, supra Philconsa v. Enriquez, supra Gonzales v. Macaraig. G.R. No. 87636, November 19, 1990 Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 S.C.R.A. 133 (1992) INS v. Chadha, 462 U.S. 919 (1983) Bowsher v. Synar, 476 U.S. 714 (1986) Miller v. Mardo, 2 S.C.R.A. 898 (1961) c. Effectivity of laws - Civil Code, Article 2 Tanada vs. Tuvera, 136 S.C.R.A. 27 (1985) PVB Employees Union v. Vega, G.R. No. 105364, June 28, 2001 Same, resolution of motion for reconsideration, 146 S.C.R.A. 446 Executive Order No. 200, June 18, 1987 d. Question Hour - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 27. e. Legislative investigation - CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 21. Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, April 20, 2006 Sabio, v. Gordon, et al., G.R. No. 174340, October 17, 2006 Armault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29 (1950) Armault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358 (1955) Bengzon v. Senate Blue Ribbon Commitee, 203 S.C.R.A. 767 (1991) Other Powers: a). Act as board of canvassers for presidential election CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 4, par. (4). Pimentel v. Joint Com., G.R. No. 163783, June 22, 2004 Brillantes v. Comelec, G.R. No. 163193, June 15, 2004 b) Call a special election for Presidency c) Decide on disability of the President d) Legislative veto or approval for habeas corpus or declaration of material law e).Presidential amnesties f). Concur in treaties Pimentel v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 158988, July 6, 2005 g). Declaration of Existence of War h) Delegation of emergency powers, i.) Utilization of natural resources, j). Amendment of Constitution, CONST. (1987), art. XVI, sec. 1 & 2. k) Power of Impeachment 1. Who are subject to impeachment - CONST. (1987), art. XI, sec. 2. 2. Grounds for impeachment 3. Procedure for impeachment 4. Consequences of impeachment Francisco v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 160261, November 10, 2003 Nixon v. U.S., 113 S. CT. 733 (1933) B. Executive Department 1. The President a. Qualifications, election, term and oath - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 1,4 & 5. b. Privileges and salary - Article VII, Section 6 Republic v. SB, G.R. No. 152154, July 15, 2003 c. Succession 1. In case of vacancy at the beginning of term

2. In Case of vacancy during term 3. In case of temporary disability Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001 d. Removal e. Prohibitions Exceptions to prohibition from holding another office: a. Vice-President as member of the cabinet b. Sec. of Justice as member of Judicial and Bar Council CLU v. Executive Secretary, 194 S.C.R.A. 317 (1991) Cruz v. COA, G.R. No. 138489, November 29, 2001 NAC v. COA. G.R. 156982, September 8, 2004 Powers and Functions of the President 1. Executive Power - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 1 & 17. o Laurel v. Garcia, G.R. No. 92013, July 25, 1990 o Marcos v. Manglapus, 178 S.C.R.A. 760 (1989) o DENR v. DENR Empl., G.R. No. 149725, August 19, 2003 2. Control of executive departments - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 17 De Leon v. Carpio. 178 S.C.R.A. 457 (1989) Blaquera v. Alcala, G.R. 109406, September 11, 1998 Hutchison Ports v. SBMA, G.R. No. 131367, August 31, 2000 NEA v. COA, 377 S.C.R.A. 233 (2002) Rufino v. Endriga, G.R. No. 139554, July 21, 2006 3. General supervision over local governments/autonomous regions CONST. (1987), art. X, sec. 4 & 16. Pimentel v. Aguirre, G.R. 132988, July 19, 2000 4. Power of Appointment Bermudez v. Torres, G.R. No. 131429, August 4, 1999 a. With consent of Commission on Appointment i. Heads of Departments ii. Ambassadors, public Ministers and Consuls iii. Officers of Armed Forces from the rank of Colonel and Naval Captain iv. Chairman and members of Constitutional Commissions v. Regular members of the Judicial and Bar Council Sarmiento vs. Mison, 156 S.C.R.A. 549 (1987) Concepcion-Bautista v. Salonga, 172 S.C.R.A. 160 (1989) Calderon v. Carale, G.R. No. 91636, April 23, 1992 Manalo v. Sistoza, G.R. 107369, August 11, 1999 Soriano v. Lista, G.R. No. 153881, March 24, 2003 b. Upon recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council c. Those whose appointments are not otherwise provided by law d. Those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint Limitations on appointing power of the President - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 13 & 15. Interim or recess appointments Pimentel v. Ermita, G.R. 164978, October 13, 2005 CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 16, par. (2). In Re Valenzuela, A.M. No. 98-5-01-SC, November 9, 1998 De Rama v. CA, G.R. No. 131136, February 28, 2001 Matibag vs. Benipayo, G.R. No. 149036, April 2, 2002 The Removal Power

