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Guyuk Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan was on his conquest on Russia and Europe in year 1236 when

he received an envoy from Pope Innocent IV. In a letter carried by the envoy, the pope ordered the Mongols to stop his continuing conquest on European Christian country. The letter also claimed that the pope was given the authority by god to preach on Guyuk Khan, converting him to Christianity. However, Guyuk was not receptive on popes letter. In his reply letter, he refused to stop his conquest and even demanded the pope to submit upon him. However, the topic of interest is how the reply letter has shed some light on Guyuk Khans personality and his worldview. From his reply, we know that Guyuk Khan is a dictator and conqueror by nature. He sees no specific intention in his conquest, other than a means of expanding territory For example when the pope asked on the fault on the Christians land that he had invaded, he replied These words of thine I have also not understood. The eternal God has slain and annihilated these lands and peoples, because they have neither adhered to Chingis Khan, nor to the Khagan (Letters between Pope Innocent IV and Giiyiik Khan (1243-1246), pg 299). The reply indicated Guyuks Khans intention to increase his sphere of influence by means of conquest. On the end of the letter, he also asks for submission of Pope Innocent IV that attempted to convert him, and warning the pope If you do not observe God's command, and if you ignore my command, I shall know you as my enemy (Letters between Pope Innocent IV and Giiyiik Khan (1243-1246), pg 300). His demand to the pope indicates Guyuk desires to control and the dictator nature within him The letter also revealed that Guyuk is not a religious person, as he had several times questioned the nature of Christian god that was mentioned in Popes letter which can be adequately summarized in this quote how knowest thou whom God absolves, in truth to whom

He shows mercy? How dost thou know that such words as thou speakest are with God' sanction? (Letters between Pope Innocent IV and Giiyiik Khan (1243-1246), pg 299). In this short quote, he had question the nature of popes authority, the sanctity of Christian god, and the behavior of god. The nature of the inquiry is highly atheistic and definitely not a religious one. Guyuk Khan might appear to be a religious person, as he had mentioned the word god several times in his letter. However, Guyuks mention of heaven and god is merely his way of to justify his conquest. His notion of gods and heaven is closer to the Chineses idea of Mandate of Heaven as opposed to a religious one. In fact, one could see the concept of Mandates of Heaven implied in the reply letter, especially on how Guyuk has made several connections between him and the will of heaven. The phrases We by the power of the eternal heaven and , nor to the Khagan (supreme ruler) both of whom have been sent to make known God's command (Letters between Pope Innocent IV and Giiyiik Khan (1243-1246), pg 299) illustrate the concept mandate of heaven by mentioning heavenly bodies to justify the authority of ruler. Therefore, Guyuk series of warfare should not be seen as a religious endeavor, but merely ways to expand influence. The letter has shown the warlike and godless nature of Guyuk Khan, and those traits had become the staple image on how historian described the Mongols. This contributes to the negative connotation on Mongol race as an uncultured race. Looking from another perspective however, one could interpret Guyuks inquire of god as a philosophical one, as the existence of god was not questioned much during that time. His inquiry might be a signs of reason as opposed to uncultured behavior, and one should not jump to conclusion to label the Mongols as uncultured without weighting both side of the story.