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[CommissionedbytheSkyTelGroup,BerkeleyCalifornia]

LTEDeploymentsintheLMSband forITSRadioCommunicationsandLocation
NishithD.Tripathi,Ph.D. Version2.0 August2012 IntelligentTransportationSystems(ITS)cansupportdifferentclassesofapplicationssuchasco operativeroadsafety,cooperativetrafficefficiency,andcooperativelocalservicesandglobalInternet services.StandardbodiesandresearchorganizationsareactivelypursuingtechnologiessuchastheIEEE 802.11pandLongTermEvolution(LTE)fortheITS.ThispaperprovidesacomprehensiveviewoftheLTE anditssuitabilityfortheITS.TheuniquefeaturesofLTEthatmakeLTEattractivefortheITSapplications arediscussed.ThedeploymentofLTEintheLocationandMonitoringService(LMS)bandisdescribed. ThepaperconcludesthatLTEcanprovideanefficientandcosteffectivenationwidewirelesssystemto supporttheITSapplicationsaswellasotherapplicationssuchasthewirelessservicesontrains,smart electricgridandlocationbasedservices. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

1.IntroductionandOrganizationofthePaper
SkyTelhascommissionedthispaperforusebeforetheFCCandotherfederalagenciesandotherpublic uses.TheauthorofthisreporthaspreviouslysubmittedcommentstotheFCContheProgenytest reportregardingtheLocationandMonitoringService(LMS). AbouttheAuthor Dr.NishithTripathiisaprincipalconsultantatAwardSolutions,aprovideroftechnicalconsultingand specializedtechnicaltrainingforwirelesscommunications.Dr.Tripathisstudentsincludesenior personnelfromcompaniesthroughoutthewirelessindustryaswellasotherwirelessengineering instructors.Dr.Tripathispecializesinavarietyoftechnologies,includingIS95,CDMA2000,1xEVDO, GSM,GPRS,EDGE,UMTS,HSDPA,HSUPA,HSPA+,WiMAX,andLTE.Hereceivedhisdoctoratein ElectricalandComputerEngineeringfromVirginiaTech,andhehasheldseveralstrategicpositionsin thewirelessarena.AsaSeniorEngineerforNortelNetworks,Dr.Tripathigaineddirecthandson experienceanalyzingandoptimizingtheperformanceofCDMAnetworks,insuchareasascapacity, handoffandpowercontrolalgorithms,supplementalchannelmanagementalgorithms,andswitch antennadiversity.AsaSeniorSystemsEngineerandProductManagerforHuaweiTechnologies,he workedontheinfrastructuredesignandoptimizationofCDMA2000,1xEVDO,andUMTSradio networks.Dr.TripathiisthecoauthorofRadioResourceManagement(2001)andCellular Communications:AComprehensiveandPracticalGuide(forthcoming)withProfessorReed.Dr.Tripathi hasalsocontributedchapterstothefollowingbooks:NetNeutrality:ContributionstotheDebate (EditedbyJorgePerezMartinez,2011)andNeuroFuzzyandFuzzyNeuralApplicationsin Telecommunications(EditedbyPeterStavroulakis,Springer,April2004).Dr.Tripathiscompletevitais attached. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

LTEisafourthgeneration(4G)cellulartechnology.LTEcanprovideanefficientandcosteffective nationwidewirelesssystemtosupportavarietyofscenariossuchasintelligenttransportationsystems (ITS),smartelectricgrid,environmentprotection,andaccuratelocationdetermination.Smartglobe4G (SG4G)referstoasmartLTEbasedwirelessinfrastructurethatservesavarietyofpurposesdepending ontheneedsinagivengeographicareaand/orneedsofwirelessdevices.Theneedforanationwide wirelessinfrastructureisbeingrecognizedindifferentcountriesaroundtheglobe.Thispaperprimarily considersLTEdeploymentsintheLMSband(i.e.,902928MHz)tosupporttheITS. Therestofthepaperisorganizedasfollows.Section2providesaglimpseofhowLTEanditsevolution knownasLTEAdvancedhaveemerged.Section3discusseswhytheLTEdeploymentintheLMSbandis agoodsolutionfortheITSandwhatLTEfeaturescanensureharmoniouscoexistencewiththePart15 devicesandsystems.ThewaysinwhichLTEcandirectlyandindirectlysupportthedeterminationofthe vehiclelocationaresummarizedinSection4.ThepotentialofLTEfortheITSapplicationsisdiscussedin Section5.TheLTEdeploymentsatthe700MHzbandandthe900MHzbandareconsideredinSection 6.Section7focusesontheareaswherethebenefitsofLTEcanbeenhancedthroughcustomizationfor thetrainsandthevehiclescomparedtoLTEdeploymentsintraditionalcellularnetworks.Finally,the currentresearchtrendsintheareaofapplicationoftheLTEandtheIEEE802.11ptotheITSare reviewedinSection8. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

2.IntroductiontoLTEandLTEAdvanced
Cellulartechnologieshaveevolvedfromtheanalogfirstgeneration(1G)technologiestohigh performancefourthgeneration(4G)technologiesinjustaboutthreedecades.Figure1illustratesthe evolutionarypathofcellulartechnologies. Figure1.EvolutionofCellularTechnologies AdvancedMobilePhoneSystem(AMPS)wasa1GcellularsystemintheU.S.andwasreplacedbydigital cellularsystemssuchasGlobalSystemforMobileCommunications(GSM)andInterimStandard95(IS 95).2GGSMsystemsevolvedtothirdgeneration(3G)UniversalMobileTelecommunicationSystem (UMTS)and2GIS95evolvedto3G1x.3GUMTSRelease99experiencedupgradessuchasHighSpeed PacketAccess(HSPA)andenhancedHSPAcalledHSPA+.Evolutionof1xis1xEvolutionDataOptimized (1xEVDO).AT&TandTMobilehaveessentiallynationwide3Gcoveragewithatypicalmarketusing UMTSforvoiceservicesandHSPA+fordataservices(e.g.,webbrowsingandemail).VerizonWireless andSprinthaveessentiallynationwide3Gcoveragewithatypicalmarketusing1xforvoiceservicesand 1xEVDOfordataservices.Anorganizationcalledthirdgenerationpartnershipproject(3GPP)defined specificationsforUMTS,HSPA,andHSPA+,whileanorganizationcalledthirdgenerationpartnership project2(3GPP2)definedspecificationsfor1xand1xEVDO.

4G
LTE,LTEAdvanced WiMAX,WiMAX2

3G
UMTS,HSPA,HSPA+ 1x,1xEVDO

2G 1G
AMPS GSM,IS95

3GPPdefinedUMTSinRelease99,HSPAinRelease5and6,andHSPA+inRelease7.LTEwas introducedby3GPPinRelease8.WhiletechnologiessuchasUMTS,HSPA+,and1xutilizeamultiple accesstechniquecalledCodeDivisionMultipleAccess(CDMA),LTEutilizesadifferenttechniquecalled OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess(OFDMA).OFDMAismoreattractivethanCDMAfor highspeeddata.EnhancementstothebasicLTEarespecifiedinLTEAdvanced,whichhasbeen introducedinRelease10.WhileRelease8LTEsupportsthehighestdataratesof300Mbpsinthe downlinkand75Mbpsintheuplink,LTEAdvancedcansupport3Gbpsinthedownlinkand1.5Gbpsin theuplink.WorldwideInteroperabilityforMicrowaveAccess(WiMAX)isacompeting4Gtechnology, and,WiMAX2isanevolutionofWiMAX.WiMAXusesthestandardcalled802.16e2005thatisdefined byanorganizationcalledInstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineers(IEEE). U.S.cellularserviceproviderssuchasAT&T,VerizonWireless,MetroPCS,andU.S.Cellularhavealready launchedLTEnetworks.SprintplanstolaunchLTEinmid2012andTMobileplanstolaunchin2013[T Mobile_LTE_Launch].Whilethe3Gcellularmarkethadtwomaincompetingtechnologies,UMTSand 1x/1xEVDO,the4GcellularmarketwouldessentiallybedominatedbyLTE.Forexample,whileAT&Tis using3GUMTS,VerizonWirelessandSprintareusing3G1xand1xEVDO.However,AT&T,Verizon,and SprinthavechosenLTE.EvensomeoftheoperatorsthathavealreadydeployedWiMAXarenow planningtodeployLTE.Forexample,ClearwireiscurrentlyofferingWiMAX,ithasannouncedplansto deployLTEinthefirsthalfof2013[Clearwire_LTE]. LTEisexpectedtobecomeatrulyglobalcellulartechnology.LTEisgainingmomentumaroundthe globe1(see[3GAmericas_LTE_Deployments]fortheLTEdeploymentstatistics).Inadditionto8 commercialLTEnetworksintheU.S.,thereare3LTEnetworksinCanadaand6LTEnetworksin4 countriesinLatinAmerica(specifically,Brazil,Colombia,PuertoRicoandUruguay).Overall,thereare74 commercialLTEnetworksin40countrieswithmorethan110commercialnetworksexpectedbytheend of2012.Furthermore,morethan334operatorshaveannouncedtheircommitmentstoLTE.LTEis beingdeployedatthistimeandfeaturesofLTEAdvancedwouldbedeployedin2014andlater. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

TheLTEdeploymentstatisticsmentionedherearefrom[3GAmericas_LTE_Deployments].