Larin v. Exec. Secretary, G.R. 112745, October 16, 1997 Limitations on appointing power of Acting President - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 14 & 16. 5. Executive Clemencies - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 19; CONST. (1987), art. IX-C, sec. 5. a. Pardon distinguished from probation b. Pardon distinguished from parole c. Pardon distinguished from amnesty d. Reprieves, Commutations and Remissions of Fines e. Effects of Pardon Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, 301 S.C.R.A. 96 (1999) People v. Casido, G.R. 116512, March 7, 1997 People v. Nacional, G.R. No. 11294, September 7, 1995 Monsanto v. Factoran, 170 S.C.R.A. 190 (1989) Sabello v. DECS, 180 S.C.R.A. 623 (1989) Llamas v. Orbos, 202 S.C.R.A. 844 (1991) Cristobal vs. Labrador, 71 Phil. 34 (1941) Pelobello vs. Gonzales, 152 S.C.R.A. 27 (1987) In Re Lontok, 43 Phil. 293 (1923) Garcia vs. Chairman, COA G.R. 75025, September 14, 1993 Torres v. Gonzales, 152 S.C.R.A. 273 (1987) 6. Powers as Commander-in Chief CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 18. CONST. (1987), art. II, sec. 15. CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 1, par. (2). IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000 Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 159085. February 3, 2004 Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 (1974) Olaquer v. MC No. 4, 150 SCRA 144 (1987) Navales v. Abaya, G.R. No. 162318, October 25, 2004 Lansang v. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971) In Re De Villa, G.R. No. 158802, November 17, 2004 David v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, May 3, 2006 7. Emergency Powers - CONST. (1987), art. XII, sec. 2 8. Contracting and guaranteeing foreign loans CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 20 CONST. (1987), art. XII, sec. 21 Republic Act No. 4860 Constantino v. Cuisia, G.R. No. 106064, October 13, 2005 9. Power over foreign affairs a. Treaty making - CONST. (1987), art. XII, sec. 21 People's Movement v. Manglapus, September 13, 1988 Comm. of Customs v. Easter Sea, 3 S.C.R.A. 351 (1961) b. Deportation of undesirable aliens Go Tek vs Deportation Board, 79 S.C.R.A. 17 (1977) 10. Power over-legislation a. Address Congress - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 23. b. Preparation and submission of the budget - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 22 c. Veto-Power - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 23, par. (2). d. Emergency Powers- CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 23, par. (2). 11. Executive Privilege Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, April 20, 2006

Gudani v. Senga, G.R. No. 170165. August 15, 2006 12. Immunity from suit Beltran vs. Macasiar, G.R. 82585, November 14, 1998 Gloria v. CA, G.R. No. 119903, August 15, 2000 Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. No. 146710-15, March 2, 2001 Nixon v. Fitgerald, 457 U.S. 731 (1982) Harlow v. Fitgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982) Clinton v. Jones, 117 S. Ct. 1636 (1997) Vice President a. Qualifications, election, term and oath-CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 3, 4 & 5. b. Privileges and salary - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 6. c. Prohibitions - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 13; CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 3, par. (2). d. Succession - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 2 & 3. B. The Judicial Department Judicial Power Miranda v. Aguirre, G.R. No. 133064, September 16, 1999 1. The Supreme Court a. Composition - CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 4. A b. Mode of Sitting MMDA v. Jancom, G.R. 147465, April 10, 2002 People v. Gacott, G.R. No. 116049, July 13, 1995 c. Appointments and qualifications CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 7, par. (1). CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 8, par. (5). CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 9. SB v. J. Estrella, A.M. No. 01-1608-RJT, January 16, 2001 d. No nonjudicial work for judges - CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 12. Meralco v. Pasay Trans Co., 57 Phil. 600 (1933) Garcia v. Macaraig, 30 S.C.R.A. 106 (1969) e. Salary CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 10. CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 17. Nitafan vs. CIR, 152 S.C.R.A. 284 (1987) f. Tenure CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 11. CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 1. CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 2, par. (2). g. Removal - CONST. (1987), art. XI, sec. 3. In Re Gonzales, 160 S.C.R.A. 771 (1988) h Fiscal autonomy - CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 3. i. Jurisdiction CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 1. CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 2, par. (1). CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 5. CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 30. CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 18. Tirol v. CA, G.R. Bo. 133954, August 3, 2000 People v. Ramos, 88 S.C.R.A. 486 (1979) People v. Teng, G.R. No. 141496, October 3, 2001 Santiago v. Bautista, 32 S.C.R.A. 188 (1970)

