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Practical 1.1: Write and execute the commands for the following: i.

Display /usr/sbin one screen at a time ii. Display /usr/sbin beginning with a lowercase c. iii. Display /usr/sbin in capital letters beginning with a lowercase c . iv. Display and count all the lines in the file /etc/mime.types v. Display the last 10 lines of /etc/mime.types vi. Display the first 25 lines of /etc/mime.types vii. To f.ind the files with their type in the following directories: /etc /usr/bin viii.To find out how many files are in the /usr/bin directory. Practical 1.2: Construct the commands and execute them to i. Create a file named fsp<seat_no> having the listing of atleast 50 lines (e.g, listing of /usr/sbin or /usr/bin or /etc or can create your own). ii. Display first 2 lines of fsp<seat_no> and convert all the characters into capital letters. iii. Display the last 15 lines of fsp<seat_no>. iv. Display the lines starting with a vowel. v. Split the file fsp<seat_no> into subparts each having at most 20 lines and display the contents of these subparts and count the number of lines in them. vi. Split the file fsp<seat_no> into three subparts named fspaa, fspab, fspac and display the contents of these files and count the number of lines in them. Practical 1.3: Write and execute the commands for following: i. Create a subdirectory new<seatno>. Change to this directory & create two files new1<seatno> and new2<seatno> with two different contents with atleast five lines each. ii. Append the contents of new1<seat_no> to new2<seat_no>. Redirect the output to the file new3<seat_no>. iii. Create a directory tree dir1/dir2/dir3 in one command. Practical 1.4 : Write and execute the commands to create a file with the name Stud<roll_no> with the following fields separated by a blank space having the below mentioned values: Field RollNo Values Numeric First Name Character Last Name Character Date of Birth dd-mm-yy Marks Numeric out of 600

i Insert at least five appropriate records and do the following: ii Sort the data on first names only. iii Sort the data on the Marks only iv Prepare a ranked merit list with students first and last name only and store in the file Merit<roll_no> and display its contents.

Practical 1.5: Construct the commands and execute them to i Create a file named fsp<seat_no> having the listing of atleast 50 lines (e.g, listing of /usr/sbin or /usr/bin or /etc or can create your own). iiDisplay first 2 lines of fsp<seat_no> and convert all the characters into capital letters. iii Display the last 15 lines of fsp<seat_no>. iv Display the lines starting with a vowel. v Split the file fsp<seat_no> into subparts each having at most 20 lines and display the contents of these subparts and count the number of lines in them. vi Split the file fsp<seat_no> into three subparts named fspaa, fspab, fspac and display the contents of these files and count the number of lines in them. Practical 1.6 : Write and execute commands to create a file named name<roll_no> with fields (first name, second name, last name, salary) separated by : .Insert at least five appropriate records in above file. Perform following sort operations: i Sort on first names only. ii Display only those records whose first names start with a vowel. iii Sort on last names only. iv Display the names with salary above 10000 and and add two more records and redirect the output to the file named namenew<roll_no>. Practical 1.7: Write and execute the commands for the following: i. Create a file named fsp<seat_no> having the listing of atleast 50 lines (e.g, listing of /usr/sbin or /usr/bin or /etc or can create your own). ii. Display first 2 lines of fsp<seat_no> and convert all the characters into capital letters. iii. Display the last 15 lines of fsp<seat_no>. iv. Display the lines starting with a vowel. v. Split the file fsp<seat_no> into subparts each having at most 20 lines and display the contents of these subparts and count the number of lines in them. vi. Split the file fsp<seat_no> into three subparts named fspaa, fspab, fspac and display the contents of these files and count the number of lines in them. Practical 1.8 : Write and execute the commands for the following: Create a file with the name Stud<seat_no> with the following fields separated by a blank space having the below mentioned values: Field RollNo First Name Last Name Date of Birth Marks Values Numeric Character Character dd-mm-yy Numeric out of 600 i. Insert at least five appropriate records and do the following: ii. Sort the data on first names only. iii. Sort the data on the Marks only iv. Prepare a ranked merit list with students first and last name only and