Table1summarizesmainfeaturesandcharacteristicsofRelease8LTE[3GPP_LTE_Overview]. Table1.LTEFeaturesandCharacteristics Area MultipleAccessTechnique FeaturesorCharacteristics OFDMAinthedownlink SCFDMAintheuplink 15kHzsubcarrierspacing Transmitandreceivediversity Spatialmultiplexing(SUMIMO) Beamforming SDMA(MUMIMO) FDD,TDD,andHFDD 10msframeand1mssubframe Comments Achieveshighspectralefficiency

MultipleAntennaTechniques

Examplebenefitsofincreased reliabilityandhighthroughput

Duplexing FrameStructure

RadioChannelBandwidth Frequencybands NetworkArchitecture

1.4,3,5,10,15,and20MHz VariousFDDandTDDbands Distributedandscalable eNodeBsintheradionetwork MME,SGW,PGW,andHSSin theEPC IMSforoperatorcontrolled services PCCtofacilitateendtoendQoS Five 2Gand3Gcellulartechnologies WiFi Peakdataratesof300Mbpsin thedownlinkand75Mbpsinthe uplink Radionetworklatencyof10ms Idletoconnectedtransition delayof100ms

AUEcansupportmorethanone duplexingtechnique Enablesfastadaptationto changingradiochannel conditionsandreduceslatency Flexibilityofdeploymentsand futureupgrades Flexibilityofdeploymentsand improvedroaming Scalability

ServicesandQualityofService (QoS) UECategories InterworkingwithOther Technologies Performance

Rapidandcosteffective deploymentofservices Flexibility Facilitatesseamlessmobilityand loadbalancing Enhancedperformance comparedtopreviouscellular technologies

Amultipleaccesstechniqueallowsmultipleuserstoaccessandusethesystematthesametime.For themultipleaccesstechnique,LTEusesOFDMAinthedownlinkandsinglecarrierfrequencydivision multipleaccess(SCFDMA)intheuplink.ComparedtoOFDMA,SCFDMAhasmorecomplextransmitter andreceiverbutimprovestheuplinkthroughputnearthecelledgebyreducingthepeaktoaverage powerratioofthetransmittedsignal.OFDMAandSCFDMAinvolveallocationofnarrowbandwidth radiochannelscalledsubcarrierstotheuserequipments(UEs)ormobiledevicesfordownlinkand uplinkdatatransmissions.Agivenchannelbandwidthisdividedintomultiplesubcarriers.Forexample, thereare600subcarriersinthe10MHzchannelbandwidthwith15kHzsubcarrierspacing.Theuseof

OFDMAandSCFDMAontheairinterfacecontributestohighspectralefficiency.Differentclassesof multipleantennatechniquesaresupported.Transmitandreceivediversityimprovethereliabilityand areespeciallyusefulnearthecelledge.Spatialmultiplexingtechniquecalledsingleusemultipleinput andmultipleoutput(SUMIMO)significantlyincreasesthroughputforagivenuserbyreusingthesame subcarrierstotransmitdifferentinformationfromdifferentantennas.Upto(4x4)SUMIMOinthe downlinkissupportedwith4transmitantennasattheeNodeBand4receiveantennasattheUE. Beamformingfocusesenergyinagivendirectiontoincreasesignaltointerferenceratio(SIR)andhence throughput.SpaceDivisionMultipleAccess(SDMA),alsoknownasmultiusermultipleinputmultiple output(MUMIMO),reusesthesamesubcarriersfordifferentUEsinthecellanddifferentiatesthese UEsinspaceviabeamforming.SDMAincreasesuserthroughputandcellthroughput. AduplexingmethodallowstheUEtosimultaneouslytransmitandreceivesignals.Threeduplexing methodsaresupportedfrequencydivisionduplex(FDD),timedivisionduplex(TDD),andhalfFDD(H FDD).FDDusesonepartofthefrequencyspectrumfortransmissionandadifferentpartofthe frequencyspectrumforreception.TDDusesthesamefrequencyspectrumfortransmissionatone instantandforreceptionatanotherinstant.HFDDsupportstransmissionononepartofthespectrum andreceptiononanotherpartofthespectrumbutdoesnotsupporttransmissionandreceptionexactly atthesameinstant;someperiodsarefortransmission,andotherperiodsareforreception.AUEcan supportmorethanoneduplexingtechnique.TheUEusesaspecificduplexingtechniqueduringagiven timeperiodbasedonthecapabilityofthebasestation(calledevolvedNodeBoreNodeBinLTE)itis communicatingwith. Theradioframeis10mslongandisdividedintotensubframes.Theframeisusedtoconvey informationaboutthenetwork(e.g.,identityoftheserviceoperator).Thesubframeisusedfor resourceallocationanddatatransmission.Theshorttimeperiodofthesubframeenablesfast adaptationtothechangingradiochannelconditionsandreduceslatency. AnoperatorhasawiderangeofradiochannelbandwidthstochoosefromwhiledeployingLTE.The supportedchannelbandwidthsare1.4MHz,3MHz,5MHz,10MHz,15MHz,and20MHz. Furthermore,anoperatorcanchangethechannelbandwidthinfuture.Forexample,anoperatorcan initiallyuse5MHzbandwidthandchangeitto10MHzinfuturewithoutadverselyaffectinganyUEs. LTEsupportsnumerousfrequencybandsforFDDandTDD,providingflexibilityofdeploymentsand facilitatingroamingacrosstheoperatorsusingdifferentfrequencybands.Moredetailsoffrequency bandsarediscussedlaterinthissection. Thenetworkarchitectureisdistributed,whichmakesiteasytoscaleupthenetworkasthesubscriber basegrows.TheoverallnetworkcalledtheEvolvedPacketSystem(EPS)andconsistsoftheradio networkcalledEvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccessNetwork(EUTRAN)andthecorenetwork calledtheEvolvedPacketCore(EPC).TheEUTRANconsistsoftheeNodeBs.Theabsenceofaradio networkcontroller(RNC)intheEUTRANreducestheoveralllatencybyreducingthebackhauldelayand theprocessingdelay.TheEPCinterfaceswiththeEUTRANaswellasnonLTEtechnologiessuchas UMTSand1xEVZDO.TheEPCincludesthenodessuchasMobilityManagementEntity(MME),Home

SubscriberServer(HSS),ServingGateway(SGW),andthePacketDataNetworkGateway(PGW).The MMEhasasignalingconnectionwiththeUE,whichisusedtocarryoutfunctionssuchasauthentication andactivationofsecuritymechanismssuchasencryption.TheHSSstorestheinformationaboutthe subscriberssuchasthesubscriberprofile.ThePGWallocatesanIPaddresstotheUE.TheSGW forwardsthedownlinkandtheuplinkpacketsofaUEbetweenthePGWandthecorrecteNodeB.The eNodeBallocatesradioresourcestotheUEssothattheIPpacketscanbetransmittedovertheair interface.WhentheuserisbrowsingtheInternet,theIPpacketsfromawebserverarriveatthePGW andpassthroughPGW,SGW,andeNodeBandfinallyreachtheUE.AlltheinterfacesamongtheEPS nodesarestandardizedandtheoperatorcanbuydifferentnetworkelementsfromdifferentvendors. Furthermore,eachnetworknodecanbeindependentlyprovisioned. LTEsupportsavarietyofIPbasedapplicationsusingIPMultimediaSubsystem(IMS).Ninedifferent levelsofQualityofService(QoS)aresupported.AQoSarchitecturecalledPolicyandChargingControl (PCC)isdefinedtofacilitateimplementationofendtoendQoSbetweentheUEandPGW.Theuseof IMSenablesrapidandcosteffectivedeploymentofservicessuchasVoiceoverLTE(VoLTE)andShort MessageService(SMS). FiveUEcategoriesaredefinedtocharacterizedifferentcapabilities.Forexample,thecurrentlyavailable UECategory3hastworeceiveantennasandcansupport100Mbpsinthedownlinkand50Mbpsinthe uplink. LTEsupportsinterworkingwith2Gand3GcellulartechnologiesandWirelessFidelity(WiFi).Such interworkingfacilitatesseamlessmobilityacrossthetechnologiesandcanalsohelpbalanceloadacross differenttechnologiesviahandover. LTEofferssuperiorperformancecomparedtopreviouscellulartechnologies.LTEsupportspeakdata ratesof300Mbpsinthedownlinkand75MbpsintheuplinkwhenfullpotentialofRelease8isrealized. Theradionetworklatencyof10ms;theIPpacketsbetweentheeNodeBandtheUEcanexperience delayaslittleas10ms.Thetransitionfromtheidlemodetotheconnectedmodecanoccurinjust100 ms,allowingmanyUEstostayintheidlemodeandconservingpreciousradioresources.Theconnected modeallowsdatatransfer,whiletheidlemodehelpsconserveUEsbatterypower. LetstakeaquicklookatLTEAdvanced,whichisevolutionofLTE.WhileRelease8introducesLTE,LTE AdvancedisintroducedinRelease10.LTEAdvancedisfullybackwardcompatiblewithLTE.LTEand LTEAdvancedcansharethesamespectrum.AlegacyLTEcanworkwithbothLTEinfrastructureand LTEAdvancedinfrastructure.Additionally,anLTEAdvancedUEcanworkwithbothLTEinfrastructure andLTEAdvancedinfrastructure.Table2summarizesmainfeaturesofLTEAdvanced.SomeoftheLTE AdvancedfeatureswouldbeavailableinRelease11andlaterreleases.