Felipe vs. Leuterio, 91 Phil. 482 (1952) j. Deliberations Prudential Bank v. Castro. 158 S.C.R.A. 646 (1988) Consing v. Court of Appeals, 177 S.C.R.A. 14 (1989) k. Voting Cruz v. DENR, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000 l. Requirements as to decisions - Article VIII, Sections 13-14 Valladolid v. Inciong, 121 S.C.R.A. 205 (1992) Nunal v. COA, 169 S.C.R.A. 356 (1989) People v. Bugarin, 273 S.C.R.A. 384 (1996) Hernandez v. Court of Appeals, 228 S.C.R.A. 429 (1993) Yao v. CA, G.R. No. 132428, October 24, 2000 Dizon v. Judge Lopez, A.M. 96-1338, September 5, 1997 Asiavest v. CA, G.R. No. 110263, July 20, 2001 m. Petition for Review/Motion for Reconsideration o Tichangco v. Enriquez, G.R. No. 150629, June 30, 2004 o Mendoza vs. CFI, 51 S.C.R.A. 369 (1973) o Martinez v. CA, G.R. 123547, May 21, 2001 n. Periods for deciding cases CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 15. CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 18, par. (3). CONST. (1987), art. XVIII, sec. 12-14. Maquiran v. Judge Lopez, A.M. RTJ=00=1606 RE: Delays in the SB, A.M. No. 00-8-05-SC, Nov. 28, 2001 o. Act as Presidential Electoral Tribunal CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 4, par. (4). p. Administrative powers 1. Supervision of lower courts - CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 6. Maceda v. Vasquez, 221 S.C.R.A. 464 (1993) Caoibes v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 132177, July 19, 2001 In re Demetria, A.M. No. 00-7-09-CA, March 27, 2001 2. Temporarily assign judges to other stations in public interest ` 3. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid miscarriage of justice People v. Sola, 103 SCRA 393 (1981) 4. Appointment of officials and employees of entire judiciary CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 5, par. (6). 5. Promulgate rules concerning the enforcement and protection of constitutional rights RE: Req. for Special Div., A.M. 02-1-09-SC, Jan. 21, 2002 6. Promulgate Rules Concerning Pleading, Practice and Procedure B 7. Admission to the Practice of Law Zaldivar vs. Gonzales, 166 S.C.R.A. 316 (1988) In re : Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534 (1954) Aguirre v. Rana, Bar Matter No. 1036, June 10, 2003 C 8. Integration of the Bar In re : Edillion, 84 S.C.R.A. 554 (1978) In re : IBP Elections Bar Matter No. 491 (October 6, 1989) 9 Legal Assistance to the Underprivileged q. Report on the Judiciary - 2. Lower courts a. Qualifications and appointment CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 7, par. (1), (2) & (5). CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 9.

b. Tenure CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 11. CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 2, par. (2). Article VIII, Section 11; Id., Section 2 par. 2 De La Llana vs. Alba, 122 S.C.R.A. 291 (1983) 3. The Judicial and Bar Council - CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 8. 4. Automatic release of appropriations for the judiciary - CONST. (1987), art. VIII, 3. VI State and National Territory

Territory, CONST. (1987), art. I. Treaty of Paris, Art. III Rep. Act No. 3046 (1961) Rep. Act No. 5446 (1968) Pres. Decree No. 1596 (1978) Pres. Decree No. 1599 (1978) UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) Trillanes, Position Paper VII Citizenship and Suffrage

People Meanings of People Preamble CONST. (1987), art. II, secs.1, 4, 15 & 16. CONST. (1987), art. III, sec. 2 & 7. CONST. (1987), art. VII, sec. 4. CONST. (1987), art. XVI, sec. 2. CONST. (1987), art. XVI, sec. 2. CONST. (1987), art. XVIII, sec. 25. Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil. 726 (1940). Carino v. Insular Government, 41 Phil. 935 (1909). Rubi v. Provincial Board of Mindoro, 39 Phil. 660 (1919). Pit-og v. People, G.R. 75639, October 11, 1990. Kuroda v. Jalandoni, G.R. No. 2662, March 26, 1949. Ichong v. Hernandez, 101 Phil. 1155 (1957). Citizenship In general, CONST. (1987), art. IV, sec. 1. Natural born citizens, CONST. (1987), art. IV, sec. 2.

