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Chapter 1 -- Every Trip Is a Quest (Except When It's Not) List the five aspects of the QUEST and

then apply them to something you have read (or viewed) in the form used on pages 3-5. A quest consists of five aspects: a) A quester b) A place to go c) A stated reason to go there d) Challenges and trails en route e) A real reason to go there Bryce Courtenays The Power of One a) Quester: a young boy living in South Africa, the youngest and only English-speaking boy at his boarding school, where he is abused by the older boys at the school. He is later given the name Peekay. b) A place to go: Peekay, after he meets Hoppie Groenewald on a train to meet his Grandpa, wishes to become the welterweight champion of the world. c) A stated reason to go there: To be big enough to defend himself from the Judge and anyone else that would want to hurt him (or Grandpa Chook) ever again d) Challenges and trails en route: After Peekay gets home, he discovers that his mother is a born-again Christian and had fired Peekays nanny (who was functionally Peekays mother). He meets a man named Doc who he becomes friends with. Peekay helps smuggle tobacco and cigarettes to the prisoners, which leads to the death of his boxing coach, Geel Peet. Doc soon dies and leaves Peekay in the world truly alone. Peekay goes to school, but after failing to receive a scholarship to Oxford, goes to mine in Rhodesia to make enough money to attend university. There, Peekay suffers from a cave-in and is saved by a friend, Rasputin, sacrificing himself for Peekay. Peekay had unknowingly been working for the Judge, the man that tortured Peekay as a young boy. The Judge attacks Peekay, but this time, Peekay wins and carves his initials, PK, into the Judges chest. e) A real reason to go there: To find himself and realize the person he wants to be. After defending himself from the Judge, Peekay walks outside and finds that his loneliness birds Brave new world Chapter 6 -- When in Doubt, It's from Shakespeare... Discuss a work that you are familiar with that alludes to or reflects Shakespeare. Show how the author uses this connection thematically. Read pages 4446 carefully. In these pages, Foster shows how Fugard reflects Shakespeare through both plot and theme. In your discussion, focus on theme. In Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, John, the Savage taken from the New Mexico Reservation, uses Shakespeare to guide his understanding of the world, which is in stark contrast to how Mustapha Mond, the Controller, views Society. Brave New World discovers the incompatibility of truth (both objective/subjective) and happiness. John focuses more on the subjective truth that Shakespeare focuses on in his plays. The title of Brave New World is taken from The Tempest. In the play, Miranda meets new people after a life of isolation. John moves from the Reservation to the World State and remarks how excited he is to see people different than him, even though he believes that their way of life is far from ideal. When John talks to the Controller, John tries to convince Mustapha that subjective truths (like love, passion, hatred) are necessary parts of life. In Chapter 17, John quotes Hamlet. Specifically, John mentions this line: Whether 'tis better in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, or to take arms against a sea of troubles and by opposing end them. If one gives in to only carnal desires and happiness, life is really not worth living. Huxley feared that desiring safety and shielding ourselves from pain and suffering. In the play, Hamlet was deciding if it was better to endure the pain of life or avoid them. In World State, Society chose the latter through the constant ingestion of soma. Huxley finds problematic.

Chapter 9 -- It's Greek to Me (Freuds theory of the Oedipus complex, Dante)

