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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT LAB MANUAL SUBJECT: - ENERGY CONVERSION II VII-SEMESTER LIST OF PRACTICAL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

. Trial on Twin cylinder reciprocating air compressor. Trial on Rotary Air Compressor (Roots Blower) Study of Internal combustion Engine Study of fuel injection and Ignition sys Study of Engine cooling and Lubrication system. Trial on Computerized Single Cylinder four stroke diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. 7. Trial on Computerized Single Cylinder four stroke petrol engine with eddy current dynamometer. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 13 Visit to thermal power plant Heat balance sheet on Multi cylinder Diesel engine Study on Gas Turbine Study of Carburetors such as Zenith, Carter, Solex, S.U. etc. Study of Cogeneration G. T. Plant and Jet Propulsion system Study and demonstration on AVL exhaust gas analyzer.

Experiment No.1
Aim: To Conduct a Test on Air Compressor and to determine the Volumetric Efficiency and Isothermal Efficiency at various delivery pressure. Description: The Air Compressor is a two stage, reciprocating type. The air is sucked from atmosphere and compressed in the first cylinder. The compressed air then passes through the air cooler into the second stage cylinder, where the air is further compressed. The air further goes to the air reservoir through safety valve, which operates the electrical switch, when the pressure exceeds the limit. The test unit consists of a air chamber, containing an orifice plate, the manometer, compressor, an electrical dynamometer type induction motor. Equipment Data: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Diameter of low pressure cylinder 101.6 mm Diameter of high pressure cylinder 63.5 mm Length of stroke = 69.85 mm Maximum discharge pressure = 10.50 kg/cm2 Compressor speed = 650 RPM Motor speed = 1440 RPM H.P. of Motor = 3.00 Orifice Diameter = 16.00 mm Coefficient of discharge of orifice 0.65 Area of Orifice = 1.7672 x 10 -4 m2 Dynamometer Arm Length = 140 mm = =

Procedure: 1. The outlet valve is closed. 2. The dynamometer is adjusted, so that the circular balance reads zero, when the pointers at the motor pedestal coincide. This can be easily done by operating the handwheel.

3. The manometer connections are checked. (The manometer may be filled with water upto the half level.) 4. The compressor is started. The pressure develops slowly 5. At the particular pressure, the outlet valve is opened slowly and adjusted so that the pressure is maintained constant. 6. Take the all readings 7. Observations: Speed of the motor __________ N-m Speed of the compressor __________ RPM Manometer readings __________ m h2 = __________ m High Pressure gauge reading Kg/cm2 The Room Temperature __________ C Repeat the experiment for different pressures T1 Calculations: 1. Manometer readings h1 h2 2. = = __________ m, and __________ m = Nc h1 = =

= t

__________ = -

Water Head causing flow hm = h1 h2 m

3.

Air head causing flow H =

1 h w a w a = = 1.293 Kg/m3 1.293 x 273 273 + t Density of water Density of

Where air Density of air at RTP = Density of air at NTP =

4.

Actual Volume of air compressed at RTP Va orifice =


2

= Where 0.65

Cd x a x 2gH Cd a = = Coefficient of area of

orifice in m 5.

Actual volume of air compressed at NTP V1 = Where


VaTN 3 m /sec. TR

TN TR

= =

273 (273 + t)

6.

Theoretical volume of air Vt =

D2 L

NC 3 m /sec. 60

Where high pressure cylinder length.

D L Nc

= = =

Diameter of the Stroke RPM of

the Compressor.
7. Volumetric Efficiency

vol.

= =

actual volume at NTP / Sec. Theoretical volume / Sec. V OR 1 100 Vt Va 100 Vs

Compressor Output: 8. Isothermal Work Done

With.

Pa Va log e r 75

= Where

P Pa Va log 3 P 1 Pa

= Va

atmospheric pressure = =

actual volume of air compressed per sec at RTP r Compression Ratio =


Gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure atmospheric pressure

9. ith

Isothermal efficiency = =
Isothermal H.P. I.H.P.

