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magdalene college magazine

No 54

200910

magdalene college
VISITOR:

The Rt Hon the Lord Braybrooke, MA, KStJ

The Fellowship, October 2010


THE GOVERNING BODY

2002 1968 1978 1979 1981 1984 1984 1987 1989 1990 1990 1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1996 1998 2000 2000 2000 2001 2003 2004 2004

MASTER: D D Robinson, CBE, MA, and MA (Yale), FSA, DL, Director of Studies and

University Afliated Lecturer in History of Art; Deputy Vice-Chancellor


PRESIDENT: N Boyle, LittD, FBA, Schrder Professor of German

R Luckett, MA, PhD, Pepys Librarian E Duffy, DD, FBA, FSA, Professor of the History of Christianity M A Carpenter, ScD, Professor of Mineralogy and Mineral Physics H A Chase, ScD, FREng, Director of Studies in Chemical Engineering and Professor of Biochemical Engineering J R Patterson, MA, PhD, Praelector, Director of Studies in Classics and USL in Ancient History M E J Hughes, MA, PhD, College Librarian, Director of Studies and University Afliated Lecturer in English T Spencer, MA, PhD, Admissions Tutor (Graduate Students), Director of Studies and USL in Geography B J Burchell, MA, and PhD (Warwick), Joint Director of Studies and USL in Politics, Psychology and Sociology S Martin, MA, PhD, Senior Tutor, Admissions Tutor (Undergraduates), Director of Studies in Mathematics and Afliated Lecturer in Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics T N Harper, MA, PhD, Joint Director of Studies in History and Reader in Southeast Asian and Imperial History K Patel, MA, MSc and PhD (Essex), Director of Studies in Economics & Land Economy and UL in Property Finance N G Jones, MA, LLM, PhD, Joint Director of Studies and USL in Law H Babinsky, MA and PhD (Craneld), Joint Director of Studies in Engineering, Professor of Aerodynamics T H Clutton-Brock, ScD, FRS, Prince Philip Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology P Dupree, MA, PhD, Tutor for Graduate Students, Director of Studies in Natural Sciences (Biological) and Professor of Plant Cell Biochemistry and Cell Biology S K F Stoddart, MA, PhD, Director of Studies in Archaeology & Anthropology, USL in Archaeology (1986: Research Fellow) R M O'Keefe, LLM, PhD, Dean, Joint Director of Studies and USL in Law, Deputy Director of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law M Hughes, MB, BChir, PhD, Tutor, Director of Studies in Pre-Clinical Medicine and Afliated Lecturer in Pharmacology T A Coombs, MA, PhD, Joint Director of Studies and USL in Engineering H Azrad, MA, PhD, Joint Director of Studies in MML and University Senior Language Teaching Ofcer in French A L Hadida, MA, PhD, Director of Studies and UL in Management Studies C S Watkins, MA, MPhil, PhD, Tutor, College Lecturer and USL in History (1998: Research Fellow) E H Cooper, LittD, FBA, Professor of Medieval and Renaissance English

2004 2005 2006 2007 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010

A L Du Bois-Pedain, MJur (Oxford), Dr Iur (Humboldt, Berlin), College Lecturer and UL in Law S C Mentchen, MA, Admissions Tutor (Recruitment), Joint Director of Studies in MML and University Senior Language Teaching Ofcer in German T Chenvidyakarn, MPhil, PhD, Director of Studies and UL in Architecture S J Morris, BA (Newcastle), Senior Bursar R M Burnstein, MB, BS (Sydney), PhD, Director of Studies in Clinical Medicine G P Pearce, BVSc (Bristol), MA, PhD (Leeds), Director of Studies in Veterinary Medicine and UL in Farm Animal Health and Production C Brassett, MA, MChir, Tutor, College Lecturer in Medical Sciences and University Clinical Anatomist P P Hobday, MA, and MA (Oxford), Chaplain and Director of Studies in Theology and Religious Studies R L Roebuck, BA, MEng, PhD, Admissions Tutor (Undergraduates) and Joint Director of Studies in Engineering M J Waithe, PhD, College Lecturer and UL in English C D Lloyd, MA (Kent), Development Director A K Bennison, BA, and PhD (London), College Lecturer and Director of Studies in Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, USL in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies
EMERITUS FELLOWS

1960 1962 1962 1964 1964 1967 1968 1971

P J Grubb, ScD, Emeritus Professor of Investigative Plant Ecology R Hyam, LittD, Emeritus Reader in British Imperial History J B Dwight, MA, MSc, Emeritus Reader in Structural Engineering P E Reynolds, ScD J E Field, OBE, PhD, FRS, Emeritus Professor of Applied Physics B M Deakin, MA His Honour C F Kolbert, MA, PhD R J S Spence, MA, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Architectural Engineering
LIFE FELLOWS

1982 1984 1985 1990 1990 2001

M D Billinge, MA, PhD N Rushton, MD, Emeritus Professor of Orthopaedics J D Lewins, MA, PhD, DSc (Eng) (London) Sir Derek Oulton, GCB, QC, MA, PhD W R Cornish, Hon QC, LLD, FBA, Emeritus Herchel Smith Professor of Intellectual Property Law A R Thompson, MBE, MA, MPhil
RESE ARCH FELLOWS

2001 2005 2007 2008 2008

S Halper, PhD, Donner Research Fellow in International Studies J P Nolan, PhD, Senior Research Fellow and Joint Director of Studies in Politics, Psychology and Sociology M BV Bell, MA, Nevile Research Fellow in Zoology and Joint Director of Studies in Natural Sciences T A J Cockerill, BA, MPhil (Leeds), PhD (Manchester), Senior Research Fellow in Economics A L Mullen, BA, MPhil, PhD, Lumley Research Fellow in Classics

2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010

G W Atkins, MPhil, PhD, British Academy Research Fellow in History L Incurvati, MA (Rome), MPhil, Lumley Research Fellow and Director of Studies in Philosophy CVial, PhD, Nevile Research Fellow in Pure Mathematics T D Robinson, MA, Parnell Visiting Fellow in Irish Studies S Korte, MEng, Senior Research Fellow in Material Sciences and Metallurgy and Joint Director of Studies in Natural Sciences E Rothschild, CMG, MA, Senior Research Fellow in History and Economics A Bartok-Party, MSc, PhD, Nevile Research Fellow in Physics P M Steele, BA, MPhil, PhD, Lumley Research Fellow in Classics
BYE - FELLOWS

2009 2010 2010 2010 2010

P Bruce, BA, MEng, PhD, Teaching Bye-Fellow in Engineering A C Lashmore-Davies, PhD, Teaching Bye-Fellow in English A D Jarvis, MA (London) Donaldson Bye-Fellow in History R Myhill, BA, MSc, Kingsley Bye-Fellow in Earth Sciences M D Spring, BEd (British Columbia), MA (Essex), Royal Literary Fund Teaching ByeFellow
FELLOW - COMMONERS

1989 1990 1991 1993 1997 2002 2009 2010 2010

T G M Keall, MA, Alumni Secretary R L Skelton, MA A D Rawley, QC, MA (Oxford), College Advocate A M Brown, MA, PhD, Academic Director, Cambridge University Press A I J Fitzsimons, Diplme de lISIT (Paris) J J Hellyer Jones, MA, FRCO, Director of College Music G-Y Chin, BA, Deputy Development Director B Fried, MBA (Pennsylvania) E S Disley, MPhil, PhD, Research Associate, Department of German and Dutch
HONORARY FELLOWS

1977 1984 1984 1987 1988 1992 1996 1996 1997 1998 1999 1999 2000 2001 2001 2001 2002

The Lord Ezra, MBE, MA HRH the Duke of Gloucester, KG, GCVO, MA Professor Sir John Boardman, MA, FBA, Hon RA The Rt Revd S Barrington-Ward, KCMG, MA The Rt Hon Sir Christopher Staughton, PC, MA Professor Sir David Hopwood, MA, PhD, and DSc (Glasgow), FRS A W BVincent, MA, Hon LLD (Trinity College, Dublin) A B Gascoigne, MA, FRSL Professor H HVendler, AB, PhD (Harvard), Hon LittD H R L Lumley, MA Seamus J Heaney, BA (Queen's Belfast), Hon DLitt (Oxford) FBA, MRIA J C F-Simpson, CBE, MA, FRGS Nelson Mandela, BA (SAfr), Hon OM, Hon LLD, Hon DCL (Oxford) Sir Antony Jay, CVO, MA, FRSA Sir Colin Corness, MA Professor Sir Richard Jolly, KCMG, MA, and PhD (Yale) Professor Sir John Gurdon, PhD, Hon ScD, Hon DSc (Oxford), FRS

2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009

D J H Murphy, MA Professor D C Clary, ScD, FRS Sir John Tooley, MA Lord Malloch Brown, MA, KCMG R W H Cripps The Rt Hon Lord (Igor) Judge, Kt, PC, MA His Excellency Judge Sir Christopher Greenwood, CMG, QC, MA, LLB The Rt Hon Sir Andrew Morritt, PC, CVO, MA R HVignoles, BA, BMus, ARCM, Hon RAM, Hon FRCM The Hon WongYan-lung, SC, MA, JP
HONORARY MEMBERS

1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000

Sir Neil Westbrook Dato Foo-Sun Lau Anthony Bloom Robin Monro-Davies Dr Raymond Sackler Dr Beverly Sackler Michael Stone Sir Anthony OReilly Lady OReilly Christopher Smart

2000 2003 2003 2003 2004 2005 2005 2007 2010

Thomas Monaghan Claire Tomalin, Hon LittD Dr Helen Lee JackVettriano Dr John Cameron Wilson Nigel W Morris HRH Raja Dr Nazrin Shah Dato Isa Bin Ibrahim Margaret Higgs

Photo: Guann-Yeu Chin A Victorian jelly-mould: an exhibit from Treasures of Magdalene

magdalene college magazine


NEW SERIES No 54: 200910

contents
Editorial In Memoriam: Edward Cripps Michael (Mickey) Dias The College Record I Fellowship Elections II The Master and Fellows III Academic Reports IV Clubs, Sport and Societies V Chapel and Choir VI Libraries VII Buildings and Gardens VIII College Staff IX Events and Commemorations X Alumni and Development Magazine articles The Presidents sermon, 11 Oct 2009: N Boyle The Immortal Memory Pepys and the Wife of Bath: E H Cooper Maureen Nampijinpa Hudson Triptych at Cripps Court: D D Robinson Arthur Tedder Air Power Maestro: A R Thompson The Adventures of Aliquis Richard Marks (17781847): G W Atkins The Birds of the FellowsGarden: A K Bll Book reviews Neil Wenborn and M E J Hughes, Contourlines (2009) by D D Robinson Jeffery Lewins, Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations (2009) by A Bejan Ronald Hyam, Understanding the British Empire (2010) by M Malloch Brown Nicholas Boyle, 2014: How to Survive the Next World Crisis (2010) by H E Finlay 8 11 14 25 31 35 39 47 49 50 52 53 58 67 71 77 79 88 95 97 98 99 101

editorial
Any editor, a new one especially, hopes that the College Record captures the year effectively and reects it accurately. My thanks to all of our contributors for their efforts to ensure that it does. Like most if not all years, the one under review witnessed a full measure of joy (see the Senior Tutors report) and an equal share of sadness (obituaries). But for those of us close to the action, in the midst of Magdalene as the vibrant and constantly surprising community in which we live, any retrospect has less to do with the record than with a succession of sharplyfocussed snapshots. For me, one of the most vivid was on Empire Day, when Fellows and friends gathered in the Masters Garden to celebrate the publication of your former editors latest book, Understanding the British Empire by Ronald Hyam. It is dedicatedto the Master, Fellows and Scholars of the College of St Mary Magdalene in gratitude for a fty-year association. Exactly what he meant was explained and illustrated in a series of anecdotes which took his audience back to a College few of them recognised, except for its hallmark, that sense of affectionate loyalty which is acknowledged by even the most wayward of our sons (they were all sons in those days). But that was a mere prelude to Treasures of Magdalene, the exhibition which Dr Hyam mounted in Hall on 16 June. As one Fellow put it,for just three hours one could say:I have seen Magdalene.The Crowland Apocalypse, the College plate, archives, copper jelly moulds from the old kitchens (see frontispiece), and nineteenth-century Chinese gurines (see below).Yes, that is the Magdalene in which antiquarianism, which combines a magpie-like instinct for collecting with an insatiable curiosity about the meaning of objects, prevails. It is the Magdalene of Pepys and Kerrich, of Waring and Farish, of T S Eliot and I A Richards. It serves to remind us that we are the custodians of an extraordinary legacy of intellectual and material culture which it is our duty to communicate to the present and to preserve for the future.

Chinese figurines exhibited in Treasures of Magdalene

Photos: Guann-Yeu Chin

Edward Waring was elected to the Lucasian chair in Mathematics in 1760, at the age of twenty-ve. The word renaissance springs to mind to salute Magdalenes mathematicians this year, whose four out of ve Firsts in Part II earned them rst place among the twenty-ve Colleges listed in the Baxter tables. It also awards them the banner headline in what was, mirabile dictu, yet another record-breaking year of Tripos results overall. Small wonder that the sun shone on general admission, when as usual a large number of Fellows accompanied our graduands to the Senate House to witness their rite of passage, tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneos, in the time-honoured words of the Praelector. By the time the new graduates returned to College with their guests,there was,as there is year after year,a touch of nostalgia in the air as they prepared to take their leave. Less predictably, but just as inevitably, the College bids farewell to a number of Fellows each year. In March, Mark Billinge stepped down as Development Director, the position he held for seven years after serving successively as AdmissionsTutor and SeniorTutor, to take up a new development post at the Cambridge Union Society. In June, Jeremy Rawson, our Director of Studies in the physical Natural Sciences and AdmissionsTutor, announced that he had accepted a Research Chair at the University of Windsor in Canada. In October we lose Peter Daybell to retirement after six years as Assistant Bursar, lling one of the most demanding College ofces with a greatly appreciated combination of personal and professional skills.To all of them we offer our deepest thanks. The last of the assignments Dr Billinge undertook for Magdalene was to raise funds for the new building which adjoins Cripps Court as the second phase of our Chesterton Road development. Designed by the same architects, Freeland, Rees Roberts, it adds a further seventeen rooms to our stock of student accommodation and, out of term-time, enhances the value of the Cripps complex as a venue for conferences. In spite of leaving a modest shortfall in the building account, its completion in time for the new academical year is yet another cause for celebration. College Magazines are almost by denition retrospective, but like our new graduates, I want to end the year by looking forward; not only to the commissioning of a new building, but also to the strengthening of our intellectual foundations. During the Easter Term, Magdalene was invited to become a partner in the Joint Centre for History and Economics which was founded by Kings College, Cambridge and Harvard University. Our Fellow Dr Harper, Reader in Southeast Asian and Imperial History, is one of the two Associate Directors based in Cambridge and is joined in Magdalene by one of the founding Directors, Professor Emma Rothschild of both Cambridge and Harvard Universities, who becomes a Senior Research Fellow here. We look forward eagerly to the impact which this international research engine will have on the College which Dr Hyam joined with some trepidation fty years ago.
This issue is edited by the Master, assisted by Mrs Fitzsimons and Jo Hornsby.

Photo: Nigel Hawkes

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in memoriam
EDWA RD CRI P PS
Honorary Fellow and Benefactor

Photo: Michael Cameron Edward Cripps with the Duke of Edinburgh, University Benefactors gathering, November 2001

Edward James Spencer Cripps, born 20 October 1951. Educated at Oundle School and St Johns College, Cambridge where he read Engineering. Entered the family business at Northampton 1974. Director of Velcro Industries, 1986. Trustee of Peterborough Cathedral, Vice-Chairman of the Northampton Old Grammar School Foundation. Elected to Cambridge Universitys Guild of Benefactors, 2001. Honorary Fellow of Magdalene College, 2005. Married Patricia Francis, 1975. Died 23 August 2009 at Southwold.

The death of a friend is sadly all too frequent an event in any College but nothing prepared us for the shockingly sudden loss of Edward Cripps, at the age of 57 the youngest by far of Magdalenes Honorary Fellows. As Secretary of the family foundation established in 1956 by his father, Edward Cripps stands with his brother Robert as one of the greatest benefactors of the College since its earliest foundations. In his citation for Edwards Honorary Fellowship in 2005, the President

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described the Cripps brothers transformational gift as the most signicant benefaction Magdalene had ever received, making possible the building of our splendid new sixth court across the way in Chesterton Road, a worthy successor to the historic sequence of College buildings begun by the monks of Crowland.And remarkably, Edward was a Johnian. He had, however, a special affection for Magdalene. He was acutely aware of the need, in an increasingly competitive market, to improve the amenities for our junior members and at the same time to strengthen the Colleges nances, in particular our ability to attract valuable conference income. Characteristically, he did not seek to inuence the design and planning of Cripps Court beyond an injunction delivered with a smile not to build a white elephant, an animal not infrequently found among modern University buildings. He nevertheless accepted the Colleges invitation to attend planning meetings, generously nding time to do so from his many world-wide business commitments. Everyone involved in that complex three-year process will have been greatly impressed by his absolute trust that, in building the new court, the College would get it right. He could have paid Magdalene no greater compliment. The completion of Cripps Court this summer promises to repay that trust: indeed not a day passes without a growing realisation of the benets social, educational and nancial owing from that superb addition to the Colleges buildings and of our debt of gratitude to the Cripps family who made it possible. Generations of Magdalene men and women will have good reason to thank Edward and his brother Robert Cripps for their outstanding generosity, vision and friendship. Magdalene is not, of course, the only institution in Cambridge (and elsewhere) to have received major benefactions from this extraordinary family. Edward was brought up in the proud tradition established by his grandfather and extended by his father that the prots earned by the family business should be used principally for the support of education, health and the Church in this country. Edward Cripps was born on 20 October 1951. After education at Oundle School and St Johns College, Cambridge, in 1974 he joined the family business Pianoforte Supplies Ltdbased at Roade in Northamptonshire.There, working in the considerable shadow of his father, he learnt the business skills essential for management of a large corporation with ramications all over the world. At rst, he tells us, he received no salary, that being in his fathers opinion, the best way to teach him the value of money. In 1986 he joined his brother Robert on the Board of Velcro Industries, a business acquired and developed by the family in the 1970s. When in due course Sir Humphrey Cripps stepped down as Chief Executive, responsibility for handling the nancial affairs of the Group devolved on Edward and his brother, a partnership to which Robert paid a moving tribute at the celebration of Edwards life in September 2009.There also devolved upon Edward not only the daily care of his father and mother during their last years but also numerous charitable undertakings such as the completion of Cripps Court at QueensCollege, Cambridge, the construction of new buildings for Northampton School for Boys and the High School for Girls, his role as Trustee of Peterborough

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Cathedral and as Vice-Chairman of Northamptons Old Grammar School Foundation. He took very seriously his responsibilities for the factory and staff at Roade (made burdensome by the relentless decline of the countrys automobile industry) and of course his involvement in the planning and building of the new Court at Magdalene. Edward took pride in his familys ne traditions both as employers and philanthropists. For himself, he wanted neither honours nor distinctions. In his brothers words, he wasa sweet, gentle, unassuming man who never sought the limelight or recognition for the many acts of decency, kindness and philanthropy performed personally, privately and publicly. He was not entirely successful in avoiding such recognition: it was with some reluctance that he accepted, on behalf of the Cripps Foundation, admission into the Universitys Guild of Benefactors at a ceremony in 2001 when he was accompanied by Margaret whose support in good times and bad meant so much to him. In 2005 he accepted, together with his brother Robert, election by Magdalene to an Honorary Fellowship, the greatest mark of distinction and esteem which the College could bestow.The Presidents words on that occasion convey Magdalenes warm appreciation of and affection for this delightful, unassuming benefactor and good friend of the College:
Colleges are as close to being immortal as anything in this world can be, and the good effects of Edward Crippss generosity will still be felt within the College generations from now, when all of us are dust.

On Whitsunday every year, the College commemorates its major benefactors but our gratitude to Edward is expressed every day in the many events which take place in Cripps Court, his monument at Magdalene. In that sense, truly,there are no dead. DJHM

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in memoriam MIC HAEL ( MICKEY ) DI A S


Senior Fellow, formerly President
Reginald Walter Michael Dias (Bandaranaike), MA, LLB, Hon QC, born 3 March 1921. Educated at the Royal College, Colombo, the Ceylon Law College, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge (Class I in Law Tripos, Part I 1941, and Part II with distinction 1942; LLB with distinction, George Long Prize for Roman Law and Jurisprudence, 1943; Lawn Tennis Blue). Royal Air Force, Coastal Command, NCO aircrew. Barrister, Inner Temple 1945; Lecturer in Jurisprudence, University College of Wales at Aberystwyth, 19491951; University Lecturer in Law, University of Cambridge, 19511982; Official Fellow, Magdalene College, College Lecturer, 19551991 and Director of Studies in Law, 19551982 (Emeritus Fellow, 19912009); Praelector, 19831986; Senior Proctor, 19871988; President, 19881991. Honorary Bencher, Inner Temple, 1992; appointed QC honoris causa, 2002. Married Norah Hunter (ne Crabb), 25 June 1947 (d. 1 December 1980); two daughters. Died 17 November 2009.

Drawing by Richard Stone (1991)

Consider these statistics for College Law Tripos results: 1955 no rsts, two upper seconds, six lower seconds, thirteen thirds; 1986 eight rsts (with two university prizes), eleven upper seconds, nine lower seconds, one third. And there you have it: the measure and proof of Mr Diass outstanding achievement after thirty years as the Colleges principal Law Fellow. Back in 1955 it had become a pressing matter to appoint a permanent director of studies for the large number of under-performing Law undergraduates. It cannot have seemed likely to be an easy appointment. Colleges were still wary of electing lawyers, with their

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supposedly pedantic ways (and Kings did not do so until 1960). The Master of Magdalene, Sir Henry Willink, QC, took the initiative, and would naturally have consulted the Master of Trinity Hall, as the leading college for Law. The Master of Trinity Hall was Sir Ivor Jennings, a famous constitutional lawyer, who, as it happened, had recently returned from fteen years at the University of Ceylon, and was regarded as an expert on the Sinhalese. Asian Fellows were as yet a rarity in Cambridge, and after four years as a university lecturer (and an external supervisor for Magdalene), Mickey was still without a fellowship. But Sir Ivor must have made reassuring noises about him, as one of the Halls best graduates (two starred Firsts), for the election was made with unusual speed at the beginning of August 1955. To welcome him, the junior Research Fellow invited the newcomer to play tennis in the FellowsGarden (which had a court in those days). Mickey turned up in long white trousers, with an ancient racquet. Expecting an easy victory over a man several years older, the Research Fellow found himself roundly beaten, winning not a single match. Mickey, it emerged, was a Tennis Blue. This was just one of the many things about himself which Mickey never, or almost never, talked about. For his Magdalene pupils over 600 of them it was perhaps enough that they liked him and were grateful for his excellent teaching and kindly interest in them. He was, however, a much more interesting and complex character than most people realised. He was very much the product of his Sinhalese background: at once a principled aristocrat and an enfant terrible, a strict conformist and a mischievous rebel and ever the cheerful pessimist. His family, the Dias Bandaranaikes, had been one of the leading families in the old kingdom of Kandy and remained so through into independent Sri Lanka, when they became perhaps the most powerful of all.The Bandaranaikes had centuries of experience of close, and at times sycophantic relationship with successive European overlords they adopted the Portuguese name of Dias, and later they picked up English knighthoods. By the end of the nineteenth century they were highly anglicised, strongly Anglican in religion, sporty, and snobbish (with nothing in common with the vast majority of their countrymen, whom they regarded as natives).They were wealthy, and of the highest possible social status, almost all of them now lawyers (barristers, JPs, judges). Harold Macmillan described elitist Sinhalese families such as this as like eighteenth-century British Whig grandees, most agreeable, and with more than a touch of North Oxfordabout them. It was into this privileged and inuential elite that Mickey was born in 1921. His great-grandfather was the Revd Canon William Dias, a leading Anglican clergyman something Mickey kept very quiet about indeed (no doubt he would have said, with a shrug of the shoulders,every family has a skeleton in its cupboard). His grandfather, Felix Reginald Dias, BA, LLB, LLM, was one of the rst Asian graduates of Cambridge, who rose to become district judge of Kandy, 1908 to 1914, and Commissioner of Assize, 19201921. Mickeys father was the secondgeneration graduate of Trinity Hall, His Honour Mr Justice (Reginald) Felix Dias, LLD. He had two sons, and split the family names between them, so Mickey was

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christened Reginald; his half-brother Felix Dias Bandaranaike became a prominent politician, but died young from cancer. Their cousins were theSolomon(as opposed to the Felix) Bandaranaikes, who favoured Oxford rather than Cambridge; they supplied Sri Lanka with two prime ministers (in power most of the time between 1956 and 1977), and one president. Mickeys childhood was happy; he was put down for Trinity Hall at birth, and as a teenager sat on his fathers Bench as his amanuensis.The risk for an intelligent (and in Mickeys case rather excitable) young man of such privileged but rigidly structured, socially conservative, background, is that he becomes a rebel, and refuses to follow the path marked out for him. Mickeys older cousin, the future prime minister Solomon W R Dias Bandaranaike, pointed the way, and rebelled in spades against his parents Anglican religion, against Oxford (where he felt slighted), against the British empire, and nally against privilege itself. He abandoned Law, and became a Buddhist-nationalist politician. But the one thing he did not do was refuse a traditionally arranged marriage (his widow eventually became the worlds rst woman prime minister). Mickeys rebellion was also selective, but in different ways. He too rejected Anglicanism, but stopped short of becoming a Buddhist. He wasnt going to give up Law, but he deed his father by remaining in the UK after graduating, and volunteering for war-service with the RAF (becoming an aircraft rear-gunner, based in north Scotland); and to crown it all, he not only got married outside the charmed circle of approved Sinhalese families, but to an Englishwoman. Norah was the only woman he ever fell in love with, but mixedrace marriages were still controversial even in England. In effect he abandoned Ceylon. Disinherited (cut off by his father without a shilling), and bored by his familys deepening involvement in politics and not a little cynical about this the country held few attractions for him, apart from the splendour of the great Kandyan perahera festival (and what, after all, is a religious procession without elephants?). Aselective rebellion, then. Despite their falling-out, Mickeys fathers portrait continued to hang over his study replace. And he stuck rigorously to the gentlemanly upper-class Code of his upbringing, with its sometimes unforgiving Edwardian notions of what was done and not done.Always somewhat peremptory of speech, Mickey, like a true aristocrat, could be devastatingly forthright if he felt you deserved it, socially or professionally. His reactions could seem excessive, never more so than when, as an undergraduate, he was upset by something done, or nor done, by the Chaplain of Trinity Hall. Perhaps it was no more than forgetfulness but Mickey took such things as evidence of moral weakness, and it was now that he decided Christianity to be a proven fraud. But, he believed, everyone should subscribe to the Code, to the letter of the Law, and live by Principles, uninchingly. This might have turned him into an alarmingly austere don. But although he was not always a comfortable colleague, it was balanced by great personal warmth towards those he loved and those he taught. It was also off-set by a determination to have fun whenever he saw an opening.There was about him an almost childlike delight in the macabre and bizarre, in occasional mischief and irreverence.