store in the file Merit<seat_no> and display its contents. Practical 1.9: (a) Write and execute commands for the following: Create a file item1<seatno> with following fields having the mentioned type of values Item code Item name Unit of measure Price Quantity Numeric Character Character Numeric Numeric i. Add at least five records in item1<seatno>. Fields are separated by : . ii. Sort them according to their prices. iii. Display the line containing the highest quantity. iv. Sort the records according to their names (b) Create a file named student<seatno> with fields (Rollno, Student name, Marks). Fields are separated by colon (:). Write a shell script to perform the following options on that file: Print the content of the file. Rename the file. Delete the given file. If above three are not then print error message. Practical 1.10: Write down the commands and execute them for the following: a. Create a file called test<seat_no>. Create a hard link called h_test and a symbolic links_test. Find out the inode number of the files. b. Remove the original file test. Can you still get the contents of the original file? c. Display the contents of the two files h_test and s_test. Justify the output.

Practical 2.1: Write and execute commands 1. To create a file named fod1 with some contents having the following contents and display it in (i) octal form only and (ii) octal form along with its text contents. 2. To create two files named fcmp1 and fcmp2 which consists of at least five lines with two or three similar lines. Construct the commands using cmp (i) to check whether the files differ (ii) to compare the two files byte by byte. Practical 2.2 : (a) Create two files named fcmp1 and fcmp2 which consists of at least five lines with two or three similar lines. Construct the commands 1. using diff : -(i) to display the lines which are common to both , the lines which are not common to both (ii) to display the difference in context output format (iii) to display the unified output format. 2. Using comm. : - (i)to compare the files fcmp1 and fcmp2 (ii)to display the lines which are unique to fcmp1 and fcmp2 (iii)to display the lines which are common to the fcmp1 and fcmp2.

Practical 2.3 : Create two files named fcmp1 and fcmp2 which consists of at least five lines with two or three similar lines. Construct the commands 1. Using nl to give the line numbers to lines in fcmp1. 2. Using cat to append the fcmp1 to fcmp2 and sort this appended fcmp2 and store it in a file named funiq1. 3. Using uniq (i) to remove the duplicate lines in funiq1. (ii) to count the duplications and prepend number to each line (iii) to display the duplicate lines only (iv) to display unique lines only.

Practical 2.4 : Write and execute the commands to i. Create a file fcmp1<seat_no> with six lines containing six names. ii. Add two more names and save the contents in fcmp2<seat_no>. iii. Sort the contents of file fcmp1<seat_no> . iv. Display the names, which are common to fcmp1 <seat_no>, and fcmp2<seat_no>. v. Display the difference between fcmp1 <seat_no> and fcmp2<seat_no>. vi. Append the contents of fcmp1 <seat_no> to fcmp2<seat_no> and store it in the file fcmp3<seat_no>. vii. Sort the contents of fcmp3<seat_no> and display the contents without any duplicate lines. Practical 2.5 : (a) Create two files with at least three fields(columns) each with the names fcut1, fcut2 and do the following: 1. Cut first two columns from fcut1 and store the contents in the file cutlist1 and cut the second and the third column from the fcut2 and store it in cutlist2. 2. Paste the contents of cutlist2 to contents of cutlist1. 3. Translate the first three lines into capital letters using tr command.

Practical 2.6: (a) Create the file with the name gre2 and the following contents: The grep is an acronym for globally search a regular expression and print it. The command searches the specified input globally for a match with the specified pattern and displays it. While forming the pattern to be searched we can use shell metacharacters, or regular expressions as professional unix users call them. Write and execute the commands to 1. Search for the word line and display the lines containing it. 2. Search for the word the or The in both the files gre1 and gre2 and display the lines containing it. 3. Search for 4 letter words in gre1 and gre2 whose first character is p and last character is n . 4. Display the lines, which end with the characters from s to z from gre1 and

gre2.