Isothermal Work. Actual Work.

Graphs:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Draw Graphs Pressure Ratio Pressure Ratio Pressure Ratio Pressure Ratio

Vs. Vs. Vs. Vs.

Volumetric Efficiency Isothermal Efficiency Input / shaft power to compressor Free air delivered.

Observation Table:

Suction Head h mm

1st stage discharge Pressure P1 Kg/cm2

2nd stage Discharge Pressure P2 Kg/cm2

Tank Pressure P3 Kg/cm2

Energy Meter Reading

Ambient Temp. T1

Outlet of 1st stage Temp. T2 C

Inlet of 2nd stage Temp. T3 C

Outlet of 2nd stage Temp. T4 C

Tank SI Inlet Bar T5 C Kg

Sec/rev

Dos and Donts DOs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Keep Air Inlet portion clean. Check current belt tension. Current Oil Level in the crankier to be maintained. Drain daily by opening Drain Cock. If you hear any unusual sound, please attend immediately. Use safety glasses or goggles.

DO NOTs 1. Do not neglect the routine checking. 2. Do not neglect any leakage in the system. 3. Do not do any meddling or adjustment while compressor is working. 4. Do not keep any loose tools on compressor. 5. Do not run the compressor without belt yard. 6. Do not use any cleaning agents while changing oil. 7. Do not inhale compressed air directly. 8. Do not use the compressor in the rain or any explosive atmosphere. 9. Do not tamper with safety valve, occasionally pull the ring on the change setting of safety valve to make sure that the valve operate freely. Results: Delivery Pressure kg/cm2 Speed Input Power KW Pressure ratio r RPM Isothermal Volumetric Overall F.A.D.

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5

ith %

vol. %

o %

m3/min

Precautions:

1. The orifice should never be closed, otherwise the manometer liquid (water) will be sucked into the tank. 2. At the end of the experiment the outlet valve at the reservoir should be opened, as the compressor is to be started again at low pressure, to prevent undue strain on the piston.

EXPERIMENT NO. 2 Aim: To Determine Efficiency of Rotary Air Compressor (Roots Blower)

Basically air compressors are of two types, namely reciprocating and rotary. Reciprocating type are commonly used everywhere in commercial applications. But rotary compressors find application in industries. Both are positive displacement types. Above compressor is Twin lobe type, in horizontal position with air cooled.
Working Principle:

Two rotors each of identical profile rotate in opposite directions, without touching each other or the casing, thus developing a known volume of oil free air, carrying it to and forcing it out POSITIVELY through the discharge opening. For one complete revolution of both rotors, this action occurs four times, hence air supplied is intermittent type, which is reflected in vibration of pressure gauge. During this rotation known volume of air trapped between the rotors and casing does not decrease from entry to exit and hence no pressure is developed till the discharge end is uncovered, where high pressure receiver air offers resistance resulting in irreversible mixing of compressor and receiver air and consequent irreversible pressure rise as shown in fig.
Application:

Application:Cement Plant : Steel Plants Water treatment plant : & Sewage plants Cement blending, aeration, fluidization : Coke oven gas, lime kiln bed, coal washing Aeration air to keep beneficial bacteria alive in activated sludge process, Demineralization, supply of air for back washes of filters : Sulphitation Process : Humidification, beam dying : material handling, including flour, sugar, Salt, cement, coall, plastic chips, wood chips, etc,. : transport of gases

Sugar Plants Textile mills Pneumatic Conveying

Chemical

Test Set Up:

It comprises of following 1. Blower, motor, transmission, base, etc. 2. Electrical panel Suction and Discharge ducts, control valve 3. 4. Venturimeter and gauges BLOWER Outlet and Inlet : Rotary, Twin lobe type : 2 NB Maximum Pressure at 2 HP 4 psig (0.24 kg/sq.cm) : 3 phase, 440 V AC, induction, foot mounted, 2 HP, 1400 rpm : Transmission through V Belts and double grooved pulley sets. : Made from strong channel 100mmx50mmx5.5mm : It comprises of following : : 3 phase, BHEL, 10A 4 wire, 150 rev/kWh : Cutter Hammer, AMLE 50, 3phase, Thermal overload protection : U-tube, glass, 30cm, water filled / mercury filled : 2 pipes with ports for gauges, flanges etc. : 2 Gun metal, gate valve : Flanged ends, 58mm Inlet diameter, 29 mm throat diameter : : 0 1 kg/sq.cm : 0 760 mm Mercury