Table2.FeaturesofLTEAdvanced Feature CarrierAggregation FeatureSpecifics UseofmultipleLTEcarrierfrequencies fordatatransmissionbetweenthe eNodeBandagivenUE. EnhancementstoMultiple (8x8)SUMIMOinthedownlink AntennaTechniques (4x4)SUMIMOintheuplink Relays Layer3selfbackhaulingrelay (advancedrepeater) CoordinatedMultipoint Differentflavorsofsofthandoverwith (CoMP)Transmissionand possibletransmissionfrommultiple Reception cellsandreceptionatmultiplecells Comments Flexiblecombiningofdifferent frequencybandsforhigher throughput Highthroughput Increasedcoverageatalower cost Increasedreliabilityand increasedthroughputnearcell edge

ThemainfeaturesofLTEAdvancedarecarrieraggregation,enhancedantennatechniques,relays,and CoordinatedMultipoint(CoMP)transmissionandreception.Carrieraggregationallowscombiningof multiplecarrierfrequenciesfordatatransmissionbetweentheeNodeBandagivenUEwitheachcarrier backwardcompatibletoaRelease8carrierfrequency.Uptofivecarrierfrequenciescanbecombined witheachcarrierhavingthelargestbandwidthofupo20MHz.Inthefrequencydomain,thecarrier frequenciescouldbecontiguousornoncontiguous(e.g.,fromdifferentfrequencybands).Carrier aggregationenablestheoperatortoexploitfragmentedspectrum(e.g.,somespectrumat700MHzand somespectrumattheAWSspectrum).Carrieraggregationincreasesuserthroughputandcell throughput. WhileRelease8supportsupto(4x4)SUMIMOinthedownlink,LTEAdvancedsupportsupto(8x8)SU MIMOinthedownlinkinRelease10.Release8allowstheUEtotransmitfromasingleantenna. Release10support(4x4)SUMIMOintheuplink.BeamformingisalsoenhancedinRelease10to achievebetterperformance. LTEAdvancedalsoenhancesthenetworkarchitecturebyintroducingrelays.Arelaycanbeconsidered asanenhancedformofarepeater.Therepeaterisalowcostsolutiontoincreasecoveragewithout usingregularfullfledgedbasestations.Whenthegoalistoincreasecoverageatalowercostwithout addingcapacity,relaysareuseful.LTEhasdefinedsocalledLayer3selfbackhaulingrelaythatincreases coverageandusesLTEbasedwirelessbackhaulbetweenthedonoreNodeBandtherelaynode.Direct connectivitybetweentherelaynodeandtheEPCdoesnotexist;therelaynodecommunicateswiththe UEsandthedonoreNodeBonly.ThecommunicationbetweentheUEsandtherelaynodeandbetween thedonoreNodeBandtherelaynodecanbeachievedusingthesameordifferentspectrum. CoordinatedMultipoint(CoMP)transmissioncomesindifferentflavors.Forexample,multiplecellscan transmitthesamepackettotheUEandtheUEcombinesthesignalsfromthesecellsforreliable reception.InanotherflavorofCoMPtransmission,multiplecellsarereadytotransmittotheUEbut onlyonecelltransmitsthepacket.ThespecificcellthatactuallytransmitsthepackettotheUEcanbe

dynamicallyandquicklychanged.TheCoMPreceptionintheuplinkinvolvesmultiplecellslisteningto theUEsignalandoneoftheeNodeBsprocessesthepacketsreceivedindifferentcells.Themain benefitsofCoMPtransmissionandreceptionareincreasedreliabilityandincreasedthroughputnear celledge. Letstakeacloserlookatthefrequencybands.Table3givesexamplesofthefrequencybands supportedbyLTE.See[3GPP_36.101]foranexhaustivelistofLTEfrequencybands. Table3.ExampleLTEFrequencyBands LTE Duplexing UplinkFrequency Operating Range(MHz) Band 25 FDD 18501915 DownlinkFrequency Range(MHz) 19301995 Comments

8 12 13 14 17 26 40 41

FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD TDD TDD

880915 699716 777787 788798 704716 814849 23002400 24962690

925960 729746 746756 758768 734746 859894 23002400 24962690

PCSBand(AFBlocks)plusG block;SprintsinitialLTE deployments LTEbandclosesttotheLMS band Enableslower700MHzABlock operatorstoofferLTEintheU.S. VerizonWirelessLTE deploymentsintheU.S. CoverspartofthePublicSafety spectrumintheU.S. AT&TLTEdeploymentsinthe U.S. SprintsfutureLTEdeployments (by2014) ForTDLTEdeploymentsinChina andIndia ForClearwiresTDLTE deploymentsintheU.S.

Thecurrent700MHzLTEdeploymentsintheU.S.useFDDBands12,13,and17.Verizondeployments useBand13,whileAT&TdeploymentsuseBand17.U.S.CellulardeploymentsuseBand12.Band14 coverspartofthespectrumreservedforPublicSafety.ThePublicSafetyspectrumrangesfrom758 MHzto775MHzinthedownlinkandfrom788MHzto805MHzintheuplink.Band40facilitatesTD LTEdeploymentsinChinaandIndia,whileBand41willbeusedbyClearwireforTDLTEdeploymentin theU.S.WhileSprintsinitialLTEFDDdeploymentswilluse1900MHzPCSband(Band25),theFCCs recentapprovaloftheuseof800MHzspectrumforLTEwouldenableSprinttousethe800MHz spectrum(Band26)forLTEFDDaswell[Sprint_LTE_FDD_1900MHz_1][Sprint_LTE_FDD_1900MHz_2] [Sprint_LTE_FDD_800MHz][Sprint_Band25].

TheFDDband8coversthefrequencyrangeswidelyusedforGSMdeploymentsaroundtheglobe.GSM isthemostwidelydeployedcellulartechnologytoday.However,thenumberofGSMonlyUEsis decliningand2GGSMspectrumisincreasinglyusedbymoreefficienttechnologiessuchasUMTS.As theGSMfrequencyspectrumisrefarmedforLTE,Band8eNodeBsandUEswouldbecomewidely available.Furthermore,atypicalchipsetusuallysupportsbothFDDandTDD.TheLMSTDDband (rangingfrom902MHzto928MHz)overlapswithLTEFDDBand8.Hence,itshouldberelativelyeasy andinexpensivetoconvertanLTEFDDBand8tosupporttheLMSband.ThemixofTDDandFDD spectrumwouldbequitecommonforLTEsubscribersofSprintandClearwireintheU.Sin2013and beyond[Qualcomm_FDD_TDD_ClearwireBand41][Sprint_FDD_TDD]. EvenintheabsenceofanyBand8supporttoday,oneLTEvendorhasalreadyconfirmedthattheLTE eNodeBandtheUEusingLMSTDDandWiFicanbedevelopedwithinabout18monthsorso.Thereare twomainprocessingblocksinatransceiver,abasebandprocessorandaRadioFrequency(RF) processor.ThebasebandprocessorimplementsLTEspecificfunctionsatthebasebandsuchas implementationofOFDMAandSCFDMA.TheRFprocessorinvolvesfunctionssuchasfilteringfora givenfrequencyband.ThemaindesignchangesinconvertingaBand8FDDequipmentintoanLMS bandTDDequipmentwouldinvolveproperRFfilteringandremovaloftheduplexer.Suchdesign changesarerelativelysimpleandwouldnotbeexpensive. SincesuitablesoftwarethatfacilitatesthetransitionsbetweentheFDDmodeandtheTDDmodewould havebeenavailablein2013duetotheexpectedTDDFDDmixincaseofSprintandClearwire subscribers,suchsoftwarewouldlargelybereusableincasetheLMSequipmentforLTEalsosupports the700MHzPublicSafetyFDDband14.AnLTEUEalreadysupportsmultiplefrequencybandssuchas 700MHzbandforLTEand850MHzcellularbandand1900MHzPCSbands,thesupportfortheLMS bandand700MHzPublicSafetyiscertainlywellwithinthegeneralcapabilitiesoftheUEdesignstoday. TheLMSbandLTEequipmentwouldbenefitfromthehugeeconomiesofscalebenefitsofLTE.LTEis beingdeployedforwideareacoveragelikeatraditionalcellularsystem.Hence,LTEwouldbequite suitableforbothforwideareacoverageandcorridorcoverageforSG4G.Incellularnetworks,corridor coveragetypescenarioisencounteredforhighwaycoverageinruralareas.TheeNodeBtransmitpower isnotdefinedinthestandardandanysuitablehighpoweramplifier(HPA)canbeusedattheeNodeB.A 40WHPAattheeNodeBforatransmitantennaisquitecommonincommercialLTEdeployments. Currently,PowerClass3isdefinedforLTEUEswiththemaximumtransmitpowerof200mWor23 dBm.ItispossibletoredesignUEstomeetanyhigherpowerneedsofLMSifdesired. WewillseeinSection6thatJapanisintheprocessofmakingsomespectrumavailableatboth700MHz and900MHzbands;somenetworkshavealreadybeenlaunchedatthenew900MHzbandinJapan.

