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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

 (a) 1. How does vapour pressure aﬀect ﬂuid ﬂow? (b) Find the torque required to rotate a shaft of diameter 50 mm at 1400 rpm concentrically with a sleeve 50.16 mm in diameter and 10 m long ﬁlled with oil. Kinematic viscosity of oil is 0. 94 × 10 − 4 m 2 /s. Speciﬁc gravity of oil is 0.85. [8+8] (a) 2. Brieﬂy explain the classiﬁcation of ﬂows. (b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if i. Streamlines are parallel and equidistant ii. Streamlines are straight and converging iii. Streamlines are curved but equispaced iv. Streamlines are curved and converging. [8+8] (a) 3. Explain the diﬀerent forms of energy in a ﬂuid. (b) The cross-sectional area of a convergent pipe is so shaped that the velocity of ﬂow along the centre line varies linearly from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in a distance of one metre. The pipe is inclined downward at an angle of 30 0 with horizontal. Determine the diﬀerence in pressure between the two points, assuming the speciﬁc weight of the liquid as 7. 85kN/m 3 . [8+8] (a) 4. What do you understand by ‘minor losses’ in pipes? Explain when these losses can be neglected? (b) The rate of ﬂow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0. 25m 3 /s. The diameter of the pipe which is 200 mm is suddenly enlarged to 400mm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is 11.772N/cm 2 . Determine i. Loss of head due to sudden enlargement ii. Pressure intensity in the large pipe. [8+8] (a) 5. A pipe carries a ﬂow of an oil of relative density 0.85. A pitot-static tub e is inserted into the pipe to measure the velocity at a point M. If diﬀerential mercury ?oil gauge connected to the pitot-static tube indicates a reading of 4cm, calculate the velocity at M. Assume the coeﬃcient of the pitot tube as 0.99. (b) Describe with the help of sketch, the construction, operation and use of pitot- static tube. [8+8]

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 1

6. A jet of water having a velocity of 20 m/s strikes a curved vane, which is moving with a velocity of 10m/s. The jet makes an angle of 20 0 with the direction of motion of vane at inlet and leaves at an angle of 130 0 to the direction of motion of vane at outlet. Calculate

 (a) Vane angles, so that the water enters and leaves the vane without shock. (b) Work done per second per unit weight of water striking the vane per second.

[16]

7. (a) How is a Kaplan turbine diﬀerent from a Propeller turbine

(b) What are the functions of draft tube in a Reaction turbine.

[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the characteristic curves of an axial ﬂow pump and give its uses.

(b) The speciﬁc speed of an axial ﬂow pump is 330 rpm. The impeller of the pump is 1.25 m in diameter. The velocity of ﬂow through the impeller is 4.6 m/s. Find the discharge and speed of the pump to provide a head of 2.6 m. Also

ﬁnd the vane angle at inlet at the exterior tip near the boss, Assume no whirl

at inlet.

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[8+8]

Code No: RR210201

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

(a)

1. Deﬁne speciﬁc weight, viscosity, surface tension and vapour pressure and, men-

(b)

tion their SI units.

Space between two parallel plates kept 3 mm part is ﬁlled with an oil of

viscosity 0.2Ns/m 2 . Find the shear stress at the lower plate when the upper

 plate is moving with a velocity of 1.5 m/s. [8+8] (a) 2. Derive the continuity equation for one-dimensional ﬂow. (b) Distinguish between stream line, path line and streak line. [8+8]

3. Name the diﬀerent forces present in a ﬂuid ﬂow. For the Euler’s equation of motion, which forces are taken into consideration.

A pipe of diameter 30 cm carries water at a velocity of 20 m/sec. The pressures

at the points A and B are given as 34.335N/cm 2 and 29.43N/cm 2 respectively, while the datum heads at A and B are 25 m and 28 m. Find the loss of head

between A and B.

List the Minor losses of energy in a pipe ﬂow.

A piping system consists of three pipes arranged in series; the lengths of the pipes are 1200 m, 750 m and 600 m and diameters 750 mm, 600 mm and 450

mm respectively.

4. (a)

(a)

(b)

[8+8]

(b)

i. Transform the system to an equivalent 450mm diameter pipe and ii. Determine an equivalent diameter for the pipe, 2550m long.

[6+10]

(a)

5. What is a Weir? How are the weirs classiﬁed? What is the diﬀerence between

a sharp crested and a broad crested weir?

Find the depth and top width of a V -notch capable of discharging a maximum of 0. 7m 3 /sec and such that the head shall be 75 mm for a discharge of 5.6 litres/sec. Its C d is same as that of a similar (in material and sharpness of edges only) right angled V -notch for which Q = 1. 407H 2 . 5 . [8+8]

6. A jet of water, cross-sectional area 20cm 2 ,issues with a velocity of 25m/s and strikes a stationary plate held at 30 0 to the axis of jet.Find the force exerted by the jet on the plate,and work out the components of force in the direction normal to the jet.Also ﬁnd how the discharge gets distributed after striking the plate. [16]

7.

(a) What is Thoma’s Cavitation factor and what is its signiﬁcance in water tur- bines.

(b)

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 2

(b) An Impulse turbine at best speed produces 92 KW under a head of 63m. By

what percent should the speed be increased for a head of 87m?

[8+8]

8. What is an indicator diagram of a reciprocating pump? Sketch the theoretical indicator diagram for a single acting-reciprocating pump not ﬁtted with an air

vessel. With the help of the diagram explain clearly the eﬀect of acceleration and

friction on both suction and delivery strokes.