MOTOR COUPLING BASE ELECTRICAL PANEL Energy meter Starter Manometer SUCTION & DISCHARGE DUCTS CONTROL VALVE VENTURIMETER GAUGES Pressure Gauges Vacuum Gauge
Procedure:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Check all electrical connections. Ensure clockwise rotation of compressor when viewed from pulley end. Check oil level in the compressor, if reduced fill it to the level ENSURE FULL OPENING of control valve, do not block suction side. Check tension in the belts. Fill up mercury to the desired level. Now start the compressor with the help of starter After steady start, note down readings of following. Slowly close the valve partially to read pressure of 0.02 kg/sq.cm and up-to 0.24 kg/sq.cm. Note down all readings. Maximum limit of pressure for given set up = 4 psig (0.24 kg/cm2)

Observations:

1. Energy-meter constant

KE

150 revolutions / KWH

2.

Venturimeter a. Inlet Diameter b. Outlet Diameter c. Inlet Area d. Throat Area

d1 d2 A1 A2

= = = =

58 mm 29 mm 0.00264 m2 0.00066 m2

Calculations:

1.

Pressure of air P = _________ kg/cm2

2.

Total Head H = Pd 10 4

3.

4.

Where, air density a Venturimeter Constant A1 A2 K = 2 A12 A2 Manometer head hm m Ha = m

1.2 kg/m3

Where hm 5. Air discharge Qa =

= m

(h1 h2) m = density of mercury = 13,600 kg/m3

Cd K 2 g H a

m3/sec Coeff. of Discharge 9.81 m/sec2 kW = 0.97

6.

Cd = g = Output HP of Compressor a Qa H t g B = 1000 Input HP to Compressor I = Where

Where

7.

N 3600 1.37 m t t KE m T KE N t = = = = = Motor Efficiency Transmission eff. 150 rev/KWH No. of revolution Time = = 0.8 0.75

8.

Blower efficiency

B 100% I

Observation Table:

Sr. No.

Discharge Pressure P Kg/cm2

Suction Pressure V mm of Hg

Manometer Readings h1 cm h2 cm

Energy meter reading for 2 rev. of disc t Sec.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Experiment No .3
Aim : Study of Internal Combustion Engine.

Introduction:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Theory. Working Principle Application Classification of I.C. Engine 4 stroke Otto cycle with Line Diagram, PV diagram and Valve Timing Diagram.

6.

4 stroke Diesel cycle with Line Diagram, PV diagram and Valve Timing Diagram.

7.

2 stroke SI Engine with Line Diagram, PV diagram and port timing diagram.

8. 9.

Difference between Two Stroke and Four Stroke Engine Difference between SI engine and CI engine.

Experiment No. 4
Aim: A] Study of fuel injection and ignition system. Fuel injection.

1. 2. 3.

Introduction Theory and Function Types. a. b. Air injection. Solid or airless injection.

4.

Electronic fuel injection.

B]

Ignition system.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Introduction Theory and Function Requirements of Ignition system. Types a. Battery or coil ignition system with diagram, Advantages and disadvantages b. Magneto Ignition System with diagram, advantages and disadvantages.

5.

Electronic Ignition System.

Experiment No. 5

Aim:

Study of Engine Cooling and Lubrication System.

A]

Engine Cooling System:

1. 2. 3.

Introduction Theory and Function Types a. b. Air Cooling with diagram, advantages and disadvantages Liquid Cooling i. Thermo Syphon Cooling with diagram, advantages and disadvantages. ii. Forced or pump Cooling with diagram, advantages and disadvantages iii. Cooling with Thermostatic regulator with diagram, advantages and disadvantages iv. Pressurized water cooling with diagram, advantages and disadvantages v. Evaporative Cooling with diagram, advantages and disadvantages.