3.SuitabilityofLMSLTEforITSandSG4G
TheLMSbandrangesfrom902MHzto928MHz.TheFCCallowstheLMSbandtobesharedbetween theLMSusersandPart15devicesandsystems[FCC_LMS][Havens_CommentsOnProgeny]

[Tripathi_CommentsOnProgeny].Hence,anysystemplannedfortheLMSbandsuchastheLMSLTE
systemshouldconsiderthecoexistencewithPart15devicesandsystems. ThereviewofthespectrumsurveybytheSharedSpectrumCorporation,fundedbyNSF,revealsthatthe Part15usageissomewhatsignificantinspecificmetroareas[SharedSpetcrum_SpectrumReports].If thePart15interferenceisproperlyaccountedforinanLMSLTEsystemdesign(morespecifically,inthe LTElinkbudget),theLMSLTEcanefficientlyandcosteffectivelymeettheneedsofITSandSG4G.In ruralareas,thePart15usageandhencetheinterferencebetweentheLMSLTEandthePart15devices andsystemswouldbesubstantiallyless.Additionally,Part15usagewouldberelativelylittlealong transportcorridors,sinceavastmajorityofPart15devicesandsystemsuseinlowpowerandshort rangedevicesinandaroundhomesandenterprisefacilities.Part15devicesandsystemsarenot intendedforwideareaorcorridorcoverage.Theusertrafficpatternsaredifferentonthehighwaysand homesandoffices.Forexample,iftherearemorepeopleontheroad,therewillbefewerpeopleat homesandinoffices.Hence,whenLMSLTEusersareusingtheLMSband,manyofthePart15users wouldprobablynotbeusingtheLMSbandatthattime.Hence,therewouldbesomedegreeofspatial andtemporalseparationofthespectrumusebyLTEforlongrangeITSandbyPart15devicesand systemsforshortrangecommunications. AnadditionalLMSsisterbandisalsoavailableforshortrangeITS.TheFCCestablishedrulesfor DedicatedShortRangeCommunications(DSRC)ServicefortheITSinthe5.9GHzband [FCC_Part90_SubpartM].Thisbandrangesfrom5.850GHzto5.925GHz.Theavailabilityofthis additionalnonLMSbandfortheITSusewillfurtherreducecontentionbetweentheuseof902928MHz byLMSLTEforITS,andtheuseof902928MHzbyPart15devicesandsystems,becauseaportionof thetraditionalITStrafficwillnowbeonthe5.9GHzband. LetsdiscusstheLTEcharacteristicsthatwouldreduceinterferencebetweentheLMSLTEandPart15 devicesandsystems.AsmentionedinSection2,theLTEpowerlevelsarerelativelylow.Forexample, themaximumUEtransmitpoweris23dBmor200mWforaPowerClass3.ThetypicaleNodeBusesa 40W(i.e.,46dBm)HPA. TheFCChasspecifiedthe30WERPpertransmitterfortheLMSband,and,thispowerlevelcouldbe usedforanarrowbandchannelwith25kHzbandwidth(seeParagraph79in[FCC_Power]): Narrowbandcommunicationlinks....e.g.,25kHz...channels....enhance...viabilityandflexibilityof... multilaterationsystems....maximumpower...30wattsERP." LTEisawidebandsystemandtheapplicablepowerlimitper5MHztransmitterwouldbe(30W*5 MHz/25kHz=6000W).Twohundred(i.e.,5MHz/25kHz)narrowbandtransmitterswitheach transmitterusinga25kHznarrowbandradiochanneland30WERPwouldgeneratetheRFenergy equivalenttoasinglewidebandtransmitterusinga5MHzwidebandradiochanneland6000WERP.

Hence,a5MHzLTEtransmitterusing6000WERPwouldbeoperatingwithintheFCCscurrentpower limitrules.Furthermore,sinceLTEintheLMSbandwillbeusedforcommunications,LTEtransmitters wouldbeclassifiedasothertransmittersforthepurposeofmeetingspectralemissionmask requirementsdefinedbyEmissionMaskKin[FCC_Emission].Morespecifically,theLTEtransmitter wouldnotberequiredtohaveattenuationwithinitsownpassband(i.e.,from904MHzto909.75MHz) andwouldneedtomeetthisattenuationrequirementoutsidethepassband:55+10*log(P)dB,where (P)isthehighestemission(watts)ofthetransmitterinsidethelicensee'ssubband.AnLMSLTE operatorwouldhavetheflexibilityofusingupto6000WERPandmayactuallyusemuchlessthan6000 WERPbasedonagivendeploymentscenario.TypicalcellularLTEdeploymentsmayuseabout60dBm EIRP(e.g.,46dBmHPApowerplus14dBantennagain=60dBm),equivalentto57.85dBmERP2or610 WERP.Furthermore,theLTEeNodeBtransmitspoweronthetrafficchannelonlywhennecessaryfor packettransmission;onlythesubcarriersthatarepartoftheallocatedPRBsaretransmitted.Thenon trafficsubcarriersthatareperiodicallytransmittedbytheeNodeBleadtoverylittletransmitpower (e.g.,about10%fromagivenantennaortransmitter). LTEalsohasaclosedlooppowercontrolmechanismfortheuplink,wherethetransmitpoweroftheUE iscontrolledtoaminimumlevel(i.e.,belowthemaximumpowerlevelof23dBm)thatcanprovidethe desireddatarateandthatcanminimizeinterference.Furthermore,sincetheLMSLTEwillfocusenergy ontransportationcorridorsonlyusinghighlydirectionalantennas,theLTEuserswillexperiencehigh signaltointerferenceratio(SIR)andhencebetterperformance.Similarly,Part15deviceswillalso experiencesignificantlylessinterferencebecausetheywillessentiallybeoutsidetheLMSLTEcoverage area. LTEhasnumerousmechanismsthatcanminimizetheinterferencebetweentheLTEusersandthepart15 users.TheeNodeBschedulercanallocateresourcestotheUEssuchthatinterferenceisminimized.For example,theLTEUEsreporttheobservedchannelconditionstotheeNodeBeveryfewmilliseconds. TheseUEscanbeconfiguredbytheeNodeBtoreportsuchchannelconditionsfordifferentpartsofthe channelbandwidth.Hence,ifsomepartofthespectrumisoccupiedbyPart15usersduringagiven period,theeNodeBcanchooseotherpartsoftheLTEspectrumforLTEUEs,avoidinginterference betweentheLTEusersandpart15users.TheeNodeBusesthedownlinkpowerefficientlyaswell, reducingtheaverageinterference.Theoverheadchannelsinthedownlinkdonotcausemuch interference,becausetheyconsumeonlyabout10%12%ofthetotaleNodeBtransmitpower. Furthermore,theeNodeBtransmitsthetrafficchannelsonlywhenrequiredfordatatransmissions.The hybridautomaticrepeatrequest(HARQ)processofLTEensuresthattheredundancyoftransmissionis resortedtoonlywhennecessary,therebyreducingtheoverallinterference.TheeNodeBchoosesthe mostappropriatecombinationofmodulationschemeandamountofcodingUE(andthiscould potentiallychangeeverymillisecondinLTE!)forthegivenchannelconditionsexperiencedbytheUE, furtherutilizingtheresourcesoptimallyandtherebyreducingtheamountofoverallinterference.The dynamicuseofavarietyofantennatechniquessuchastransmitdiversity,SUMIMO,beamforming,and MUMIMOalsoutilizestheradioresourcesefficientlyandhassimilarimpactoninterferencelikethe selectionofthesuitablemodulationschemeandamountofcoding.
2

EIRP(dBm)=ERP(dBm)+2.15.ERP(W)=0.001*10

(0.1*ERP(dBm))