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The suppressed volume

The reissue

His rather bleak view of human nature in general, and suspiciousness about the possible motives of his colleagues, had been immeasurably but understandably hardened early on by a singularly bad experience. In the autumn of 1955, before he had settled in at Magdalene, he discovered that a former junior colleague of his at Aberystwyth (where he had lectured for two years), one G B J Hughes, had brought out with Butterworths (the respected legal publisher) a textbook called Jurisprudence, the larger part of which was clearly taken from notes made of Mickeys lectures. Even before the clarication of intellectual property law, it was plain that this was a serious case of plagiarism. Hughes was reluctant to admit to wrong-doing, only, under pressure, to having been grossly careless. From Mickeys point of view, his own publication prospects had been disastrously pre-empted, and his Cambridge lectures and supervisions instantly under-cut. He requested a number of senior members of the Law Faculty to give their opinion, adding that he hadno wish whatever to do anything which may prove crushing to Hughes. Professor C J Hamson, Professor R Y Jennings, and Dr L Radzinowicz (among others) all agreed that there had been a breach of copyright. They proposed a compromise which they thought Dias magnanimous to accept: Butterworths would replace Hughess volume with a new book jointly issued as Dias and Hughes on Jurisprudence, with royalties equally divided, and with a full explanatory foreword written by the three wise men. Before this extraordinary book was published in 1957, Hughes agreed that if there was a second edition, Dias would be the sole editor. Accordingly, the four editions which followed, to 1985, became simplyDias on Jurisprudence, and the standard textbook.This was

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not quite the end of the affair, however. Much to Mickeys frustration, years later Hughes put it about that he had been misunderstood and ill-used a claim which can hardly have received much sympathy, as his career had not been noticeably damaged (ending with a professorship at Yale), and since it was noticed that he had lately published a work based upon one of his own students dissertations. Meanwhile, in Magdalene, under Mickeys inspiring leadership, Law developed into the largest subject in College and a spectacular success story. Many of his pupils had careers of the highest distinction in Law, while he became a respected legal authority. He emerged as the Governing Bodys sternest upholder of academic standards, always voting to send down examination failures. In 1962 he took a surprising initiative by campaigning for an end to Governing Body Orders and Minutes handwritten by the Junior Fellows, and replacing them with duplicated typed papers prepared under the direction of the Bursar the biggest change in College record-keeping since the replacement of Roman numerals by Arabic in the Accounts from 1604.Although for most of his time as a Fellow he did not sit on the major committees of the Governing Body, and was never invited to be a tutor, towards the end of his working life he uncomplainingly discharged the prestigious but less than exciting duties of Praelector in College and then of Senior Proctor for the University. In 1988 he was appointed President, though it would have been easy to pass him over, as he was already 67 and had so little experience of general College administration. As President he continued to display a characteristic mix of graciousness and modesty, plain speaking and a love of fun. Teaching remained the absolute centre of his life, and deep into retirement he continued to win the enduring adulation of successive generations of students, as the tributes to him which follow abundantly testify. RH
Mr Diass principal publications: Editor, B R Wise, Outlines of Jurisprudence, 6th edn revised, 1948 Jurisprudence, 5th edn, 1985 (520 pp) A bibliography of Jurisprudence, 3rd edn, 1979 (433 pp) General editor, Clerk and Lindsell onTorts, 15th edn, 1982 (1417 pp; contributor,Principles of liability in Tort, 163 pp, and Negligence, 217 pp); with five consecutive supplements to1987; 16th (centenary) edn, 1989 With B S Markesinis, The English Law of Torts: a comparative introduction, 1976 With B S Markesinis, Tort Law, 1984; 2nd edn, 1989 The concept of Law for a caring society (J G Collier and R W M Dias, Lectures on the Common Law, Leiden), 1988 Articles in the Cambridge Law Journal, etc Pepys and the Law, Coll Mag 30 (198586) pp 1618 (The Pepys Oration, 23 February 1986)

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FROM THE FUNERAL ADDRESS , 12 DECE MBER 2009


When I became Chaplain of Magdalene in 1956 and rst met Mickey Dias, from the start, he laid into my own Christian beliefs vigorously and vehemently, with that wonderful gleam of mockery and glee with which he loved to try and provoke me. At the same time he seemed to be welcoming me with that extraordinary kindness and caring, which I think all his students in and beyond this College, have always appreciated in him. As our friendship developed, he drove me on various occasions to one or two gatherings in which Fellows and their wives were involved around Cambridge or in London. That is how I rst got to know his wonderful wife, Norah, a most warm, gracious and charming person who, immediately, whenever Mickey began one of his assaults on my faith, rose up in indignation, urging me not to pay any attention to him, at which Mickey grinned affectionately and then chuckled. He obviously cherished and expected her reaction, and this became part of the whole dialectic of our friendship! I gradually realised that Mickey almost wanted Norah to come to the rescue, as she urged me to ignore this absurd dogmatism, as she regarded it. Descriptions of his lecturing all seem to converge. He would be clad always in a suit of a particular shade of grey, and in a white shirt. An immaculate gure, he strode into the lecture room and, with rmness and a supreme clarity of both mind and expression, broke down quite difcult concepts into easily assimilated parts. At one point, on a walk, I had foolishly dared to argue back with him on the subject of Natural Law, trying to claim it was God given, he not only properly trounced me for invoking the divine prematurely, simply and naively, but he also invited me to one of his lectures. It was an astonishingly clear and coherent performance and an inspiring experience. I walked away at the end deeply impressed and excited, with perfect notes easily taken. Mickey described Natural Law brilliantly as being incarnated through what was a perfectly natural, social and historical process, and gave the wonderful illustration of how judges arrive at theirratio decidendi, the underlying social and cultural principles guiding them in their sentencing, as they draw upon previous case law to justify their decisions. His descriptions of this process at once reminded me of how preachers guided in a similar way by their present thinking, manage to draw upon contemporary scholarship and a whole tradition of biblical interpretation in shaping their sermons, a comparison which he gladly accepted. Generations of undergraduates at Magdalene had soon begun to discover his commitment to them and his extraordinary care for them, as people as well as pupils.They were also nurtured through the excellent framework for the teaching of law he initiated in the College, infused as it was with the distinction of his own presence and ability. He developed most skilfully that traditional feature in other colleges teaching law, the so called Moot, a kind of enacted Appellate Court, in which more junior undergraduates take on the roles of counsel for or against the Appeal while their ablest third year seniors might act as judges. He started the

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Colleges Law Society in 1962, with its annual Dinner (hosted, characteristically, at his own expense), placed rather hopefully just before the exams, in an attempt to retain a degree of relaxation! The rst female President of the Society, Elizabeth Dyce, was clearly a person of initiative. She so appreciated a curry which Mickey devised for one of his home lunches, that she managed to wheedle the recipe out of him, and actually published it in The Independent newspaper giving it the name, Mickey Diass Chicken Curry. It was voted recipe of the week, and was then also published in the College Magazine, and renamed Chicken Elizabeth1. She also organised all the law students of her time into booking him into amurder weekendin Hereford as a joint thank-you present, no doubt accepted by Mickey with great relish. Indeed he ended up as the chief suspect! One feature, typical of the founder of the Law Societys originality, was his introduction in 1972 of theArchie Leslie Prizeawarded for the best complaint put forward by an undergraduate who had sufferedat the hand of a Law Fellow.This originated when Mickey forgot to invite Leslie to the Law Dinner. Mickey was at once distraught at the error when it was drawn to his attention by one of Leslies friends and gave orders at Norahs direction that he should be recompensed by the provision of two dinners! The College staff rose to the occasion superbly, ensuring that two place settings were laid. Leslie responded in like vein by sending Norah two bouquets of roses the following Monday: one white, with a blessing for the double pleasure; one red, with a curse for the double hangover! The venture was felt to be such a success that it thereafter became an annual event as long as a convincing enough complaint could be made. The prize was paid for by an Endowed Fund, and consists of two invitations to the recipient to eat two law dinners (subsequently commuted to a bottle of champagne), an award that some of its winners have actually been known to put on their CVs! The adjudication of the prize was given to Norah, and, after her death, to successive Masterswives. Gradually Mickey emerged as a distinctive character amongst the Fellows, with a mixture of, on occasion, a rather vehement reaction against any colleague of whom he came, for some reason to disapprove, together, more often, with those frequent gleams of quirky humour, infused with that real warmth of friendship which I was certainly to experience. In his own way also he manifested a strong commitment to the development of the College itself. Norah was never far away from him with that gentle radiance, which enriched their joint hospitality and helped to temper Mickeys occasional extremes. One of his oddly endearing features was his extraordinary passion for the macabre. At one time he took to horror lms, to which he tried to persuade me to go with him. Then again, there were the odd objects he collected, such as some bottled Sri Lankan sh, which had accompanied him since his undergraduate days and were now in his College room, together with, much more recently placed there, a brain in a jar, from his days working as a theatre and mortuary assistant at Addenbrookes Hospital while
1 Coll Mag 42 (199798) pp 6162,Some like it hot: Mr Diass Curry (for 6 to 8 pupils).

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waiting to be called up. (All these treasures have been given to the biology lab of a sixth-form college.) In his home, there was also a human skull hinged at the top to reveal cigarettes for guests. He certainly enjoyed the bizarre. He also liked to startle you with a ash of gloom. In a reply to someone asking him if he could have anything in life what would it be? He said darkly,Every night I pray not to wake up in the morning. Yet, in spite of that, in reality he always continued to live with such amazing zest. He took great pride in his daughtersgifts, both of them having inherited something of Norahs graces and skills and Mickeys remarkable distinction, each in their own particular elds: biochemistry at the University of York, and later, music, for Alison, now both a professional musician and a translator of scientic texts; law for Julia who became a fourth generation graduate ofTrinity Hall, and recently a QC. He was proud, too, to be made an honorary QC by the Lord Chancellor, and to be fted at an amazing dinner at the Inner Temple in 2001, to celebrate his 80th birthday, by 220 of his former pupils, including six Court of Appeal judges, our present Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the Supreme Court. But even for the most formal occasion, he never put his wartime medals on, ever. Undoubtedly the central crisis of Mickeys whole life and that of his family was the sudden catastrophic loss of Norah. They had met during the War when serving together in the RAF. From the 1970s a Trinity Hall friend of his, Dick Christie, who was Dean of the Faculty in the Law School in Salisbury, Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, had invited Mickey to go out each year as a visiting examiner. In 1980 he was accompanied by Norah.They both set out on this venture with excitement. Dicks wife wanted to take Norah on a private sightseeing ight into the hinterland. On that trip, the aircraft quite suddenly fell out of the sky, and those aboard were killed. Mickey came back alone. On his return he didnt miss giving a single lecture. He even continued to give the same lunch parties, aided in this effort and in all his household management by his daughters and their husbands. But once they had left, the long, lonely life in the empty house, only relieved from time to time by visits to and from members of his family, now began. It was made even lonelier two months later when the dog, characteristically named by Mickey Lucifer, just as he had called the houseThe Inferno, also died, at the age of 17. Lucifer had declined sharply after Norahs death: as if he knew. He had to be put down due to kidney failure. Mickey would always have wanted to get another dog, but he knew that wasnt practical now. It would not be too much to say that Norah had long become the lodestar of his life. Gradually I sensed that this now brought about some kind of clarication in a long-developed intuition of which he would not say much. But I know what a friend of his and mine has told me. This friend says that he invited Mickey at a particular Christmas season when both Mickeys daughters were elsewhere, to spend Christmas Day with himself and his family. Mickey replied, quite straightforwardly, that he would prefer to spend the timealone at home with Norah. He could on occasion speak of a way in which he undoubtedly felt her presence and

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communicated with her. Somehow this seemed to deepen and to quieten his heart and mind, to assuage something of his grief and overcome something of his loneliness. I am sure that this sense of Norahs being with him provided part of the strength through which he kept going his wonderful lunches for new generations of Fellows and undergraduates whom he would befriend. After serving drinks to us and placing us at seats at the table already laid out in the dining room, he would enter from the kitchen, wearing a white medical coat and happily bearing his latest culinary creation, needless to say a superb curry, to set before us. Norah had meant so much to him all through his long era of mourning. But now his hope, and even his conviction, that he would soon be with her once more, were clearly stronger than ever. The mention he would sometimes make of this was striking. It seemed as if within him a lasting resolution was developing, rened towards the end of his remarkable life. There was the hint there of a growing conviction that, beyond this present phase of existence, there could indeed be more to come, and with this he seemed entirely content. As Mickey settled into old age there was a growing sense of peace and quiet acceptance, together with constant gleams of the old mischievousness, as when he enquired of his most recent visitors from the College to the Care Home to which he had moved, as to what was the latest gossip in College these days, as well as, always, how the students were developing. S B-W

One of his doodles done during a Governing Body meeting

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DR JONES S MEMORIAL ADDRE S S , 13 M A RC H 2010


When in 1942 R W M Dias of Trinity Hall took a starred First in Part II of the Law Tripos, among his examiners was W W Buckland of Caius, Regius Professor of Civil Law, then in his eighties, who had been a member of the Faculty before Maitlands untimely death in 1906.When Maitland was an undergraduate a conjoined Law and History Tripos had been thought possible; indeed when Maitland was a child the lectures of the Downing Professor of the Laws of England,as the current holder of the chair has put it,did not count at all, since he was not mentioned in the [Elizabethan] statutes. When the young Mr Dias came up on the eve of war to read law at Trinity Hall in the footsteps of his father and grandfather the Law Tripos (1875) was barely older than the Regius Professor.Thus as Professor Simpson has recently observed:
In the Oxford of the 1950s [and, one might add, in Cambridge] the status of the study of law remained uncertain. Some thought it as out of place in a university as plumbing, and the study of jurisprudence was still viewed by defenders of university legal education as essential if academic law was to enjoy any intellectual standing.

It was in this context that Dias on Jurisprudence came into being born, as Mickey ruefully put it, before it was conceived in a line of works intended as comprehensive treatises on jurisprudence, stretching back to the 1870s, and Sir William Markbys Elements of Law Considered with Reference to the Principles of General Jurisprudence. Dias on Jurisprudence, much re-written, reached its fth and nal edition in 1985, but such works are now more or less extinct the seeds of their demise sown in the 1960s in the work of H L A Hart. Jurisprudence courses in university law schools have since become much more philosophical, the province of legal philosophers rather than reective lawyers. Modern philosophical jurisprudence is not to the taste of all, and perhaps we may think that in the process something has been lost. As Mickey put it:Teachers of law always hope to encourage their pupils to learn how to think rather than just what to know, and Jurisprudence is peculiarly suited to this end because it can set law in wider contexts and proceed by way of stimulating ideas and not simply by instruction. If Dias on Jurisprudence thus marked closing of an academic tradition, Mickeys work on the law of tort, and, in particular on negligence, in some senses marked a beginning. In 1961 appeared the twelfth edition of Clerk and Lindsell on Torts, written by an editorial team of nine headed by Arthur Armitage, President of Queens, all but one of whom were members of the Cambridge Law Faculty.This, said the Cambridge Law Journals reviewer,is a take-over bid, with a vengeance!.Time was, he went on,
not so very long ago, when what was writ about law in the universities received little attention, if indeed it was known to exist at all, in the Inns of Court. I speak not of International Law and other esoteric topics where Diceys and Lauterpachts

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have always held sway, but of the ordinary, everyday, humdrum common law of England. Maitland, of course, was a name revered wherever good history was relished. For all that, the prospect that a practitioners encyclopedia should be written or edited by anyone but a practitioner would have been startling if not shocking. Nowadays, however, the law in nearly all its live branches has grown so voluminous and complex, even intercontinental, in its scope that the idea of one person being at the same time a practitioner and a textbook writer has become almost inconceivable. So it has come about that Clerk & Lindsell is no more: what we now have isThe Cambridge Law Faculty on Torts.

Adjured to brevity, the reviewer conned himself to listing without comment the areas with which each contributing editor had dealt, but there was one exception: Mr Dias deals with Negligence and Remoteness of Damage, and his extensive rewriting of these topics is a most interesting and valuable contribution to the subject.And it should be borne in mind how new, in some senses, the tort of negligence was when Mickey began writing on it in the 1950s. It had achieved a chapter of its own in Clerk & Lindsell only in the tenth edition in 1947: Mickeys was pioneering work. His association with Clerk & Lindsell was destined to continue: joint general editor with Sir Arthur Armitage of the fourteenth edition, Mickey had sole responsibility as general editor for the fteenth edition in 1982, and the centenary sixteenth edition in 1989. Sir Geoffrey Elton said of lawyers, in contrast to historians, that they both have, and think that they are, authorities.That the latter is applicable to Mickey I am by no means certain but authority indeed he was, cited and relied upon in court and out. As a University Lecturer in Law from 1951, Mickeys teaching clear, rigorous yet humane inspired generations of Cambridge law undergraduates. In addition he served as Secretary of the Faculty Board of Law, played a major part in reform of the Law Tripos, and also sat on the General Board and Council of the Senate. In 1969 the Cambridge Law Journal published an obituary by Mickey of his late colleague Dr J W C Turner, of Trinity Hall. Phrases stand out:
What shone through all was his kindness and understanding there are many who may guess, but never known, how much they owe to him He had a strong sense of obligation, insisting that one should think of ones rights only after thinking of what one should give.He was devoted to his family,who were a constant source of pride and support to him. Personal advancement never interested him; his concern was with undergraduates and the institutions to which he belonged. Many, no doubt, have felt justly proud of their College and University; but there are few of whom it can be truly said that their College and University could justly be proud of them.

Mickey did not teach me, and I knew him only after his retirement, but he might, it seems to me, have been writing of himself though Mickey, of course, would not have seen it quite like that. NGJ

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the college record


I FELLOWSHIP ELE C TI ON S
Ofcial Fellows MARCUS WAITHE was elected to an Ofcial Fellowship from 10 April 2010, and was appointed to a University Lectureship in the English Faculty last September. Born in Essex in 1976, he began his studies in English literature at the University of Leeds. From there, he proceeded to Kings College, Cambridge, where he undertook doctoral research on the work of William Morris. He completed a Graduate Diploma in Law at City University, before returning to literary study in 2005, upon appointment as Lecturer in Victorian Literature at the University of Shefeld. His time at Shefeld saw the publication of his rst book, William Morriss Utopia of Strangers: Victorian Medievalism and the Ideal of Hospitality (D. S. Brewer, 2006). Articles followed on the poetry and criticism of Geoffrey Hill, and on a range ofVictorian topics. He is currently nishing a second book, entitled The Brain-workers: Literature and the Labour of Mind in Britain, 18201930. This work investigatesVictorian attempts to justify the worth of intellectual labour, paying special attention to the gap between the work of the mind and the work of the hands. He is interested in the ethical tradition of Victorian social criticism, and in connections between literature and the visual arts. These concerns have led to collaborative work with museums. He recently completed a project to reconstruct John Ruskins St Georges Museum for artisans on the Web. It usesVictorian photographs to create a virtual experience of displays not seen since the 1880s. He is delighted to be joining a College with such a strong literary tradition, and looks forward to contributing to the development of English at Magdalene.
CORINNE LLOYD was elected to an Ofcial Fellowship and appointed Development Director from 1 September 2010. She is no stranger to the collegiate university: she began her Cambridge career in 2000, in the Development Ofce at Clare College, from where she was recruited in 2005 by Trinity College, to become their rst head of Alumni Advisory Board. Mrs Lloyd grew up in Switzerland, where she attended the International School in Zurich before taking an honours degree in Politics and International Relations at the University of Kent at Canterbury.After graduation, she spent a sabbatical year as the General Secretary of the UKCs Students Union, before studying for the MA in Comparative Politics which she was

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awarded in 1987. She then worked for three years as a Marketing Research Executive, organising sales conferences and medical focus groups in hospitals for Delandale Laboratories, before taking what she describes as a career break to raise three children. At Magdalene she takes over from Dr Billinge as the College Ofcer responsible for both alumni relations and development. has been elected to an Ofcial Fellowship and appointed a College Lecturer in Asian and Middle Eastern Studies from 1 October 2010. She read History and Arabic at St Catharines College, Cambridge, where she was awarded the Jarret Prize for Oriental Studies. From there she won a scholarship to study for a PhD at Harvard University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences but decided to return to this country after two years with an AM in Middle Eastern Studies. She then obtained a British Academy award to pursue her doctorate at the University of London School of Oriental and African Studies, where she wrote her thesis onHoly War and Rebellion: the effects of the Algerian Jihad of Abd al-Qadir upon Morocco 18301847. In 19961997 Dr Bennison was a postdoctoral Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of Manchester, working on pre-colonial political discourse in North Africa and teaching a seminar on its history from 1492 to 1912. She then returned to Cambridge as a University Lecturer in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies and became a Senior Lecturer in 2004. Her book on Jihad and its Interpretations in Pre-Colonial Morocco appeared in 2002 and, more recently, The Great Caliphs: the golden age of the Abbasid empire, in 2009. Dr Bennison lists her academic interests as focusing on both North Africa and the Middle East since 1500; 18th-19th century Muslim religio-political discourse and state structures; the medieval Islamic west and Islamic cultural history and historical globalisation. She is particularly interested in how the regimes of Islamic Spain and North Africa modelled the urban landscape in cities like Cordoba, Marrakesh and Fes as a means of legitimising themselves before their subjects.This is the topic of her next book. Last December she was awarded a two-year Leverhulme Project grant to work on Political Legitimacy in the medieval and early modern Islamic west which will explore this issue further. She is a rm believer in widening participation and outreach who not only speaks regularly at conferences in this country and abroad, but also addresses more general audiences. She has participated in several television documentaries on aspects of Islamic history and regularly acts as a consultant for TV companies developing programmes on Islamic civilisation. She is a regular contributor to Radio 4s In Our Timehosted by Mervyn Bragg. In 2009 she made a presentation based on her book on The Great Caliphs at the Edinburgh International Book Festival, and she enjoyed speaking at the Cambridge Festival of Ideas. From time to time, she also leads cultural tours to her favourite destinations, Southern Spain, Morocco and Syria. Amira lives in Trumpington and has a
AMIRA K BENNISON

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seven-year old son with whom she spends her free time cycling, swimming and visiting National Trust properties. She also enjoys foreign lms and travel.