B]

Lubrication System:

1. 2. 3.

Introduction Theory, Function and Properties of Lubricants Types a. Wet sump lubrication system with diagram, advantages and disadvantages. b. Dry Sump lubrication system with diagram, advantages and disadvantages c. Mist Lubrication system with diagram, advantages and disadvantages.

Experiment No. 6 Aim: Trial on 4 Stroke Single Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine with Eddy Current Dynamometer. To conduct a performance test on the engine to determine the following 1. Brake Power 2. B.S.F.C. 3. Brake Thermal Efficiency 4. Volumetric Efficiency 5. To prepared heat balance sheet. Observation Table: Air flow rate

for Engine Sr. No. T mw

for Calorimeter mw

Fuel flow

Speed

Temperature T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

Nm 1.

Kg/hr

Kg/hr

m3/hr

Kg/hr

rpm

c c c

Calculations:

1. 2. kg/m3 3.
4.

Brake Power, B.P.

Fuel Consumption, Mf

2NT kW 60 1000 V 1 e f Where, v = _ cm3, t =__ s, f =_ = 6 10 t

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption B.S.F.C.=


Brake Thermal Efficiency Bth 1. Volumetric Efficiency vol = =

mf B.P.

kg/kWh

B.P. 100 =___% m f C.V .

Cd o Ao 2 gH a va = =____% 2 N vs d L K 4 60 2

Result: Load W N Brake Power B.P. kW B.S.F.C. kg/kWh Brake Thermal Efficiency bth Volumetric Efficiency vol.

Sr. No. 1.

Computer (Software) Operating System:

2. 3. 4.

5.

After switching ON of all the meters and converter. Run the software. In software, you have options to do two types of tests. a. Performance test b. PV P Test In software, you have got different menus as below: a. Start Test: In start test you can start the test of two types. i. Performance Test ii. PV-- P Test If you opt for performance test, you should enter the time in seconds. If you opt for PV P test, you should open (top) the pressure transducer valve which is provided on the engine to access the pressure of the engine at every 2 of crank rotations. When you click on PV P test you see on the computer screen iii. Checking for data when it starts for down loading data you see down loading data. As soon as you see down loading data close the valve (downwards) of pressure transducer immediately. b. Save File : This command is used to save the data from the current test. c. View File : You can view the file of saved file (data). d. View Report : You can view the reports and graphs of the current or previous file. e. Settings : In this there are 3 types of settings viz. : Com 1, Com2, Com3, where our current setting should be always in Com1. f. Exit : To exit from the current set up. g. Stop test : when you click on start test and opt for performance test you see stop test in place of start test menu. (when number of values are accessed) when you opt to stop the test you click on the stop test menu.

Experiment No. 7
Variable Compression Ratio Computerized 4 Stroke Single Cylinder Petrol Engine Test Rig Aim: Trial on Variable Compression Ratio 4 Stroke Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine with Eddy Current Dynamometer. To conduct a performance test on the engine by changing the cylinder heads for different COMPRESSION RATIO to determine the following 1) Brake Power, 2) Indicated Power 3) Frictional Power 4) BSFC 5) Mechanical Efficiency 6) Brake Thermal Efficiency 7) Indicated Thermal Efficiency 8) Volumetric Efficiency 9) Graphs. Computer (software) operating system:

1. Initially, with no load on engine, it is started by hand cranking 2. Run the software. 3. Press the button for Get Pressure to get the Mean effective Pressure, and note that reading 4. Fill the burette by petrol, on the fuel supply line and measure time required for 50 cc. 5. On computer, press the Start Data Acquisition button to get the various data. 6. Manually note down the various readings such as Temperatures, water flow rate, air pressure, speed 7. Now On computer save the each reading. 8. By increasing the torque on the engine again take readings. 9. Maximum 5 readings will have to be taken in the torque range of 0-5 Nm. 10. Calculate brake power, indicated power, various efficiencies and prepare a heat balance sheet.