AfterLMSLTEisdeployed,Part15vendorsthemselvesmayfinditveryusefultointegratetheLMSLTE insomeoftheirproducts,becauseLTEhashugecapacityandiscapableofsupportingnumerous machinetomachine(M2M)communicationssimultaneously.The3GPPisworkingonoptimizingLTE forM2Mcommunications[ETSI_LTE_M2M].ExampleM2Mapplicationsincludetelemetry(e.g.,utility meters),telematics(e.g.,trafficandweatherinformationforvehicles),fleetmanagement(e.g.,cargo tracking),andsecurityandsurveillance(e.g.,publicsurveillanceandmovementmonitoring).LTE supportsalargenumberofconnectedmodeUEs(e.g.,morethan250inacellorsector3)andmuch highernumberofidleUEsduetoahighlyefficientairinterfaceandfastidletoconnectedtransition time(lessthan100ms). ApreliminaryanalysiscarriedoutforSkyTelindicatesthattheLTEdeploymentintheLMSbandfora traincorridor(e.g.,NorthEastCorridor)isfeasibleanditsexpectedcoverageiscomparabletotheuseof LTEinthetraditionalcellularnetworks.Theanalysisused105dBmnoisefromthePart15usersforthe LTEuplinklinkbudgetcalculations.ThemeasuredPart15interferenceinmetroareasrangedfrom105 dBmto80dBminSharedSpectrumreports.SincethePart15devicesandsystemsarelesslikelytobe closetorailwaytracks,anoisevalueclosetotheminimumlevelisappropriate.Otherlinkparameters includetheeNodeBreceivernoisefigureof4dB,theeNodeBreceiveantennagainof21dB,andthe resourceallocationfor2PhysicalResourceBlockstoachievetheaveragecelledgedatarateofabout60 kbps,40%uplink(and60%downlink)fortheTDLTEconfiguration,signaltonoiseratio(SNR)of2.4dB forthereliabledetectionofthepacketsforaUEatthecelledge(correspondingtoQPSKmodulation and1/3coding),interferencemarginof1dB,shadowfadingmarginof5.4dBfor75%celledge reliability.Theuplinklinkbudgetwasfoundtobe139dB.Assumingthecentercarrierfrequencyof907 MHzfora5MHzTDLTEsystem,thecellradiusis3.6milesforasuburbanenvironmentand12.1miles foranopenspace(rural)environmentbasedonthewidelyusedHatapropagationpathlossmodel. Whenthecellradiusis3.6miles,twoeNodeBsarespacedapartby(2*3.6=7.2miles).Sincethecell radiusgreaterthan3kmisprojectedtobeveryvaluable,theLMSLTEisthusquitepromisingandeven hasagoodmargintoworkwith. ApreliminaryanalysiscarriedoutforSkyTelindicatesthatevenanarrowbandversionofLTEusingjust 1.4MHzwidechannelinthe217235MHzrangecouldbequiteuseful.Inparticular,sincethe propagationpathlossismuchlessatlowerfrequenciesthanathigherfrequencies,alargecellsizeis feasibleforLTE.Thedeploymentcouldbequiteinexpensiveinthe217235MHzrange.Thisfrequency rangecouldbeusedtosupplementtheregularLMSLTEcoverageortoaddextracapacity.Evencarrier aggregationcouldbeexploitedacrosstheLMSbandandthis200MHzband.

AUEintheconnectedmodehasadedicatedradioconnectionwiththeeNodeBinacell.Thisradioconnection includesaRadioResourceControl(RRC)signalingconnectionand(usually)oneormoredataradiobearers(DRBs) fordatatransmission.AUEintheidlemodedoesnothaveadedicatedradioconnectionbutismonitoringtheE UTRANperiodicallysothatitcantransitiontotheconnectedmodewheneverthereisaneedfordata transmission.

4.LTEandLocationServices
Release9ofUMTSdefineslocationservices(LCS),whereavarietyoflocationbasedservices(LBS)such asEmergency911orE911callsandvalueaddedservices(e.g.,directionstoarestaurantandalistof restaurantinthevicinityofthemobiledevice)canbeofferedtotheLTEsubscribers.Themainbenefits oftheLTELCSareasfollows. LTELCSisafullystandardizedsolutionthatgivestheserviceoperatorsflexibilitywhilechoosing thevendorsforvariousnetworkelementsandmobiledevices. LTELCSenableseconomiesofscaleduetotheexpectedmassivecellularadoptionofLTE. LTELCSfacilitatesinteroperabilitytestingduetothestandardizednatureofthesolution. TheLTEserviceprovidercanofferLBSaspartofitsexistingIMS(IPMultimediaSystem) network,whichenablesrapidintroductionofnewservicescosteffectively. TheLBScanbeassignedasuitableclassofQualityofService(QoS)astheLBSareoperator awareandoperatorcontrolledservices.LTEsupportsninedifferentQoSclasses,and,agiven applicationisassignedanappropriateQoSclass. LTEhasitsownfullystandardizedlocationsolutionsincludingacontrolplaneorsignalingsolutionanda userplanesolution(i.e.,SecureUserPlaneorSUPL).LTEsupportsavarietyofpositioningtechniques includingamultilaterationtechnique4.WhileLTEcurrentlydoesnothavemillimeterlevelaccuracy throughitsstandardizedtechniques,itenhancestheaccuracyachievablebyapureGlobalPositioning System(GPS)basedapproach. AbriefoverviewofLCSinLTEcanbefoundin[Tripathi_LCS_Overview].See[MSF_LCS_LTE]and [Ericsson_Positioning_LTE]fordetailsoftheLTELCSarchitectureandLTEpositioningmethods. EstimationoflocationaccuracyofvariousLTEpositioningmethodscanbefoundin [Ranta_Positioning_LTE];theoverallE911mandatedaccuracytargetscanbemetbycombiningmultiple positioningmethods. LetssummarizethemainUEpositioningtechniquessupportedbyLTE.Thesetechniquesinclude EnhancedCellIdentity(ECID),AssistedGlobalNavigationSatelliteSystem(AGNSS),andObserved TimeDifferenceofArrival(OTDOA)[3GPP_36.305]. ECID.SincetheUEintheconnectedmodehasadedicatedaradioconnectionwiththeE UTRAN,theEUTRANknowsaboutthecellwheretheUEislocated.TheeNodeBcanthenuse measurementsoftheroundtriptime(RTT)todeterminethedistancebetweentheeNodeBand thecell.Theangleofarrival(AoA)canfinallybeusedtofindtheUElocation,becausethe distanceandtheangletogetherareadequatetolocatetheUE.
4

It is up to the cellular service provider the specific nature of the LCS solution and the specific technique(s) chosen for positioning. Furthermore, different LTE mobile devices would have different LCS capabilities. Existence of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in the mobile device is becoming common today (including LTE).

AGNSS.AGNSSisagenerictermwheresatellitesignalsareusedbytheUEtomake measurements.IntheU.S.,AssistedGlobalPositioningSystem(AGPS)canbeexpectedbe popular.TheUEssearchforsatellitesisfacilitatedbyconveyingtheinformationaboutthe satellitestotheUE. OTDOA.ThisisatraditionalmultilaterationtechniquewheretheEUTRANsignalsareprocessed bytheUEtoprovideareporttotheESMLC.EachEUTRANcelltransmitscellspecificreference signals.Inaddition,specialpositioningreferencesignals(PRS)havebeendefinedinRelease9to supporttheUEpositioning.TheUEcannowmakemeasurementsofthereferencesignalsand provideameasurementreporttotheESMLC.TheESMLCdeterminestheactuallocationof theUEbasedontheUEmeasurements(andpotentiallytheeNodeBmeasurementsaswell). Insummary,LTEsupportsavarietyofUEpositioningtechniquesinastandardizedfashion.Multiple techniquescanbecombinedforamorerefinedlocationestimate. LTEcanuseunicasttransmissionsorbroadcasttransmissionsdependinguponthetypeofinformation. TheUEspecificinformationistransmittedusingregularunicasttransmissions.Forexample,unicast transmissionsarerelevanttoservicessuchaswebbrowsingandemail.Incontrast,ifsomeinformation isapplicabletomultipleUEsinthecell,broadcasttransmissionswouldbepreferredinsteadofunicast transmissions.Forexample,toprovidetrafficorweatherupdatesapplicabletoagivengeographicarea, broadcasttransmissionswouldbemuchmoreefficientthanunicasttransmissions.Unicast transmissionswouldinvolvesendingtheidenticalinformationusingdedicatedresourcesfordifferent users.Incontrast,abroadcasttransmissionofsuchinformationwouldinvolvesingletransmissionofa givenIPpacketcarryingtheweatherandtrafficupdates.Thepreciousradioresources(andnetwork resourcessuchasbackhaul)wouldbeusedmuchmoreefficientlybythebroadcasttransmissions. LTEsupportsbroadcasttransmissionsformultimediaapplicationsusingMultimediaBroadcastMulticast Services(MBMS).WhilethebasicMBMSwasintroducedinRelease8,evolvedMBMS(eMBMS)was definedinRelease9.RecallfromSection2that1mssubframesareusedfordatatransmissions.The basicMBMSrequiresallresourcesofacelltobededicatedtoMBMS.However,eMBMSallowssome subframestobeusedforbroadcastdatatransmissions,whiletheremainingsubframescanbeusedfor regularunicastdatatransmissions.Furthermore,thenumberofsubframestobeusedforeMBMScan bedynamicallydeterminedbasedontheneedsatagiventime.Hence,eMBMSisattractivetothe serviceprovidersfromtheperspectiveofefficiency.QualcommandEricssondemonstratedsuch eMBMScapabilityatMobileWorldCongressinSpaininearly2012[Ericsson_eMBMS][Qualcomm eMBMS]. ExamplesoftheITSdatathatcanbetransmittedusingeMBMSincludeweather,roadconditions, changesinmetrotransitandintercitypublictransportschedules,locationbasedadvertisingand availabilityinformation(e.g.,gasandalternativefuelstations,hotels,foodservices,medicalfacilities, roadsideattractions,andspecialevents).InadditiontoefficientlytransmittingsuchITSdata,eMBMS

canalsobeexploitedtotransmitNetworkRealTimeKinematic(NRTK)5positioningdatatoachieve millimeterlevel(e.g.,10to15mm)locationaccuracy6.Asreportedin[NRTK_Ireland],mobile infrastructuresof2Gand3Gcellulartechnologies(andbroadcastradio)arebeingusedtosupportthe NRTKpositioningsystemsinIreland.LTEcanthuseasilybeutilizedtofacilitateimplementationofthe NRTKmethod. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