See also CONST. (1987), art. VI, secs. 3 & 6. CONST. (1987), art. VII, secs. 2 & 3. CONST. (1987), art. VIII, sec. 7, par. (1).

CONST. (1987), par.(1) CONST. (1987), CONST. (1987), CONST. (1987),

art. IX; B, sec. 1, par.(1); C, sec. 1 par. (1); D, sec. 1 art.XI, sec. 8. art. XII, sec. 8 & 20. art. XIII, sec. 17, par. (2).

Naturalized citizenships, Com. Act. No. 473, Rep. Act No. 530. Loss and reacquisition CONST. (1987), art. IV, sec. 3. Yu v. Defensor Santiago, G.R. No. 83882, January 24, 1989. Dual allegiance CONST. (1987), art. IV, sec. 5.

COURSE OUTLINE OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS


This course deals with the basic principles of law in relation to contracts and obligations. It involves discussion of the nature, sources, kinds and extinguishments of contracts and other miscellaneous topics relevant to the course. Topics include general legal concepts of enforceable rights of obligation: types of laws and national legal systems: nature, purpose, scope and key principles of national legislation; sources of obligations; kinds of obligations under the Civil Code; specific circumstances affecting obligations in general (fortuitous events, frauds, negligence, delay and breach of contract); duties of obligor to do or not to do; extinguishment of obligation; general principles of the law of contracts, elements and stages of contracts; freedom from contract and limitation; object of contracts; consideration of contracts; formalities; interpretations and reformation of contracts and defective contracts. GENERAL o Nature Definition: CIVIL CODE, art. 1156. Sources: CIVIL CODE, art. 1157-61; CIVIL CODE, art. 2142; CIVIL CODE, art. 2176-77; CIVIL CODE, art. 2180. CASES Barredo v.Garcia, 73 Phil. 607 (1942). Mendoza v. Arrieta, 91 S.C.R.A. 113 (1975). PSBA v. CA, 205 S.C.R.A. 729 (1992). Transmissibility: CIVIL CODE, art. 1178.

Possible Classifications by enforceability civil, natural: CIVIL CODE, art. 1143-29. CASES

Villaroel v. Estrada, 71 Phil. 140 (1940) Fisher v. Robb, 69 Phil. 101 (1939)

1. By number of parties: sole / unilateral, joint / bilateral (separate, solidary), collective 2. By nature of parties undertaking: unilateral, reciprocal 3. By presence of conditions: unconditional/pure, conditional (periods, prestation, event, penal clause) 4. By variability of obligation: definitive, alternative 5. By divisibility of obligation: divisible, indivisible 6. By relationship: principal, accessory 7. By nature of action to enforce: real, personal 8. By object of the prestation: simple, multiple, conjunctive, distributive, alternative, facultative 9. By nature of object: generic, specific Breach Concept/Distinction Standard of care/diligence: CIVIL CODE, art. 1163, 1173. CASES

De Guia v. Manila Electric Co. 40 Phil. 706 (1920). US v. Barias, 23 Phil 434. (1912). Sarmiento v. Sps. Cabrido, 401 S.C.R.A. 122 (2003). Crisostomo v. CA, 409 S.C.R.A. 528 (2003).

Types of Breaches 1. Substantial 2. Casual CASES

Song Fo v. Hawaiian Philippines, 47 Phil. 821 (1925). Velarde v. CA, 361 S.C.R.A. 56 (2001).

Modes Fraud (dolo): CIVIL CODE, art. 1171. CASES Woodhouse v. Halili, 93 Phil. 526 (1953). Geraldez v. CA, 230 S.C.R.A. 329 (1994). Negligence (culpa): CIVIL CODE, art. 1171-73, 2201. Delay (mora) In unilateral obligations 1. Mora solvendi: CIVIL CODE, art.1169. 2. Mora accipiendi 3. Compensatio morae