Research Fellows
EMMA ROTHSCHILD has been elected to a Senior Research Fellowship from 1 October 2010. She is the Jeremy and Jane Knowles Professor of History at Harvard University and an Honorary Professor of History at the University of Cambridge. She is a founding Director of the Centre for History and Economics,Cambridge,and its counterpart, the Center for History and Economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard. She was until recently a Fellow of Kings College, Cambridge.After reading Politics, Philosophy and Economics at Oxford, she went as a Kennedy Scholar to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she was later an Associate Professor from 1978 to 1988. She was a Directeur de Recherches at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, a Senior Research Fellow at Kings College, Cambridge, and aVisiting Professor at Harvard before taking up her current appointment there. Since the publication of her book, Paradise Lost: The Decline of the Auto-Industrial Age (NewYork, 1973), Professor Rothschild has been prominent in contemporary socioeconomic debate. She is a frequent contributor to the New York Review of Books and other publications. She has served as a member of the OECD Group of Experts on Science and Technology, the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, the Board of the British Council, and the Council for Science and Technology. She was chairman of the Kennedy Memorial Trust, the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development and the Council for Science andTechnology Committee on Arts and Humanities in relation to Science andTechnology. She has been a member of the board of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development and the Council since 1998 and of the International Committee for Strategic Direction at the Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, since 2008.A new book, The Inner Life of Empires: An Eighteenth-Century History, based on the Tanner Lectures on Human Values which Professor Rothschild gave in 2006,will be published next year by Princeton University Press. Meanwhile the tenth anniversary of the publication of Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet and the Enlightenment (Harvard University Press, 2001), will be marked by its translation into Chinese. Among works in progress, Professor Rothschild lists a book on Commerce, Alarm and Anxiety in Eighteenth-century France, which is projected for 2012 and A Connected World: The East India Company and the American Revolution. She grew up in Merton Hall, Cambridge, and has many happy memories of Magdalene Street in the 1950s.

has been elected to a Research Fellowship in Classics from 1 October 2010 for three years.While studying Classics at Kings College from 2002, both as an undergraduate and as a graduate, she was given several awards, including the Members Classical Essay Prize in Classics for her MPhil thesis on Mycenaean Greece, and was made a Scholar of Kings College. Her PhD, which
PHILIPPA STEELE

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was approved this year, focused on the non-Greek languages of ancient Cyprus from an interdisciplinary point-of-view, highlighting the development of languages and scripts on the island over the course of the second and rst millennia BC. She has published several pieces, and given a number of conference papers, on the Mycenaean world and ancient Cyprus, and has recently been editing the proceedings of a conference that she organised on Cypriot epigraphy and archaeology. For the past year she has been working as Research Assistant to the Senior Tutor at Kings, and she also enjoys supervising Classics students in various areas of the subject. In her spare time she is a keen amateur writer of prose ction, and has had pieces printed in various Cambridge University and other publications.
ALBERT BARTOK - PARTAY has been elected to a Research Fellowship in Physics from

1 October 2010. Starting in 2006, he was a graduate student in Pembroke College and conducted his research in the Cavendish Laboratory. The title of his thesis is Gaussian Approximation Potentials: An interatomic potential derived from rst principles Quantum Mechanics. Albert is currently a research associate in the Department of Engineering. He and his wife enjoy walking and cooking and Albert took up rowing in Cambridge. Parnell Fellow was born in 1935 and grew up inYorkshire. After studying mathematics at Cambridge he taught the subject to Turkish students at Robert Academy on the Bosphorus. Moving to Vienna he started a career as a visual artist with an exhibition in Galerie Fuchs. In the late 'sixties under the name Timothy Drever he exhibited abstract paintings in the John Moores Biennial, the Edinburgh One Hundred, and the Lisson Gallery, London, and showed environmental installations at the Camden Arts Centre and Kenwood House. Moving to the Aran Islands in 1972, he changed direction and became a writer, via a detour into map-making. He now lives in Roundstone, Connemara, where his partner Mirad runs Folding Landscapes, which publishes his maps of the Aran Islands, the Burren and Connemara. His two-volume study of the largest of the Aran Islands, Stones of Aran: Pilgrimage and Labyrinth, has recently been republished in the New York Review of Books Classics Series. Other works include MyTime in Space, a sequence of essays on the different sorts of space that have outcropped in his life, and Tales and Imaginings, a collection of short ctions. He has edited and introduced J M Synges The Aran Islands for the Penguin Twentieth-Century Classics series. An installation, The View from the Horizon, linking his work as a visual artist and a writer, was exhibited in the Irish Museum of Modern Art in 1996, and a book of the same title was published by Coracle Press in 1997. Connemara, Listening to the Wind, the rst volume of a trilogy, was published by Penguin in 2006; Connemara: The Last Pool of Darkness followed in 2008, and Connemara: A Little Gaelic Kingdom is in preparation. He has an honorary degree from the National University of Ireland and is a member of Aosdna, the elective afliation of Irish artists.
TIM ROBINSON

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Bye-Fellows (201011) ADRIAN LASHMORE - DAVIES was elected to a Teaching Bye-Fellowship in English in January 2010. He studied in Bristol and Manchester before coming to Pembroke College, Cambridge, to work on a PhD about Bolingbroke and eighteenthcentury political thought. Following the award of his PhD in 2004, he worked as a research assistant in the History Faculty, and taught English in Cambridge. In October 2008, he was appointed to a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship based in the English Faculty, Cambridge. He is currently editing the Unpublished Letters of Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke. In addition to Bolingbroke, he has published on Samuel Johnson and Alexander Pope, and is working on a book on eighteenth-century political discourse. Away from research, his interests include travelling, collecting books, vinyl records, and vintage record-players. was born on Vancouver Island but has spent most of her life in Cambridge, joined Magdalene College in October 2010 as the Royal Literary Fund Bye-Fellow, lling a position initiated by Joanne Limburg. Michelle has previously held Royal Literary Fellowships at Newnham College (shared with Selwyn and Lucy Cavendish) and at Anglia Ruskin University. She has had two careers, the rst as a social scientist, with specialist interests in gender, education and the social implications of reproductive technologies.As a sociologist, she held research posts with the Capital Region Planning Board, the Health Education Council and the Further Education Staff College. She was appointed Afliated Lecturer in the Social and Political Sciences Faculty, University of Cambridge, in 1985 and, after many years of teaching at Anglia Ruskin University, was given the Chair of Sociology and Womens Studies there in 1991. Michelle left academia in 1997 to pursue a second career as a novelist. She has published six novels, one of which, In the Midnight Hour, was elected by the Crime Writers of Canada as Best Novel of theYear, and is currently working on a courtroom drama that will explore some of the barriers to justice in rape trials. Michelle also serves as mentor to emerging novelists, provides departmental seminars in dissertation writing and offers individual coaching sessions for graduate students. For Arts Council England East, she chairs the Escalator panel, coordinating a project which aims to identify and to promote talented writers from the Eastern region. Besides spending time with family and friends, her pastimes include hiking, theatre, opera, lm, and kayaking on the Cam.
ANDREW JARVIS is a PhD candidate with academic interests in world history and visual culture. His current research, onreadingearly photographs of Burma and Sri Lanka and writing histories of these locales that transcend national and intellectual borders, is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). In 2001 he obtained his BA in English and History from the University of Southampton, as well as the Allan Merson Prize for the best overall performance in history nals. In 2007 he received his MA in Imperialism and Post-Colonial MICHELLE SPRING , who

29

Societies from Birkbeck, University of London, and the Lockwood Ingold Prize, which is awarded to Birkbeck students who distinguish themselves in Commonwealth history. Since 2008 he has received a Prize Research Grant from the Cambridge/Harvard Centre for History and Economics and has been elected to the Donaldson Bye-Fellowship at Magdalene College from 1 October. He enjoys travel, music, art and literature.
ROBERT MYHILL was elected to a Kingsley Bye-Fellowship in May 2010. He studied Geological Sciences at Peterhouse,Cambridge before moving to Magdalene College in 2008 to pursue a PhD at the Bullard Laboratories. He is currently studying the processes behind deep earthquakes, poorly understood phenomena which can occur up to 700 km beneath the surface of our planet. He is also interested in the evolution and destruction of ocean basins throughout Earths history, and the changes in rock mineralogy and deformation which take place when oceanic plates descend deep into the Earth. His non-research interests include travelling, the Greek language, rst aid and playing the oboe and piano.

BRADLEY FRIED ,

Fellow-Commoners an MBA graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, becomes a Fellow-Commoner from 6 May 2010. Brad, who is managing partner of Grovepoint Capital LLP, was previously CEO of Investec Bank plc and a partner of McKinsey & Company in NewYork. He is CEO in Residence at the Judge Business School where he is a Fellow in Finance and teaches the banking elective. Brad, 44, is married to Lauren and they have two boys, Daniel 12 and David 9. has been elected into a Fellow-Commonership for three years from 22 July 2010. Liz is a graduate alumna of Magdalene and a former Leslie Wilson scholar. She read Philosophy and Modern Languages (German) at Wadham College, Oxford, received her PhD from the University of Cambridge in 2009 and for the last three years has been teaching at Bilkent University, Ankara. Her main research interests lie in the area of 19th- and 20th-century German thought. Her PhD explored the concept of recognition in Hegels philosophy, and she has also published on empathy and intersubjectivity in the work of Edmund Husserl, the subject of her current research. She is the project manager and research associate for Professor Boyles Leverhulme/Newton Trust Project The Impact of Idealism The legacy of Post-Kantian Thought. Visiting Fellows During the Easter Term we were pleased to have with us two formerYip Fellows: Professor Stephen Doty paid us a short visit from 20 May to 5 June and Professor Ezra Zubrow resumed hisYip Fellowship from 7 May to 7 September.

ELIZABETH DISLEY

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We welcome Professor Ian Hobson and Professor Junichiro Tsujita to Visiting Fellowships for the academical year 2010-11. Professor Hobson, a Magdalene graduate, is the Swanlund Professor of Music at the University of Illinois; Professor Tsujita, an archaeologist, is from Kyushu University, Japan.

II THE MASTER AND F E L L OW S


The Master was re-appointed as a DeputyVice-Chancellor. He also gave the annual Paul Mellon Lecture at theVirginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond,VA. The President was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the Gttingen Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded grants by the Leverhulme and Newton Trusts to establish an international research project on the influence of post-Kantian German philosophy,The Impact of Idealism. He has published: 2014: How to Survive the Next World Crisis (Continuum, 2010), reviewed below (p 101). Professor Grubb, Senior Fellow, celebrated the 50th anniversary of his election to an Official Fellowship on 1 July 1960, and a career which led from being a Tutor and Director of Studies to President and Acting Master. To mark the occasion his portrait was commissioned by the College (see below, p 32). On 8 July, Professor Grubb was given a special lunch in Hall by the Master and Fellows in honour of his golden jubilee. Such celebrations are not frequent, and are always enjoyed, as the Fellow being honoured in this way is expected to deliver a major speech, giving a candid personal perspective on the College. Professor Grubb spoke for 40 minutes, entirely without notes, entertaining his large audience with what proved to be a master-class in the art of public speaking. He explained how he had come from a home where both parents had left school at the age of 14, and from a state grammar school to Magdalene as a budding botanist with a scholarship. As an undergraduate in the mid-1950s he found that the entire group of state grammar school boys was outnumbered not only by the contingent of Old Etonians, but by the Wykehamists as well. In 1958 he joined High Table as a ByeFellow. He gave us a vivid picture of what it was like to be a young Fellow in those days, when there were only 15 members of the Governing Body, and surrounded by a number of charismatic dons, like Frank Salter, Francis Turner, and C S Lewis. He also recalled with affection such College characters as Ted Turner and Jim Ebbon, the Fellows gyps. After a sequence of amusing stories, Professor Grubb reviewed some of the successes in College life during the past 50 years, and, as he saw them, some of the areas where he felt his generation had been less effective. He went on to congratulate those currently in office who had produced in recent years such a spectacular improvement in academic standards. In conclusion he expressed his thanksfor the fact that Magdalene has retained its warm, civilised nature while becoming an academic institution that other colleges have to take seriously.

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Professor Grubb

Mr Murphy

Dr Hyam

In 2010 the College commissioned three new portraits from Peter Mennim of Cambridge: an oil sketch of Professor Grubb and pencil drawings of Dr Hyam and Mr Murphy.

Dr Hyam has published Understanding the British Empire (CUP, 2010), reviewed below (p 99). Professor Field has been made an Honorary Fellow by QinetiQ Ltd and has been awarded the DYMAT (Dynamic Material Properties) 2009 John Rinehart Awardfor achievements in the areas of dynamic fracture, erosion, high rate techniques, energetic materials and shock physics. Professor Duffy gave the 2009 Bainton Lecture in Reformation History atYale University, the 2010 Firth Lectures in Theology at the University of Nottingham, the 2010 John Fines Memorial Lecture to the Chichester Branch of the Historical Association, and keynote lectures at the 2010 annual conferences of the Reformation Studies Colloquium, the Ecclesiastical History Society and the Society for the Study of Theology. He also gave the opening lecture at the

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reopening of the restored Chapel of the Venerable English College in Rome. He has been awarded a Doctorate of Letters honoris causa by Kings College London, elected to the Presidency of the Cambridge University Catholic Association, and appointed a member of the Fabric Commission of Westminster Abbey. Professor Chase has been appointed Head of the University School of Technology. As chairman of the Council of the School and its principal academic officer, Professor Chase is responsible for oversight of its institutions the Department of Engineering, the Computer Laboratory, the Judge Business School, the Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, and the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership. Professor Rushton has retired from his university post and has therefore been transferred into a Life Fellowship. Dr Lewins has been elected a Fellow of the Institution of Royal Engineers. Dr Hughes has edited with Neil Wenborn (1975) Countourlines: New Responses to Landscape in Word and Image (Salt, 2009), reviewed below (p 97). Dr Spencer has been appointed by the UK Government as Review Editor of the chapter on Small Islands, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), due to be published in 2014. Dr Burchell has been invited to speak on his recent research on welfare systems across Europe and their ability to support employees at risk of losing their jobs, by the Universities of Manchester and Oxford, the International Labour Organisation in Geneva, the Treasury and in the US (Puerto Rico). In June 2010, his research on personality and occupation featured on the BBCs Child of our time. Dr Jones has contributed several chapters to The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (OUP, 2009). Professor Cornish has been the senior author of the last three volumes (XIXIII) of The Oxford History of the Laws of England (OUP, 2010) covering the period 1820-1914. He has also brought out a seventh edition of his textbook on intellectual property law. Dr Babinsky has been promoted to a personal Chair in Aerodynamics in the Department of Engineering. Dr Dupree has been promoted to a personal Chair in Plant Biochemistry and Cell Biology in the Department of Biochemistry. Dr Stoddart has published Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans (Scarecrow Press, 2009). He has edited (with C A T Malone et al) Mortuary Customs in Prehistoric Malta (Cambridge, 2009). Dr OKeefe has been reappointed Deputy Director of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law until March 2013. Dr Coombs has been working on creating the strongest permanent magnets in the world. The aim is to produce a magnet which is ten times as strong as a permanent magnet by using a heat pump to magnetise gradually a superconductor. He has started a company Magnifye which is generating a lot of media

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and industrial interest. Last year he was featured in Cambridge News and filmed by British Satellite News, Computer Weekly, Reuters and, most recently, the BBC. He has taken part in several radio interviews and has been invited to talk at major conferences, including the recent TEDx event in Cambridge. His company was runner up in two categories in the Business Weekly business awards. This is important platform technology which has application in medical fields, food processing, transport, power generation, security and space travel, as well as unlocking the secrets of the universe in particle accelerators. Dr Azrad has edited (with Peter Collier) Twentieth-Century French Poetry: A Critical Anthology (CUP, 2010). Dr Hadida has received the Professor of the Year Award, as voted for by the Cambridge MBA Class of 2009-2010 and the 2010 Course of the Year Award (Strategy), as voted for by the Cambridge MBA Class of 2009-2010. Dr Watkins has been promoted to a Senior Lecturership in History. . Mr Thompson has been appointed Trustee of the Papworth Trust. Dr Halpers book The Beijing Consensus was published by The Perseus Books Group (Basic Books) in the UK on 22 April, shortly after its publication in the US on 6 April. It will be published in Japan,Taiwan, Australia and Italy in the autumn of 2010. Dr Halper has been asked to give a keynote address at British International Studies Association (BISA) in September on Obama at Midterm. Dr Tripati leaves to take up a faculty position at the University of California Los Angeles in October. Professor Cockerill has been awarded a research grant by the European Commission for a study of the competitiveness of selected industrial sectors in the EU, arising directly from his Leverhulme Fellowship work. Honorary Fellows Professor Sir John Boardman was awarded the inaugural Onassis Prize in Letters of the Institut de France. Fellows and their guests celebrated the 80th birthday of Bishop BarringtonWard, KCMG, with a lunch in Hall on 3 June. Professor Helen Vendler has published Last Looks, Last Books: Stevens, Plath, Lowell, Bishop, Merrill (Princeton University Press, 2010). Professor Sir Richard Jolly has published UN Ideas that changed the World with L Emmerij and T G Weiss (Indiana University Press, 2009). Professor Sir John Gurdon received on 2 October in NewYork the 2009 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award for his pioneering work with stem cells, sharing the award with Professor ShinyaYamanaka of Kyoto University. Professor David Clary has been appointed as Chief Scientific Adviser to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

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III ACADEMIC RE PO RTS


1 UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS RESULTS , 2010 324 students tookTripos and Preliminary examinations.The numbers in each class were as follows: Class 1, 77; 2.1, 161; 2.2, 39; 3, 5; rst year undivided Class 2, 29 and Pass, 10; Three students reached only an ordinary degree stand or were failed. The number of Firsts awarded by subject were: Archaeology and Anthropology, 3; Architecture, 4; Chemical Engineering, 4; Classics, 1; Economics, 6; Education, 1; Engineering, 9; English, 2; Geography, 2; History of Art, 1; History, 1; Land Economy, 1; Linguistics, 1; Law, 4; Mathematics, 10; Medical Sciences, 5; Modern Languages, 5; Natural Sciences (Biological), 7; Natural Sciences (Physical), 4; Philosophy, 1; Politics, Psychology and Sociology, 3; Social and Political Sciences, 1; Theology, 1. Distinctions were awarded to: B S P Hinson (Archaeology and AnthropologyTripos Part I); E G Pratt (Archaeology and AnthropologyTripos Part IIB: Archaeology); M H A Lee (Chemical Engineering Tripos Part IIA); L J Howard (Geography Tripos Part II); Ar Thillaisundaram (Mathematics Part III); As Thillaisundaram (Mathematics Part III). University Prizes were awarded as follows: A J Bladon (Natural Sciences, Biological), Drewitt Prize in Ecology; B S P Hinson (Archaeology & Anthropology), Journal Prize; M H Martin (Modern & Medieval Languages), Marsh Prize and Kurt Hahn Prize; L Otsuki (Natural Sciences, (Biological), Frank Smart Prize for Botany; E Partridge (Architecture), Edward S Prior Prize; E G Pratt (Archaeology & Anthropology), Anglia Prize; W Z W Teo (Law), Clifford Chance C J Hanson Prize for the Law of Contract and John Hall Prize for Family Law. Senior Tutors Report Finalists ranking. Our nalists yet again ended their careers soaring above the University average.They remain at 5th (now out of 25 colleges) in the Baxter tables and in registering this outcome bagged a record-breaking tally of 33 Firsts (= 32%) and thus recorded the highest percentage of Firsts by a graduating year group in modern times. Including 4th years, 89 % of the graduating cohort achieved a 2.1 or better. Broader results. Considering all three years, the picture painted is even better than last year, we have risen three places to be Baxter-ranked 7th compared to 10th last year (if you prefer the Tompkins methodology we rose to 5th compared to 8th last year).This is our highest overall position.The raw number of First recorded (77) registers as the highest ever numerically and has broken the 20% barrier for the fourth time since we rst breached that particular barricade in 2003: the overall percentage of First now hovers around 24%. University Prizes. Magdalene continues to produce scholars of University-wide distinction, this year producing seven prize-winners in six subjects being awarded nine University prizes, who are named above.

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Arts and Sciences. Our overall Arts position at 7th is the third best in 10 years, and our Scientists have undergone something of a renaissance after a period in the doldrums to feature at 9th, far and away their best showing in years. Although dropping one place, it remains a matter of distinct pride that the nalists Arts students are perched at 2nd in the University, helped by some spectacular individual performances. Our students in Economics, MML, PPS, Arch & Anth, Geography, Architecture and Law all did particularly well, while in the Sciences, Mathematics was rated top, a feat unheard of since the days when Edward Waring occupied the Lucasian Chair.There was also a long-awaited and much anticipated resurgence by our Medics. The following elections were made by the Governing Body: Bundy Scholarships: A L Baird,T O Bazalgette, L Brierley, M Carlebur,W C Cheung, T J Clarkson, A F Colverd, J E de Fonseka, L M S Freeman, S L Gough, D A Grabiner, E Groves, A P Hollingworth, L J Howard, A Hussain, M E Jago, C Karapataki, S J M Kaye, K S King, M H A Lee, J Y Lim, A I Lloyd-Thomas, M H Martin, Y Z Ng, E Partridge, E G Pratt, F C Strobridge, R F Tegelaars, Ar Thillaisundaram, As Thillaisundaram, S C Thorpe, J A Vullinghs, E J Wagstaff, J W Wedlake. Scholarships 20102011: I Angelova, R Cassidy, DY K Chan,V A Colgate, B H Davis, G Dodds-Smith, J F R Goodwill, R H Henrywood, B S P Hinson,Y Jiang, YY E Lai, E M Lawrence-Jones, X Li, F Nowak, N Oberbeck, D O'Brien, E R Parsloe, R Patel, K Relph, F W B Sanders, R Sawayama, D A Shone, P M Spittal, R J D Stallibrass, B Torre, L Urwin,T LVon Glehn, B J T West,Y Zhu. The following re-elections to Scholarships were made by the Governing Body: 3rdYear: N H Nickerson, P P O'Brien, M E Schabas, W Z W Teo. 2nd Year: D Barnard, J Chen, A Chilkoti, E M Jouffroy,Y H Leung, H T Nguyen, L Otsuki, J Shak,Y Wang,T A L Ward, H D P Williams, X Xu. Exhibitions 2010: S E Ardin, S Bird, A W G Burns, K Changela, C Husband, K A McVinnie, BY Park, H E Patterson. College Prizes for excellence in University Examinations were awarded as follows: Anthropology and Anthropology: B S P Hinson, James Torre Prize; A I Lloyd-Thomas, William Fagg Prize; E G Pratt, Cyril Fox Prize Architecture: A F Colverd, Cleary Prize; E Partridge, Lutyens Prize; S C Thorpe; J W Wedlake, David Roberts Prize Chemical Engineering: M E Jago; C Karapataki , Pilkington Prize; M H A Lee; JY Lim, Pilkington Prize;Y Wang Classics: J E de Fonseka , Davison Prize

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Economics: S L Gough; S J M Kaye; P M Spittal; B J T West; X Xu;Y Zhu Education: R J D Stallibrass Engineering: D Barnard; DY K Chan; J Chen; J F R Goodwill; R H Henrywood; X Li; P P OBrien, Christopherson Prize; M E Schabas, Lewins Prize; H D P Williams English: A P Hollingworth, Stucley Prize; D A Shone, C S Lewis Prize Geography: D A Grabiner, Clarabut Prize; L J Howard, Gill Prize History: J AVullinghs, Dunster Prize History of Art: L M S Freeman, Richard Carne Prize Land Economy: A Chilkoti Law: A L Baird, Norah Dias Prize; R Cassidy; F Nowak; W Z W Teo, Orlando Bridgeman Prize Linguistics: T O Bazalgette Mathematics: W C Cheung, Walton Prize;Y Jiang, Dennis Babbage Prize; YY E Lai; H T Nguyen, Davison Prize; D OBrien; R Patel; Ar Thillaisundaram; As Thillaisundaram, Maurice Goldhaber Prize; B Torre; T LVon Glehn; E J Wagstaff, Edward Waring Prize Medical Sciences: A Hussain, Iris Rushton Prize; E R Parsloe; K Relph; F W B Sanders; J Shak , Iris Rushton Prize Modern Languages: T J Clarkson; G Dodds-Smith; E M Jouffroy; E M Lawrence-Jones; M H Martin, Peskett Prize Natural Sciences (Biological): L Brierley, Christie Prize; M Carlebur, B C Saunders Prize;Y Z Ng, Gill Prize; N Oberbeck; L Otsuki Natural Sciences (Physical): B H Davis;Y H Leung; N H Nickerson, P M S Blackett Prize; F C Strobridge, Pilkington Prize Philosophy: L Urwin Politics, Psychology and Sociology: I Angelova; K S King; R Sawayama; T A L Ward Theology: R F Tegelaars, Michael Ramsey Prize Veterinary Science:V A Colgate; E Groves Other Prizes were awarded as follows: Davison English Essay Prize: E M Grant Dorothy Kolbert Prize (Music): H M Thorpe Garrett Prize: G M Tatterseld George Mallory Prize: K A McVinnie Hart Prize: W Z W Teo Jim Ede Prize: J K Romer-Lee Lovella Prize (Law): M J Sharp Macfarlane-Grieve Prize (Music): B James Wilson Masters Reading Prize: E M Caldwell; R F Tegelaars

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Newman-Turner Prize: L K Barklie Nicholas Whitworth Prize: S Wallis Rae Mitchell Prize: D OBrien Sarah Springman Prize:V A Colgate; J AVullinghs Winter Warmington Prize: D A Shone 2 GRADUATES The following elections were made by the Governing Body during the year: Clutton-Brock Scholarship: F Mahere Leslie Wilson Major Scholarship: M G Fuller Leslie Wilson Minor Scholarship: F C Strobridge Mandela Magdalene Scholarship: D Jeena; N M Sekete Roosevelt Scholarship: A Savil The following research degrees (PhD) were conferred: J M Bosten (Experimental Psychology); R Chaudhuri (Clinical Medicine); N Charlaftis (Clinical Medicine); M C Cheeks (Chemical Engineering); W Covanich (Engineering); P K Ghoshal (Engineering); J H Heffer (Engineering); S Korte (Materials Science and Metallurgy); S J Illingworth (Engineering); T O Jelinek (Social and Political Sciences); M De La Llave Plata (Engineering); A D E Lloyd (Mathematics); H Majed (Biology); D R McAuliffe (Physics); A J L Shillings (Chemistry); S S N Tan (Engineering); E T Tipper (Earth Sciences); J P Wade (English); R D Williams (Biology); Y Zhao (Engineering).