InthebasicRTKpositioningmethod[NRTK_Langley],areceiveratareferencesitemakesmeasurementsthatare transmittedtooneormoreroverreceivers(e.g.,mobiledevices).Theroverreceiverscombinetheirown measurementswiththemeasurementsreceivedfromthereferencesitesandaccuratelydeterminetheir coordinates.However,atmosphericandsatellitepositionerrorsdecorrelatewithincreasingdistancebetween referencesitesandroverreceivers.Hence,thelocationaccuracydecreaseswithdistance,limitingtheeffective distancebetweenreferencesitesandroverreceivers.TheNetworkRTKmethodovercomessuchdistance limitationofthebasicRTKmethod.IntheNRTKmethod,datafromanumberofreferencesitesareusedto determinethemeasurementerrorsacrossthenetworkandcorrectionsareprovidedtotheroverreceivers.The accuracyofthelocationestimateattheroverreceiveristhusenhanced[NRTK_Langley]. 6 Someresearchersareworkingonmethodssuchastheuseofmeshnetforvehicletovehiclecommunicationsto achievesubmeteraccuracywithhighreliability[MeshNet].The5.9GHzbandidentifiedfortheDSRCas mentionedinSection3canbeusedforsuchvehicletovehiclecommunications.

5.PotentialofLTEforITSandSG4G
LTEpossessescertainfeaturesthatmakeitespeciallysuitableforITSandSG4G.Thesefeaturesinclude interferencesolutions,flatanddistributednetworkarchitecture,veryefficientairinterface,huge economiesofscale,largeecosystem,varyinglevelsofQualityofService,extensivesecurity,andwell definedevolutionpath.LetstakeacloserlookattheseLTEfeaturesnext. SinceLTEfortheITSwillbedeployedusingtheLMSbandthatissharedwiththePart15devicesand systems,mechanismsthatcanminimizeinterferencewouldbequitebeneficial.Asmentionedin Section3,therelativelylowpowerlevelsoftheUEandtheeNodeB,closedlooppowercontrolforthe uplinktominimizetheUEstransmitpower,lowpowerconsumedbytheoverheadchannels,and transmissionofthetrafficchannelsonlywhenneededreducethetransmitpowerandhencethe interferencegeneratedbyLTE.ThetechniquessuchasHARQ,adaptivemodulationandcoding,and dynamicselectionofanantennatechniqueminimizetheredundancyoftransmissions,leadingto effectiveutilizationofradioresourcesandminimizationofinterference.FastfeedbackfromtheUEon theprevailingradiochannelconditions(ontheorderoffewmilliseconds)indifferentpartsoftheLTE channelandthefastanddynamicresourceallocationbytheeNodeBschedulercanhelpavoidthe spectrumportionswithhighLTEandPart15interference. The3GcellularnetworkarchitectureiscentralizedandoftenATMbased,whichmakesitrelatively complextoscaleupthenetwork.Incontrast,LTEhasflatanddistributednetworkarchitecture.Both theEUTRANandtheEPCareIPbasedandscalableasnotedinSection2. LTEsairinterfaceisveryefficient.Theadvancesinelectronicshavemadeitpossibletoimplement OFDMAforthemobilesystem.ThenarrowbandnatureofLTEsubcarriersfacilitatesdesignand optimizationofmultipleantennatechniques.Spectralefficiency,quantifiedbybits/sec/Hz,isquitehigh forLTE7,reducingthecostperbitandsupportingmoreuserssimultaneously. LTEisexpectedtobeadominant4Gcellulartechnologyasolder,lessefficientcellulartechnologiesare replacedbyLTEand/ornewspectrum(e.g.,700MHz)becomesavailable.Eventheoperatorsthathave alreadydeployedthecompeting4Gtechnology,WiMAX,(e.g.,Clearwire)aremovingtowardLTE.The deploymentofLTEintheLMSbandwouldthusbenefitfromLTEshugeeconomiesofscaleduetothe dominanceofLTE. SinceLTEwoulddominatetheglobaldeployments,itwouldenjoyalargeecosystem,makingiteasyto findmultiplevendorsofferingUEs,eNodeBs,nodesoftheEPC,IMS,andPCC,andapplications(e.g., VoiceoverLTEorVoLTE,SMS,andinteractivegaming). LTEdefinesnineclassesofQualityofServiceintheformofQoSClassIndicators(QCIs).EachQCI correspondstoaspecificsetofparameters(e.g.,existenceorabsenceofdatarateguarantee,delay,and priority).Differentclassesofsubscribers(e.g.,platinum,gold,andsilver)andapplicationswithdifferent QoSneeds(e.g.voicevs.email)canbesupportedusingdifferentQCIs.
7

ThepeakspectralefficiencyforRelease8LTEis300Mbps/20MHz=15bits/sec/Hzforthedownlink.

LTEsupportmultiplesecuritymechanismssuchasmutualauthentication,anonymity,cipheringand integrityprotection.MutualauthenticationenablestheUEtoauthenticatethenetworkandtheenables thenetworktoauthenticatetheUE.Anonymityminimizestheuseoforiginalidentitiessuchas InternationalMobileSubscriberIdentity(IMSI)byrelyingupontemporaryidentitiessuchasGlobally UniqueTemporaryIdentity(GUTI)whenpossible.Cipheringcanbeusedtoencryptthesignaling messagesandusertraffic.Integrityprotectionaddsamessageauthenticatecodetothesignaling messageatthesendertoallowthereceivertoverifythatthemessagehasnotbeenalteredbetween thesenderandthereceiver.Cipheringandintegrityprotectioncanbeindependentlyactivatedforthe linkbetweentheUEandtheeNodeBandforthelinkbetweentheUEandtheMME. LTEhasawelldefinedevolutionpath.LTEAdvancedisthenextstageofevolution,whichisintroduced inRelease10.Release10hasalreadybeenfinalizedbythe3GPP.TheworkonRelease11iscurrently ongoinginthe3GPP.SomefeaturesofLTEAdvancedsuchascarrieraggregationarespecifiedin Release10,whileotherssuchasCoMPtransmissionandreceptionaredesignatedforfuturereleases (e.g.,Release11andbeyond).SeeSection2forabriefoverviewofLTEAdvancedfeatures.Widespread commercialdeploymentsofLTEAdvancedareexpectedtooccurin2013[LTEAdvanced_Deployments]. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

6.LTEat700MHzand900MHz

CurrentLTEdeploymentsintheU.S.areprimarilyat700MHz.AsmentionedinSection2,Verizon WirelessdeploymentsareusingFDDBand13intheupper700MHzband.AT&TisusingFDDBand17in thelower700MHzband. TomeettheneedsoftheITSandtheSG4Gefficientlyandcosteffectively,LTEcanbedeployedinthe U.S.inthe900MHzLMSbandusingtheTDDversionofLTE,moreformallyknownasTimeDivisionLTE (TDLTE).SincecurrentLTEchipsetsfortheUEscaneasilysupportatleast3differentfrequencybands withuptotwofrequencybandsbelow1GHz,thePublicSafetyFDDBand14intheupper700MHzband canalsobesupported.EvenRelease8LTEUEscansupportbothFDDandTDDandcansupportmultiple frequencybands.TheUEwilluseasuitableduplexingmodeandasuitablefrequencybandbasedonthe EUTRANcellthatitfinds.TheUEsoftwarethatgovernstheselectionofaduplexingmodeand frequencybandwouldmostlikelybeavailablein2013asmentionedinSection2.RecallfromSection2 thatSprintandClearwireUEswouldbeabletoswitchbetweentheduplexingmodesandthefrequency bandsbecausetheSprintLTEdeploymentswouldbeusingFDDandtheClearwirewillbeusingTDD band41.ThecurrentLTEchipsetsalreadysupportbothFDDandTDD.The3GPPtriedtominimizethe differencesbetweentheFDDoperationandtheTDDoperationtominimizethemarketsegmentation. APublicSafetyuserwithaUEthatsupportstheLMSbandandthe700MHzPublicSafetybandcan accesstheLTEservicesinmoregeographicareas.AsmentionedinSection5,usersandapplicationsof userscanbeallocateddifferentQoSincludingpriorityandtargetsfordataratesandlatency. OthercountriessuchasJapanmayhaveLTEdeploymentsin700MHzand900MHzbandsaswell. Japanismakingnewspectrumavailableatboth700MHzand900MHz[Japan_700_900].Inparticular, ITSmaybeallocatedspectrumwithin715to725MHzfrequencyrange.InaFebruary2012press releasefromtheJapaneseMinistryofInternalAffairsandCommunications,itwasmentionedthatit wouldbepossibleinJapanforwirelesssystemstoutilize(i)some700MHzfrequenciesbecoming availableduetothedigitizationofterrestrialtelevisionbroadcastingand(ii)some900MHzfrequencies becomingavailableduetothereorganizationoffrequenciesusedby2GwirelesssystemsasofJuly2011 [Japan_700MHz_Feb2012].SoftbanksdeploymentofHSPA+inthe900MHzbandwasapprovedbythe JapaneseMinistryofInternalAffairsandCommunicationsinFebruary2012 [Softbank_900MHz_HSPA+].Softbankplanstoinstall16,000basestationsin2012and41,000base stationsby2016toachieve99.9%populationcoverage.Furthermore,Softbankwouldbeoperating bothFDDandTDDvariantsofLTEandhasalreadylaunchedaTDLTEnetworkwith2000eNodeBs. SoftbanksLTEFDDsystemwilluse900MHzband[Softbank_TDLTE_May2012] [Softbank_FDD_TDD_LTE].SoftbanksTDLTEsystemisusing20MHzwidechannelatthe2.5GHz spectrum[Softbank_TDLTE_Band][Softbank_TDLTE_Bandwidth]. LTEatthe700MHzbandisidentifiedin[Wireless_Harmonization]asthewirelessnetworkforglobal harmonizationtoservetheneedsofmissioncriticalwirelesssystemssuchaspublicsafety,utilities, railways,andtransport.NorthAmericaandAsiaarealsomentionedin[Wireless_Harmonization]asthe continentspreparingforthe700MHzdeploymentofLTEforpublicsafetycommunications.

