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Chris Bell 1

CH 18
4. What are the four main types of training? Basic literacy Skills- organizations are increasingly having to teach basic reading and math skills as the work becomes more complex. Technical Skills- as technology changes workers have to learn new skills to keep up with the new equipment, and as the organizations structure change the traditional department barriers are change. Interpersonal Skills- effective interactions with co-workers Problem Solving Skills- activities to sharpen logic, reasoning, and problem defining skills

CH 19
1. What forces act as stimulants to change, and what is the difference between planned and unplanned change. Nature of the Workforce-Greater diversity Technology-Faster, cheaper, more mobile Economic Shocks-Mortgage meltdown Competition-Global marketplace Social Trends-Baby boom retirements World Politics-Iraq War and the opening of China

Planned Change- Activities that are proactive and purposeful: an intentional, goal-oriented activity Unplanned Change- Activities that are passive and uncertain: accidental 2. What forces act as source of resistance to change? Overt and Immediate- Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions Implicit and Deferred- Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism & Deferred resistance clouds the link between source and reaction

Individual sources Habit Security Economic factors Fear of the unknown Selective information processing

Organizational sources Structural inertia

Chris Bell 2 Limited focus of change Group inertia Threat to expertise Threat to established power relationships Threat established resource allocations

3. What are the four main approaches to managing organizational change? Lewins Three-Step Change Model- Successful change in an organization should follow three steps: Unfreezing, Movement & Refreezing Kotters Eight-Step Plan- Built on Lewin 3-step model and made a detailed 8 steps. o Establish a sense of urgency o Form a coalition o Create a new vision o Communicate the vision o Empower others by removing barriers o Create and reward short-term wins o Consolidate, reassess, and adjust o Reinforce the changes Action Research- A change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicates Organizational Development- A collection of planned interventions, built on humanisticdemocratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being

4. How can managers create a culture for change? Innovation- a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service Learning Organization- An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change

5. What is stress and what are the possible sources of stress? Stress- A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important Challenge Stressors- Stress associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency Hindrance Stressors- Stress that keeps you from reaching your goals & Cause greater harm than challenge stressors