In reciprocal obligations: CIVIL CODE, art. 1159, 1192. Contravention of tenor of obligation CASE - Arrieta v. NARIC, 10 S.C.R.A. 79 (1964). Remedies for Breach Available Actions Performance: CIVIL CODE, art. 1165. Obligation to Give Specific performance 1. To deliver 2. Specific/determinate thing: 1244, 1170, 1165.1, 1176 3. Generic thing: 1246 4. To preserve: 1163 5. To deliver all its accessories: 1166, 1164 Interest: CIVIL CODE, art. 1176. Exception: Usury: 1175, 1413. CASES Eastern Shipping Lines v. CA, 234 SCRA 781 (1994). Almeda v. CA, 256 SCRA 292 (996). First Metro Investment v. Estate of Del Sol, 420 Phil. 902 (2001). To deliver all its accessories: CIVIL CODE, art. 1166. Substituted performance: CIVIL CODE, art. 1165. Obligation to Do: CIVIL CODE, art. 1167. CASES Chavez v. Gonzales, 32 SCRA 547 (1970). Tanguling v. CA, 266 SCRA 78 (1997). Obligation Not to Do: CIVIL CODE, art.1168 Damages: CIVIL CODE, art. 1170. Unilateral obligations: CIVIL CODE, art. 1171. Reciprocal obligations: CIVIL CODE, art.1192. Rescission: CIVIL CODE, art. 1191-92. See also: CIVIL CODE, art. 1786, 1788, 1484-86. Subsidiary Remedies 1. Accion Subrogatoria: CIVIL CODE, art. 1177, 772. 2. Accion Pauliana: CIVIL CODE, art.1177, 1381. Extinguishment of Liability: CIVIL CODE, art. 1174. Exceptions: CIVIL CODE, art. 1174. Extinguishment of Obligation Payment or performance, CIVIL CODE, art. 1231, par. 1. Definition, CIVIL CODE, art. 1232. How made 1. Ways, CIVIL CODE, art.1233, 1248-1250. 2. No substitution, CIVIL CODE, art. 1244, 1246. 3. Costs/expenses, CIVIL CODE, art. 1247. CASES Arrieta v. NARIC, 10 S.C.R.A. 79 (1964). Kalalo v. Luz, 34 S.C.R.A. 377 (1940). By whom Debtor - 3rd person, CIVIL CODE, art.1236-39, 1427. To whom

Creditor, CIVIL CODE, art.1240-41; 3rd person, CIVIL CODE, art.1241-42 Where made, CIVIL CODE, art. 1251 Application, CIVIL CODE, art. 1252-54 Invalid payment, CIVIL CODE, art. 1243. Other forms of payment Cession, CIVIL CODE, art. 1255. Dation in payment, CIVIL CODE, art.1245. Tender of payment and consignation Requisites, CIVIL CODE, art.1256-57. How made, CIVIL CODE, art. 1258. Effect of withdrawal, CIVIL CODE, art.1260-61. Effect of valid consignation, CIVIL CODE, art.1259-60 Loss of thing due / Impossibility of performance, CIVIL CODE, art.1231 (2). Characteristics, CIVIL CODE, art. 1270. Creditors renunciation of action, CIVIL CODE, art.1271-72, 1274. Effect: CIVIL CODE, art. 1273. Confusion or merger of rights of the creditor Requisites, CIVIL CODE, art. 1275. Effects on guarantors, CIVIL CODE, art. 1276. Effects on obligation, CIVIL CODE, art. 1277. Compensation (CIVIL CODE, art. 1231 (5).) Concept, CIVIL CODE, art. 1278, 1286, 1289-90. Requisites, CIVIL CODE, art. 1279, 1287-88, 1282-84. CASES Gan Tion v. CA, 28 SCRA 235 (1969). Mirasol v. CA, 351 SCRA 44 (2001). KINDS OF COMPENSATION: CIVIL CODE, art. 1281. 3rd persons interests Guarantor (of the debt), CIVIL CODE, art. 1280. Assignee (of the credit), CIVIL CODE, art.1285. Novation CIVIL CODE, art.1231 (6). Concept, CIVIL CODE, art. 1291-92. Changing their object or principal conditions (obejective novation), CIVIL CODE, art. 1292. CASES Miller v. CA, 38 SCRA 642 (1971) Magdalena Estate v. Rodriguez, 18 SCRA 967 (1996) Conchingyan v. R & B Surety and Insurance, 151 SCRA 339 (1987) California Bus Lines v. State Investment, GR 147950, 11 Dec 2003 Substituting the person of the debtor in rights of the creditor (subrogation), CIVIL CODE, art. 1303. CASES Garcia v. Llamas, 417 SCRA 292 (2003) Quinto v. People, GR 126715, 14 April 1999 Subrogating a 3rd person in rights of the creditor (subrogation), 1303 Legal, CIVIL CODE, art. 1300, 1303. CASE

