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IND2501 : INGNIERIE DE LA QUALIT

PRINCIPES DU MANAGEMENT DE LA QUALIT MTHODES DE LINGNIERIE DE LA QUALIT

TQM

Total

Quality Management
Intgrale (globale) de la Qualit

Gestion COURS 1 : TQM 1 TQM = ? QUALIT = ? PHILOSOPHIE DE DEMING OBSTACLES IMPLANTATION NONCS QUALIT PLAN STRATGIQUE QUALIT LEADERSHIP ET MANAGEMENT
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Intgrale =

toutes

les composantes de

lorganisation

Pas uniquement le produit ou le service

Qualit totale

NE VEUT PAS DIRE

qualit "parfaite

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SIX

PRINCIPES DU

TQM

DMARCHE
APPROCHE SCIENTIFIQUE + MOBILISATION RESSOURCES HUMAINES + AMLIORATION CONTINUELLE DES PROCESSUS

PRINCIPE
1. Engagement inbranlable long terme de la haute direction 2. Orientation clientle

REMARQUES formation groupe-conseil objectifs qualit dans le plan daffaires virage culture qualit interne et externe (interne = employ) prvention dfauts emphase qualit en conception (design) produit / service formation mthodes qualit changer les attitudes rle dcision accru ("empowerment ) barrires dpartementales 1-4

DANS LE BUT DE

SATISFAIRE ET EXCDER LES ATTENTES CLIENTS

3. Mobilisation employs

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CONTRASTES
PRINCIPE 4. Amlioration continuelle REMARQUES orientation processus projets damlioration utilisation de mthodes emphase sur la qualit, temps de cycle plutt que les cots rduction du nombre de de fournisseur plans de collecte de donnes procds critiques e.g. - % non-conforme - satisfaction clientle - indices de capabilits Cp, Cpk - cots non qualit - productivit - rendement (yield) procd 1-5 Rsolution problmes Approvisionnement & fournisseurs Rle des gestionnaires lment qualit Dfinition qualit Dcisions

ORGANISATIONNEL
non TQM oriente produit court terme bases sentiments dtection "dpartement" contrle qualit (inspecteurs) directeurs prix TQM oriente client long terme bases donnes prvention tous

5.

Partenariat fournisseurs

Emphase Responsabilit

6. tablissement de mesure de performance

quipe partenariats

planifier assigner contrler renforcer

dlguer coach facilitateur mentor 1-6

DFINITIONS QUALIT
- DEMING : - JURAN : - CROSBY : satisfaire les besoins du consommateur convenance de lusage, laptitude a lemploi conformit a des exigences

9 DIMENSIONS DE LA QUALIT
(David A. GARVIN, Harvard Business Riview)
Dimension 1. Performance 2. Features Meaning and Example Primary product characteristics, such as the brightness of the picture Secondary characteristics, added features, such as remote control Meeting specifications or industry standards, workmanship Consistency of performance over time, average time for the unit to fail Useful life, includes repair Resolution of problems and complaints, ease of repair Human-to-human interface, such as the courtesy of the dealer Sensory characteristics, such as exterior finish Past performance and other intangibles, such as being ranked first 1-8

- FEIGENBAUM : cible qui bouge constamment 3. Conformance - HARRINGTON : rencontrer ou dpasser les attentes du client 4. Reliability - ISO 9000 : (ref ISO 8402) 5. Durability lensemble des caractristiques dune entit (= produit ou prestation service) qui lui confrent laptitude satisfaire des besoins (attentes) exprims et implicites. - STATISTIQUE : inversement proportionnelle la variabilit (DEMING et TAGUCHI) 1-7 6. Service 7. Response 8. Aesthetics 9. Reputation

14 LMENTS DE DEMING
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service. Adopt the new philosophy. Cease dependence on mass inspection. End the practice of awarding business on price alone. Improve, constantly and forever the system of production and service. Institute training. Institute leadership. Drive out fear. Break down barriers between staff areas. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force. Eliminate numerical quotas. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. Institute a vigorous program of education and re-training. Take action to accomplish the transformation 1-9

OBSTACLES
(R.J. Masters, Quality Progress 1996)

Manque dappui haute direction Manque d habilet changer la culture organisationnelle Manque deplanification Manque de dploiement efficace Manque de formation Manque de collaboration inter-dpartements Manque de mesures performance Manque de focus client Manque de dlgation de pouvoir Manque de travail dquipe

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TAPES ou PROCESSUS DIMPLANTATION du TQM


Sensibilisation / formation haute direction

COMIT DE PILOTAGE
(Conseil qualit)
Composition : haute direction (CEO) + management senior + coordinateur / consultant

Formation comit de pilotage noncs VISION MISSION VALEURS POLITIQUE QUALIT Mobilisation cadres intermdiaires Communication : plan Formation : plan - processus de rsolution problmes - outils de base Identification de projets damlioration 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Responsabilits