The Fellows Garden in spring

Photo: Kanak Patel

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IV STUDENTS ACTIVITIES : SOCIETIES , CLUBS AND SPORTS


1 JCR AND MCR REPORTS Junior Common Room President: P R J Hartley.Vice President: N Hobbs.Treasurer: P M Spittal. Committee: A Chilkoti, D R Murray, J Rughani, DY K Chan, L Urwin, M Zhuang, S A Coskeran, K L Wright, M M Benson. This year has been another exciting one within the JCR. Renovation of the bar, improved services within the JCR and imminent investment elsewhere in College means that we hope this year will lead to benets for students for many years to come. Moreover new event ideas such as 'Ben and Jerry nights' have been a big success and the Committee as a whole are delighted with other achievements including helping the College achieve Fairtrade status. Middle Common Room President: J Kommemi. Secretary: S J Gay.Treasurer: R Myhill. Committee: E L C Gage, E A F Bayka, M K Dorkin, R A Hartley, H A Dickinson, K Beniuk. The Magdalene MCR remains as vibrant as ever, maintaining the strengths of previous years whilst introducing several new elements to college life. The MCR Garden Party was attended by over 250 members of the University Graduate community, which was followed by the rst annual Punting Competition to allow members of the MCR to show that their river-craft skills are not restricted to the Boat Club. Integration of new MCR members during Fresher's Fortnight was very successful. The Friday evening graduate dinner remains popular during term, but has been supplemented by a number of additional Parlour dinners held to maintain links within the community during the long vacation. The MCR has been completely refurbished to provide a fresh face without compromising the traditional charm of the room. MCR members remain active in a number of college societies whilst preserving the high academic standards that have long distinguished the Middle Combination Room. 2 SOCIETIES , CLUBS AND SPORTS Boat Club. (President: R Hamersley). Preparations for MBCs new rowing year in October 2009 began back in May with the Election of Ofcers: Captain of Boats: Deborah Smith. Mens Captain: Ben Tucker. Womens Captain: Elissa TennantBrown. Hon Sec: Tom Bramall and Hon Treasurer: Kate Husband. Lower Boat Captains: eight (including Duncan Brisk who has just been elected Captain of Boats for 2010/11). Robyn Inglis was newly elected as Alumni Ofcer and with Steward Chris Laws produced two new-look all colour Friends of MBC Newsletters. With nearly 100 members and the largest sporting club in College, organisation and commitment must start at the top if success on the river is to follow, so a
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meeting took place with the President, the Senior Ofcers and Greg Brisk, CEO of Sponsors Bank of NewYork Mellon in the inspirational surroundings of Leander Club in September to determine the strategy for the year ahead. With new and very committed sponsors, the prospects for the year ahead were exciting. Further meetings followed in September with Head Coach Andy Nield and the essential Lower Boat Captains were briefed for the all-out recruiting assault in Freshers Week in the second week of term. Some 30 raw Novices, who had never rowed before, joined the Boat Club; to retain them through the cold and dark winter days on the Cam would be the challenge.

Junior Fairbairns: Novice Women

MBC aims to be the rst Club out on the water and 2009 was no exception. Strength, tness and stamina were high priority for the returning seniors and Andy Nield with his unlimited enthusiasm, commitment and winning smile, set to work with senior crews working in IVs, with the latest four George Mallory joining the eet (as a Janousek refurbished boat) and racing in University Fours with the Fairbairns long distance race in December in which the Women particularly met with success, coming 3rd. Meanwhile the LBCs were frantically training their raw recruits on a very congested river Cam. This was stressful a slow moving VIII has no meaningful steerage; the crew have never held an oar before and the LBCs suddenly realize what they have let themselves in for.To give everyone a chance of rowing on better water, the Senior and Novice crews were taken to Peterborough to row on their 4 lane 1000 metre lake. Street clothes were now shed for MBC lavender and indigo club rowing kit; colours and teamwork are everything.The Novicesbaptism of re in Junior Fairbairns took place on a wet dark cold day and ended on an even wetter darker colder night as they rowed back in the evening gloom; not all will survive to warmer times, but those that do will make a contribution to every crew in the

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Club. The Womens Novices won the Emma Sprints the next day; entered Clare Novices Regatta and all four MBC Novice crews rowed in Junior Fairbairns with the Women nishing 23rd, 56th and 55th with the Men 42nd. The Fairbairns Dinner, celebrated out of College, bonded the Seniors and Novices for the forthcoming assault on the Lent Bumps after Christmas. After a short well attended pre-term training camp, MBC began training six crews for the Lents. Sadly two crews could notGet Onin this overcrowded event run on short winter afternoons.The Mens2ndVIII won their category in both the Newnham Short Course and Cambridge Head to Head races as warm up competitions. By now the wheels on Andys bike were in need of fresh rubber; slicks are not always the best towpath choice! Senior Men went down from 11th to 13th in Division 1 but not without one of the most epic bumping races with Peterhouse just feet off their stern, fought off all the way to the Finish by stroke BenTucker and his crew.Damn you Magdalene but bloody well rowed!from Peterhouse.The 2nd Mens VIII went up from 10th to 7th in the 2nd Division. The Women excelled, moving up from 3rd in the 2nd Division through sandwich boat to 16th in Division 1 a bump every day the only crew in the entire Bumps to achieve this.The 2nd Women went up from 12th to 11th in the 3rd Division. Academic pressures compete with ultimate racing tness in the Easter Term as Blues and talented Seniors return to the river to defend their Colleges honour in the May Bumps. Technique moves up several gears to support increasing boat speed.Andy shed another set of tyres! MBC stepped up to meet the challenge with another large turnout for its April Training Camp held on the Regatta Course at Henley-on-Thames in a week of near total sunshine. Andy with guest coaches Karl Reid (former coach of Oxford Lightweights) and John Kyfn (MBC Lightweight Blue 2008) set to work. Janousek generously lend us a coastal quad and other boats so that Novices can learn to scull safely. Enthusiasm rockets. Fitness improves on 2000 metres of clear calm water; technique is key. Steward Pat Marsh looked in and generously donated the wine for the Training Camp Supper at The Maltsters Arms. Spirits were volubly high.

Henley Training Camp

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The stage is set for the Mays with six crews competing. But not before Steward Henry Reynolds had mowed the site for the Mays Marquee in Ditton Meadow; the big punt had been hired for the river crossing and the Master and Mrs Robinson, Senior Stewards, had prepared a lunch to end all lunches until you see the strawberry cream tea washed down by Pimms generously provided by Steward Chris Laws and his Friends of Magdalene Boat Club. Sponsors, Bank of New York Mellon have provided the crews with dark indigo caps, logos and kit and Greg Brisk CEO and his son are there in support. Patron Lady Gurdon has brought with her, Lady Calcutt, former Patron of 16 years who is celebrating her 80th birthday. Steward Bishop Barrington-Ward, a constant river bank supporter of the Boat Club, will later give a blessing before the Bumps Supper at the formal launching by Lady Calcutt of the new IV George Mallory.The President has repaired nearly every boat in the club after two exuberant terms of competition. Bursar Mr Morris and College Accountant Mr N Raymont have found Boat Club funds from somewhere or kind insurers. Janousek has repaired them and the boats are sparkling. Steward and Senior Treasurer Dr Stoddart has enthusiastically supported every move. A huge crowd of vociferous Magdalene supporters has gathered on the banks of the Cam; the Boat Club ag is raised on Steward Graham Eves kindly donated marquee. Bring it on! After three days of furious Bumps racing Magdalene had notched up an impressive collection of bumps and row-overs that tness and stamina training had paid off and MBC had held its own and more. But rotten luck had overtaken the Womens 1st VIII in a First Division pile up and a technical bump had been awarded against them by the Umpires; it is hard to recover from the unexpected. But by the last night on the Saturday, the stage is set forlast chance at out risk allracing. Every Magdalene crew is cheered mightily, especially those that appear garlanded round Ditton Corner from their successes further downstream. With Mens Division 1 on the course for the last race, all eyes are glued on Ditton Corner searching for those lavender blades. Graham Eves had provided radio support with Henry Reynolds commentating from the towpath alongside our crew relayed by the President to the expectant Magdalene supporters.Under a lengthasTrinity Hall appeared with Magdalene pressing hard. The crowd raised the roof all the way down Long Reach, Magdalene pursued. Half a lengtha quarter of a lengthsilence the Railway Bridge and the Finish loomedTheyve Bumped! with just metres to spare. Another epic race for the Mens 1st VIII. The crowd went nuts! History Society. (President: Emily Caldwell). This year, the Society, which was for the rst time entirely student led, heard talks from Dr Chua on Notes from Grandmothers kitchen; a historians perspective; Professor Hewitt (Pitt Professor) on her academic interests; Dr Hyam on Magdalene and Empire: the heroes and antiheroes and Professor David Reynolds (at the annual Dinner) on America and the challenges of popular history. The year ended with a garden

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party at the home of Dr Granroth-Skott, when those attending made a pilgrimage to the grave of A C Benson in the adjoining cemetery (R I P). Law Society. (President: Suzy Martin. Secretary: Shanu Kae). Magdalene Law Society has once again enjoyed a successful year.The annual mooting competition saw the new fresher lawyers ght it out to win the RWM Dias Mooting Cup. Despite tough competition, Millie Benson emerged victorious followed closely by Richard Alam who put in a stellar performance in the nal. We are grateful to Maitland Chambers for sponsoring the competition and Millie will now go on to do a mini-pupillage at Maitland. Representing Magdalene, this mooting duo then went on to claim victory against Downing and we are sure they will continue to make Magdalene proud when they face Jesus next year. With kind support from some of Londons leading law rms, including Allen & Overy, CMS Cameron McKenna, Lowells and Mayer Brown, the society was able to host a wide range of events ranging from the annual careers event, and workshop and skills sessions, to social events such as a trip to watch Legally Blonde the Musicalat Londons Savoy Theatre. The annual lawyers dinner was held, as is traditional, shortly before Tripos. The dinner was particularly special this year as it was a chance to raise our glasses in honour of the late Mr Dias to show our appreciation for his contribution to the Law Society and Law at Magdalene. Another creation of his, the Archie Leslie prize, was awarded to Julia Collins for the best complaint of an injustice suffered at the hands of one of the Law Fellows. After exams, the society organised a barbecue which has now become something of an annual event, with students indulging in the summer sun and attempting to play rounders. Congratulations must go to the third year graduates who have served the College well in their three years both academically and in terms of extra-curricular activities. Thanks this year must go to Shanu Kae for his work as Secretary of the Society, especially with regard to the mooting competition and his redesign of the website. I am sure that he will do a great job as President next year and will have good support in the succeeding Secretary Millie Benson. Thanks also to Dr Jones for his continued support of the Society. Alistair Mills, who matriculated in 2006 and graduated in 2009, has been awarded the Bedingeld Scholarship at Grays Inn (awarded 2010). Musical Productions Society. (President: D Ward). The Magdalene Musical Productions Society began the year with a concert to mark its 10th anniversary with a medley of highlights from all the previous productions from Joseph onwards. Former stars of the Magdalene stage returned to lend their support in a nostalgic review of the decade.The choice of Laurentss and Sondheims Gypsy for 2010 was David Wards, it being, as he put it,one of my absolute favourite musicals, Emilie Jouffroys production with Chris Nashs musical direction resulted in

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what can only be described as a boisterous romp through the life and times of Gypsy Rose Lee.The debut of two freshers, Millie Benson and Tommy Crowley in leading roles bodes well for the fortunes of MMPS. Womens Badminton. (President: A M Karimi). The Club had a good season being awarded a promotion to Division III in the College league tables, thanks to training and practising. Cross Country. (Captain: D Murray). This year was a successful one for MCACC with the WomensTeam nishing in 3rd place in the Chris Brasher College League whilst the Men topped Division II and secured their promotion ahead of next season. Womens Football. (Captain: A L Baird). The Womens Football Team have had mixed success this year. We beat Peterhouse in a spectacular 110 win in the Michaelmas Term, which secured our place in Cuppers for the rst time in several years. Unfortunately we were knocked out by Newnham in the second round. As for our league matches, we had a fantastic match against Murray Edwards, managing to draw 11, and we also beat Corpus 70. However, we were unable to keep up our splendid performance and lost to Selwyn-Robinson 30 in our last match. Our sustained perseverance and determination places us in the middle of Division 3 as the season draws to a close.

Mixed Hockey. (Captain: J Romer Lee). Despite being knocked out of cuppers in round 1 by Jesus, our mixed season was not over. The rst annual MagdaleneMagdalen (Oxford) match gave the Oxford visitors a beating. Ince & Co our new sponsors came to play some fun mixed hockey and we had the FresheldMagdalene-Downing tournament in which we beat Freshelds but, alas, we lost to Downing.

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Womens Hockey. (Captain: L Levy).The season has had many ups and downs; the high point was beating St Catharine IIs 30. Politics Club. (Chairman: A Kng. Secretary: S Kae.Treasurer: D Steel. Committee: R Barker, S Benson, A Jaffer, D Schonberg.) Magdalene College Politics Club was founded in November 2009 as an organisation devoted to debating current affairs and political theory. Having brought together an enthusiastic committee, the society started off its termcard with a Lisbon Treaty Debate. The main event in the Lent Term was a cross-party forum held in Cripps Court, which saw the heads of the Student Liberal Democrats, Cambridge University Conservatives and the Labour Club clash in a well-attended debate focusing on election issues. Magdalene Politics also co-hosted a forum on fairtrade and environmental issues with the Colleges Green and Ethical Committee. MCPC is currently planning a Michaelmas termcard which will see the society truly come into its own, with speaker events and an inaugural dinner. However the focus will be on continuing to practice political discussion in a friendly collegiate atmosphere, and to foster debate amongst the growing cohorts of Magdalene students who share an interest in national and international politics. Rugby Club. (Captain: A L Spain). W Briggs and F W B Sanders appeared for the CURUFC U21 side atTwickenham before theVarsity Match this year.W Briggs has gone on to represent the Blues squad. A highly successful season for MCRUFC saw a return to the First Division of Cambridge rugby in some style. Highlights of the year included a 530 mauling of league leaders Fitzwilliam in the Michaelmas Term. The season was completed with victory in the Cuppers Shield nal at Grange Road, an impressive 3613 win over Sidney Sussex. Swimming and Water Polo Club. (Captain: T Wilson). The water polo league began well with a convincing win over Selwyn, before a heavy loss to an experienced Queens side and a well-fought draw with the Leys School B team. A walkover against Darwin and a nail-biting win over Caius were enough to win instant promotion back to the rst division. In Cuppers we elded a weakened team against the eventual winners Clare/Trinity Hall in the rst round, but came off respectably in a 57 loss. Swimming cuppers saw a single men's team entered against strong opposition, but notably Bryce Sait performed admirably to nish second in the 50m y. Writers Group Weekly. (President: S Seita). Meetings throughout the year included writing workshops with Joanne Limburg, K M Grant, Drew Milne, and Susan Sellers. Plans for next year include a college publication in MichaelmasTerm 2010, and a series of workshops with Robert MacFarlane and others.

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3 SPORTING DISTINCTIONS The following obtained Full Blues (*) or Half-Blues during 200910: Athletics D R Murray Chess: T H Oozeerally (and 2008) Korfball: S A L Harley-McKeown Rie Shooting (Full Bore): J E Harris Rie Shooting (Small Bore): J E Harris Rugby League: A T Sanders, F W B Sanders, A L Spain M S Sweeney Skiing: J W H Pockson Womens Basketball: K M Beniuk* Womens Cross-country: L K Barklie Womens Eton Fives: L H M Bishop Womens Hockey: E A O Wiseman* Womens Lacrosse: J AVullinghs* Womens Netball: V A Colgate* Womens Rugby Football: S Neil* Womens Volleyball: S L Greasley
(The Editor is grateful to Mr Keall for verifying this list.)

Family outing in May

Photo: Kanak Patel

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V CHAPEL AND C HO IR
Sacristan: M Hetherington; Wardens: L-Y Chui, S Harris, K Relph, E R Parsloe, R Tegelaars; Organ Scholars: B James Wilson, G A Pickard. This year saw an addition to the furnishings of the College Chapel, in the form of a gilded icon of the Virgin and Child, xed to the south wall of the sanctuary under the statue of St Benedict. The icon was presented to the Chapel by Professor Duffy in Michaelmas 2009 to mark the thirtieth anniversary of his election as a Fellow. It is an example of the icon-type known as The Mother of God of the Passion, and its imagery links the birth of the Christ-child to his suffering and death on the Cross. The child has been frightened by the appearance of two archangels, holding out to him theInstruments of the Passion, Photo: Paul Scott the implements with which he will be put to death Cross, nails, spear and vinegar-sponge.In his fear,his right sandal falls off,revealing the sole of his foot, a symbol of his human vulnerability. Christ clutches his Mothers right hand for comfort and protection, and she gazes with prophetic sadness into his future. The icon was painted (the technical term is written) by Dom Anselm Shobrook, one of the most distinguished icon-painters in the Anglican Church, and a monk of the Anglican Benedictine monastery of Our Lady and St John, at Alton in Hampshire. The Mary Magdalene statue in the FellowsGarden, surrounded by a wreath of daffodils, adorned the Easter Term card, one of a series of photos by Paul Scott of the Colleges maintenance team which have brightened this years cards. While the owers were, of course, a temporary delight, the worship and music of the College Chapel continue to ourish. As ever, the Advent Carol Service saw a full Chapel lit only by candles. Of particular note was an exceptionally well-attended service for Remembrance Sunday, when an augmented choir with instrumental accompaniment led a liturgical recitation of John Rutters Requiem as part of our annual act of remembrance, in the presence of the composer, and at which the Master gave an address. Three

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reunions also brought back many alumni for celebratory services. The funeral service of R W M Dias (Fellow 19552009) and a memorial service for Edward Cripps (Honorary Fellow) were attended by many resident and nonresident members. The Passiontide Cantata, now a xture of the Chapels year, concluded the Lent Term, with the Choir singing Bachs Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn (BWV 23). In the Easter Term, a celebration of our patron saint which will now take place every other year in term-time allowed our junior members (few of whom are in Cambridge for the July Magdalene celebration) to hear something of her example. We also renewed our connection with the Order of St Benedict, whose predecessors sang in Chapel before the Reformation; nine monks, from Ampleforth and St Benets Hall Oxford, sangVespers in Latin.The Choir lifted the nal Sunday of the year by singing Rejoice in the Lamb, a demanding Benjamin Britten setting of Christopher Smarts extraordinary eighteenth-century poem, rounding off an exceptional year for Chapel music. Among our preachers we welcomed the Bishops of Huntingdon and Norwich, the Archdeacon of Cambridge, the Rector of Sandwich, and Canon Hugh Wybrew (formerVicar of St Mary Magdalen, Oxford). Religious orders were well-represented by FrVivian Boland OP (Blackfriars, Oxford), Fr Colin Battell OSB (the Prior of Ampleforth), and Dr Gemma Simmonds CJ (Heythrop College, London) possibly the rst nun ever to preach in Chapel. From the Divinity Faculty we heard Professor Graham Davies DD (Fitzwilliam) and the Revd John Proctor (Westminster) speaking about Bible Sunday and St Mark respectively, along with the Revd Dr Adrian Chateld, director of the Simeon Spirituality Centre at Ridley Hall. Two former Magdalene men came back to preach: the Revd Patrick Taylor (19961999), now a parish priest in Solihull, while the Very Revd Dr David Hoyle (Chaplain, then Dean of Chapel, 19881995) came shortly before his appointment as Dean of Bristol was announced, the College being well-represented at his installation in Bristol Cathedral in May. Sermons were also given by the President, Bishop Barrington-Ward KCMG, Professor Duffy DD, and the Chaplain, each of whom provided homiletic batting from thehome team. Donations from the regular Chapel collections went to Jimmys Night Shelter, Christians Against Poverty (a micro-nance and debt counselling organisation), and Christian Aid, while the Remembrance Sunday collection was given to the Royal Naval Benevolent Fund and the Commemoration of Benefactors collection to the College Student Hardship Fund. At the end of a full year, a particular acknowledgement must go to the energy and commitment of Benedict James Wilson, our outgoing Organ Scholar, and Michael Hetherington, who has served as Chapel Warden and Sacristan since 2005.

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CHOIR REPORT . The Choir has sung Choral Evensong in Shefeld, Rochester and Peterborough Cathedrals and was in residence for three days in Wells Cathedral at Epiphany. The summer tour was to Belgium where concerts were given in Leuven, Brussels Cathedral and Antwerp as well as singing at Sunday Mass at Mechelen Cathedral.The valuable nancial support of Philip Carne is acknowledged in this and several other musical ventures in College. The Choir has shown what can be achieved with their considerable musical skills and have substantially enriched the musical life of the College. It has shown an excellent commitment to punctual attendance and has frequently achieved the high musical standards that are expected of it.We hope the leavers will have much success in the coming years and look forward to seeing them again in College.

VI LIBRARIES
COLLEGE LIBRARY.

The Heritage library system continues to provide automated borrowing and it is hoped to introduce off-site renewals in the academical year when the software is in place. The system continues to produce a wide range of reports on Library usage, which allow more accurate statistics to be presented. We can estimate (for the year to 30 June 2010) loans of 3,260 and renewals of 3,710, somewhat down on the previous year (4,030 issues and 3,910 renewals). As usual, grateful thanks are extended to College members who have presented books to the Library. During the current year, of particular note are donations by Professor Duffy and Dr Lewins. Two current students (Michael Hetherington and Elizabeth Benini) have also given a number of books. We are pleased to welcome the new Library Assistant, Mrs Alison Wright.

PEPYS LIBRARY. Between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2010 there were 98 visits from readers and 2,726 from members of the public. Though there were fewer readers than last year they made more visits and many requested and were given substantial amounts of time outside ofcial public hours. The Librarian gave 15 conducted tours to large groups and seven to smaller groups, and besides the regular tours for residents and non-resident Members there were nine sessions for primary schools, the inevitable subject being Pepyss account of the Great Fire. The quinquennial inspection was once again carried out by Jill Flintham with her customary thoroughness, and it is satisfactory to report that, with one exception the books are in exemplary condition. The exception demonstrates how essential these inspections are: a volume in press 8 had become infected with the bookish equivalent of serpula lacrymans (dry rot). Fortunately it had not spread to its neighbours or the press. However these have been treated as a precautionary measure and the volume is being conserved, but the occasional occurrence of bad apples of this kind is as alarming as its causes are puzzling.

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We were very pleased to receive, from the estate of Dr Milo Keynes, the bequest of two still lives by Evert Collier, both with literary and topical subjects particularly appropriate to Pepys, his Library, and his world. Loans from the Library itself are not possible under the terms of Pepyss Will, but we were delighted to be able to lend volumes of the original transliteration and of editions, from the rst, by Lord Braybrooke, to the latest, by Robert Latham and William Matthews, to an exhibition at the Wellcome Collection entitled Identity. The College was also able to lend a highly appropriate portrait.
OLD LIBRARY.

Most of the Librarys work other than that relating to Archives tends to be done by correspondence rather than readers in person, of whom there were just 11 this year. However of these one, working on Dorothy Richards, spent over a week in the Library. It also served as a valuable assembly point for Dr Hyams Treasures of Magdalene exhibition, to which the Library lent some notable items, including the Crowland Apocalypse. We were able to lend several items from the Mallory Collection to The Wildest Dream, an exhibition at the Salt Museum, Nantwich, Cheshire, reecting the curious coincidence that both George Mallory and his companion in the fatal attempt on Everest, Andrew Irvine, had strong associations with the area.

VII BUILDINGS AND GA R D E NS


We are pleased to report that, following last years notice in the College Magazine that the nal phase of the Chesterton Road Development was underway, the project was completed, ready for student occupation at the start of the Michaelmas Term. The new two storey building is very similar in style and design to the original Cripps accommodation around the court. It comprises 17 student en suite bedrooms and a Fellows at (for single occupation), and also has two large and well-equipped Gyp Rooms. Most student bedroom windows look out over a paved garden area towards the backs of the Chesterton Road houses. The remainder look over Hertford Street. The surprise feature of the building is the wonderful galleried rst oor landing. Here soaring oak beams and skylight windows create a feeling of light and space that echoes the Denis Murphy Gallery in the original Cripps building. It is a wonderful addition to the Court. Signicant improvements are also being carried out in Benson Court over the summer. Gas red central heating is being tted in the Lutyens Building (Benson A to E), and the old gas res removed. En suite shower units are also being tted in Benson F and G. On a more prosaic note the continual process of upgrading and renewing has continued across the College. Gyp rooms have been improved, re doors upgraded, new boilers tted in 30 Thomsons Lane, and a new re escape installed for First Court F.
COLLEGE BUILDINGS .

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Last year we reported the enhancements to the Ladies lavatories in First Court. This year readers may be pleased to note that the Gents adjacent to the College Bar has also been modernised. It now boasts improved drainage and lighting, motion sensitive taps and not one but two air blast Dyson hand driers. The hidden ceiling ventilation system should also greatly improve the facilities. Another very important change is the move of the Development Ofce from the current location tucked away behind the Masters Garage to a suite of refurbished rooms at the heart of the College in First Court D. The move will be completed by the start of the Michaelmas Term. Finally we are very pleased to record the acquisition of 1 and 1A Hertford Street by the College. It is intended that these two properties should be used for Fellowsaccommodation, although some work is required before occupation can take place.