DeploymentofLTEatlowerbandssuchas700MHzand900MHzcanprovidebenefitsinthecoverage drivendeploymentsinaruralenvironment.Thepropagationpathlossissmalleratlowerfrequencies (e.g.,700MHzto900MHz)andlargerathigherfrequencies(e.g.,above1.8GHz).Significantsavingsin CapExarepossibleinsuchcases[LTE_LowBandDeployments].OperatorssuchasTelstrainAustraliaare exploringthedeploymentsofLTEatthe900MHzband,makingiteasiertoredesigneNodeBsandUEs tosuittheLMSband[Telstra_900MHz_1][Telstra_900MHz_1]. The3GPPrecentlycompletedastudyitemonthedeploymentofUMTSandLTEat900MHz [3GPP_LTE_900MHz].This3GPPreportexploredthestandardizationworkneededtofacilitate deploymentofLTEat900MHzinJapanandKorea.The3GPPnotesthatJapanisinitiallytargeting900 MHzto905MHzfortheuplinkand945MHzto950MHzforthedownlinkandwouldeventuallyallocate 900MHzto915MHzfortheuplinkand945MHzto960MHzforthedownlinkby2015.The3GPPalso observesthatKoreaistargetingthe905MHzto915MHzfortheuplinkand950MHzto960MHzforthe downlink.ThereportstatesthatBand8isadequatetosupportLTEFDDdeploymentsat900MHzand noadditionalbandneedstobedefined.ThereportconcludesthatitispossibletoutilizeBand8in Japanfor900MHzFDDwithsomeoperationalfeaturessuchasconstraintsontheresourceallocations andoverprovisioningoftheuplinkcontrolchannelstomeetemissionrequirements.Theemerging900 MHzecosystemforLTEFDDinJapanandKoreawoulddirectlybenefitthe900MHzTDLTEdeployment intheLMSbandduetotheinherentlydesignedcommonalitiesofFDDandTDDversionsofLTE. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

7.LTEandLTEAdvancedforVehiclesandTrains
WhilegenericUEsandeNodeBswouldworkfortheLMSband,someoftheITSapplicationssuchasthe InternetaccessfortrainpassengersandtheaccesstoIMSapplicationsalongthehighwayscouldbenefit fromahigherdegreeofcustomization.Exampleareasofsuchcustomizationincludeincreasedpower levelsoftheUEandtheuseofmorephysicalantennas. AtypicalPowerClass3UEhasthemaximumtransmitpowerof200mWor23dBm.Dependingupon thetypeofthedevice,itispossibletoincreasethemaximumtransmitpowerbyusingapoweramplifier withhigherpowerrating.SuchUEcanbeusedintraincompartmentsasaMiFi8toservetrain passengersusingWiFilaptopsandsmartphones.Ahighermaximumtransmitpowercanbeexploited toincreasethecellsizeorimprovecelledgethroughputperformanceforagivencellsize. Release8LTEsupportsuptofourantennasattheeNodeBandtheUE,andLTEAdvancedsupportsupto eight antennas. While a typical handset has limited space to be able to house more than two LTE antennas, the UEs customized for trains and vehicular applications could be made larger and hence couldhousemorethantwoantennas,perhapsfouroreveneight.Thecoveragealongtherailwaytracks andhighwayswouldtypicallyinvolvetwocells(orsectors)pereNodeBinsteadofthreecells(orsectors) pereNodeBinatypicalcellularscenario.Hence,itwillberelativelyeasiertousemoreantennaspercell attheeNodeB.ThefeasibilityofmoreantennasatboththeUEandtheeNodeBinthetrainsandinthe vehicularenvironmentmeansthathigherpeakandaveragethroughputcanbeachievedviaSUMIMO and beamforming. Furthermore, more battery power is available on the trains and in the vehicles compared to traditional cellular handsets to enable use of more complex and intensive antenna techniques(especiallyfortheuplinktransmissions)whileensuringalongbatterylife. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

MiFiactslikearegularLTEUEwhilecommunicatingwiththeeNodeBandappearslikeaWiFiroutertoWiFi enabledlaptopsandmobiledevices.

8.LTEforITS:OverviewofResearchEfforts
CurrentresearchtrendsindicatetheLTEisbeingactivelyconsideredfortheITSapplications [ETSI_LTE_ITS][ResearchAndMarkets_LTE_ITS][Fowler_LTE_ITS].Someresearchstudieshaveevaluated thesuitabilityofLTEfortheITSapplications.Forexample,theuplinkoperationsofLTEaresimulatedfor anITSnetworkundervariousnetworkconditionsandnetworkparametersettingsin[Trichias_LTE_ITS]. ThesimulationresultsindicatethatLTEcanmeetthelatencyandcapacityrequirementsoftheITSand canevenoutperformanalternativesolutionbasedontheIEEE802.11pstandardinsomecases.SkyTel maysponsorresearchataU.S.universityandaEuropeanuniversitytofurtherevaluatethesuitabilityof LTEforavarietyofITSapplications. TheIEEE802.11pstandardcanprovidevehicletovehicle(V2V)andInfrastructuretoVehicle(I2V) communicationsandissuitableforDSRC.Thestandardisintendedforapplicationssuchascollision avoidance,heavytrafficavoidance,andcommercialapplications.The802.11pstandardbenefitsfrom theexistingfamilyof802.11WLANstandards.SinceIEEE802.11putilizestheDSRCanda5.9GHz,its performanceisdegradedinnonlineofsightsituationssuchasanurbanenvironment.Incontrast,LTE isdesignedtodealwithsuchNLOSissueseasily.ThemainbenefitoftheIEEE802.11pbasedadhoc networkcomparedtoLTEisreducedlatencyduetodirectcommunicationsamongthevehicles.LTE utilizestheinfrastructurenetworkforcommunicationbetweenthetwovehicles,incurringalonger delay.ThebenefitsofLTEarefoundtobelargecapacityandalongcommunicationsrange. Furthermore,LTEcanprovideadditionalservicessuchastransmissionofdataforlocationestimates withmillimeterlevelaccuracyandcommercialandnoncommercialservices. LetsbrieflydiscusscertainITSaspects,someofwhichareincorporatedbythesimulatorin [Trichias_LTE_ITS].AnITSvehicletransmitstwotypesofmessages,(i)averyshortmessagecalled CooperativeAwarenessMessage(CAM)containinginformationsuchasthepositionofthevehicleand thecurrentvelocity,and(ii)EventTriggeredmessagesthatprovidewarningstotherestofthevehicles onthenetworkaboutanunexpectedsituation.TheCAMsaretransmittedataregularinterval(e.g.,10 Hz)andtheyareinstrumentalinobtainingahighlyaccurateenvironmentpictureformovement prediction.TheCAMsrepresentavastmajorityofthemessagesbeingtransmittedinanITSnetwork. TheEventTriggeredmessagesarerathertriggeredbyspecificeventsontheroad,andwhiletheyoccur infrequently,theyaremuchmoreimportantthantheCAMsbecausetheyhelpmaintainthesafetyof thevehiclesanddrivers.ThreemainclassesofITSapplicationsidentifiedin[Trichias_LTE_ITS]areCo operative(Active)roadsafety,cooperativetrafficefficiency,andcooperativelocalservicesandglobal Internetservices.ThefirstclassofapplicationsaimstoimproveroadsafetyandmayinvolveCAMswith 20Hzfrequencyandstringentlatencyrequirementsintherangeof50to100ms.Exampleapplications ofthisclassincludecollisionavoidance,precrashsensingandemergencyelectronicbrakelights.The secondclassofITSapplications,cooperativetrafficefficiencyaimstoimprovetrafficfluidity.The frequencyofCAMsmaybeintherangeof1to5Hzandthelatencytargetsareintherangeof100to 500ms.Exampleapplicationsofthisclassincludetrafficlightoptimalspeedadvisory,and recommendeditinerary.Finally,thethirdclassofITSapplications,cooperativelocalservicesandglobal Internetservices,aimtoprovideadvertisementsandondemandinformationtothevehiclesona