Discuss topics or elements of plots inspired by characters or situations from Greek mythology. A classic story in ancient Greek literature is the tragedy. A Greek tragedy centers around a protagonist, called the tragic hero, who possesses a fatal flaw that leads to his or her downfall. Chinua Achebes novel Things Fall Apart has all of the elements of a tragedy in Greek mythology. One of the most cited examples of a Greek tragedy is Oedipus, the King written by Sophocles. In the play, Oedipus suffers from hubris, or excessive pride. Due to his fatal flaw, he does not follow guidance from the blind prophet and so the town and Oedipus suffer more. In Things Fall Apart, the main character, Okonkwo, is also the tragic hero who is also too prideful and rash in his decision making. From the beginning of the novel, Okonkwo had always had aspirations for a higher position in the village. Okonkwo participates in the killing of Ikemafuna, even though he was warned not to. Okonkwos pride (not wanting to look week) and rashness (not allowing himself to think about the decision) causes his life to fall apart. From there, Okonkwo constantly loses status within the village as Christians begin to invade. He ignores advice from leaders to let the assimilation occur, but Okonkwo again decides to fight back and burns down a church in protest. This leads to further humiliation and the murder of an innocent messenger. Okonkwo then realizes that his status within society is ruined and hangs himself. The beginning of Okonkwos downfall is his involvement with Ikemafunas death. Had he been less prideful or less rash, he would have decided against participating, which might have prevented his exile and his village Christianized. Chapter 11 --...More Than It's Gonna Hurt You: Concerning Violence Discuss the two kinds of violence found in literature. Show how the effects are different. According to Foster, there are two different types of violence. The first type of violence is the specific injury that authors cause characters to do to one another or to themselves. Obvious examples of this include shootings, stabbings, blunt force trauma, et cetera. The second type of violence is a narrative violence that just causes generic harm as opposed to specific harm. This second type of violence is death solely for plot advancement or the development of a theme. In other words, no character is accountable. That is a key distinction between the two types. In the narrative violence, there is no guilty party. Otherwise, the two types of violence are similar. The character is still dead (regardless of how it occurred) and the event was purely to move on with the plot (complicate/uncomplicated it) or to guide the reader towards a theme. In Gustave Flauberts novel Madame Bovary, both types of violence are present. The first type of violence occurs later in the novel when Madame Bovary kills herself. Madame Bovary accumulates debt by purchasing lavish items to romanticize her pathetic life. She then swallows arsenic and dies a long and painful death, deserving due to her acts in life. The pure violence of it is similar to a stabbing due to its gruesome and detailed nature in the novel. The second type of violence occurs much earlier. Charles, not yet Madame Bovarys husband, was married to another woman. Charles hated his marriage and met Emma (Madame Bovary) because Madame Bovarys mom was a patient. However, Charless wife died and he soon became a widow. Remembering Emma, he married her. In the end, the wife served no purpose than to foreshadow the plot (infidelity) and to move the plot along to the point where it could focus on the protagonist, Emma. Chapter 13 -- It's All Political Assume that Foster is right and "it is all political." Use his criteria to show that one of the major works assigned to you as a freshman is political Foster says that writing is political if it does all of the following: 1) Engages the realities of its world 2) Thinks about human problems (including the social and political realm) 3) Addresses human rights and wrongs of those in power. A great example of this work is To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Her book takes place during the Great Depression in Maycomb, Alabama. The novel centers itself around Scout Finch, who has a brother Jem, and a father, Atticus. Atticus is a local lawyer who was chosen by the state to represent the negro Tom Robinson, who is being accused of raping a white woman. Despite pressure from the community, Atticus promises to defend Robinson to his full extent, which almost leads to a lynch mob badly injuring Atticus and Tom. The Ewells, the family that accused Robinson, were proved to have been lying, yet Robinson was still found guilty by the racist jury. This novel has all of the makings of a political work. First, it engages the

realities of its world. African Americans were treated horrifically during this time period due to racist Jim Crow laws. Many whites in the South were still racist and considered blacks and their nigger-lover friends to be inferior. Harper Lee tackled this harsh reality through the brave actions of Atticus Finch. Next, the racism persistent in the novel by the majority of the white community is clearly both a social and political problem. The idea that blacks were lesser than their white counterparts was a social problem that spread to the political realm. In this way, the biases of the jury members changed their political views even though all of the evidence proved that Mr. Robinson was indeed innocent. The challenging of those in power the bigoted jurists and judicial system in the South directly addresses human rights (due process, equal protection under the law) and the wrongs of those in power (convicting a man because he was black, regardless of contracting evidence). Awakening Chapter 15 -- Flights of Fancy Select a literary work in which flight signifies escape or freedom. Explain in detail.