THE GARDENS : REPORT FROM THE GARDEN SUPERINTENDENT . As this report is written at the end of July, we are experiencing one of our hottest and driest summers for a long time.The grass is the colour of straw, and the summer bedding is only being kept alive by the use of sprinklers. This follows on from one of the coldest winters we have had for many a year, where we had many days of snow. This has helped to remind us that some plants are not hardy in a good old-fashioned winter, namely some Hebes, Penstemons and Abutilons. However there has been a marked reduction in the number of aphids this year. One of my lasting impressions of this spring was watching a blue tit picking aphids off the rose next to my ofce, to feed its young, which were in one of the nest boxes that we had put up in the FellowsGarden last year: there are advantages to an organic approach. What I love about Magdalene is the mix of the informal, with the Fellows Garden being such a haven for wildlife, and especially the number of bird species that can be seen there. I think that another success has been the increase in the Snakes Head Fritillaria which are spreading throughout the wild areas. Also this year saw an increase in the number of Bee and Pyramidal Orchids. It has not been such a good year for the trees. When I had the honour to take charge of the gardens 22 years ago we had ve chestnuts in the garden, the most spectacular being the Jubilee chestnut in the centre of the FellowsGarden. It is sad to report that we are now left with one specimen as we had to remove the one that was growing on the Monks Walk because of bleeding canker, and the one remaining tree is suffering from the activities of the small moth that lays its eggs on the leaves. Then the larvae that are produced tunnel under the leaf surface so disguring the leaves and causing premature leaf drop. So this could end up as another disappearing species from our landscape. Last year we also lost a young Davidia involucrata tree to honey fungus, along with two mature apple trees.

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Looking forward, the autumn brings into focus the plants of the new court created by Cripps Phase 2.The success of the shrub/ower bed outside the College Library means that we will be extending it further along outside Ramsay Hall, so giving the users of Ramsay a more interesting view to look at. A garden never stands still; I still get excited about new areas to develop along with day-to-day maintenance tasks. AW

Bee Orchid in the Fellows Garden

Photo: Kanak Patel

VIII COLLEGE STA F F


As ever, the year has witnessed a procession of comings and goings amongst the hard working Magdalene staff. Ri Cook left College service after nearly 10 years in the Domestic Department where she was the Linen Supervisor. Kate Siddiqui completed her one year xed contract in the Development Ofce and is now working in London. The College has lost a number of other valued members of staff by resignation. These include Florence Paul (Library Assistant), Kate Thornton (Conference and Events Coordinator), Adam Laker (College Ofce), Marianne Monnier (Graduate Tutors Assistant), and Sam Haskell (Development Database Manager). We wish them all well in the future. It should also be noted that the Buttery has seen signicant changes over recent months, since Gary Love stepped down from his full-time operational role as Buttery Manager. He retains his title as College Butler, but is now working parttime, with responsibility for various departmental administrative functions, and the management of the Fellows Wine and College Silver; he works out of the ofce next to First Court C Staircase, and enjoys the benet of one of the nest views in College!
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The Buttery Manager is now Andy Ruddell who is also Head Butler and is assisted by Mark Stearn as Deputy Buttery Manager and Butler. We congratulate all concerned on these important developments. The following have entered College service during the year: Jacek Swies (Kitchen Porter), Elose Hayes (Alumni Ofcer), Margaret Wilson (Domestic Assistant), Justyana Szezepek (Domestic Assistant), Alison Wright (Library Assistant), Amanda Douglas (Conference and Events Co-ordinator), and Charles Cook (Development Database Manager). One other piece of excellent news is that Keith Fuller (Porter) was married to Glenis Seymour in College on 7 August 2009. It is with sadness that the College heard of the death of Susan Draper, appointed as secretary to the Junior Bursar, Mr Keall, in 1990 and subsequently secretary to Professor Grubb, as President, and Dr Hyam, as Editor of the College Magazine. She retired in 1994 to work for Polity Press.

IX EVENTS AND COMMEM O R AT I O NS


second annual Magdalene College-Investec Lecture took place on 21 October 2009 in the Sir Humphrey Cripps Theatre. The speaker was Mr G Mackay, chief executive of SABMiller, who took as his themeCorporate Social Leadership in a World recovering from Financial Meltdown. Mr Mackay delivered a brilliant and thought-provoking lecture, followed by a vibrant Q&A session.The conversation pleasantly carried on over drinks and canaps in the Denis Murphy Gallery, and over dinner. The sponsors expressed their appreciation to Mr Mackay and the College and generously agreed that any unspent funds provided for the Lecture be transferred to the Student Hardship Fund.
THE MAGDALENE COLLEGE - INVESTEC LECTURE ON BUSINESS . The

Photo: Erol Baykal


REYNOLDS STONE CENTENARY EXHIBITION . Last years Magazine celebrated Reynolds Stone (1927), Honorary Fellow, with an article by Dr Luckett, who also master-minded the exhibition held in the Parlour on Saturday 14 November 2009.

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Well over a hundred items were displayed, some of them from the Old Library and Archives, but most coming from Dr Lucketts magnicent private collection of books relating to Reynolds Stone or to which Reynolds contributed engravings. Visitors included a group from the Double Crown Club but even such wellinformed admirers of the work of this remarkable artist were astonished at the sheer quantity of his output, as well as its inventiveness and its beauty. Even so, it was hardly possible to do much to show his skill as a letter-cutter, an art-form in which Reynolds was second to none. The College celebrated the 400th anniversary of the birth of Henry Dunster on 26 November 2009, the day of his baptism, and the 350th anniversary of his death in 1659. Dunster studied at Magdalene between 1627 and 1634, and then became headmaster of Bury Grammar School. After emigrating to New England, as rst President and effective founder of Harvard College between 1640 and 1654, he laid the foundations of Americasrst university. And among other achievements, Dunster was also the rst printer and the rst publisher in the New World. The commemorative Choral Evensong in College began with the introit by James ODonnell,The hand of God(commissioned by the College in 2007 in memory of Peter Peckard, the words by his friend Olaudah Equiano).A reading from DunstersConfession of Faithwas followed by a short eulogy by Dr Luckett. Part of Psalm 119 was sung by the Choir in the rhymed version of theBay Psalm Book(in the translation and printing of which Dunster was involved) a unique opportunity to listen to this enormously inuential Puritan psalmody.The canticles were sung to Stanford in C; the anthem was Tippetts negro spiritualSteal away.The service was brought to a rousing conclusion by the congregation singingThe Battle Hymn of the Republic(1862). As 26 November was also Thanksgiving Day, at the special dinner afterwards, roast turkey and pumpkin pie were served. The Colleges guest of honour on this memorable occasion was Dr Betty Wood, the University Reader in American History (and faithful friend to the College as its supervisor in American History for some thirty years); Dr Wood warmly proposed the toast in memory of Dunster.
PARNELL LECTURE . This years Parnell Lecture was given by Professor Hall on 16 November 2009 in the Sir Humphrey Cripps Theatre. Her title was The Englishmans axe and the Irish woodlands. A SCHUMANN / BRITTEN RECITAL . Narratives, pathways and the return of a native: a DUNSTER QUARTERCENTENARY.

song recital in the College Hall on 19 February 2010. Mark Padmore (tenor) RogerVignoles (piano). Robert Schumann, Songs from Myrthen Op 25; Liederkreis Op 24; Henry Purcell (arr. Britten) Evening Hymn; Benjamin Britten, Winter Words, Four Folk Songs. In some way or another, most song cycles are about journeys; sometimes real, as often imagined and invariably metaphorical. At best, they encourage introspection

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or what Leonard Bernstein once more viscerally described as a psychological exploration of the geography of ones own insides. So that, if they and their performers are up to scratch, by the nal bars, we the audience have journeyed too into the world of poet and composer to be sure, but also into our own lives and experiences. Kennst du das land? In their extraordinary recital programme, Mark Padmore and RogerVignoles led an enthralled group of fellow travellers along a path which began in the romantic heartland of 19th-century German lied and ended in the altogether more austere landscapes of 20th-century English song: Schumann at his most personal, Britten at his most imaginative and intense. But just as important as content was context, for, as Roger reminded us, performance in a space such as Magdalenes Hall returned these works to somewhere closer to their intended home: the drawing room of the Schubertiad. (The strong sense ofdomesticmusic making was intensied on a dark November afternoon, by the amber glow of two standard lamps hastily imported to enable singer and accompanist to see both the music and each other.) Here was an intimacy and immediacy of communication rarely encountered in bigger spaces, yet there was nothing diminished or small-scale about these performances. Mark Padmores effortless yet intensely expressive delivery (alive to every nuance of text and phrase) and Rogers probing accompaniment leading and reactive by turns wholly inhabited and then drew us into the very different worlds of Heines distraught lover (Liederkries), Ruckerts and Heines contemplations on nature, love, devotion and loss (Myrthen) and Hardys quirky vignettes of England (Winter Words), with Purcell (arr Britten) and various Folksong arrangements added for good measure. The performance of Winter Words, an astonishing achievement by any standards, was special for another reason: composed by one Honorary Fellow and performed by another, the cycle sets poems by a third Thomas Hardy whose portrait smiled benignly from the gallery, the old man seemingly content with the collective enterprise. Though a relatively late work suffused with an autumnal nality, Winter Words also furnished a touching reminder of a beginning its rst Magdalene performance was given in the College Hall in the early 1960s sung by Wilfred Brown and accompanied by John Stevens. The page turner on that occasion was a young undergraduate with a then uncertain, but we now know, extraordinary successful career ahead of him: one RogerVignoles. So, in addition to unfailing musical excellence there was also present on this special day both resonance and symmetry and, by the end, like any good journey, a real sense of homecoming. MDB

CLEY READING WEEK

(1117 March 2010). Wide skies, seascapes, shingle, saltmarshes what better way to end a gruelling Lent term and to kick off exam revision than a trip to the Norfolk coast? It was with this in mind that Professor

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and Mrs Duffy, Dr and Mrs Atkins, and a motley party of historians and theologians set off for Cley-next-the-Sea last March, for a week of work, food, fresh air and fun.These expectations were to be amply fullled. For those unaccustomed to Magdalene reading weeks, the recipe is a tried and tested one: study from nine until lunch; a walk or a trip in the afternoon; then more study until dinner. Sunday was a rest day. If all this sounds rather draconian, it should be made clear that exercise and company are essential ingredients.Aside from walks across the spectacular marshes, afternoon outings included Felbrigg Hall, medieval churches and a memorably choppy trip to see the seals off Blakeney Point amid gathering storm-clouds. After dinner, card games (does anyone know the Magdalene version of Hearts?) and a series of endish quizzes (questions courtesy of Bamber Gascoigne) until, as the embers glowed and shadows ickered, evenings ended with a ghost story. Was it the hours of revision that made Cley such a rewarding experience? Perhaps. More likely, though, eating, talking and walking together gave a new sense of perspective, one that made Cambridge and its preoccupations seem a long way away. Slow you down, exhorted one local road sign; and as the week went on the benets of a change of place and a change of pace were more and more apparent.

(Thanks go to Professor and Mrs Duffy for organizing and leading the trip.)

On Wednesday 16 June 2010, for the rst time ever, an Exhibition was held in Hall displaying the Colleges seldom-seen treasures. Selection of one hundred exhibits in practice many more than this, as someobjectswere groups of related items was based on the dictionary denition of treasures as things valued for their rarity, workmanship, or association. College silver was magnicently displayed on High Table, and every inch of the other three tables was covered with documents, manuscripts, pictures, books, artefacts and curios. Apart from archival records and Buttery memorabilia, almost everything the College owns, especially including the silver plate and the rare

TREASURES OF MAGDALENE EXHIBITION .

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books, has been given or bequeathed to it through the centuries. The most splendid item from the Archives was the Royal Letters Patent of Queen Elizabeth I of 1589, with its royal seal and drawing of the Queen, which licensed the College to hold lands in mortmain (perpetuity) additional to those of the original foundation. Other objects on display included the original statutes of 1555, fragments of the earliest pieces of wallpaper yet found in these islands (from the MonksRoom), the last letters written and received by George Mallory before his death on Everest in 1924, a thirteenth-century Bible and Psalter, the splendid Crowland Apocalypse (early fourteenth century), a number of massive blue-and-white Chinese porcelain dishes (eighteenth century); there were volumes of manuscript poems by Hardy, Kipling and Eliot to say nothing of T S Eliots illuminated Nobel Prize citation; early editions of Hamlet and Gullivers Travels, rst editions of works by Cranmer,William Harvey (on the circulation of the blood, 1628), Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Kingsley, and James Joyce (Ulysses, 1923). Among the silver, particularly eye-catching were the largeBirdCup and theslave candlesticks, a pair of candelabra (1699 and 1711) depicting two kneeling slaves, with pieces of chain: these were bequeathed to the College in memory of Arthur Cohen, the rst Jewish graduate of the College and University.There were several exotic items from the estate of I A Richards, including books, an early nineteenthcentury Tibetan scroll and twelve Chinese gurines. Attracting a lot of attention, too, was the collection of sixteen Victorian jelly-moulds. High on the list of curiosities was the Presidents tortoise-shell, found in the Gardens in 1914 and now migrating with each successive President as one of the symbols of ofce, the other being a cartoon of A C Benson by Max Beerbohm. The recentlyreceived portrait of Sir Orlando Bridgeman as a boy (1618) provided a colourful centre-piece.

Photo: Guann-Yeu Chin

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For four hours (including a Staff pre-view) the exhibition generated a lot of interest, and even excitement, as almost everyone found something to delight and amaze them. Few of the many visitors had any idea that the College harboured in its stores and cupboards such an amazing array of unexpectedtreasures. An exhibition on this scale, especially when mounted without precedent, required a big collective effort: from the College Butler,and Buttery staff (for selecting, cleaning and polishing a great deal of silver, copper and porcelain not in regular use, while leaving the accumulated dirt on antique bottles of wine); from the College Archivist, and the Sub-Librarian; from Mrs Fitzsimons, Ms Jo Hornsby and the Computer Ofce for secretarial help; from the College Marshal and the Porters for security; from the Housekeeping Department for logistics. Dr Luckett contributed his own unique expertise in identifying the more unusual items. The nalisation of the display was the work of Dr Hyam, Dr Atkins, Mrs Fitzsimons and Mr G Love.

X ALUMNI AND DEVELOP M E N T


1 REUNIONS A Reunion Dinner was held on 18 September 2009 for members matriculating in 19601964, attended by 105 guests, 12 Fellows and Staff; the speaker was HRH The Duke of Gloucester (1963). On 25 September 2009, a Reunion Dinner was held for 19651969 members: 87 guests came, together with 16 Fellows and Staff; the speaker was Mr Tim Lebus (1969). A Reunion Dinner took place on 26 March 2010: 84 members matriculating in 19701972 were present with 10 Fellows and Staff; Mr Simon Blackmore (1971) proposed the toast to the College. On 1 May 2010, a Reunion Lunch for members matriculating in 19521956 welcomed 80 guests, with ten Fellows and Staff; the speaker was Sir John Ure FRGS (1953). 2 AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS J N R Amey (1968): CEO of the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dance and Fellow of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce P J J Britton (1968): Knighthood in the NewYears Honours List N C C Chapman (1974): CMG in the 2008 Birthday Honours List Professor K Jeffery (Parnell Fellow, 20032004): awarded a LittD The Very Revd Dr D M Hoyle (Chaplain and Dean of Chapel, 19871995): Dean of Bristol Cathedral J A McPhee (1952): Honorary Degree fromYale University Dr A Marchie (2001): Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Canada P G Voith (1983): Justice of the Supreme Court of British Columbia 3 SELECTED PUBLICATIONS (to 30 June 2010) *N Andreyev (1955), A Moth on the Fence: Memoirs of Russia, Estonia, Czechoslovakia and Western Europe (2009)

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*F J Crossley (1958), British Destroyers 18921918 (2009) *N A Draper (1976), The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, Compensation and British Society at the End of Slavery (2010) *S S Frere (1935), Excavations at Bowes and Lease Rigg Roman Forts (2009) *S N Games (1974), Pevsner The Early Life: Germany and Art (2010) *L R Harris (1971), editor, Computational Vision in Neural and Machine Systems (2007) and Cortical Mechanisms of Vision (2009) *H Hollinghurst (1957), John Foster and Sons: Kings of Georgian Liverpool (2009) *W A Hooker (1999), Carl Schmitts International Thought: Order and Orientation (2009) *R H Inglis (2003), editor,Beyond Determination? Engagement and Response in Human Environment Interactions (Archaeological Review from Cambridge, Vol. 24.2, 2009) *A Nanatiyan (2002), Loves Quietus (2009) *G Norminton (Visiting Fellow in Creative Writing 20052006), The Ships of Fools (2002) *P F C Roden (1961), Copyhold Potworks and Housing in the Staffordshire Potteries 17001832 (2009) *H F G Schade (1958), Tensoranalysis (3rd edn, 2009) *J A R Seabright (1998), SoYou Want to be a Theatre Producer? (2010) *J R Swann (1950), The Swan Family of Ulgham and Morpeth, Northumberland, and Later of North Shields, Newscastle, London, Constantinople and Odessa (2009) *R I W Upton (1969), editor, Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices (2010) *A E G Wright (1945), Personal Tapestry (2009)
(*We are grateful to these authors for presenting copies of their works to the College Library.)

4 MEMBERS DEATHS (to end of July 2010) Dr G S Gladstone (1933); Colonel M H Cobb, PhD (1935); T G Dais (1938); H M Temple-Richards (1938); RT Paice (1939); H C Fickling (1940); S R Palmer (1941); D R Maude (1943); J H Hale (1943); Wing Commander D H Hughes (1944); Group Captain B J Leonard (1944); A E G Wright (Anthony Grey) (1945); Revd H F Gribble (1948); R W Groves (1949); K S Parsons (1949);The Hon Mr Justice R M J Hutchinson (1949); J Shaw (1950); Dr B C Smith (1950); Dr L D Heap (1951); D W Forsyth (1951); A J Bennett (1951); Mr M H D F Fyfe (1953); I R P Green (1953); Dr P Whittlestone (1953); C G G Rudge (1954); R NYounger (1955); R A Hindle (1957); Dr F D Hanham (1957); N L Luard (1957); J H McLachlan (1958); G MTetlow (1958); Revd Canon O M Thomson (1958); R J Wakeford (1958); Sir John D Acland (1958); His Excellency Sir Arthur L S Coltman, CMG (1958); T F Taylor (1958); W H Moseley (1959); C A McFetrich (1961); James Oliver Charles FitzRoy,The Earl of Euston (1966); D R Evans (1969); W S B Leng (1971); A J Baker (1972); D J Zair (1975); J M P Anstey (1981); P B Petrie (1982); A D Milligan (1991); Professor B Buachalla (1997).

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A E G Wright (Anthony Grey) read History, 1945 to 1948, obtaining an upper second degree. He stands within a long and honourable tradition of Magdalene men who campaigned for the civil rights of minorities, challenging irrational prejudices and cruel stereotyping one thinks of those who spoke out against the slave trade, stood up for the rights of Africans, Jews and Aborigines, to say nothing of those enlightened nineteenth-century tutors here who were prepared to admit Catholics, Jews, and Asians as students, when other colleges kept them out. Anthony Edgar Wright or Anthony Grey, as he preferred to be known (because there are very few black-and-white issues in life) courageously played a pioneering and leading role in the promotion of homosexual rights.This is something which has transformed the lives of gay people, and indeed brought about one of the most radical (and astonishing) shifts in the perceptions of society as a whole that we have witnessed during the last half century in this country. He spent twelve years in public relations for the British Iron & Steel Federation before his appointment as Secretary of the Homosexual Law Reform Society in 1962.Victory came with the Sexual Offences Act of 1967. This in effect repealed the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, an iniquitous bit of legislation which, as Grey said, destroyed the genius of Oscar Wilde and brought untold misery to many thousands of otherwise blameless men. He also ran the Albany Trust, a charity which helps any persons suffering from intolerance, persecution, or social injustice. In later years, he served on the National Council for Civil Liberties. As an activist, his style reected his character, as one of civilised quiet dignity. Not for him theoutragetactics of a Peter Tatchell. Perhaps there was a place for that too, but Greys technique was essential in promoting the normalisation of same-sex relationships. Professor B Buachalla. Members of the College were saddened by news of the sudden death from a heart-attack in May 2010 of the 199798 Parnell Fellow, Professor Breandn Buachalla. Buachalla had been Professor of Modern Irish language and Literature at University College Dublin, and had held many international positions and honours. He was the foremost scholar of literature in the Irish language from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries. A Cork man, born in 1936 and educated by the Irish Christian Brothers, he was passionately committed to the promotion and preservation of the Irish language. His magnum opus, Aisling Ghear, was a study of the Jacobite political allegiance that determined the course of Irish poetry in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: Buachallas decision to publish this massive and magisterial study in Irish was a measure of his commitment to Irish writing, and an academic manifesto at a time when the Irish educational establishment was abandoning support for the language. Breandn was an ebullient and expansive personality, who relished his time in Magdalene, and threw himself into all its activities, even, despite the loss of his childhood religious beliefs, the College Chapel.

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Colonel M H Cobb. Colonel Michael Cobb, PhD, FRICS, came up to Magdalene to read Mechanical Sciences in 1935. He was Captain of the College Association Football XI and left Cambridge to join the Royal Engineers in August 1938. After the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force in 1940, he was on his way to the Western Desert when his troopship was torpedoed by a U-boat. He was then posted to Scotland to train commandos in the use of explosives before returning to Europe with the Airborne Corps. He then spent the nal months of the war building airstrips in India. His career as a military surveyor began in 1946; from 1953 to 1956 he commanded the 42 Survey Engineer Regiment in Egypt and Cyprus, after which he became Chief Instructor, then Commandant, of the School of Military Survey, Hermitage. Always a railways enthusiast, it was shortly after he retired from the army in 1965 that he began work on The Railways of Great Britain: A Historical Atlas, the work for which he was awarded a doctorate by publication, at the age of 91, in 2008. 5
DEVELOPMENT REPORT AND CAMPAIGN DONORS

Deputy Development Directors Report In the year that Collegiate Cambridges 800th Anniversary Campaign achieved its 1 billion goal, are we seeing a reversal of the downward trend experienced through 200809? Perhaps not just yet, but the most successful fundraising campaign in UK Higher Education history certainly gives us hope for thingsjust around the corner. In the nancial year 200910, the College received some 525,000 in benefactions, not including Gift Aid, which will raise the overall gure signicantly. Regular gifts from members income remain steady and have continued despite the economic downturn. Around 11.5% of members donated to the College in 200910 and legacy pledges of just over 15m have been notied. Perhaps the most signicant event in Development for 200910 however, was the departure of Dr Billinge (1971) as Fellow for Development and Director of Alumni Relations at the end of March. AMagdalene manthrough and through, he has since been elected a Life Fellow and has moved the short distance to the Cambridge Union Society to take up the position of Development Director there. Our thanks go to him for all his work, turning the edgling Development Ofce into a professional one. His efforts cannot be overstated and we wish him well in all his endeavours. Dr Billinge has been succeeded by Mrs Corinne Lloyd, previously Head of Alumni Relations and Development at Trinity College. Mrs Lloyd has abundant experience in the eld, having also worked in Clare College Development Ofce and we very much look forward to working with her. As always, the Colleges Alumni Relations effort has been strong, with events here, there and everywhere proving ever-popular. Highlights include the Reunions held in College for the years 195256, 196064, 196569 and 197072.

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Links with alumni in North America and Asia Pacic were further-developed with visits to the USA, Canada and Hong Kong in 2009, all of which will be visited again in 2010 along with Malaysia and Singapore. Overarching all these things, the Magdalene Campaign continues in its aim to provide the most talented students the best possible education regardless of background and to maintain the Magdalene which we all hold close to our hearts.The Master and Fellows extend their thanks to all who have supported the College over the last year.