Observation Table: Time for 50 cm3 of fuel

Temperature Sr. No. T1 T2 T3 T4

Air Pressure

Load Speed

Water flow rate

m.e.f.

Pm mm kg Rpm lit/hr Sec

c 1.

c c c

Calculations: 1. Torque T = 9.81 x Load x R = ____ N-m, where R = Length of Torque arm = 0.15 m 2NT kW 2. Brake Power, B.P. = 60 1000 Pm 9.8110 4 L A N 2 KW 3. Indicated Power, IP = 60 1000 4. Frictional Power, FP = IP BP = ___ KW V 1 e f Where, v = 50 cm3, t =__ s, f =_ 5. Fuel Consumption, Mf = 10 6 t kg/m3 mf 6. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption B.S.F.C.= kg/kWh B.P. B.P. 100 = ___% 7. Mechanical Efficiency, mech = I .P. B.P. 8. Brake Thermal Efficiency Bth = 100 =___% m f C.V .

9. 10.

Indicated Thermal Efficiency, Ith Volumetric Efficiency vol =

I .P. 100 =___% m f C.V .

Cd o Ao 2 gH a va = =____% 2 N vs d L K 4 60 2

RESULT:

S r. N o.

Loa d W N

Brake Power B.P. kW

Indicat ed Power I.P. kW

Frictional Power F. P. kW

B.S.F.C.

kg/kWh

Mechanic al Efficienc y mech %

Brake Thermal Efficienc y bth %

Indicated Thermal Efficienc y Ith %

Volumetr ic Efficienc y vol. %

1.

GRAPHS:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Compression Ratio Vs. Brake Power Compression Ratio Vs. Brake Thermal Efficiency Compression Ratio Vs. Specific Fuel Consumption Compression Ratio Vs. Volumetric Efficiency

30
Brake Thermal Efficiency

Brake Power

3.4

20

3.1 5 7 9 Compression Ratio 11

10 5 7 9 11 Compression Ratio

45 0.25
Specific Fuel Consumption Volumetric Efficiency

35

0.22

25

15 0.19 5 7 9 Compression Ratio 11 5 7 9 11 Compression Ratio

Experiment No.9
Aim: Trial On Two Cylinder Water Cooled C.I. Engine Under Variable Load.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Load Test To determine Brake Power (B.P.) To Determine B.S.F.C. To Determine Brake Thermal Efficiency To draw heat balance sheet

Engine Specification:

Engine Type Bore Stroke Cubic Capacity Normal Comp. ratio Fuel Tank Capacity Governor Speed Cooling Mode of starting B.M.E.P. at full load and 1500 rpm

: : : : : : : : : : : :

Kirloskar Twin Cylinder Diesel Vertical Four Stroke, C.I. Engine 87.5 mm 110 mm 1.323 liters 17.5 : 1 11 lts. centrifugal Mechanical Type 1500 rpm water cooling By hand cranking 6.33 kg/cm2

Air And Fuel Measurement Set Up:

Air Tank Orifice Manometer Burrette


Observations

: : : :

M. S. 40 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm sharp edge 16 mm diameters U-tube, 30 cm 50CC, glass

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Procedure:

No. of Cylinder Coeff. Of discharge C. V. of Diesel Density of Diesel Gas Constant Engine Speed Density of Hg Room Temperature Brake drum diameter Diameter of Rope

k Cdo c.v. R N Ta =

= 2 = 0.82 = 49500 kJ/kg = 831 kg/m3 = 0.287 kJ/kg = 1500 rpm = 13600 kg/m3 = _______ _______ = _______

Diesel engines are tested for performances characteristics. This testing is carried out at various loads starting at no load to the full load condition. The governors will adjust the

engine speed nearly equal to the load and takes care of it. At no load, the engine is started by hand cranking. The burette is fitted with fuel and time required for 20 ml. of fuel consumption is recorded. All the temperatures are measured with the help of thermometer and thermocouples respectively and also quantity of water through water jacket is measured with the help of water meter and stop watch, speed is also recorded. This above condition is repeated for various load. The B.P., Brake thermal efficiency, B.S.F.C. and Heat balance sheet is prepared.