Astro Electronics Corp v. Philippine Export and Foreign Loan Guarantee Corp., G.R. No. 136729, September 23, 2003. Conventional, CIVIL CODE, art. 1300-01. Effects: CIVIL CODE, art.1296-99, 1304. Others (CIVIL CODE, art. 1231.) Annulment Rescission Fulfilment of a resolutory condition Prescription Kinds of Obligations under New Civil Code Pure obligation, CIVIL CODE, art.179. Conditional obligation, CIVIL CODE, art.1181-92. Definition, CIVIL CODE, art.1181, 1193. When effective/demandable, CIVIL CODE, art. 1181-82, 1185-86. Effects when condition fulfilled, CIVIL CODE, art. 1187. Types of conditions As to effect Suspensive (condition precedent), CIVIL CODE, art. 1188-89. Resolutory (condition subsequent), 1189-90. As to cause/origin Potestative, CIVIL CODE, art. 1180, 1182, 1197. Casual Mixed As to possibility Impossible conditions, CIVIL CODE, art. 1183. As to mode Positive, CIVIL CODE, art. 1184. Negative, CIVIL CODE, art. 1185. Rescission of reciprocal obligations, CIVIL CODE, art. 1191-92, 1189. Events pending happening of condition Protective action, CIVIL CODE, art. 1188. Loss, deterioration, improvement of the thing, CIVIL CODE, art. 1190, 1189. Prevention of fulfilment of the condition by obligor, CIVIL CODE, art. 1189. Obligations with a Period (CIVIL CODE, art. 1193-98.) In General Definition, CIVIL CODE, art. 1193 & 1197. For whose benefit, CIVIL CODE, art.1196 & 1198. Kinds Types of period Effect: suspensive, resolutory Expression: express, implied Definiteness: definite, indefinite Source: voluntary, legal, judicial

With a suspensive period (ex die CIVIL CODE, art.1193.

With a resolutory period (in diem), CIVIL CODE, art.1193.


When courts may fix the duration, CIVIL CODE, art. 1197. Incidents before arrival of period Loss, deterioration, or improvement of thing, CIVIL CODE, art. 1194, 1189. Payment in advance, CIVIL CODE, art. 1195, 1197. Alternative Obligations (CIVIL CODE, art. 1199-1206). Kinds Simple alternative, CIVIL CODE, art. 1199. Facultative, CIVIL CODE, art. 1206. Right to choose In general, CIVIL CODE, art. 1200-01; CIVIL CODE, art. 1205. Loss of right to choose, CIVIL CODE, art. 1200, CIVIL CODE, art. 1202-03. Effect of loss or impossibility of one or all prestations- CIVIL CODE, art. 1202 to 1205. Liability for loss of thing / impossibility of performance - CIVIL CODE, art. 1205. Creditors right to indemnity for damages, CIVIL CODE, art. 1204. Joint and Solidary Obligations (CIVIL CODE, art. 1207-22). Joint obligations General rule, CIVIL CODE, art. 1207. Presumption, CIVIL CODE, art. 1208. In case indivisible, CIVIL CODE, art. 1209. Solidary obligations When solidary, CIVIL CODE, art. 1207. Kinds As to Source Legal, CIVIL CODE, art. 1915, 1945, 2194; Art. 119 of the Revised Penal Code Conventional, Real As to Parties: active, passive, mixed As to Uniformity: Uniform Varied/Non-uniform, CIVIL CODE, art. 1211 CASES Ynchausti v. Yulo, 34 Phil. 978 (1916) Lafarge Cement Phil. V. Continental Cement, 443 S.C.R.A. 522 (2004) Effects Solidary creditors options Can be done, CIVIL CODE, art. 1211 & 1216. Cannot be done, CIVIL CODE, art. 1212-13. Solidary debtors options Pay any one of the solidary creditors, CIVIL CODE, art. 1214. Avail of defenses, CIVIL CODE, art. 1222. CASES Ynchausti v. Yulo, 34 Phil. 978 (1916). Alipio v. CA, 341 S.C.R.A. 441 (2000).