Photo: Guann-Yeu Chin The Register of Benefactors to the Library (late 17th-century manuscript): an exhibit from Treasures of Magdalene

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LIST OF DONORS CURRENTLY MAKING GIFTS TO THE COLLEGE AT 30 JUNE 2010


MAJOR

J Brown P Carne Sir C Greenwood D Holloway J Hughes TheVal A Browning Foundation D Thompson
FOUNDATION

Z Ahmadullah P Allwright HJ Angell-James H Arthur N Baring HC Baring P Bennett-Jones M Bhaskaran J Bowtell JRJ Braggins MS Broadbent J Buckenham AE Buxton J Cazalet Cloverleaf GJ Craddock Mr Deakin Mr Desmond NA Draper N Emerson H Flight GMT Foljambe Mr Fried RN Goodchild FR Goodenough D Gordon RR Graham L Grossman J Hignett R Hill A Holmes R Hutchinson AJ Hutton Investec T Jackson LG Jaeger T James Sir A Jay I Jessiman N Jones M Kenyon

Dr Kolbert JD Kyd MA Leslie RIH Lloyd-Jones A Mackintosh MAF Macpherson J Massingham MR Melvill M Melville TV Milroy R Reason M Rose J Roundell OH Russell GR Sandars AM Sheaf MAF Shenfield DR Simpson CF Spencer Bernard GP Stoner The Coulthurst Trust The Courtault Trust The Goodenough Trust The Mainhouse Trust J Thompson S Thompson A Trace RC Williams E Wrangham BYu
DISTINGUISHED

GD Arthur D Atkins CJ Babbs J Bannister Dr Billinge WA Blackburne T Borthwick M Bott CH Bowen D Boyle SJ Bryan JD Buxton J Caldwell TWH Capon MEA Carpenter Mr Chin DW Clayton H Close-Smith M Cobb S Collins A Colman

PD Cowie A Cox N Crawford J Darrell SW Devine Dias Memorial Service Collection AJ Edwards G Ellis MJ Emms DR Fessey JA Fixsen LE Frank DM Grace J Griggs M Grimston P Hawley CP Helmore TJE Hitchcock TB Holliday S Howard C Hoyle J Hudson B Hunt DW Hussey R Hutchings JP James R Jenkinson MC Johnson S Johnson SS Kaminer T Lindsay MEP Lloyd KR Locherer I Malcolm AR Marlow PO Mayhew O McCarraher RA McFarlane DIN McKenzie RG Menzies PJ Morley-Jacob C Moseley JB Murray RH Orchard MMJ O'Sullivan AH Pattillo C Pender EVP Reece The Master and Mrs Robinson FB Rossiter F Rutledge

J Saker DCL Savage AG Schaff A Sharp AMH Simpson CR Simpson M Small S Smith DCB Soanes R Steel D Stott CB Sykes R Thomas JTH Thomas Sir M Turner M Turvey CVermont RPGVoremberg M Wakeford C Wood BJ Woodall
SENIOR

WI Abel Smith PLG Allen EL Allsop JH Allsopp E Allsup Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous J Anstey DEM Armstrong A Armstrong JP Arscott A Baabood L Bainbridge RD Balme V Barber GF Barbour TJW Barnard J Barrett PS Baxter MD Beary EI Bell PNO Bennett E Benthall J Birney JDW Birts N Black RD Blacklidge C Blackwell N Blake

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J Blake L Blatherwick LT Bohl C Bond RE Borrill R Botting R Bradford D Brigstocke JAS Bristol PJ Britton LJI Browne AJ Bruce PD Bruce FJ Buckle M Bullivant JF Burdett J Burke N Burnell J Burrell TH Butcher G Butler J Byrne C Calder WM Caldwell RA Callender S Cantacuzino J Cargill J Catton R Chan Chapel Donations GI Chapman K Chapman Lord Chilver OD Christopherson E Chubb NJS Clark R Clark T Clarke AJ Clarke P Clausse D Clough L Coin C S J Colthurst AF Colver A Colville Contemporary Watercolours JH Cooke CJS Cottrell C Cowton TJE Cox JC Cox DF Crabb EC Craven C Crawford

M Creamer M Culverwell TA Cummins MJ Cummins TG Daish RN Dalton CE Darby JH Davidson J Davis MJ Davis MED De Styrcea RC De WeryhaWysoczanski KJ Dean Deutsche Bank ML Dineen PC Dixon J Dixon GW Dobbie ADG Donald EM Douglas RSTJ Dowding JS Dudee JHM Dudley N Dunn EA Dyce EP Eagar R Edge TJG Edmondes M Elliff G Elliott RH Ellson JPH Entwisle T Faire Mrs Fitzsimons MH Flash D Fletcher PC Fletcher H Ford DS Forman RPJ Foster S Fraser PW Fudali A Fylaktou J Galbraith-Martin D Gardiner AB Gascoigne T Gibbons M Gibson AHS Gill MF Godsal A Goodfellow C Gosling MJ Grainger W Grant

CGC Grant JF Green DM Green MK Green A Greer SC Gregory JD Grossart Prof Grubb GS Guild E Hack SR Hall C Hancock A Handcock N Handler JM Harding J Hardwick M Hardy PM Harris P Harrison J Hartley RR Hartley PR Hartley A Hastings M Haycock A Heath JF Heatly DG Hemming TF Hering ML Herzig D Hetherington P Hill JC Hill W Hite RJ Hodges VR Holland BL Holland H Hollinghurst W Holmes J Holtby WA Hooker I Howarth J Howells D Hoyle RT Hudson DJ Hudson D Hughes BW Hungerford BB Hunt IH Hutchinson R Jacklin C James CJ Jamieson RDD Jenkins D Jennings JC Jobling

DJ Jones DCF Jones Dr Jones M Keane J Kelly DK Kelly R Kerr-Wilson M Kimpton-Smith PT Kindersley A King A Kinght AB Kingston P Kingston JEA Knowles A Kolodzie IH Kunkler JC Lade T Lebus ACW Lee RA Leivers JN Leng AW Leung Dr Lewins D Lewis OS Lippold P Lloyd NJ London JRH Loudon I Lovecy I Low EJ Lowe CMD Lunn R Luxton EB Lynch JGA Lyon KS Lysons MD MacConnol JGA Macdonald P Macdonald M Mackay-James JD MacKenzie SA MacKintosh V Madias A Maguire P Maguire AC Mantell APR Mapplebeck JW Marrin W Maunder Taylor HH Maxwell P Maydon JAD McConnel CA McDowall KR McGerty C McGowan

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W Meharg C Mellard N Mendoza R Mercer F Merifield BGA Middleton JL Midgley J Millard W Minshull M Minto S Mitchell DLD Mitchell DH Moody T Moon AJ Morgan DF Morgan J Morgan Mr Morris NP Morris AJ Mulholland B Myers D Myers HA Nash K Ngai M Nicholls PP Nicholls O Nicholson SJ O'Connor RBC Ogilvie M Orchard EC Paice R Paice RT Paice M Pampanini N Panchen W Parry J Pattrick GM Pay CCA Peace ME Pettman VN Petty RJ Phillips M Phillips RA Pickering CJ Pieroni GM Pilkington DJ Polgreen B Pomeroy D Pope J Pope F Pott R Preston-Bell TJ Price G Procida G Proctor

HJC Pulley RCM Pumphrey RAM Purver EJ Pybus W Ramsay Dr Rawson S Richards MK Ridley P Ridley MG Rinsler R Rivers H Roberts C Robinson N Robson PM Rodney BG Romachuk OS Rowe AJ Sadler RSG Sale P Salinson J Sams A Samuels MCPM Saunders S Schmitz RC Schmults R Seabrook R Seymour JD Shanklin N Shave P Shearer G Shippey R Simpkiss DE Simpson C Skilton ACF Slinger R Smyth JG Smyth-Osbourne EGR Speed A Spiegelberg J Stevenson CG Steward G Stewart G Stewart Sandeman A Stirling N Stratford PJ Taylor M Taylor NC Taylor C Temple Richards FH Terry T Tetlow C Thomas KO Thompson R Thomson CP Thorpe

EC Tomlinson D Torres H Tuck J Turner DA Turner E Tyreman RHVignoles AFVossen BC Wace ML Walker O Walker M Waring TM Warne EDB Way T Weaver J Wellesley Wesley MD Wheeler C White A Wickens R Wight JM Williams J Williamson DI Wilson H Wilson M Wilson MD Winterbotham JK Wood J Woodthorpe R Wright G Wright TKYan TYates RDYoungman C Ziar AJ Zimerman
COLLEGE

PJ Agg M Ahrens JD Allcock PR Allen RM Allen M Allsup JP Andrews K Atkey J Bagnall-Oakeley K Baldwin MH Ball M Barbi SG Bayliss V Beckett S Beneteau ER Bennett D Birt J Bourdeaux

R Bourne R Brabiner MM Brooke IM Brown S Burton M Byford JAC Cann AL Cary D Chapman M Chapman TPB Charge S Chater RP Cheever SRJ Clarke J G Collier E Cook Prof Cooper Prof Cornish JA Crabb C Crole T Cropper DW Curtis Mr Daybell C Daykin M De Graeve M Dean IR Deraniyagala The late Mr Dias RJ Dixon SY Domin G Donaldson F Dorey P Drohan Prof Duffy C Emerson R Falconer WM Faure Walker A Fauvet EJ Feuchtwanger M Finn CM Fish S Flanagan H Fovargue W Fraser E Fulton IR Gage J Gee P George G Georgopoulos RDD Gibson D Gilbertson GS Gladstone JE Gordon OH Gosnell C Gourley

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JA Green KL Grimes A Gunning F Guo J Hackman T Hails Prof Hall J Hamer J Hammill FD Hammond H Hardisty AE Harrington JE Harris RA Hartley CJ Harvey G Heath A Henderson Prof Hewitt R Hibbert C Hogben JM How S Hubbard H Hugh Smith Dr Hyam MC Jaffe J James E Johnston C Jolly DM Jones C Kearns M Kemple TG Kirkbride B Kloss SC Knight P Lake

OS Larminie H Latham RJ Lavis SF Law T Lee GR Lees D Leonard M Lord PP Mackworth-Young RF Macleod TT Matthews HNC Mawson S M'Caw R McMillan JC Meech AJ Megahey I Metcalfe A Mills EW Mitchell TC Monckton NH Morley-Smith J Morton C Moss D Moult C Moustra R Mundy J Nichols F Nicholson AJ Nicholson J Niland GM Nuttall R O'Donnell JA Orford SJ O'Toole Sir D Oulton

EJ Palmer SJ Palmer W Parker F Parr J Patel AE Pay D Peebles RB Peiser J Pettit GD Phillips R Pickering T Pilkington CC Pope T Pope IR Porter JR Pretty TK Price P Pullin EA Quin A Redhouse A Reid P Richardson FJ Roberts AJ Robertson R Royal C Rutterford JJ Saxby C Scobie P Scott MC Scott J Scott K Selley N Shah R Sharp PG Sheppard

KE Siddiqui A Singh Sir Anthony Tuke Family Trust AW Skeffington Mr Skelton J Smalley PO Smith H Snaith AJ Stanley T Stewart OE Stone C Thorpe GPD Toosey W Tordoff S Tosdevin F Tran JYR Tucker J Tucker ProfVendler KLVigus RVujatovic J Waddell E Wheaton MLN Willoughby F Willy RM Wise J Withers A Wren TEYates DSYerburgh MYorke JYoxall M Zhang

Photo: Guann-Yeu Chin Presentation cigar box, engraved with the RAF emblem, given to the College by Lord Tedder: an exhibit from Treasures of Magdalene

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the presidents sermon


THE INSTALLATION OF TH E C H A P L A IN
This sermon was preached by the President in the College Chapel at the first Sunday Evensong of the academical year, 11 October 2009, on the occasion of the admission and installation of the Revd Philip Hobday as Fellow and Chaplain.The text was from Ecclesiasticus, 44: Let us now praise famous men and our fathers that begat us.

It is my good fortune to speak a rst public word of welcome, on behalf of the Fellows and Scholars of the College of St Mary Magdalene, to our new chaplain. It is the good fortune of all of us, Philip, that we now have you among us, and we wish you very well in your ministry. We also extend a very warm welcome to Hannah, and hope that, as often as her duties permit, we shall see her in the College too.You both perhaps already know something of the special character of Magdalene. Let me now tell you a little more. The rst College Statutes, drawn up in 1555 in the reign of Queen Mary, require that, at the beginning and end of every term, the entire College shall assemble and, after Mass, shall hear a reading of chapter 44 of the book of Ecclesiasticus and a sermon on that text.Thomas, Lord Audley, later known as the founder or refounder of the College, with his own idiosyncratic generosity, provided through his executors, who drafted the Statutes, that the preacher of this sermon should be rewarded with a payment of ve groats, that is, eight and a third new pence, on condition that the sermon met with the approval of the Master. Presumably this was an encouragement to the preacher to include the Master in his praise of famous men, which of course I am very willing to do. There can however be little doubt that the principal concern of Lord Audley and his agents was that Lord Audley himself be the object of praise: after all, in the course of his lifetime, a time of unexampled turbulence in the history of this country, which many of those with whom he had dealings did not survive, he at least had become a rich man living peaceably in his habitation. Moreover, when the Benedictine Monks Hostel, founded in 1428 and known since the 1470s as Buckingham College, was re-established as a non-monastic institution of the University in 1542, it had been given a name, Magdalene, which included the name of his own family, left behind him that his praises might be reported. But when in the 1550s these walls had heard the Latin words of that reading Laudemus viros gloriosos et parentes nostros in generatione sua: Let us now praise famous men and our fathers that begat us and when the preacher had begun his sermon, also of course in Latin as the Statutes required, how many of that congregation of probably little more than a dozen, turned their thoughts to Lord Audley? It is far more likely that they thought of John Hughes, Audleys domestic chaplain, who in 1542 had driven through the scheme of dons, clergymen and courtiers to

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ensure that the grand new building of Buckingham College, in the early sixteenth century the nest in Cambridge, remained the property of a university body after the dissolution of the monasteries three years before. Hughes would probably have been remembered well, at least by the Master, Richard Carr, who entered on the Mastership in 1546, and by the Colleges senior resident, John Madew, a former Vice-Chancellor, and as Hughes had not only saved the College from extinction but had given it his entire estate which incidentally provided a major part of the Colleges investment in Quayside he deserved their prayers rather more than Audley, though he probably needed them less. If there were any justice in history, Magdalene ought really to be called Hughes Hall. However it was not, I think, the great and the wealthy, those who bore rule in their kingdoms, men renowned for their power, or even those who gave counsel to them, that the little group of a master, three or four fellows, and a few scholars would have wanted to celebrate, whatever the preacher said. How could they not look back a mere sixteen years to the days when the rooms of Buckingham College had been lled, or nearly so, with their complement of 48 students, when the monk-scholars streamed in from all over the country, for Buckingham was the national centre of higher education for all the Benedictine houses of England and Wales, when every year or two at least one member of the College took a higher degree after ten years or more of study, and when College alumni were to be found everywhere in the higher reaches of the English church? Perhaps they even reected on the tradition of monastic learning, then already a thousand years old, which gave them, as it gives us, the grace they said before meals and the practice that the Fellows should leave the Chapel in order of seniority. A college, it is often said, is a community, and that is something particularly often said of our College. But this College, like any college, is a community of a special kind; it is not a club, or a family, or a tribe, and even in the days of Buckingham College it was not a monastery, though it has something of all of these. It is and always was a community of learning on the Benedictine model: a group of men, and now of women also, living, working, and sometimes even praying together for a single specic purpose to train, improve, and use their minds, to assimilate the known and discover the unknown, to acquire the sevenfold gifts of the Holy Spirit for which we ask in the ancient hymn, sung at our Commemoration of Benefactors on Whitsunday wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and the fear of the Lord. Therefore I suspect that when our 16th-century predecessors rst heard the exhortation to praise their fathers that begat them they thought not of wealthy benefactors nor of great names from the Colleges past and present but of their own years of study and those from whom they had learned as teachers and colleagues those whom they remembered as merciful and righteous, but who, like them, their spiritual children, were left with no memorial, the soon to be forgotten gures who saw the College through its years of transition, the Scholars and Fellows of the 1530s and 40s, perished then as if they had not been, but to

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whom they owed as we now owe the Colleges continuity within the mainstream of Latin Christianity and the Benedictine tradition of the communal life of the mind. We do not know even the names of most of the members of Buckingham College in its last days and Magdalene in its rst, but we still benet from the consequences of their dutifulness and their delity to the Colleges principal purpose, and that righteousness has not been forgotten. Thanks to them we too are here this evening, in response to those same words from Ecclesiasticus, to praise those from whom we come. But of whom then do we think? Not necessarily, in the rst instance, of the wealthy and generous who have built and founded so much here and whom we praise and pray for, as they deserve, at our Whitsunday Commemoration. Those who have made the College what it is, and give us pride in who we are, are in the rst instance those who as teachers and students have done what the College is here for. If our ancestors could look back on theknowledge of learning meet for the peoplefostered for over 100 years in Buckingham College, we can look back on a similar period of scientic achievement that gave us gures of international stature such as the Nobel prize-winner Patrick Blackett, or the engineer Derman Christopherson, whose work on the use of the Londons tube-stations as air raid shelters saved countless lives in the Second World War. A college that can boast the illustrious names listed in tonights service booklet can certainly claim that those wise and eloquent in their instruction, like those who found out musical tunes and recited verses in writing, have been honoured in their generations and were the glory of their times. But is it they whom we, Magdalene in the 21st century, should now praise as the fathers who begat us? Like our forebears, I believe, we will and should think rather of those from whom we personally have learned and from whom we have learned to love learning. For each of us, they will be different, although, since we are a community, there will be some gures who have been important to many of us. I mention for myself it is the privilege of the preacher the poet Arthur Sale who for 40 years taught English and thinking in this College, and who certainly never entered this Chapel, and my supervisor and Director of Studies, Dick Ladborough, who used to sit opposite me where Dr Luckett is sitting now, and whose favourite response to anxious undergraduates enquiries about the future was taken from the Gospel reading which I chose to commemorate him: Sufcient unto the day is the evil thereof. Dick was right, though it was not always easy to recognize that at the time. A college is a place not only of community but of much solitary anxiety. Academic life is both sociable and relentlessly competitive. When we are called on to praise famous men it is with more than half an implication or expectation that we should be striving to become them to become ourselves leading musicians and writers, or renowned for our learning and wisdom, power and wealth. The fear that we may not be able to meet that expectation is at the root of much of the unhappiness that accompanies life in a community of learning. From the unhappiness of exces-

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sive expectations ben-Sirach, the author of Ecclesiasticus, is unlikely to be able to heal us. But St Matthew, in his account of Our Lords sermon on the mount, tells us what ben-Sirach could not know: that true righteousness is the righteousness of the Kingdom of God to which it is irrelevant whether it is remembered or forgotten. King Solomon was the supreme example in Jewish history of the combination of the virtues ben-Sirach praises: wealth and wisdom, power and prestige. It was evident to any Jew in Our Lords time that God had wrought great glory by King Solomon through his great power from the beginning. But Our Lord tells us that there is another kingdom besides Solomons and that in it glory does not come from fame and the trappings of power. In the kingdom of God the glory wrought in Solomon is inferior to that of a wild ower, and all our exertions to achieve material security and comfort for ourselves or for others, for our children or our society, are virtuous no doubt but are no more so than the seed-gathering of the sparrows foraging for their young. In the kingdom of God other things are more valuable by far than whatever we can achieve or think we can achieve by all the calculations, effort and anxiety of taking thought for the morrow. What is valuable in Gods kingdom is what comes purely and directly from God as His gift life, the body, the freshness of the lily and the thoughtlessness of the birds, the singularity and groundlessness of what is not made but simply and individually is. The mystery of sheer created being can be glimpsed in the dappled sunlight falling through the trees or the salt smell of the sea wind or in the love one unique person can have for another.All things counter, original, spare, strange, Hopkins writes, He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change: Praise Him. In the kingdom of God, the Father we praise who begat us is God Himself and we praise Him above all for being the Father of Our Lord, who is the means to our righteousness. For in taking on Himself our humanity, even to its end in betrayal and humiliation and death, in worldly failure and the fear of being forgotten, He cancelled all humanitys needfulness, anxiety, and lack of faith, and transgured it by restoring its rst beauty as the gift and image of God. Let us therefore, at the beginning of a new year in the life of our beloved College and of a new phase in the life we share, praise not just famous men and our fathers who begat us but in the words of St Peter, the rock on which the Church is built, in the rst chapter of his rst letter let us praisethe God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ who according to His great mercy begat us again to a living hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead(1 Peter 1:3, RSV). NB

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the immortal memory:


PEPYS AND THE WIFE O F BAT H
The following oration was delivered in Hall by Professor Helen Cooper on the occasion of the Pepys commemoration on 26 February 2010.

Your Royal Highness, my lords, ladies and gentlemen: Its customary at this point of the evening to talk about some aspect of Pepys. In recent years we have heard about such matters as his involvement with the Royal Society, his work with the navy, the charges of treason that were brought against him. We have heard rather less about what he actually gave to the College, and that we still have in the Pepys Library. I want now to talk about his interests where they come especially close to my own: in Chaucer, and his afterlife.Those interests are summed up in three items in the Library. First, his copy of Chaucers complete Works. Second, another book, a copy of the Fables by his friend John Dryden, the Poet Laureate, with a letter from Dryden to Pepys, and Pepyss reply, tipped into it. Third and most particularly, I want to talk about an item thats very little known, one item from his large collection of broadside ballads. These were verse narratives printed on a single sheet of paper; they were designed to be bought, read or sung, and then thrown away, so very few survive. Pepys was one of the very rst people to collect them, and so save them for posterity. Chaucer had a high reputation into the early seventeenth century: Spenser, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson were all devotees. That reputation was however fading by the time of the Civil War.There had been seven editions of his complete works down to 1602, but then there was a long gap. By the Restoration, he was becoming a specialist interest, to the point where for some years its hard to trace any coherent reception history for him. Pepys was, however, a real enthusiast: a very ne poet, he called him. He was thrilled to get his own copy of the Works, in the 1602 edition, and his diary records the particular care he took over getting it bound. He was delighted too when Dryden turned his attention to him, translating three of the Canterbury Tales the Knights, Nuns Priests and Wife of Baths in his Fables, printed in 1699. Drydens preface to that gives an account of Chaucer that ranks him with the Classical epic poets and rightly so. The notion of the genial Chaucer lacking in high seriousness was a Victorian invention, and how far that is from the truth is indicated by a further adaptation from Chaucer in the Fables: the portrait of a good parson, modeled on the General Prologue, which Pepys himself encouraged Dryden to write. Chaucer wrote it partly as a satire on bad priests; Dryden does the same, updating it to engage with late seventeenthcentury issues (its good parson was widely taken as referring to the much-respected Bishop Ken, though it aims more widely than one man alone),

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and he sent Pepys a copy. The letter from Dryden that I mentioned accompanied the gift. Pepyss reply offers not only thanks but an invitation to Dryden to drop by for a lunch of cold chicken and salad. Chaucers portrait of his Parson starts,A good man was ther of religioun. It follows immediately after another portrait that begins, not with a good man, but a good wife:A good Wif was ther of bisyde Bath. The Wife of Bath is one of everybodys favourite characters, and has been ever since Chaucer invented her; even if people know nothing else about the Canterbury Tales, they are still likely to have heard of her. She has been ve times married and widowed; and although she is involved in the cloth industry, she is, by profession and vocation, a wife. She is portrayed, moreover, as every misogynist writer throughout the Middle Ages loved to portray wives: indeed as every misogynists nightmare come true, bossy, talkative, and quarrelsome, and with a roving eye. We get to know her best, however, not from her portrait in the General Prologue or from her tale, but from the autobiographical prologue she gives before she starts her story (and which Dryden refused to translate on the grounds of its indelicacy). Here, she mixes an account of her successive marriages with a strenuous attack on ecclesiastical views on marriage and sexuality, as told her by her fth husband, who had picked them up as a student at Oxford. The Wifes refutation includes some very selective quotation: she cites, for instance, St Pauls injunction that husbands should love their wives, but omits its counterpart that wives should love their husbands. Mostly, however, she works by direct challenge. She attacks the Churchs insistence that virginity was superior to marriage, and its theoretical disapproval of remarriage for widows; and in particular, its habit of reading the Bible allegorically rather than literally. Gods command in Genesis, for instance, to Go forth and multiply, was ofcially redened to refer not to reproducing the species, but to multiplying the performance of good works. She attacks too the Churchs tendency to interpret away the patriarchspractice of polygamy. Her challenges to misogyny within the Church so insistently stress the literal meaning, in fact, that some modern critics have seen her as a heretic a Lollard. Lollardy was the preReformation proto-Protestant movement inspired by John Wycliffe (for some years the Master of Balliol), which demanded a return to the Bible as the basis of doctrine, and insisted on its translation into English to make it accessible to everyone. Just what that text about being fruitful and multiplying might mean was indeed used as a test for Lollard beliefs in the case of at least one suspect, Chaucers younger contemporary Margery Kempe, whose life showed a generous overlap with the Wifes own. When later authors turned their attention to the Wife, it was usually to present her as an aging man-eater. But there were some exceptions, which take up the side of her that challenges orthodoxy by an appeal to the Bible; and this brings me to the third item in the Library, a broadside ballad entitled The Wanton Wife of Bath. We rst hear of its existence around 1600, when an order was issued that all copies should be burned. We hear of it again around 1630, when its publisher was

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imprisoned forscurrilously abusing Holy Scripture. It was too much of a favourite to be suppressed, however, and for many publishers the nancial incentive to reprint it continued to outweigh the risks.The rst copy to survive dates from after the Restoration indeed Pepyss own copy may be the earliest. It tells the story of what happens to the Wife of Bath when she dies and arrives at the Pearly Gates; and I thought you might like to hear it.
[The following transcript of the ballad is emended where corruption or damage to the text requires from Bishop Percys printing of it in the first (1765) edition of his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry it was excised from the third edition onwards, presumably for the same reasons as had governed its suppression earlier. Percy used the Pepys broadside as his copy-text, but he had access to another version too: its long underground transmission history makes the recovery of a single authoritativeversion impossible. Readings adopted from Percy are given in square brackets where they differ from the Pepys copy. For reasons of length, the reading at the Pepys Dinner cut seven of the stanzas: these are not included here.] In Bath a wanton wife did dwell, as Chaucer he doth write, Who did in pleasure spend her days, in many a fond delight. Upon a time sore sick she was, and at the length did dye: Her soul at last at Heavens gate did knock most mightily. Then Adam came unto the gate, who knocketh there? quoth he. I am the wife of Bath, she said, and fain would come to thee. Thou art a sinner, Adam said, and here no place shall have. [And so art thou, I trowe,] she said, now gip, you doting Knave. I will come in, in spight, she said, of all such churles as thee; Thou wast the causer of our woe, our pain and misery; And first broke Gods Commandements, in pleasure of thy wife. When Adam heard her tell this tale, he ran away for life.

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She knocks again with might and main: and Lot he chides her straight. Why then, quoth she, thou drunken ass, who bids thee here to [prate]? With thy two Daughters thou didst lye, on them two Bastards got: And thus most tauntingly she chast against poor silly Lot. Who knock[eth] there, quoth Iudith then, with such shrill sounding notes? Alas fine Minks, you ca[me] not he[re], quoth she, for cutting throats. Good Lord, how Iudith blusht for shame, when she heard her say so: King David hearing of the same, he to the gate did go. Quoth David, Who knockes there so loud, and maketh all this strife? You were more kind, good Sir, she said, unto Uriahs Wife. And when thou caused thy Servant in battel to be slain; Thou caused then more strife then I, who would come here so fain. The Womans mad, said Solomon, that thus doth taunt a King. Not half so mad as you, she said, I know, in many a thing. Thou hadst seven hundred wives at once, for whom thou didst provide; For all this, three hundred whores thou didst maintain beside. Hadst thou not been beside thy wits, thou wouldst not [thus] have ventred; And therefore I do marvel much, how thou this place have entred.