Calculations:

1.

Area of Orifice Ao =

2 d o m2

2.

Density of Air a =
Pa RTa

Where, R

= Ta Pa

0.287 kJ/kgK = Room Temperature in K = N/m2

3.

Head of air Ha in meter Hm m Ha =

Where, m 4.

= Hm

13600 kg/m3 = ___________meter

Air mass flow rate ma in kg/min Va = Cdo.Ao. Cd o . Ao 2 gH a Where = Velocity of air passing through (m/s)

5.

Brake Power B.P. = = =


2NT 60 1000 2N (W R) 60 1000 ______________ kW

6.

Fuel Consumption V 1 Mf = 6 ef 10 t Where, v

_________ cm3

7.

t = _________ sec f = _________ kg/m3 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption mf B.S.F.C.= B.P. = __________ kg/kWh Air Fuel Ratio A:F =
ma mf

8.

9.

Piston displacement Volume 2 N Vs = d L K 4 2 = ____________ m3/min Ma = = N K a 4 2 ____________ kg/min d 2L

10.

Brake Thermal Efficiency B.P. Bth = 100 m f C.V . = ___________

11.

Volumetric Efficiency va vol = vs =

Cd o Ao 2 gH a N d 2L K 4 60 2

______________

Observation Table: Manometer Load Radius Fuel Test Engine Cooling Temperatures (wS. s)x h1-h2 RE Vec t V/t Q T Q/T tw1 tw2 tw3 tw4 No. 9.8 m N m3 sec. Lit. Sec. m3/sec C C C C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Result:

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Load W N

Brake Power B.P. kW

B.S.F.C. kg/kWh

Brake Thermal Efficiency bth

Volumetric Efficiency vol.

Experiment No.10
Aim: Study of Gas Turbines

1. 2. 3.

Introduction Theory, Function and Application Working principle of Open Cycle Gas Turbine with line diagram and T-S diagram.

4.

Working principle of Closed Cycle Gas Turbine with line diagram and TS diagram.

5.

Methods for Improving thermal efficiency a. b. c. Inter-cooling with Line Diagram and TS diagram. Reheating with Line Diagram and TS diagram. Regeneration with Line Diagram and TS diagram

Experiment no. 11

Aim:

Study of Carburetor

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Introduction Theory and Function Working Principle of Zenith Carburetor with Line diagram Working Principle of Carter Carburetor with Line diagram Working Principle of Solex Carburetor with Line diagram Working Principle of S.U. Carburetor with Line diagram

Experiment no. 12
Aim : Study of Cogeneration G. T. Plant and Jet Propulsion System

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Cogeneration Theory Purpose of Cogeneration Basic Theory of Jet Propulsion Theory of Jet Engine Classification of Jet Engine A. Atmospheric Jet Engine i. Steady jet combustion system, continuous air flow a. b. c. ii. Turbo Jet Turbo Prop Ram Jet

Intermittent Combustion system a. Pulse Jet

B.

Rocket Engine i. ii. Liquid Propellant Solid Propellant

Experiment no.13
Aim: Measure amount of CO and HC in exhaust gases of 2-stroke & 4-stroke engine with help of exhaust gas analyzer.

Concept: I.C. Engine testing are classified as: a) Thermodynamics test b) Commercial test c) P.U.C. test Types of I.C. Engine test

Thermodynamic test

Commercial Test

P.U.C. test

a)

Thermodynamic Test: The test which is performed on the engine for the purpose of comparing actual result with the theoretical are known as thermodynamic test.