In her book, The Awakening, Chopin continually compares Ednas plight to that of a bird. When Edna first arrives, she notices a mockingbird making a ruckus. Mr. Pontillier notes that while he can leave the mockingbird, the mockingbird is trapped within its cage. Ednas life is soon portrayed as a birdcage. Edna can see outside the cage the outside world representing freedom yet cannot attain that freedom because she is trapped behind metal bars. For Edna, Mr. Pontillier and societal expectations are the steel bars. Flying represents freedom freedom to be oneself, regardless of societal expectations. Later in the novel, Edna becomes more progressive as she abandons her mansion for the pigeon house to relieve herself of all duties and simply paint. At the end of the novel, the reader is left confused if Edna ever became free. Before she drowns herself, Edna views a bird with a broken wing falling into the ocean. A more pessimistic reader would assume that Edna, like the bird, had failed to become free and is giving up her plight to be free and be herself. Other readers may conclude that the death is integral to her struggle. Edna does not have any other choices in life besides the choice to life or to die. Everything else is largely determined by societal norms and expectations. In order to be free, some say, death is the only escape for Edna
Harry Potter Chapter 21 -- Marked for Greatness Figure out Harry Potter's scar. If you aren't familiar with Harry Potter, select another character with a physical imperfection and analyze its implications for characterization. Foster says that heroes or main characters are usually marked with physical deformities in novels to show either a character or moral deformity. In Harry Potter, Harry is marked, which shows that there is a character differentiation. Harrys scar is in the shape of a lightning bolt (for death, like lightning is quick. Possibly this could allude to the fact that there is a bright light before death, just as there is a bright light caused by lightning before returning to the death of a dark night). The scar is in the middle of his forehead. When Harry was born, Voldemort broke into his parents house and tried to kill Harry. Harrys mother jumped in front of Harry and shielded him from the curse. She sacrificed herself for Harry, but her child was saved. The only remnant of that incident is the scar on his forehead. The curse was blocked due to the extreme love Harrys mother had for Harry. The scar resembles Harrys duty in life: to defeat Voldemort. There is also an interesting parallel here. Even though Voldemort controls death, he cannot defeat love, which is Harrys main strength throughout the series. Harry later finds out that he is a horcrux and has a piece of Voldemorts mind and soul (which is why Harry can speak Parseltongue and feel Voldemorts thoughts). Unlike most deformities, the scar is an attribute to his character and not a flaw. Harry is constantly reminded of his mortality. The

constant attention that his scar brings leads Harry to be a stronger person emotionally and physically and leads to helpful friends like Sirius Black, Ron Weasley, and Hermoine. His scar represents not only the love that his mother had for Harry but the love that is in all of us. Using that, Voldemort can be defeated (exactly what happens). Chapter 25 -- Don't Read with Your Eyes After reading Chapter 25, choose a scene or episode from a novel, play or epic written before the twentieth century. Contrast how it could be viewed by a reader from the twenty-first century with how it might be viewed by a contemporary reader. Focus on specific assumptions that the author makes, assumptions that would not make it in this century. In Candide by Voltaire, Voltaire constantly pokes fun at Leibniz and his theory of optimism. Written in 1759, there are many references in the novel that a reader today would not understand. For example, in the novel, there are rituals such as the auto-da-fe, which is an old ritual to receive public penance for heretics. The persecution of Jews was seen as a pedestrian and normal occurrence while Grand Inquisitors and religious figures are seen to be corrupt officials that are more than likely to take bribes. Jesuit missions are common and the Ottoman empire still exists and is very powerful. Candide makes fun of the character Pangloss, who says that everything happens for the best in all possible worlds. Even when tragedy happens, he is still convinced that everything is for the best. A modern reader would be shocked at the blatant persecution and unfairness of ancient officials as well as the ignorance of philosophers like Leibniz who truly believed that everything was for the best. Surely, he should have known, that negative events can happen and that not everything has a reasonable explanation. A contemporary reader might not have found so much offense to a lot of the statements or persecution because it was simply the lifestyle at the time. Other contemporary readers might agree with Pangloss and believe that God made everything for the best and that God is setting us all on the right path even if it seems to be bad at times. He knows what is best for us and we will not question or try to change his judgment. Those types of assumptions would not happen in this century. Even religious believers know that bad things can happen sometimes and that there are not always explanations. Candide/Catch22/Modest Proposal Chapter 26 -- Is He Serious? And Other Ironies Select an ironic literary work and explain the irony in the work. In 1729, Johnathan Swift wrote A Modest Propoal which suggests that Irish people could simply sell their children to rich people for money so there would be no shortage of food and so poor people would be able to afford food as well. Swift obviously is being ironic in response to policy responses to the poor that are considered harsh and heartless and Irish policy towards the population in general. Swift proposes mathematical calculations to support his argument as well as appealing to experts or authorities to try to get the general population to believe his argument. Swift offers possible ways or preparing the children for meals as well as possible side effects it may have. He notes that selling children will have an effect on morality that husbands will be nicer to their wives, parents will possess an appreciation for their not-soldfor-food children. As Swift continues, it is clear that he is being ironic when he notes that landlords have more right to the children than the own parents do. Swift, however, finished by saying that this project will solve all of Irelands problems moral, economic, and political. Simply all one has to do is complete this modest proposal, as it is not much different than the policy that the Irish government is currently pursing. Chapter 27 -- A Test Case Read The Garden Party by Katherine Mansfield, the short story starting on page 245. Complete the exercise on pages 265-266, following the directions exactly. Then compare your writing with the three examples. How did you do? What does the essay that follows comparing Laura with Persephone add to your appreciation of Mansfield's story?