Extinguishment of solidary obligation (CIVIL CODE, art. 1215). Change in obligation, CIVIL CODE, art. 1215 & 1219 Payment, CIVIL CODE, art. 1217-20 Loss / Impossibility CASES Jauclan v. Querol, 38 Phil. 718 (1918). Quisumbing v. CA, 189 S.C.R.A. 325 (1990). Inciong v. CA, 257 S.C.R.A. 578 (1996). Divisible / Indivisible Obligations (1223-1225). Object not material, CIVIL CODE, art. 1223. How to determined, CIVIL CODE, art. 1225. Right to damages, CIVIL CODE, art. 1224. Partial invalidation, CIVIL CODE, art. 1183. Obligations with a Penal Clause (CIVIL CODE, art. 1226-30). Kinds of penal clause Effect: subsidiary, complementary Source: conventional, legal Purpose: punitive, reparatory Purpose of penal clause Ancillary obligation, CIVIL CODE, art. 1227. Substitute for damages, CIVIL CODE, art. 1226 & 1228. CASES Makati Development Corp v. Empire Insurance Co., 20 S.C.R.A. 557 (1967). Tan v. CA, 367 S.C.R.A. 571 (2001). Country Bankers Insurance v. CA, G.R. No. 851661, September 9, 1991. When penalty enforceable, CIVIL CODE, art. 1226-27. Reduction of penalty by the judge, CIVIL CODE, art. 1229. Nullification of penalty, CIVIL CODE, art. 1230. PART II: CONTRACTS Concept Definition, CIVIL CODE, art. 1305. CASE GSIS v. Court of Appeals, 228 S.C.R.A. 183 (1993). Kinds By name Nominate Innominate, CIVIL CODE, art. 1307. CASE Dizon v. Gaborro, 83 S.C.R.A. 688 (1978). By perfection Consensual, CIVIL CODE, art. 1315. Real, CIVIL CODE, art. 1316. By subject matter: things, services By relationship to other contacts: preparatory, principal, accessory By nature of the vinculum produced: unilateral, bilateral, reciprocal

By cause: onerous, gratuitous Essential Requisites, CIVIL CODE, art. 1318. Consent of the contracting parties Consent Definition Offer, CIVIL CODE, art. 1321; CIVIL CODE, art. 1323-26. Acceptance, CIVIL CODE, art. 1320 & 1322. CASES Rosenstock v. Burke, 46 Phil. 217 (1924). Malbarosa v. Court of Appeals, 402 S.C.R.A. 368 (1972). Jardine Davies v. Court of Appeals, 389 Phil. 204 (2000). State of contracting parties Who cannot give consent, CIVIL CODE, art. 1327-29. Vitiated consent, CIVIL CODE, art. 1328; CIVIL CODE, art. 1330. State of drunkenness, CIVIL CODE, art. 1328. During a hypnotic spell, CIVIL CODE, art. 1328. Mistake, CIVIL CODE, art. 1330-34. CASES Asiain v. Jalandoni, 45 Phil. 296 (1923) Theis v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 126013, February 12, 1997. Heirs of William Sevilla, et al. v. Sevilla, 402 S.C.R.A. 503 (2003). Dumasug v. Modelo, 34 Phil. 252 (1916). Hemedes v. CA, 316 S.C.R.A. 347 (1999). Katipunan v. Katipunan, 375 S.C.R.A. 200 (2002). Violence, CIVIL CODE, art. 1330; CIVIL CODE, art. 1335-36. CASE Martinez v. HSBC, 15 Phil. 252 (1910). Intimidation, CIVIL CODE, art. 1330; CIVIL CODE, art. 1335-36. Undue influence, CIVIL CODE, art. 1330; CIVIL CODE, art. 1337. Fraud, CIVIL CODE, art. 1330; CIVIL CODE, art. 1344. Active fraud, CIVIL CODE, art. 1338, CIVIL CODE, art. 1340-43. CASES

Songco v. Sellner, 37 S.C.R.A. 254 (1917). Azurraga v. Gay, 52 Phil. 599 (1928). Laureta Trinidad v. IAC, 204 S.C.R.A. 524 (1991). Mercado & Mercado v. Espiritu, 37 Phil. 215 (1917). Braganza v. Villa Abrille, 105 S.C.R.A. 456 (1959).

Passive Fraud, CIVIL CODE, art. 1332; CIVIL CODE, art. 1339. CASES Tuason v. Marquez, 45 Phil. 381 (1923). Rural Bank of Sta. Maria v. Court of Appeals, 314 S.C.R.A. 255 (1999). Object certain, CIVIL CODE, art. 1347-49.

CASES

Blas v. Santos, 1 S.C.R.A. 899 (1961). Tanedo v. Court of Appeals, 252 S.C.R.A. 80 (1996).