1. .. noncs qualit =

valeurs vision mission politique

Plan stratgique qualit Plan formation Surveiller cot non-qualit Dfinit mesures de performance Projets damlioration qualit tablit groupe damlioration Rvise le programme de reconnaissance 1-12

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CONCEPTS CLS
(Rfrentiel MALCOLM BALDRIDGE = QUALIMTRE)

NONCS QUALIT
VISION tre une cole d ingnierie de classe internationale et un partenaire actif dans le dveloppement technologique, conomique et social . COLE POLYTECHNIQUE DE MONTRAL MISSION Ford Motor Company is a worlwide leader in automatic and automotive-related products and services as well as the newer industries such as aerospace, communications, and financial services. Our mission is to imporve continually our products and services to meet our customers needs, allowing us to prosper as a business and to provide a reasonable return to our shareholders, the owners of our business. FORD MOTOR COMPANY To meet customers transportation and distribution needs by being the best at moving their goods on time, safely and damage free. CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS To deliver the package the very next morning regardless. FEDEX 1-14

CLIENT SEUL JUGE DE LA QUALIT QUALIT : CONCEPT STRATGIQUE LEADERSHIP HAUTE DIRECTION .. But / objectifs .. Orientation client .. Qualit visible .. Attentes leves .. Leadership / initiatives des employs AMLIORATION CONTINUELLE VALORISATION DES EMPLOYS INTGRATION DES OBJECTIFS : temps de cycle + qualit + productivit QUALIT CONCEPTION : PRVENTION MANAGEMENT BAS FAITS / DONNES PARTENARIATS FROURNISSEURS FOCUS RSULTATS 1-13

POLITIQUE QUALIT
C est une exigence de la norme ISO /QS 9000

PLANIFICATION
BUT =

STRATGIQUE QUALIT

OBJECTIF GNRAL (une phrase)

OBJECTIFS = OBJECTIFS SPCIFIQUES Xerox is a quality company. Quality is the basic business principle for XEROX. Quality means providing our external and internal customers with innovative products and services that fully satisfy their requirements. Quality is the job of every employee. XEROX CORPORATION HORIZON : COURT TERME 1 an LONG TERME 1-5 ans

CARACTRISTIQUES DES OBJECTIFS .. .. .. .. .. .. Spcifique Mesurable Rsultats concrets chancier Ressources : humaines + budgtaires Responsable

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PLANIFICATION STRATGIQUE QUALIT


1. Analyse : besoins, attentes, 2. Dfinition des clientles cibles 3. Analyse S W O T S W O T : : : : forces faiblesses opportunits menaces anticipations

PLAN QUALIT : COMMENT


Ref. : Comment tablir un plan qualit Bernard CLMENT Ph.D Revue Qualit Totale, Hiver 1994 pp. 11-18

4. Mesure de lcart 5. Moyens pour rduire lcart 6. Alignement avec les valeurs qualit 7. Implantation : --- ressources --- responsable --- chancier 1-17
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Comment tablir un plan qualit (suite) MANAGEMENT VS LEADERSHIP


J.P. Kotter, How Leadership Differs From Management

Management Creating an agenda Planning and Budgeting Establishing detailed steps and timetables for achieving needed results, and then allocating the ressources necessary to make that happen. Developing a Organizing and Staffing human Establishing some structure for network for accomplishing plan requirements, achieving the staffing that structure with agenda individuals, delegating responsibility and authority for carrying out the plan, providing policies and procedures to help guide people, and creating methods or systems to monitor implementation Execution Controlling and Problem Solving Monitoring relusts vs. Plan in some detail, identifying deviaitons, and then planning and organizing to solve these problems Outcomes Produces a degree of predictability and order, and has the potential of consistently producing key results expected by various stakeholders (e.g., for customers, always being on time ; for stockholders, being on budget)

Leadership Establishing Direction Developing a vision of the future, often the distant future, and strategies for producing the changes needed to achieve that vision Aligning People Communicating the direction by words and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be needed so as to influence the creation of teams and coalitions that understand the vision and strategies, and accept their validity

Motivating and Inspiring Energizing people to overcome major political, bureaucratic, and ressource barriers to change by satisfying very basic, but often unfulfilled, human needs Produces change Often to a dramatic degree, and has the potential of producing extremely useful change (e.g., new products that customers want, new approaches to labor relations that help make a firm more competitive)

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MANAGEMENT
GESTION EFFICIENTE DES RESSOURCES vs

LEADERSHIP
ATTEINDRE LE BUT

BIEN FAIRE LES CHOSES vs

FAIRE LES BONNES CHOSES

TACTIQUE

vs

STRATGIQUE

COURT TERME

vs

LONG TERME

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