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Gender Equity CoP Seminar

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

The Challenges of Funding Madrasah Education in Indonesia

Imrana Jalal, RSGS

Madrasah Education Development Project Special GAP Review Mission

Project Context

13% of Indonesian students, mostly poor attend Madrasahs - low quality education compared to national standards Project Impact and Outcome: increase the levels of educational attainment, productivity of new workers, rates of employment, household incomes. Improve madrasah education, for better student learning outcomes in core subject areas, raised madrasah accreditation levels and enhanced perception of madrasah education quality by parents and the community. Important criterion of raised levels of core education is 70:30 division of time in favor of core education, 30% classroom time on Islamic education aim to get students passing the national exams and at higher attainment levels

Other details

Loan Amount: $71.4 million. $50 million from ADB. $38.4 block grants to madrasahs for financing rehabilitation and construction of facilities, separate gender sensitive toilets, provision of equipment and furniture, procurement of textbooks, learning and instructional material and training measures for teachers. Project Scope: 3 provinces (East Java, West Java, South Sulawesi) and 27 districts. 500 madrasahs are selected for upgrading of which 90% are private. Beneficiaries: 120,000 students - 60,000 to be girls EA: Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA) Dates: Approved on 15 Dec 2006; effective on 13 June 2007; expected completion on 30 Sep 2012

Project Outputs
2. 3.

Teaching-learning resources and facilities are upgraded to national standards

Teacher professionalism is improved according to national standards Internal efficiency is increased to meet national standards, especially student progression and transition rates Governance, management and sustainability strengthened to meet national standards.


Gender designs and GAP

Students at Computer Laboratory, Madrasah Sunan Kalijaga, Batang, Central Java

Output 1: Teacher Professionalism improved according to national standards

Temporary special measures (TSM) for females At least 30% of the participants in the degree upgrading (enrollment in bachelor degree/ S1) At least 40% in professional certification At least 40% in short-term training activities (e.g. training on subject content, curriculum development, classroom teaching methodology) Improved capacity of teachers to identify gender bias and stereotyping in textbooks (i.e. in the content and illustrations) Improved capacity of teacher to eliminate gender bias and stereotyping in teaching-learning process

Output 2: Teaching-learning resources and facilities upgraded to national standards

At least 50% of the participating madrasah with well-functioning toilets for boys and girls (but really is 100% target for overall project)

Ensure that the facilities constructed/ upgraded (e.g. school toilets) are gender sensitive (consider needs of female students)

Output 3: Internal efficiency increased to meet national standards

At least 50% of transition scholarships provided for female students

Students at Library, Madrasah Sunan Kalijaga Batang, Central Java

Output 4: Governance, management and sustainability strengthened to national standards

At least two masters degrees and one PhD fellowship for women At least 95% of madrasah have functioning Madrasah Committee (MCs) At least 30% of Madrasah Committees members are women Gender training is included in Madrasah Based Management (MBM) and Madrasah Leadership

GAP Progress (as of May 2012):

Quantitative good, qualitative generally uneven with some exceptions Greatly enhanced perception of madrasahs by local community Girls considered more active (except sport) Full data not available yet but appears that attainment rates are improving steadily c.f. mainstream schools Majority of madrasahs visited complying with 70:30 rule (no overall statistics yet but anecdotal evidence suggests consistency) 40.44% participants of degree upgrading are female (target: 30%) 50.29% participants of subject content training (target: 40%) 44.3% participants of training on (academic) paper/ report writing (target: 40%)


Madrasah Riyadlatut Thoyibah (Classrooms before and after renovation)


GAP Progress (as of May 2012):

44.30% participants of classroom teaching methodology training (target: 40%) Overall 40.26% of participants of professional certification . In East Java 64% (target: 40%) Overall 54% of participants of transition and remedial scholarship. (target: 50%) All of participating madrasahs have functioning Madrasah Committees/ MC (requirement for block grant) (target 95%)


GAP Progress (as of May 2012): qualitative goals

Inclusion of gender perspective in training modules: Gender modules for Madrasah Based Management/MBM and Role of Community in MBM (how to integrate gender perspectives in management, womens participation in management) Limited achievement Limited inclusion of gender perspectives in training modules. Limited influence on the teaching learning process. Improving capacity to eliminate gender biases/ stereotyping: Haphazard capacity, varies from place to place, more evident in principals. Not systemized

Limited achievement

Overall the representation of women in Madrasah Committees is 29.8% against target of 30%. Was 17% in Sep 2010. One province achieved the target - South Sulawesi 31.74%. Representation of women in MCs still low. 34% of MCs have no women at all on them . No MC has received gender training. About 72% of the participating Madrasahs have functioning separate toilets for boys and girls (still below the target 100%). East Java of 74 Madrasah surveyed, 77% do not provide separate facilities. In 25 madrasahs in Bojonegro in May 2012, all had functioning standard separate toilets. Most did not have special facilities for girls.


Toilets at Madrasah Sunan Kalijaga, Batang, Central Java


Limited achievement

Very low participation of women in Masters Degree and PhD program: As of May 2012, 9 MORA staff are studying abroad, La Trobe Univ. Australia. Only 1 of 7 Masters students is a woman (12.5%) against target of 2. There are no female PhD students of 2 (0%). Reported that a few female staff selected withdraw their applications because they are reluctant to study abroad for some years and leave the family behind. This GAP review found different views from women themselves.


Budding journalists



GAP needed revision during project period

No gender specialist on project (IRM GS left) but GFP appointed c.f. INVEST with no GFP

Lack of gender training of MC members, principals and teachers. Critical to eliminate bias in teacherlearning process and allocation of resources. Persantrans most challenging. Story of the science lab and the MC. Critical importance of women on MCs Allocation of resources of block grants critical to success of GAP.

Ultimate symbols of development..!


For More Information

Please contact Imrana Jalal, RSGS (ijalal@adb.org) Web site: www.adb.org/gender