1. The story, to me, signifies the beginning of understanding of a member of the bourgeoisie with that of the proletariat. Instead of trying to understand the tragedy that a death causes, the family is more concerned how it would look to other people if they were to host a party. The houses are describes as an

eyesore and children are not allowed to visit otherwise they will become corrupted. It is clear that there is no true sympathy for the man or his children. Laura, the protagonist, seems to be realizing that it is wrong to be celebrating during a mans death. Other characters like Jose and Lauras mom believe that she is being silly. Jose and Lauras mom both commit a problem common in American society. America hears of a problem Kony or Haiti and immediately helps. People donate $5, pray once, and then sleep thinking that they made a difference. The truth is that situations havent changed, yet the public just believes they are not important enough to be given constant attention. Haiti is still a mess and infrastructure is nonexistent. Kony is still recruiting children into his army. Jose and Laura believe that death is not important enough to warrant the stopping of the party. They note that if a party was stopped every time someone died, the party would never begin. That is probably true, yet it just shows how distant they are from morality and sympathy. As the evening unfolds, everyone seems to forget about the tragedy that happened just down the street. That is, until there are leftovers. The gift to the family is not sympathy; instead, it is getting rid of food not worthy enough for those that live on the top of the hill. Lauras mother then prompts Laura to call the neighbors to inform each them of how good Christians the family is theyre being nice, right? Generous? Humble? If only. As Laura enters, she notes how happy the man is. Rather than being a funeral, the man seems to be smiling that the band played. It seems like the band was celebrating his life instead of focusing on how bad it is to lose someone. He is content with his life and happy with how his life went and Laura wishes she could feel the same. The use of the weather, the communion at the beginning, all set the scene for a good day. Yet the day is interrupted by the violence of the accident, and the apathy of Jose and Lauras mother is evidence. Laura is the only one that seems to understand those unlike her. 2. My analysis was pretty similar to the first example. The explanation that was given and the explanation that I gave was one of the more obvious understands of the text and I am not surprised that my understanding was similar to that of undergraduates, as that is my literary level at this time. I did not do quite the analysis of birds and flight as I did not see it as that important to the text. The analysis of Lauras mother being the mother-bird and Laura being the baby chick learning to fly is appropriate and is an amazing example of analysis of this text. However, as Foster later notes, that this analysis is subjective and different according to each readers own perspective and experiences. Foster begins noting how perfect the day is something that I did in my own analysis and then continues it by again painting Mrs. Sheridan as the mother-figure of the household, as well as the hat-distraction and oddities on the road towards the house.

3. The comparison to Persephone is definitely not one that I would have made myself. I can understand why her mother would be seen as Demeter, the goddess of fertility. Laura is then the child of Demeter, who looks after her. Then, Laura has to visit the Underworld, just as Persephone has to do as well. All of the conditions of travelling the river Styx, a foreign unknown place, are similar to those required to enter the house of the man. The fact that Laurie is sent to check up on Laura proves that she is Hermes, escorting Laura back from the rough underbelly back to her pinnacle at the top of Mount Olympus. This analysis is something I would not be able to understand upon my first reading, yet it was very helpful to understand even stories about a man getting bread or a neighbor grieving another neighbor can be much more complex and nuanced than at first glance. It adds to my appreciation because it just exemplifies that there is so much more to the story than what it looks like. There are an infinite number of layers and possibilities and theories about what the literature means and that is what makes literature beautiful and frustrating. There is no right answer to literature. Only exploration.