Cause of the obligation, CIVIL CODE, art. 1350-55. CASES Liguez v. Court of Appeals, 102 Phil. 577 (1957). Carantes v. Court of Appeals, 76 S.C.R.A. 524 (1977). Sps. Buenaventura et al v. Court of Appeals, 416 S.C.R.A. 263 (2003). In General Contracting parties, CIVIL CODE, art. 1308, 1312, & 1317. CASE Gutierrez Hermanos v. Orense, 28 Phil. 571 (1914). Perfection, CIVIL CODE, art. 1315-16. Privity of contracts, CIVIL CODE, art. 1309-14. CASES Florentino v. Encarnacion, 79 S.C.R.A. 192 (1977). Coquia v. Fieldmens Insurance Co., 26 S.C.R.A. 178 (1968) Constantino v. Espiritu, 39 SCRA 206 (1971) Integrated Packing Corp. v. CA, 333 SCRA 171 (2000) Daywalt v. La Corporacion de los Padres Agustinos Recoletos, 39 Phil 587 (1919) So Ping Bun v. CA, 314 SCRA 751 (1999) Manila Railroad Co. v. La Cmpania Transatlantica, 83 Phil 875 (1918) DKC Holdings Corp. v. CA, 329 SCRA 666 (2000) o o 87 o o o o o o o o Form and Substance Form of contract, 1356-58 CASE Hernaez v. De Los Angeles, 27 SCRA 1276 (1969) Stipulations Freedom of contract, 1306, 1490-91, 1782, 1799, 2088, 2130, Family Code CASES Gabriel v. Monte de Piedad, 71 Phil 497 (1941) Pakistan International Airlines v. Ople, 190 SCRA 90 (1990) Cui v. Arellano, 2 SCRA 205 (1961) Arroyo v. Berwin, 36 Phil 386 (1917) Filipinas Compania de Seguros v. Mandanas, 17 SCRA 391 (1966) Bustamante v. Rosel, 319 SCRA 413 (1999) Interpretation Plain meaning, 1370 Evident intention, 1370-71 Stipulations with different possible meanings, 1375 Interpretation of terms, 1372-73, 1376-77 Settlement of doubts, 1374, 1378 Application of the Rules of Court, 1379 CASES Borromeo v. CA, 47 SCRA 65 (1972) Suntay v. CA, 251 SCRA 430 (1995)

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Blanco v. Quasha, 318 SCRA 373 (1999) Reformation Requisites, 1359, 1365, 1368 CASES Garcia v. Bisaya, 97 Phil 609 (1955) Beutir v. Leande, 330 SCRA 591 (2000) When .not allowed, 1365, 1367 Concurrence of grounds, 1361-62 3rd party fault, 1364 Applicable law, 1350, 1369 CASES Atilano v. Atilano, 28 SCRA 2232 (1969) Carrantes v. CA, 76 SCRA 524 (1977) Sarming et al v. Dy. Et al, 383 SCRA 131 (2002) Defective Contracts Rescissible Contracts Nature, 1383-85 When rescissible, 1380-82, 1386-87 CASES Oria v. Mcmicking, 21 Phil 243 (1912) Siguan v. Lim et at, 318 SCRA 725 (1999) Suntay v. CA, 251 SCRA 430 (1995) Universal Food Corp. v. CA, 33 SCRA 1 (1970) When available, 1385, 1388 Prescription, 1389 Voidable Contracts Nature, 1390 Parties, 1397, 1402 CASES Singsong v. Isabela Sawmill, 88 SCRA 623 (1979) Caldwallader & Co. v. Smith, Bell & Co., 7 Phil 461 (1907) Velarde v. CA, 361 SCRA 56 (2001) Ratification, 1392-96 CASE Uy Soo Lim v. Tan Unchuan, 38 Phil 552 (1918) Effect of loss of thing due, 1400-01 Effect of annulment, 1398-99 Prescription, 1391 Unenforceable Contracts Nature, 1317 When unenforceable, 1403, 1405 CASES Carbonel v. Poncio, 103 Phil 655 (1958) PNB v. Philippine Vegetable Oil.Co., 49 Phil 857 (1927) Limketkai Sons Milling Inc. v. CA, 261 SCRA 464 (1995) Swedish Match v. CA, 441 SCRA 1 (2004) Who may bring action, 1408 Ratification, 1317, 1407 Form, 1406

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Void / Inexistent Contracts Nature, 1409-10, 1420 When void/inexistent, 1345-46, 1490-91, 1378, 1409, 1422, 1782, FC 87 Remedies, 1413-16 CASES Liguez v. CA, 102 Phil 577 (1957) Rellosa v. Gaw Cheen Hum, 93 Phil 827 (1953) PNB v. Lui She, 21 SCRA 52 (1967) Frenzel v. Catitu, 406 SCRA 55 (2003) Who may bring action/defense, 1411-12, 1421 CASES Ubarra v. Mapalad, AM MTJ 91-622 (1993) Modina v. CA, 317 SCRA 606 (1999) Contracts inbued with public interest, 1417-19 http://www.scribd.com/doc/62266690/Constitutional-Law-I-Digest http://www.scribd.com/doc/7688539/CONSTI-Cases