Thermodynamic Test

Power Developed

Distribution of Supplied Heat

Heat Supplied Per Unit Time

b) Commercial test : The tests performed on two stroke engine for commercial purpose are known as Commercial test. This test is performed to check the following. Commercial Test

Output Power

Quantity of Lubricant BHPh

Quantity of the coming BHPh

Overload Capacity

c)

P. U. C. test: (to check exhaust gas emission)

Due to increase in automobile pollution all over the country. The state has made it mandatory for all vehicles checked & obtains P.U.C. certificates. The P.U.C. certificate will be valid for 6 month. All these measurements are being taken to keep CO, HC, CO2 & pm under control which are highly injurious to the health.

P. U.

%CO

%C02

%HC

Emission Euro- II standard for controlling PUC in India from 1st April 2000.

2-Wheeler

3-Wheeler

CO (g/Km) Min 2.0 Max 2.4

HC (g/Km) Min 2.0 Max 2.4

CO (g/Km) Min 4.0 Max 4.8

HC (g/Km) Min 2.0 Max 2.4

Test certificate is provided after PUC testing

PUC is the process of adjusting air fuel ratio to make the mixture lean or reach or adjust the values of CO & HC emitted by the vehicle in exhaust within times.

Is done by only RTO approved center

Is compulsory for all vehicles

PUC

For small Petrol vehicles costs Rs. 50/-

Certificate is valid only for 6 months

PUC values for Petrol Vehicles are RTO approved

For Carburetor For MPFI CO 0.5 % to 1.5% HC < 1200 ppm < 0.5 % < 300 ppm

Note : MPFI Multi point fuel injection : Fuel is injected directly in the engine Environment used for checking vehicle emissions.

Sampling

Chassis Dmanemothe Test

Constant voltage Sampler

Analysis principle: Spectroscopic method NDIR (non-dispasive informed) Laser Spectres copy with semiconductor diodes Fowler transformation method Magnetic method Electro chemical method

Learning Objective: 1. Discriminating & classifying Petrol engine contains Tetra Ethyl Lead (TEL) which is added to increase anti knock quantity at octane number. Because of TEL engine exhaust contains compounds of lead which are poisonous.

Equipment used for checking vehicle emissions (HC, CO & CO2) a. Out O emission analyzer b. Diesel smoke tester meter 3. Exhaust Gas Combustion The various contents of exhaust emission are : a. Carbon Monoxide (CO) b. Hydrocarbons (HC) c. Oxide of Nitrogen (NO2)

2.

i)

Reset equipment used for analyser 1. Automobile Test Analyser

Measurable gas and range

HC 0 1000 ppm (2 ppm/digit) 1000 2000 ppm (5 ppm/digit) Recording method : Printing of gas concentration limit value, time & date etc. by thermal printer (2 sheet) Power Consumption : 100V Outer dimensions : 400 mm (w) x 215 mm (h) x 490 Weight : 22 kg (approx.)

ii)

Diesel Smoke Test on Meters

Open Diesel Smoke Tester specification Model Detection method RDT 101 Filter paper reflex system

Measuring substance Black smoke exhausted from diesel engine Accuracy Calibration method Dimensions Weight Between 3% of fuel scale By standard colour paper 300 (w) x 385 (h) x 225 (d) mm 14 kg

Motor Skills: 1. 2. 3. Proper setting of the knob Noting the proper readings Take print out

Stepwise Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Start the engine and warm it up till 80 Cylinder temperature. Switch ON the PUC machine analyzer. Allow machine to warm up period 15 minutes. Response time 5 minutes. PUC machine consists of plastic pipe, nozzle, printer unit, monitor with digital number display, knob for manual adjustment, Power ON-OFF switches and gas selector knob. Plastic pipe is connected to the pump of PUC machine through which smoke enters into the machine for analysis. Put in the nozzle of the plastic pipe in the silencer tail pipe. Wait for 5 minutes. Set CO & HC value of zero by using the knob. Switch ON the pump. Operate the gas selection switch and put it to HC & CO. After 5 minute operate the air screw in carburetor for adjustment the value.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13.

Note the recording of CO & HC. Switch OFF the pump & machine & remove the pipe from the silencer of the car. Take print out for certification.