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kamis, 20 mei 2010


FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY BEYOND TESTS: ALTERNATIVES IN ASSESSMENT The dilemma of maximizing both practicality and washback The principal purpose of this chapter is to examine some of the alternatives in assessment that are markedly different from formal tests. Especially large scaled standardized tests, tend to be one shot performances that are timed, multiple choice decontextualized, norm-referenced, and that foster extrinsic motivation. On the other hand, tasks like portfolios, journals, Conferences and interviews and self assessment are
- Open ended in their time orientation and format - Contextualized to a curriculum - Referenced to the criteria ( objectives) of that curriculum and - Likely to build intrinsic motivation.

PORTFOLIOS One of the most popular alternatives in assessment, especially within a framework of communicative language teaching, is portfolio development. portfolios include materials such as a. Essays and compositions in draft and final forms b. Reports, project outlines c. Poetry and creative prose d. Artwork, photos, newspaper or magazine clippings; e. Audio and/or video recordings of presentations, demonstrations, etc f. Journals, diaries, and other personal reflection ; g. Test, test scores, and written homework exercises h. Notes on lecturer; and i. Self-and peer- assessments-comments, and checklists. Successful portfolio development will depend on following a number of steps and guidelines. 1. State objectives clearly.

2. Give guidelines on what materials to include. 3. Communicate assessment criteria to students, 4. Designate time within the curriculum for portfolio development. 5. Establish periodic schedules for review and conferencing. 6. Designate an accessible place to keep portfolios. 7. Provide positive washback giving final assessment JOURNALS a journal is a log or account of ones thoughts, feelings, reactions, assessment, ideas, or progress toward goals, usually written with little attention to structure, form, or correctness. Categories or purposes in journal writing, such as the following: a. Language learning logs b. Grammar journals c. Responses to readings d. Strategies based learning logs e. Self-assessment reflections f. Diaries of attitudes, feelings, and other affective factors g. Acculturation logs CONFERENCES AND INTERVIEWS Conferences Conferences is not limited to drafts of written work including portfolios and journals. Conferences must assume that the teacher plays the role of a facilitator and guide, not of an administrator, of a formal assessment. Interviews Interview may have one or more of several possible goals in which the teacher
assesses the students oral production ascertains a students need before designing a course of curriculum seeks to discover a students learning style and preferences

One overriding principle of effective interviewing centers on the nature of the questions that will be asked.

OBSERVATIONS In order to carry out classroom observation, it is of course important to take the following steps: 1. Determine the specific objectives of the observation. 2. Decide how many students will be observed at one time 3. Set up the logistics for making unnoticed observations 4. Design a system for recording observed performances 5. Plan how many observations you will make SELF AND PEER ASSESSMENT Five categories of self and peer assessment: 1. Assessment of performance, in this category, a student typically monitors him or herself in either oral or written production and renders some kind of evaluation of performance. 2. Indirect assessment of performance, indirect assessment targets larger slices of time with a view to rendering an evaluation of general ability as opposed to one to one specific, relatively time constrained performance. 3. Metacognitive assessment for setting goals, some kind evaluation are more strategic in nature, with the purpose not just of viewing past performance or competence but of setting goals and maintaining an eye on the process of their pursuit. 4. Socioaffective assessment, yet another type of self and peer assessment comes in the form of methods of examining affective factors in learning. Such assessment is quite different from looking at and planning linguistic aspects of acquisition. 5. Student generated tests, a final type of assessment that is not usually classified strictly as self or peer assessment is the technique of engaging students in the process of constructing tests themselves. GUIDELINES FOR SELF AND PEER ASSESSMENT Self and peer assessment are among the best possible formative types of assessment and possibly the most rewarding. Four guidelines will help teachers bring this intrinsically motivating task into the classroom successfully. 1. Tell students the purpose of assessment 2. Define the task clearly

3. Encourage impartial evaluation of performance or ability 4. Ensure beneficial washback through follow up tasks A TAXONOMY OF SELF AND PEER ASSESSMENT TASKS It is helpful to consider a variety of tasks within each of the four skills( listening skill, speaking skill, reading skill, writing skill). An evaluation of self and peer assessment according to our classic principles of assessment yields a pattern that is quite consistent with other alternatives to assessment that have been analyzed in this chapter. Practicality can achieve a moderate level with such procedures as checklists and questionnaires. Diposkan oleh mitra nurulisdi 23:54