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When Mary Magdalen heard [her] then, did come unto the gate: Quoth she, good woman, you must think upon your former state. No sinner enters in this place quoth Mary Magdalen, then Twere ill for you, fair Mistris mine, she answered her again. You for your Honesty, quoth she, should have been stoned to death: Had not our Saviour Christ come by, and written on the earth. It is not by your occupation you are become Divine: I hope my soul in Christs passion, shall be as safe as thine. Then up starts Peter at the last, and to the gate he hies: Fond fool, quoth he, knock not so fast, thou weariest Christ with cries. Peter, said she, content thy self, for mercy may be won, I never did deny my Christ, as thou thy self hath done. When as our Saviour Christ heard this, with heavenly Angels bright, He comes unto [t]his sinful soul; who trembled at his sight. Of him for mercy she did crave. quoth he, thou hast refused My proffer, grace, and mercy both, and much my name abused. Sore have I sinned, O Lord, said she, and spent my time in vain, But bring me like a wandring sheep into thy flock again.

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O Lord my God, I will amend my former wicked vice; The thief [for one] poor silly word past into Paradise. My Laws and my Commandements saith Christ, were known to thee; But of the same in any wise not yet one word did ye.

I grant the same, O Lord, quoth she, most lewdly did I live; But yet the loving Father did his Prodigal Son forgive. And I forgive thy soul, he said, through thy repenting cry; Come therefore enter into my joy, I will not thee deny.

The ballad testies to the immortal memory in which the Wife of Bath herself is held, and her creator, Chaucer; and I invite you to drink to the equally immortal memory of the man who helped to perpetuate those, Samuel Pepys. EHC

The Pepys copy (PL 2506, Ballads II/39)

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maureen nampijinpa hudson


TRIPTYCH AT CRIP PS C OU RT

Untitled [My Country] 2008

Photo: Guann-Yeu Chin

Robert Cripps is without doubt a major collector of British and Australian art. Although he has spent the greater part of his adult life down under, he retains a base in the East of England and indulges his passion for views of the Norfolk coastline. Over the years he has assembled an extraordinarily rich collection of works by the artists of the Norwich School, from John Sell Cotman and his descendants to Edward Seago. But faced with the blank walls of Cripps Court, Robert determined to give to the College a representative group of works by Australian artists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They were, almost by denition, European expatriates or the children of the same. For many, like the Lindsay brothers, Lionel and Norman, their paradigm was the Slade School of Fine Art in London and the etching revival it engendered, although they were not slavish imitators and could, on occasion, turn a satirical and scornful eye on their masters. Others, Eliot Gruner and Hans Heysen for instance, derived their idiom from that nineteenth-century realism which stretched from the forests of Barbizon to the woods of Bavaria.Thanks to Robert their graphic works can now be seen no further aeld than the public rooms in Cripps Court. But Robert, Jan and their family also have a well-established interest in contemporary art in Australia. Anyone visiting the National Gallery in Canberra, or the other national galleries in the regional capitals - Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sidney for instance - must be struck by the extraordinary creativity of Aboriginal artistic output. I can only assume that sheer pride in this native tradition is what persuaded Robert to give to Magdalene a major work by one of todays leading artists from Central Australia.

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Maureen Nampijinpa Hudson is a Walpiri woman who was born in 1959 in the bush, at Mount Barkley cattle station not far from Alice Springs. She is the cousin of another well-known Aboriginal artist, Clifford Possum Tjapaltarri, although she began her adult life as a difdent teaching assistant. At the same time, as an aspiring artist in a culture which values emulation as much as innovation, she studied the work of her cousin and other senior gures, until 1988 when she became sufciently condent to launch into her own career as a painter. By 1992 she was showing at The Art Dock, Noumea, in an exhibition of Central Australian art, and ve years later, her works were shown in Seattle (Jeffrey Moose Gallery) and London (Gallery 47). The title of the London show was Women Dreaming, which underlines one of the major themes in Nampijinpas work. She inherited the sacred Walpiri dreaming site of Warlukurlongu (Fire Country) from her father and grandfather, while her mother contributed the Womens Ceremony Dreaming to her cultural heritage. Most of her paintings, in acrylics on linen, refer both to the dreaming which is central to Walpiri culture and to the desert terrain of my country. The triptych we are fortunate to own, thanks to the generosity of Robert Cripps, is a wonderful example of her dreamscapes which evoke ora and fauna, thistledown and feathers, the lightest of all particles in the world which surrounds us, but delimited in the innite space of that sub-conscious universe which only an artist of her calibre can capture and conjure into a thing of beauty. DDR

Photo: Aude Fitzsimons

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arthur tedder
AIR POWER MAESTR O
The Royal Air Force has produced a number of leaders to whom the nation owes a debt of gratitude. Dowding, the architect of the victory in the Battle of Britain and his principal commander Park come readily to mind, as indeed does the rather more controversial figure of Harris, the prime exponent of the strategic bomber offensive. Rather less well known is Arthur Tedder. Had it not been for the Great War, he would probably have had a pleasant and useful career with the Colonial Service, but a combination of circumstances ordained that he would become one of the greatest airmen of his or any other generation. A man of some intellect, he combined great practical experience of military aviation with a capacity to see beyond the requirements and interests of his own Service. In particular, he was instrumental in the development of the tactical air forces that were to give the Western Allies such a crucial advantage in the land campaigns against the Axis forces in North Africa and Europe. Moreover, he played a decisive part in the higher prosecution of the war and, as Eisenhowers deputy, was a vital bridge between the US and British High Commands. He remained a Cambridge man to the end and, in becoming the first (and only) Magdalene graduate to become Chancellor of the University, amply repaid the College for its early faith in him.

Lord Tedder by Henry Carr, 1949

The son of a senior civil servant, Arthur Tedder had come up to Magdalene in 1909 from Whitgift School in Croydon to read History.The College Magazine for 200001 carried a fascinating insight by Dr Hyam onTedders student days, based onTedders own letters, which also give an indication of his slightly sarcastic humour. His biographer,Vincent Orange, reckoned that by the end of his Magdalene years, Tedder

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was an amiable chap with many interests but few achievements. However, it is worth recording in the light of his subsequent career that he was thought intellectually-gifted enough to become the Colleges rst research student in History and indeed he won the Prince Consort Prize in 1913 for his dissertation on the Restoration Navy. Like many young men of his era, he had joined the TA whilst at Cambridge and when the outbreak of war in 1914 found him serving with the Colonial Service in Fiji, he resigned and hurried home to join his Regiment (the Dorsets). However, a serious knee injury precluded him from front-line infantry duties and he transferred to the RFC in 1916 and trained as a pilot. He ew Scouts (ghters) on the Western Front, before transferring to the Middle East in 1917. Successively commanding a ight, squadron and a wing,Tedder had developed into an experienced leader and organiser, and through command of the School of Bombing and Navigation in Cairo, was admirably attuned to the technical requirements of his profession. He may not have ended the war with the gallantry decorations of some of his contemporaries, but he was well versed in the requirements for command.During the locust years of the 1920s, when what had been the worlds largest air force was reduced to little more than an airborne colonial gendarmerie, Tedder rose steadily up the ranks of his Service, alternating operational command with training and staff appointments.After commanding a brace of bomber squadrons, and having been briey deployed toTurkey in 1922/3 during the Chanak Crisis, Tedder served in a series of relatively unglamorous posts, but ones that called for real intellectual grasp. He attended both the RN Staff College and the Imperial Defence College, and then served on the staff at the Directorate ofTraining, the RAF Staff College and as Ofcer Commanding at the Air Armament School. By now a Group Captain, he became Director of Training in 1934, a vital role in an organisation that was evolving from beingthe best ying club in the worldinto a potent modern air force, training and equipping to match the growing strength of Germany. On promotion to Air Commodore in 1936, he was appointed Air Ofcer Commanding RAF Far Eastern Forces which gave him command over RAF units from Burma to Hong Kong and Borneo, and in 1938 he returned to the UK as an Air Vice-Marshal to become Director General for Research & Development (R & D) in the Air Ministry under Air Chief Marshal Sir William Freeman, who had overall responsibility for Research, Development and Production. Freeman was one of the great unsung heroes of the RAF and his great task (and accomplishment) had been to harmonize the Services need for rst-class technical equipment with the capabilities of the aircraft industry; and he specically requested that Tedder should become his principal lieutenant. Tedder did not bring the technical skills of the engineer or logistician to R & D, but he had other vital strengths. He understood operations, he understood training, he understood the myriad facets of air armaments and he understood how to be an effective commander. In a period of extremely rapid technological change, he forged close links with the aircraft industry and with the operational users of their products. New designs and new concepts owed regularly from the aircraft makers as they

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tried to satisfy the RAFs varied requirements and in many ways Tedders job was to pick winners from a very mixed eld. For example, he was an early champion of jet propulsion (then in its infancy) and, more importantly for the outcome of the war, was a strong supporter, with Freeman, of the Mosquito project that produced the nest light bomber and night-ghter of its era. He strove to ensure that quantity was not achieved at the expense of quality. However, this approach was to run counter to that taken by Lord Beaverbrook, who was appointed by Churchill as Minister for Aircraft Production in May 1940. A hard-driving press magnate with little aviation knowledge, Beaverbrook sought above all else to maximise production. Whilst this had undoubted short-term advantages, particularly with regard to the provision of ghters for the Battle of Britain, it had baleful medium and long-term effects. Inadequate and obsolescent aircraft were produced in large numbers for far too long and too many airmen were to pay the price of this approach in the rst few years of the war. Beaverbrooks regime produced other casualties, including Freeman and Tedder.The former moved on to beVice-Chief of the Air Staff whilst Tedder, despite blocking attempts by Beaverbrook and a lack of enthusiasm by Churchill, returned to Cairo in December 1940 as the Deputy Commander of Middle East Air Command, a vast area stretching from Egypt and the Levant, to Iraq and Persia. Succeeding to full command in June 1941, he found himself in charge of all air forces in what was to be, for the next two to three years at least, the pivotal theatre of British operations against Germany. It was as though his entire career had prepared him for this exacting challenge. He had wide experience of the operational command of units large and small, as well as of training and research, areas that were particularly important in a Service where the ability to exploit technology was (and still is) paramount and where, despite popular myth, no amount of press-on spirit can compensate for technical and training deciencies. An overseas command in the 1940s was in effect a complete air force. In contrast with the UK-based functional commands Fighter, Bomber, Coastal etc Middle East Command comprised ghter, bomber, reconnaissance and maritime units, supported by organic maintenance and training organisations. Roles ranged from the tactical to the strategic. However, whenTedder arrived, the Commands equipment, which had been just good enough to deal with the Italian forces, was woefully inadequate for the trials to come. For a few months the RAF forces enjoyed success against the Regia Aeronautica, but this happy state of affairs came to an abrupt end when the Germans invaded Greece in April 1941 and many squadrons were siphoned off in the ill-fated attempt to save Greece, culminating in the debacle of Crete in May 1941. With British forces trying desperately to protect Egypt from Rommels newly arrived Afrika Korps, and with the Mediterranean, apart from Malta, under complete Axis control, the auguries were not good. Re-supply was very problematic and most aircraft arrived by way of the arduousTakoradi Route, a gruelling 4,000 mile ferry ight from the Gold Coast via Nigeria, French-Equatorial Africa, Sudan and so up to Cairo. Add to this a marked reluctance by the Government and Air Ministry to release the latest aircraft (the rst

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Desert Air Force: Boston Light Bomber

2nd Tactical Air Force: Typhoon Fighter-Bombers, Normandy 1944

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Spitre did not arrive until 1942), which condemned the Middle East Air Force to operate second-line equipment for much of its life.The magnitude of the problems facing Tedder as the newly installed Air Ofcer Commanding in Chief (AOCinC) were not difcult to appreciate. However, the realities of the German presence in North Africa did serve to focus attention within Tedders sprawling command, and whilst there were distractions to contend with, such as the defeat of theVichy French in Syria and the suppression of Rashid Alis revolt in Iraq, major operations were directed against the threat posed by Rommel to Egypt.Tedder had a multi-faceted set of problems. Perhaps more aware than his Army and Navy colleagues, Tedder realised the nature of the war about to be fought. On assuming command, he stated that:In my opinion, sea, land and air operations in the Middle East Theatre are now so closely inter-related that effective coordination will only be possible if the campaign is considered and controlled as a combined operation in the full sense of that term.In other words, he needed to prosecute the air war against the betterequipped Luftwaffe, to provide air support to the Army and to carry out maritime operations on behalf of the Navy. The latter task initially caused him some concerns. Naval commanders demanded dedicated squadrons for the maritime role, but Tedder was adamant that this ran against his cherished principle of exibility; an aircraft supporting the eet one day could be bombing enemy airelds or troop concentrations the next. He held that the key to the effective use of air power was the correct prioritisation of the various threats and that once this had been achieved, the allocation of air resources to targets was the responsibility of the air commander. It was now that Tedder began to show his true greatness as a senior commander. One of the more pernicious legacies of the abortive attempts by the Navy and Army to dismember the recently formed RAF in the early inter-war years was that the new Service had concentrated its doctrinal effort on the strategic use of airpower, at the expense of the tactical support of naval and particularly land forces, as a means of underlining the case for its continued independent existence.Tedder recognised the overriding requirement to convince the Army and Navy that the RAF could and would provide the air support they needed, whilst at the same time preserving his core belief that air power had to be exercised by professional airmen.The success he achieved in squaring this particular circle was the mark of the man.The problems with the Navy were ameliorated by the allocation of aircraft primarily (though not solely) for naval support and, most importantly, under RAF control. But it was in his relations with the Army that Tedder showed his true talent. He convinced the generals that the key to proper support was air superiority, to be measured not in terms of allied aircraft overhead, but in the inability of enemy air forces to interfere with friendly operations. Air superiority was not to be gained by standing patrols (very wasteful in assets), but in an aggressive counter-air campaign against airelds, logistics and of course the enemy in the air. Under Tedders direction, the HQ of the Desert Air Force

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(the formation tasked with operations in the western desert) was co-located with that of the 8th Army, allowing their commanders to establish a close and effective working relationship. Tedder himself was already working alongside his Army counterpart in Cairo. Planning of operations became a joint affair, but with the important proviso that the actual conduct of the air war in support of the agreed plan was under RAF control. New tactics were introduced, like theTedder Carpet, which involved successive waves of bombers providing a rolling barrage of bombs ahead of advancing friendly forces. Mobility was greatly improved, so that whole squadrons could leap-frog forward to captured airelds to ensure the pace of any advance was maintained. Tedder was keen to get rst-hand knowledge of the operations he commanded; he had an easy way with the operational crews and would often visit forward bases and, sitting cross-legged in the sand amongst the crews, would seek the views of the men at the sharp end. He also re-organised and re-energised the maintenance and administrative organisations, realising that these were as vital to successful air campaigns as pilots and aircraft. Dynamic leaders were installed in these areas and Tedder determined that the RAF would not succumb to the rear base mentality that pervaded the staff in Cairo. Montgomery was to have a similar catalysing effect on the 8th Army.

Tedder with airmen, 1942

The land war continued to sway back and forth, with Rommels mercurial genius severely testing the Armys tactics, morale and leadership. However, the air forces increasingly got the measure of the enemy and operational success followed, tfully at rst, then with increasing assurance. Tedders forces maintained an aggressive offensive approach and as a result, rst local then theatre-wide air superiority was established, despite the handicap of often inferior equipment. Rommels lines of communication were interdicted, his panzers and transport assets were attacked, his fuel supplies were decimated and his troops learnt that they would have to ght with the air increasingly dominated by the RAF. Tedders judicious employment of air power compensated for deciencies

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elsewhere, particularly during the pivotal battle of Alam el Halfa that nally stopped the Afrika Korpsnal thrust towards the Nile Delta in September 1942. Rommel himself attributed his defeat here to the great superiority of his opponents in the air and he was acutely aware that his forces would be at the mercy of allied aircraft for the rest of the campaign. The scene was set for the British victory at El Alamein in October-November 1942. Fighter aircraft of the Desert Air Force had maintained constant air patrols over enemy airelds after a four-day bombing campaign had destroyed most of the opposing air forces. Supported by overwhelming air power, the Allied forces wore down the German/Italian forces and by early November had broken through in pursuit of a rapidly retreating enemy. Montgomery was swift to acknowledge the crucial role played by Tedders air forces: The moral effect of air action on the enemy is very great and out of all proportion to the material damage inicted. In the reverse direction, the sight and sound of our own air forces operating against the enemy have an equally satisfactory effect on our own troops. A combination of the two has a profound inuence on the most important single factor in war morale. Moreover, he had also grasped what was perhaps the central tenet of Tedders philosophy on the use of air power; he wrote that:Air power is indivisible. If you split it up into compartments, you merely pull it to pieces and destroy its greatest asset, its exibility. The whole geo-strategic picture of the war had been altered by the entry of the USA in December 1941. Understandably pre-occupied initially by the Pacic, the American forces entered the European theatre in November 1942 with theTorch landings in Algeria and Morocco. Initially, the US Army Air Forces (the US had no independent air force until after the war) struggled to provide effective air support, a situation that was resolved by the decision taken at the Casablanca meeting of Churchill and Roosevelt and their staffs in January 1943 to appoint Tedder as the Air Commander for the whole Mediterranean theatre, commanding all the RAF and USAAF units and standardising operating procedures. Tedder had by now codied his approach in hisTen Inviolable Rules of Air Power. He stressed, inter alia, that air power must be independent of land and sea forces, that the Air and Army HQs must be adjacent to each other and located as far forward as possible, that a simplied chain of command was essential for speedy response and that intelligence and mobility were of paramount importance. These principles became the fundamentals upon which Allied tactical air policy would be based, and they were incorporated into the training and doctrine of both the RAF and USAAF tactical air forces (Tactical Air Forcewas now the agreed term for air forces acting in support of the Army) and laid the foundations for the successes of Allied tactical air power until the end of the war. Tedder was to remain in command of the Allied Air Forces throughout the rest of the Desert Campaign and the invasions of Sicily and Italy, where allied tactical air power continued to dominate the battle area, before returning to London in January 1944 to become, at Eisenhowers request, the Deputy Supreme

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Commander of the forces being assembled for Operation Overlord, the invasion of France. During his time in command in North Africa he had established very close relations with Eisenhower and the leading US airmen, all of whom had a high regard both for his professional acumen and for his cooperative approach. He was one of only a few British commanders with whom the Americans felt entirely comfortable. In contrast, throughout much of his career he had to contend with the often at best lukewarm support from Churchill. Perhaps Beaverbrooks earlier reservations had inuenced Churchill or maybe Tedders rather sharp sense of humour and a perceived (by some) degree of arrogance was held against him; moreover, he was not one of those ofcers who allowed themselves to be dazzled by Churchill. Whatever the reason, he was never a Churchill favourite and his selection as Eisenhowers deputy speaks volumes for his abilities; he won his position on merit alone. His new role brought him into close contact with his Magdalene nearcontemporary, Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, who was the Allied Air Commander for Overlord. Leigh-Mallory was a somewhat less exible character than Tedder and he was not able to establish particularly close relations with the Americans. As a result, much of the air planning for D-Day and the Normandy battles was overseen by Tedder. In particular, Tedder devised the Transportation Plan, which utilised the RAF and USAAF strategic bomber eets in a tactical role to strike at German lines of communication, effectively isolating the Normandy battleeld, and severely disrupting the Germans ability to move troops and materiel. In formulating this plan, Tedder had to overcome Churchills understandable concerns about the likely level of French civilian casualties, and the opposition of theBomber Barons, Harris and Spaatz, to what they saw as the diversion of their commands from their primary roles in the offensive against German industry. In the event, the transportation campaign proved extremely effective, and even Harris later acknowledged that it had been a highly appropriate and effective use of his assets. After D-Day, the slow progress made by Montgomery in securing his objectives around Caen led to real friction between the erstwhile colleagues.Tedder was concerned over the failure to secure sufcient ground to allow the planned establishment of airelds for the forward deployment of tactical squadrons (so vital to the support of the ground forces) and believed that the situation was sufciently serious to warrant Montgomerys replacement by a more dynamic ground commander. The crisis eventually eased when the US Armies broke out of the Normandy bridgehead at the end of July, but relations between Montgomery and Tedder (and the Americans) never fully recovered. With almost total air supremacy, the advance through France gathered pace, and the decisive contribution of the Allied tactical air forces to the destruction of the German armies in the Falaise Gap was testament to all that Tedder had preached about the role of air power in support of ground forces. If it is true that, as the senior Air Ministry ofcial Sir Maurice Dean averredbetween 1919 and 1939, the RAF forgot how to

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support the Army, it is equally true that under Tedders guidance, it had brought tactical support to an acme of effectiveness. Many German commanders were later to attest to the decisive role played by the tactical air forces in their nal defeat in the West.As the European war moved towards its conclusion (and despite a last attempt by Churchill to replace him in November 1944 with one of his favourites, Alexander) Tedder found himself playing an increasingly political role. In January 1945 he led a mission to Moscow to discuss with Stalin how the nal operations might be co-ordinated between the Western and Eastern Allies. And as the war nally drew to a close, it was Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder who, on Eisenhowers behalf, and together with the Russian General Zhukov, accepted the surrender of Germany from Field Marshal Keitel on 8 May 1945. Tedders war was over. He had a played a pivotal role in developing air power doctrine and tactics, which he had successfully put into practice, resulting in the formation of the tactical air forces which dominated the nal years of the European war.This was no mean achievement, for as Montgomery was to observe: if we lose the war in the air, we lose the war and we lose it quickly. And Tedder was one of the crucial players within the Anglo-American military coalition, with the vision to see the bigger picture irrespective of service or country; some observers saw him as the linchpin of the Allied high command in Europe between 1943 and 1945. But his achievements were not without personal cost. His eldest son Richard (also a Magdalene man) had been killed in action ying a bomber over France in August 1940, and in January 1943, he was a horried observer beside the wreckage of his wifes aircraft, which had crashed while trying to land near Cairo, killing all on board. Wreathed in honours and glory, Tedder was promoted to 5-Star rank in September 1945 and in January 1946 he was created Baron Tedder of Glenguin and became the Chief of the Air Staff. Retaining his links with Cambridge, he delivered the Lees-Knowles Lectures in 1947, and in 1950 he was elected Chancellor.Vincent Orange noted:No honour in a distinguished career gave greater satisfaction to a man formed at Magdalene College. There he had sat at the feet of such devoted teachers as Benson and Salter, had a book published, been elected an Honorary Fellow (in 1943), and in two world wars had several aircraft painted light blue.The College in turn rejoiced at the distinction of having its rst Chancellor. The amiable chap with many interests but few achievementshad become one of the outstanding men of his time. A RT

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the adventures of aliquis


RICHARD MARKS (17781847)
In 1816 Richard Marks, curate of a village in the East Anglian Fens, published his memoirs. But if readers were dreading yet another worthy account of an obscure clergymans minor triumphs, they might have been pleasantly surprised. Far from detailing petty parochial affairs, Markss autobiographical Retrospect recalled a swashbuckling career in Nelsons navy, a life of storms, shipwrecks and skirmishes with the French. Even then, nearly twenty years later, the howling of winter gales around his cottage still had the power to conjure up hair-raising memories:
Just after midnight, when the wind blew strong, when thick clouds darkened the sky, and the angry surge was rising higher and higher, we dashed upon the fatal bank with such violence, that those on deck were thrown off their feet, and those below were instantly aroused from their slumbers All was dire confusion and alarm; the crew were seen on deck; some half-dressed, and others just as they had leaped out of bed.The long-boat was hoisted out, and instantly foundered: signal guns of distress were red every minute; blue lights were burnt; and measures taken to prevent the ship from falling on her side. The chain-pumps were set to work, but our leaks deed all resistance Nothing remained for us to do but to wait the return of day.

With daybreak came rescue, but this vivid account of disaster on a hostile coast is a thrilling episode nonetheless, one among many such dramas in a career which rivalled that of any far-fetched ctional sea-dog. Not surprisingly, The Retrospect became a runaway bestseller, going through at least twenty editions by the 1840s.As will become clear, however, this was not just a straightforward adventure story. In order to appreciate the reasons for its success we will need to delve a little deeper into the career of its author, who wrote under the unrevealing pseudonym of Aliquis (or someone). Above all, what drove a dashing young man with a self-confessed desire for deeds of dangerous enterprize to exchange a life of derring-do for penury in a sleepy Cambridgeshire parish? By reconstructing the gaps in his own narrative, this article seeks to piece together Markss highly idiosyncratic transformation from man of action to man of God.Then, as now, Magdalene was not renowned for its salty seafarers, but his was a story, as we shall see, in which this College was to play a small but not insignicant part. Richard Marks was born on 31 December 1778 at North Crawley, Buckinghamshire. Not much is known about his early life. Marks himself recalled a penchant for boisterous sports and an attraction to water, but even though like most eighteenth-century lads he eagerly devoured tales of Britannias naval heroes, this was scarcely sufcient preparation for an arduous life aoat; when he

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enlisted in the Royal Navy in 1797 he did so as an unskilled landman. Nevertheless, this was at the height of the French Revolutionary Wars, and Admiralty records suggest that the intrepid nineteen-year-old soon found ample opportunities to prove himself. By 1799 he had been made masters mate, a position implying that its holder was regarded as potential ofcer material and which granted him the right to walk the quarter deck. Readers familiar with Horatio Hornblower or Jack Aubrey will recognize that this was no small accolade: masters mates (usuallymatesfor short) were expected to dress respectably and to behave in gentlemanlike fashion. More practically, they were required to acquire a number of vital skills, including gunnery, navigation and seamanship. Marks was clearly a man on the make. By 1801 he had served in theatres from the North Sea to the Levant, survived two shipwrecks in one year (HMS Proserpine, off the ice-bound mouth of the Elbe, and HMS Nassau, off the Dutch coast, described above, both in 1799), and taken part in the ejection of the French from Egypt.