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[16]

Code No: RR210201

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

 (a) 1. State the units and dimensions of the following : i. Speciﬁc mass ii. Dynamic viscosity iii. Kinematic viscosity iv. Surface Tension (b) A circular disc of diameter d is slowly rotated in a liquid of large viscosity µ at a small distance h from a ﬁxed surface. Derive an expression for torque T necessary to maintain an angular velocity ω . [8+8] (a) 2. Brieﬂy explain the classiﬁcation of ﬂows. (b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if i. Streamlines are parallel and equidistant ii. Streamlines are straight and converging iii. Streamlines are curved but equispaced iv. Streamlines are curved and converging. [8+8] (a) 3. Explain the diﬀerent forms of energy in a ﬂuid. (b) The cross-sectional area of a convergent pipe is so shaped that the velocity of ﬂow along the centre line varies linearly from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in a distance of one metre. The pipe is inclined downward at an angle of 30 0 with horizontal. Determine the diﬀerence in pressure between the two points, assuming the speciﬁc weight of the liquid as 7. 85kN/m 3 . [8+8] (a) 4. Derive an expression to compute loss of head for sudden expansion (b) Determine the wall shearing stress in a pipe of diameter 100mm which carries water. The velocity at the pipe centre and 30mm, from the pipe centre are 2 m/s and 1.5 m/s respectively. The ﬂow in pipe is assumed to be turbulent.

[8+8]

5. Find the discharge of water ﬂowing through a pipe of diameter 0.30m placed in an inclined position where a venturimeter is inserted, having a throat diameter of 0.15m.The diﬀerence of pressure between the inlet and throat is measured by a liquid of speciﬁc gravity 0.7 in an inverted U-tube manometer which gives a reading of 0.25 m. Neglect the losses of head between inlet and throat sections. [16]

6. Derive equations for the force of impact of jet

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 3

 (a) on a normal ﬂat vane moving in the direction of jet (b) On a series of normal ﬂat vanes mounted on a wheel. The vane velocity is less than jet velocity in both cases. [8+8]

7. An inward ﬂow turbine (reaction turbine with radial discharge) with an overall eﬃciency of 80% is required to develop 150 kW. The head is 8 m; peripheral velocity

of the wheel is 0.96 2gH ; the radial velocity of the ﬂow is 0.36 2gH . The wheel is to make 150 rpm and the hydraulic losses in the turbine are 22% of the available energy. Determine:

 (a) the angle of the guide blade at inlet, (b) the wheel vane angle at inlet, (c) the diameter of the wheel (d) the width of the wheel at inlet. [16]

8. (a) Derive the equation for the power required to drive the double acting recipro- cating pump.

(b) A single acting reciprocating pump runs at 60 RPM. The diameter of the plunger is 0.15m and crank radius is 0.15m. The suction pipe is 0.1m in diameter and 5m long. Calculate the maximum permissible value of suction lift, if the separation takes place at 2.6m of water absolute. [8+8]

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, November 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

 (a) 1. How does vapour pressure aﬀect ﬂuid ﬂow? (b) Find the torque required to rotate a shaft of diameter 50 mm at 1400 rpm concentrically with a sleeve 50.16 mm in diameter and 10 m long ﬁlled with oil. Kinematic viscosity of oil is 0. 94 × 10 − 4 m 2 /s. Speciﬁc gravity of oil is 0.85. [8+8] (a) 2. Brieﬂy explain the classiﬁcation of ﬂows. (b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if i. Streamlines are parallel and equidistant ii. Streamlines are straight and converging iii. Streamlines are curved but equispaced iv. Streamlines are curved and converging. [8+8] (a) 3. State the assumptions made in the derivation of Bernoulli’s equation. State the momentum equation and explain its signiﬁcance. (b) The water is ﬂowing through a taper pipe of length 100cm having diameters 800mm at the upper end and 400mm at the lower end, @ the rate of 60 × 10 − 3 m 3 /s. The pipe has a slope of 1 in 30. Find the pressure at the lower end if the pressure @ the higher level is 20N/m 2 . [8+8] (a) 4. Explain pipes in series and parallel. (b) A rough pipe is of diameter 8cm. The velocity at a point 3cm from wall is 30% more than the velocity at a point 1cm from pipe wall. Determine the

average height of the roughness.

[8+8]

5. A rectangular tank with vertical sides is provided with an oriﬁce in one of the sides. In a certain time, the head over the oriﬁce is lowered from 4.50m to 1.50m.Determine the constant head at the oriﬁce so that same amount of water is discharged through

the oriﬁce in the same time.

[16]

6. A square plate weighing 115N and of uniform thickness and 30 cm edge is hung so that horizontal jet 2 cm diameter and having a velocity of 15 m/s impinges on the plate. The center line of the jet is 15 cm below the upper edge of the plate, and when the plate is vertical the jet strikes the plate normally and at its center. Find what force must be applied at the lower edge of the plate in order to keep plate vertical.If the plate is allowed to swing freely, ﬁnd the inclination to vertical which the plate will assume under the action of jet. [16]

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 4

7. A turbine is to operate under a head of 250 m at 200 rpm, the available discharge is 9 m 3 /s. Assuming an eﬃciency of 90% determine:

 (a) Speciﬁc speed (b) Power generated (c) Performance under a head of 20 m (d) The type of turbine. [16]

8. (a) Derive an expression for the work done by a reciprocating pump

(b) Deﬁne the terms: Manometric eﬃciency, mechanical eﬃciency and overall

eﬃciency of a centrifugal pump.

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[8+8]