The Retrospect; or, A Review of Providential Mercies (13th edn, London, 1828) frontispiece & title-page

Further exploits were to come. Transferring into the 74-gun ship-of-the-line HMS Defence in June 1803, Marks went on to take part in the blockade of the Franco-Spanish eet at Cadiz and its eventual rout at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805. Losses on the Defence were relatively light, but this did not stop

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Marks distinguishing himself as one of the crew sent to take charge of the captured San Ildefonso late in the day. While several leaking British captures were lost in the storm that blew up after the battle, the crippled Spanish ship was among those nursed back to Gibraltar as prizes. Such was the End of this Expedetion the Most Brilliant and Decisetive in the Annals of Naviel Glory concluded one sailors hand-scrawled memoir, writtenwile the Ship was Layen at Giberalter Repairing Damages.1 News of the battle reached London sixteen days afterwards, and, notwithstanding outpourings of grief at the death of Nelson, it was hailed as a triumph. In the ensuing promotions, Marks received his lieutenants commission (having passed the all-important qualifying examination as long ago as 1803). Further recognition came when he was selected by his old captain, George Hope, to accompany him on board the Conqueror for the resumption of the blockade. Professionally, all seemed well. Inwardly, however, Marks was beginning to view the prospect of advancement with a jaundiced eye. The Retrospect describes how ten or twelve days of fever-induced delirium in hospital at Minorca awakened a long-dormant sense of mortality and morality.Thus began a period of intense inward struggle.My companions thought me happy,he recalled,I knew myself to be miserable. Like most evangelical conversion narratives (and there were many) this was not a tale of how its writer came to believe in God. For Marks, as for numerous others wrestling with a sense of their radical imperfection, the Almighty was all too real,a being unamiable, austere, and full of terror. Marks was haunted by memories of past sins, remembering with particular shame how he and his companions had celebrated their escape from shipwreck withdrunkenness, oaths and profane songs; he felt his guilt compounded by the fact that he had been trying to bargain with God for his life only hours before. Attempts to mend his ways seemed to fail almost as soon as they began. Thus far all was esteemed by man; and yet all was abomination to God.Having reached what his evangelical contemporaries would have recognized as the crisis of his conversion, relief came only gradually. It was only when one of his fellow ofcers took a playful but ill-advised pot-shot at him with a pebble on returning from a shooting party leaving a hole in his hat that he nally resolved to seek spiritual counsel. The Retrospect is vague as to the details, but it is almost certain that his mentor was one John Hawker, curate of Stoke Damerel near Devonport dockyard and an evangelical preacher of local renown. After repeated visits, Marks eventually returned to life aoat convinced of his salvation. He was uneasy about resuming shipboard life, but took some encouragement from the ministers parting reassurance:who knows but that the Lord may make you serviceable in the ship?

1 James Martin of Wivenhoe,Book concerning the batle [sic] of Trafalgar [copy], Essex Record Ofce, Colchester,TB/135.

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Situation of His Majestys Ship Defence & her Prize the San Ildefonso (engraving after J.T. Lee, 1806). Note that the battered San Ildefonso (centre) has had all three masts shot off.

Predictably, Markss new-found zeal caused tensions in the wardroom. Indeed, his sense of vocation might well have been thwarted altogether had it not been for the intervention of the new captain, Israel Pellew.You preach very well, Pellew told him after one heated conversation among the ofcers at dinner:You shall read prayers next Sunday, if you will.It was to be the rst divine service held on the Conqueror in ve years. Church was dulyriggedand the crew assembled. Although a daunting prospect, as Marks acknowledged, a ready-made congregation more than six hundred bare heads and attentive looks offered him plenty of scope. During the coming months of tedious blockade the crew of the Conqueror spent many such Sundays at anchor listening to the earnest lieutenant. Buoyed by his success, Marks procured bibles and tracts, established a subscription library, instituted reading and writing classes and even started a band comprising two clarionets and a bass. The result, he claimed, was a marked improvement in behaviour. Floggings became less frequent, and swearing was curbed. (If all this sounds a bit far-fetched, it is worth reecting that danger, disease and the threat of enemy action could cause even the most hard-bitten sailor to summon up a halfremembered childhood prayer.)I know it seems strange,Marks admitted,yet the thing is true. Nevertheless, it was not to last. The advent of another, less favourable, captain in 1808 severely curbed his activities, and, worn out by twelve years of near-constant service, he decided in 1810 to seek employment ashore. What Marks did on his return is broadly clear. We know that he resolved to leave the Navy, despite having friends at the Admiralty who wanted to offer him a job; and we know that he later sought Anglican ordination. However, he gives the

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historian few clues as to how this came about.Many and great obstacles presented themselves, he tells us enigmatically, but in the Lords time they all vanished. Aside from his evangelical piety, which doubtless raised a few eyebrows, his lack of a university degree may have been another such obstacle, and this explains why he appears on the books at Magdalene College, Cambridge in April 1813. Why Magdalene? The most likely answer is to be found in its reputation for Methodism(i.e. earnest evangelical religion). If so, it would appear that Markss information was out of date, for the evangelical stronghold of the 1780s and 90s was already showing signs of becoming a resort for wealthy idlers.2 Perhaps, though, this did not matter, for Marks signed on as aten-year man, an archaic and mildly corrupt arrangement whereby older students destined for holy orders paid regular fees and eventually received a BD degree without formal study. It is possible that he never resided in College: the Buttery Books record what look like obligatory weekly payments of 2d for Commons and termly fees of 1s 7d (Lect[ures] and T[able] Cloths), but there is no evidence that he occupied a room.3 This notwithstanding, the association apparently worked to his advantage. He was ordained priest in July 1813 and in August became curate of nearby Waterbeach.

Augustus Earle, Divine Service as it is Usually Performed on Board a British Frigate at Sea (c.1830)

Marks was not one to shirk a challenge. Like many of the clergymen and missionaries issuing from Magdalene in the glory days of the late eighteenth
2

See J.D. Walsh,The Magdalene Evangelicals, repr. in Coll Mag 53, 200809, pp 4650; see also Peter Cunich et al., A history of Magdalene College Cambridge, 14281988, pp 193-199 (Cambridge, 1994).

3 College Archives B/97 (181213; 181314; 181415).

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century, he was content to accept a pittance and serve in meritorious obscurity, being certain that in doing so he was laying up treasures in heaven.Yet neither, like them, was he above the odd moan, and in this case the hand dealt by Providence seemed a poor one indeed. In fact, his new parish was one of the most dreary scenes of country, and peopled by a set of the rudest inhabitants I had ever seen [,] in England. The vicarage was damp, the congregation miserable and the incumbent an absentee living off richer pickings elsewhere. (Not much had changed eighty years later, when a mission in 1896 produced no known good, and premarital pregnancy was rife.) Money was another worry. Lest his resolution be doubted, he had taken the unusual step of renouncing his naval pension orhalfpay, which probably explains why he discontinued payments to Magdalene in 1815. Little wonder that Marks later called these the wilderness years. Still, however bleak his situation appeared, it offered opportunities for reection, and it was here that he began to write. The results were striking. The Retrospect; or, Review of Providential Mercies appeared rst in 1816, followed later in the same year by Conversation in a Boat, the rst of seven booklets written for the Religious Tract Society. Combining pithy, pictorial description with an expert grasp of nautical idiom, Marks drew inventively on his years aoat to convey a simple message of sin and salvation. The Shipmates, for example, relates how Joe Long, a sad reprobate fellow, gambles and whores away his pay a familiar predicament for many sailors before being rescued and of course converted by the no-nonsense heroes, Harry Williams andTom Brown. The Ocean SpirituallyViewed, in contrast, takes a more metaphorical tack, exploring the parallels between a voyage and the spiritual life. Over the next decade these, alongside such titles as The Smugglers, The Wreckers and The Seamans Friend, poured forth from the presses, eventually achieving an estimated circulation in excess of a million copies and being read in Britain, the United States and beyond. The reasons for his staggering success are not hard to fathom. First and foremost, Marks had a keen sense of how the seafaring mind worked.In the heat of battle, he observed,it is not only possible, but easy, to forget death and cease to shrink; but in the cool protracted hours of a shipwreck it is not so easy to forget ourselves or a future state.Second, and no less importantly, he had a keen sense of what would appeal to domestic readers. Indeed, it might be argued that this was Markss most signicant audience: he was well aware that while Britons had always venerated their naval heroes, they were slower to provide for their welfare and spiritual needs.We were a people at once caressed and neglected honoured and despised, he lamented in an 1821 sermon. At a time when thousands of charitable pounds were being poured into missions in India and Africa, Markss books and tracts were crucial to uncovering the plight of those closer to home. A succession of letters to the Christian Guardian in 1826 sought to lay the issue before the religious public, and further publications hammered home the point. During the 1820s and 30s others would take up the baton most notably the

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redoubtable Baptist tubthumper G C BosunSmith but at this stage Marks was one of the few prominent Anglicans to support the extra-parochial ministries being carried out inThameside oating chapels, and seamens missions. Such was effect of these endeavours that by the mid-nineteenth century the stereotype of the disreputableJack Tarlooked distinctly old-fashioned. For all his authorial success, Marks preferred to shun the limelight.My situation is as much as possible out of reach of observation, he mused. In 1820 he became Vicar of Great Missenden in his native Buckinghamshire a much more congenial setting than Waterbeach and he died in 1847 after a long illness, worn out, like so many conscientious contemporaries, by the rigours of his post. What little we do know aboutAliquisis mediated through his work it is not known, for instance, whether he ever married which probably explains why he has received so little scholarly attention. His successor, who preached his funeral sermon, was in little doubt as to the value of his writings:they have been read by all ranks, all classes of society, with interest; and by thousands with prot and delight.In short, Marks deserves to be numbered among Magdalenes brightest and best, for he just as much as the overseas missionaries commemorated in the Chapel was a pioneer in his eld. GWA

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the birds of the fellows garden


The Fellows of Magdalene might be surprised to learn that they are not the only inhabitants of this College to appreciate a nice pigeon for dinner. Indeed, they are in good company with a rather hidden and stealthy, but stunningly beautiful bird of prey that has chosen our wonderful garden as its regular hunting ground a sparrow-hawk! But lets start from the beginning. Ever since I rst saw the Magdalene Fellows Garden about three years ago, I realised that it is different from most Cambridge gardens, and, I dare say, probably most English gardens. And I liked it for its being different. It is half recreational, well-maintained park, half wilderness. And I also realised that it probably takes courage for the Garden Steward and Garden Superintendent to maintain it in such a state. I moved into College last October and in the last six months, I have spent a total of about ten hours, split into short sessions of 30 minutes, walking around the garden with my pair of binoculars (the Chaplain saw me several times when he was running late to morning prayer and ying past me). I followed the change from winter to summer, the awakening of the vegetation and, of course, the changing bird population of what I had come to see as my garden. Living in Brights Building, it took me less than one minute to reach that little sanctuary, and a short walk there is an ideal start to a day that will be mainly spent in a windowless laboratory. Here is a short summary of what I discovered: I observed about 30 different species of birds, and I am sure I missed a few, as I am a bit out of practice. Out of these 30 species, seven are on the latest list of birds of conservation concern, published jointly by the leading UK bird conservation organizations. Of these seven, three species are on the red list (redwing, song thrush and starling), and four are on the amber list (dunnock, stock dove, swift and black headed gull). Eight species were almost certainly breeding in the garden (as deduced from territorial and nest building behaviour, feeding and actual observation of juvenile birds): great tit, blue tit, long tailed tit, blackbird, robin, wren, chafnch and blackcap. Eight more species were very regular guests during the breeding season (carrion crow, wood pigeon, moor hen, stock dove, dunnock, starling, song thrush and chiffchaff), and some of them may have bred in the garden as well. I had two personal highlights during my observations; the rst was to discover that a group of up to ten (!) redwings spent all of January and February and early March in the garden. These beautiful birds breed in the north of the UK, but are rare. In winter, redwings migrate to England from Scandinavia and Russia to enjoy the milder climate and less snow that makes their life easier. However, last winter was quite harsh, even in Cambridge. A place like our garden is very important in such situations. I saw the redwings almost exclusively in the part of the garden closest to Wentworth House, where the grass is not cut until midsummer. This

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leads to a multitude of perennial herbs growing there that produce a lot of seeds and these seeds, together with the berries of the many different types of bushes in that part of the garden, provide a valuable source of food during the winter. In addition, in summer, the meadow there is full of insects that provide ideal food for the upbringing of the young birds of the breeding species. So next time you feel that this wilderness should be tamed and its grass cut with nail scissors, think about what an important ecosystem it represents, with a whole chain of organisms depending on it. My second highlight was the discovery of the sparrow-hawk. One morning in early March, when I started my walk I immediately noticed that something was not quite right: the garden was much too quiet. And while I was standing close to the pets cemetery under the conifer trees, I saw for a fraction of a second a quiet shadow gliding away. My rst thought was: a sparrow-hawk! And I was proved right: a few minutes later, as I was standing under the great plane in the centre of the garden, the shadow reappeared and landed on the branch of a tree nearby, and I had occasion to study the splendid bird in as much detail as I could possibly wish! All of a sudden, it accelerated and ew into a bush, whereupon several small birds ed in panic in every direction.An impressive experience, that readily explained the unusual quietness of the garden that morning. Obviously all the small singing birds were very well aware of the presence of their worst enemy and had no intention of revealing their presence to it! In the weeks after this event, I found two dead pigeons in the garden, or rather what remained of them, conrming that the sparrow-hawk indeed uses our garden as a regular hunting ground. AKB

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book reviews
NEIL WENBORN and M E J HUGHES (Eds), Contourlines: New Responses to Landscape in Word and Image (Salt Publishing in association with Magdalene College Publications, 2009, xiii + 109pp) This anthology of responses to landscape in so many of its aspects, from prehistoric sites to parking lots, begins with a quotation from Charles Darwin with whose bicentenary it neatly coincided:The vivid delight in scenery that awakened in my mind [aged 11] has lasted longer than any other aesthetic pleasure. How true that is for so many of us, whether or not we recognise our need, from womb to tomb, for enclosure and envelopment. Appropriately, then, Luke Bramwells prize-winning paintings of Enclosure Acts 1 & 2 encase this elegant volume of verbal and visual responses to the land. Similarly, in Philip Grosss Betweenland it is the early silver-nitrate plate that icks to negative / and backthat represents the poets layered response to landscapes of memory. Judith Kazantzis ranges in The Long Man of Wilmington froma typical vigorous vicar, / who loved antiquity / and to restoreto the physical thrill of our steep climbs, our trudge, / the sky, the clouds, / the hair whirling in our mouth, / the wind, the rainbow, / blackberries in the rainbows cup- . She reminds us that this is an anthology of encounters, of emotions recollected not always in tranquillity, in response to that common ground (an alternative title the editors considered for their book) in which we have the roots of our being. Inevitably perhaps, at a time when the unspoilt landscape is threatened by human intervention, there is a pervasive nostalgia among these responses from all over the world, but once again, as in Wenborns Dover, it is the human history which prevails inthat mirage / of older friends adventure, white cliffs / echoing white cliffs across / the slow geology of separation. Contourlines is the literary residue of Magdalenes Festival of Landscape, a year-long celebration organised by Jane Hughes and Tom Spencer which brought thousands of visitors to the College to participate in a series of lectures, exhibitions, symposia and discussions. It reproduces many of the contributions to that Festival alongside other texts and images created by an extraordinary variety of contemporary voices. Copies may be ordered from the College Ofce for 12.99 or by emailing litfest@magd.cam.ac.uk. DDR

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JEFFERY LEWINS, Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations (Nuclear Energy Agency, 2009, 441pp) (Freely available in pdf format on CD-ROM.) This is a rare book, a masterpiece that speaks loudly of the beauty and life in thermodynamics. Jeffery Lewins has made a major contribution by offering us this treatise at a time when many think that thermodynamics is mature and derisory. The many are wrong, because they are poorly taught. With Jeffery Lewinss book in hand they have a chance to nally learn the truth, about thermodynamics and especially the great impact that this science is having on our afuence and civilization. Lewinss book delights the reader with erudition, wit, art and history. There are real individuals and human events behind the laws, concepts and formulae of thermodynamics. Lewins teaches where this science and language came from, and in what sequence. Each chapter ends with the biographical sketches of the main names and what they did for the science and technology of power from re opposed to power from animals and slaves. The book presents the discipline in a very clear (sharp) direction, from foundations to other foundations on contemporary frontiers. It starts with the laws (zeroth, rst, second and third) and continues with fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics (eg power, refrigeration, cycles, efciencies, availability, exergy, entropy generation) and the fundamentals of equilibrium and chemical thermodynamics (maximum entropy, minimum energy, thermodynamics functions and surfaces). The presentation is designed for maximum effect in teaching. The ideal gas model is used early and extensively, because it is simple and familiar. Real uids, surface tension, bubbles, drops and mixtures come later. More specialised elds such as radiation and statistical thermodynamics complete the treatment and give this book its monumental stature. Outposts of the empire is the chapter where the frontiers the battles and the hopes are outlined as an open invitation to come, to play, to do something original. This chapter is a tour de force of the most active domains today: thermoelectricity, irreversible thermodynamics, endo-reversible thermodynamics, and the constructal law of design in nature. Above everything stands the fact that this book is highly original. It is an account of Jeffery Lewinss distinguished career at the University of Cambridge. His contributions to practically all sectors of thermodynamics are used as illustrations throughout this book, for example, his theory on bubbles, drops, thermoelectricity and the vortex tube.

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Art and beauty resonate throughout the book, from the highly original book cover, to the drawing with the horse which knows the difference between the stable and the metastable! The University of Cambridge has been a leading school in the history of thermodynamics. To the names of Hawthorne, Pippard, Denbigh and Haywood, we now add Jeffery Lewins. Adrian Bejan
(This review was commissioned from Professor Bejan by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.)

RONALD HYAM, Understanding the British Empire (Cambridge University Press, 2010, xxi + 572pp) Do you know if Ronald does his research nowadays by computer or is it still index cards?went this reviewers email to the College. Back came the reply Im afraid that Ronald goes nowhere near a computer, he doesnt even like to answer the phone. Yet read Ronald Hyams wonderful new collection of essays about British imperialism and the reader discovers the authors very modern mind. He picks his way artfully through the shoals of scholarship from Marxist economic determinism to conventional diplomatic history as he charts his own course. One can imagine him painstakingly shaping his elegant case with facts carefully stored in his annotated index cards and compact notebooks. Given the accumulation of facts assembled to support each point one can imagine neat but precariously balanced piles of these cards and les reaching towards the ceiling in his small cottage. When Ronald Hyam began as an imperial historian he had to contend with a Marxist view of Empire as economically determined that seemed to carry all before it, replacing as it did unpersuasive histories that treated empire building as little more than a complex chess game played by gentlemen in assorted colonial ofces and chanceries. Yet as the author has argued over many years, while the Marxist view brought apparent clarity and simplicity it bore little relationship to how decisions were actually made. Ofcials were not taking their direction from the alleged economic actors of imperial expansion, businessmen. Indeed as he argues in a chapter entitled: The myth of gentlemanly capitalism there were class and cultural barriers between business and ofcialdom which made for little alignment of view. Already the British Establishment was deeply anti-business in

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ways that were to cost the country dearly in its post-imperial exposure to the full blast of international market competitiveness. But if there is a Hyam Thesis, and he will cringe at the suggestion that there might be, it is that while economics and other macro-factors create currents in the affairs of men against which we venture at our peril, clever leaders are those who understand these currents intellectually, or some times just instinctively, and learn to master them and ride them for their own ends.They recognize they cannot sail straight into these headwinds but they can tack with them and in that sense remain masters of their own and their countrys destiny. And that is the story of successful imperial leadership: opportunities seized, vacuums lled, and little time in its heyday for critical self-reection on the basic wisdom of the enterprise. National security, commerce, religion and culture required stability and that drew a nimble, responsive, militarily capable island nation ever onwards as the decisions of ofcials, politicians, soldiers, businessmen, settlers, clerics and social activists all succumbed to the quest for just one more frontier taken which might ensure that illusive stability. So it was the individual decisions of many acting alone, but all on the same tilted table, where the combination of choices they made pushed Britain ever further into Empire. Hyams genius is to describe in episodes big and small, with a cast sometimes of statesmen and at others of a long forgotten ofcial like John Bennett or a cleric and academic like Peter Peckard, how the interplay between these big anonymous forces, the tilted table, and their own actions played out. Bennett, an old Magdalene man and brother of Ralph, realized after the Second World War that Britain must exit from Empire as completely and comprehensively as possible. He was to be proven right and for a while had his mastersear in the colonial ofce but he was ultimately too far ahead of his time and was sidelined. Peckard, much earlier as a Master of Magdalene, was one of the rst in the 1780s to crusade against slavery from university pulpits, possibly rst in Magdalenes own chapel. At the beginning his was a lonely cause but within a generation slavery was abolished by act of Parliament. In different chapters Hyam describes both men alighting on the opportunity as they recognized before others that the status quo was crumbling. But in history timing is often everything. For Bennett the winds of change came too late and Peckard did not live long enough to see what a powerful re he had lit from his pulpit. Hyam is able to credit individuals with such inuence despite the bigger context of economic and political trends because of his second, surely correct thesis, that the British imperial enterprise was a pretty chaotic business. It had no central brain-cell or planner, no Bismarck. Whatever the empire was, then, it was not structurally an impressive monolithic organization closely governed from London. It was not a steel frame - more a cats cradle. Its name was DIVERSITY The empire was a loose aggregation of diffuse elements, often uncertain, inherently complex, endlessly uneven in its impact (p 21). Plenty of room then, it would appear, for individual initiative.

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This is a book that follows Ronald Hyams scholarly interests over fty years. We see issues he has made his own, like sex and empire, where he has won scholarly notoriety and more. His views are well-captured by the title of the opening chapter of this segment of the book,Empire and sexual opportunity. His views on a penis-driven motive for empire are gloriously politically incorrect, cutting across the most precious tenets of gender studies and they enraged some of his peers when rst published. Having run the UN Development Programme, an organisation with ofces in more than 150 countries, many of them once locations of British empire, I know only too well how family unfriendly many of these postings remain. No job for the spouse, poor schools and crime usually top the list.This leads me to believe Hyam rather overdoes it by stressing the sexual power-drive and networks of prostitutes, or homosexuals or the casual sex of heterosexuals far from home. These were not causes of empire but consequences.The kind of people, who were either able to go because they did not have family, or went and had to leave family behind, were perhaps in their own way also victims of empire even if they sometimes took it out brutally and unforgivably in a sexual manner on the locals. This is a book that captures both the grand sweep of empire as well as its nooks and crannies. If as Ronald Hyam claims it is his last word on these matters, it will remain proof of a remarkable scholarly legacy. But perhaps the temptation of the index cards and the notebooks will prove too much. Lets hope the old soldier is not quite ready to put them away in the trunk and that there is more to come. MMB NICHOLAS BOYLE, 2014: How to Survive the Next World Crisis (Continuum, 2010, xi + 196pp) For many centuries the second decade has proved decisive. In the sixteenth century there was the Reformation, in the nineteenth the defeat of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, in the twentieth the onslaught of war. What will be the great event of the twenty-rst century? That question is the starting point for Nicholas Boyles extraordinary analysis of who we now are. The future remains open, 2014 could lead to new and creative understandings of what it is to be a human society or it could bring about catastrophic conict. To avoid one and promote the other, some serious thought is called for. To that end we are led into a provocative discussion of the nature of nations, the nature of Americas status as

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military superpower, the possible reinvention of international organisations like the UN and the IMF. The second part of the book is perhaps less analytical on the one hand and more constructive on the other. There are three principles outlined for a clearer understanding of political economy, focussing on the state, markets, their interrelation, and the political and economic motivation governing human action. There is a strong case made for the establishment of stronger global institutions. The backdrop of the current nancial crisis provides an appropriate setting for the arguments delivered on the stage of this book. We have seen considerable economic change but have yet to experience the inevitable political change that will follow. What will the new politics or body politic look like? The modern interdependence of all nations will surely demand that any new political system will have to be rooted in the soil of global institutions. Such global governance will only be successful if there is an awareness of particular circumstances surrounding America. A giant military force with declining economic signicance will have to nd a more imaginative rebirth than did Britain in the years when the Empire began to fade away. Such is the substance of some of the argument but the subtlety and sharpness is lost in such bland shorthand. This book has to be read as an intellectual meditation, read slowly and often. From my own reading, I have found myself profoundly challenged; I have had to change my own understanding of modern politics; and more importantly, I have been forced to examine the way in which such understanding motivates and undergirds my working life. There are a good many books that have awakened in me an intellectual curiosity; there are a few books that have become intellectually foundational; there are very few books indeed that have shaken me and caused me to reshape my thinking.This is one of them. As you might expect from anything written by Nicholas Boyle, this book is beautifully crafted and seriously challenging. It demands careful reading and then an even more careful response. In the very best sense of the word, this book is prophetic, wonderfully prophetic. Hueston Finlay

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The Fellows Garden in autumn

Photo: Kanak Patel

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