commercialornoncommercialbasis.Exampleapplicationsforthisclassincludemapupdates,media downloading,andlocationsanddrivingdirectionsforrestaurants,hotels,andgasstationsinthevicinity ofthevehicle.Thelatencytargetsforthisclassareusuallyabove500ms. LetssummarizethemainfeaturesoftheLTEsimulatorusedin[Trichias_LTE_ITS].Thesimulator modelsahighwaywith3lanesandvariablenumberofvehiclesperlane.TheCAMisreferredtoasthe beacon.ItgeneratesCAMswithagivenbeaconfrequency(e.g.,10Hz)tomimicITStrafficloadanduses atypicalbeaconsizeof100Bytes.AnLTEsystemwith10MHzbandwidthat900MHzisassumedwith theeNodeBantennaheightof30m.ThepathlossandSignaltoInterferenceandNoiseRatio(SINR)of eachvehicleiscalculatedaccordingtothedistanceofthevehiclefromtheeNBwiththepathloss calculatedusingtheOkumuraHatamodelforruralareas.ThisSINRisusedtocalculatethesupportable datarate.Threedifferentschedulingschemesareimplementedforresourceallocation:(i)Dynamic schedulingthattreatstheITStrafficandthenonITSbackgroundinthesamewayandallocates resourcesdynamicallyevery1mssubframe,(ii)Dynamicschedulingthatallocatesresourcesdynamically every1mssubframebutgivesahigherprioritytotheITStraffic,and(iii)Semipersistentschedulingfor theITStraffictoreducecontrolsignalingoverheadandtoincreasecapacityanddynamicschedulingfor thebackgroundtraffic. Thesimulationvariablesincludethenumberofvehicles,averagevelocityofvehicles,beaconsize, beaconfrequency,backgroundcallsizeandarrivalrateandcellrange.Theexamplesofperformance metricsquantifiedinthesimulatorareendtoendbeacondelay,percentageofbeaconsthatmeetthe ITScriteria,thetotalloadonthenetwork(i.e.,thepercentageofradioresourcesbeingused),control signalingload,andbackgroundtrafficthroughput. Thesimulationresultsindicatethatthebeacondelayisaround18msupto95%ofthetrafficload. About700ITSuserswith10HzbeaconfrequencycanbesupportedbyLTEwhilemeetingthebeacon delayrequirementsofITSandsupportingthebackgroundtraffic.Thepaperconcludesthatthe combinationof802.11pandLTEmaybethebestsolutionfortheITS.Morespecifically,the802.11pis foundtobemoresuitableforthecooperativeroadsafetyclassbecauseofitsextremelylowbeacon latencies.LTEisfoundtobemoresuitableforthecooperativetrafficefficiencyclassandthe Cooperativelocalservicesandinternetclassbecauseofitslargecapacity,range,andreasonablylow latencies. While[Trichias_LTS_ITS]providesagoodpreliminaryviewofthepotentialLTEapplicationsforITS,the simulatorcanbeenhancedforamorecomprehensiveandrealisticperformanceevaluation.For example,multipleeNodeBsalongahighwaycanbemodeledinsteadofasinglecelltoincorporatemore realisticeffectsofoutofcellinterferenceandhandover.BothCAMsandeventtriggeredmessagescan beincorporated.Inadditiontotheuplink,downlinkcanalsobesimulated.TheeNodeBswithtwocells andhighgaindirectionalantennascanbemodeledtofocusonhighwaysinsteadofmodelingomni directionaleNodeBsthatcoverthehighwayandotherlargeareas.TheLMSLTEdedicatedtotheITS applicationswouldbemoreappropriate,eliminatingtheneedfornonITSbackgroundtraffic.SkyTel maysponsorresearchtoenhancethecapabilitiesofsuchsimulatorandtocarryoutsuitableproofof theconceptfieldtesting.

Apurenetworkbasedlocationsolutionwouldhavedifficultymeetingthenearinstantaneous communicationlatencyrequirementsneedsforcertainITSapplicationssuchasthoseinthecooperative safetyclassasidentifiedby[Trichias_LTS_ITS].However,SkyTelplanstointegrateLTEITSwithoneor moreoftheauxiliarytechnologiesandmechanismssuchasonboardNRTKGPS,DSRC,inertial navigationsystem(INS)components,andhighaccuracydigitalmaps.Suchintegratedsolution envisionedbySkyTelwillovercomelimitationsofthepureLTEITSsolutionandresultinacomplete solutionforcombinedhighaccuracyITSandgeneralcommunicationsservices.SkyTelsintegrated solutionwillenablethevehicleanditsdrivertohaveconstantknowledgeofitsownlocationandits surroundingssuchasroadboundaries,roadsideobstacles,roadconditions,andproximitytoother vehicles.TheonboardITSINSunitinconjunctionwithDSRCforthevehicletovehicle(V2V)linkscan givenearinstantaneouswarningswhenneededtoavoidaccidents.Furthermore,theintegrated solutionwillfacilitateefficientflowofhighwaytrafficviaoptimalspacingofvehicleslaterallyand longitudinallyandbydeterminingmostefficientvehiclespeeds.Insummary,theissueofnon instantaneouscommunicationlinksinLTEcanbereliablyaddressedbyexploitingotherreadilyavailable technologiessuchasNRTKGPS,DSRC,andINS.Furthermore,theLTEbasedsolutionwillcontinueto derivebenefitsfromthevastLTEandLTEAdvancedecosystemandwillcosteffectivelyofferavarietyof ITSandnonITSservices. (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

Respectivelysubmitted, __________________________________ (N.D.Tripathi) August2012 (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

References
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[MSF_LCS_LTE]MultiServiceForum,MSFWhitepaperonLocationServicesinLTENetworks,April 2010,http://www.msforum.org/techinfo/reports/MSFTRSERVICES005FINAL.pdf. [Ericsson_Positioning_LTE]Ericsson,PositioningwithLTE,September2011, http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/WPLTEpositioning.pdf. [Ranta_Positioning_LTE]KarriRantaaho(NokiaSiemensNetworks),Performanceof3GPPRel9LTE positioningmethods,2ndInvitationalWorkshoponOpportunisticRFLocalizationforNextGeneration WirelessDevices,June1314,2010. [NRTK_Langley]http://www.gpsworld.com/gnsssystem/algorithmsmethods/innovationnetworkrtk 3485?page_id=1 [NRTK_Ireland]http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2012/papers/ts05b/TS05B_martin_mcgovern_5582.pdf [Ericsson_eMBMS]http://www.ericsson.com/news/1589080 [Qualcomm_eMBMS]http://www.qualcomm.com/media/releases/2012/02/27/qualcomm demonstrateltebroadcastmobileworldcongress [LTEAdvanced_Deployments] http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/attdeploylteadvanced2013/20111108 [Japan_700_900]JapaneseMinistryofInternalAffairsandCommunications,WorkingGroupon DiscussionofFrequenciesNeededtoRealizeWirelessBroadbandServicesReport,ActionPlanfor FrequencyReorganizationtowardRealizingWirelessBroadband,November30,2010, http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_sosiki/joho_tsusin/eng/councilreport.html. [ETSI_LTE_ITS]ETSI,TR102962,IntelligentTransportSystems(ITS);FrameworkforPublicMobile NetworksinCooperativeITS(CITS),V1.1.1,February,2012, http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_tr/102900_102999/102962/01.01.01_60/tr_102962v010101p.pdf [ResearchAndMarkets_LTE_ITS] http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20120223006164/en/ResearchMarketsDevelopmental TrendsIntelligentTransportation [Fowler_LTE_ITS]http://webstaff.itn.liu.se/~scofo47/WebPage%20LTEBE/ [Trichias_LTE_ITS]KonstantinosTrichias,ModelingandEvaluationofLTEinIntelligentTransportation Systems,MasterofScienceThesis,UniversityofTwente,October2011. [Wireless_Harmonization]WirelessWirelessCommunicationsForPublicServicesAndPrivate Enterprises,Harmonisationrequiredtocreateglobalmarketforcriticalcomms,May9,2012, http://www.wireless mag.com/Features/20983/Harmonisation_required_to_create_global_market_for_critical_communicati ons.aspx

. [Japan_700MHz_Feb2012]JapaneseMinistryofInternalAffairsandCommunications,Technical RequirementsforMobileCommunicationsSystemsUsing700MHzBands,February17,2012. [Softbank_900MHz_HSPA+]GlobalTelecomsBusiness,SoftbankpicksEricssonfor900MHz3Gnet, http://www.globaltelecomsbusiness.com/Article/3001240/SoftbankpicksEricssonfor900MHz3G net.html. [Softbank_FDD_TDD_LTE]FierceBroadbandWireless,SoftbankaddingFDDLTEtoits3GandTDLTE arsenal,April17,2012,http://www.fiercebroadbandwireless.com/story/softbankaddingfddlteits3g andtdltearsenal/20120417. [Softbank_TDLTE_May2012]C114,Softbankdevelops30,000subsonTDLTEnetwork,May2,2012, http://www.cnc114.net/2503/a687200.html. [Softbank_TDLTE_Band]CarolineGabriel,Softbanklaunches"pseudoTDLTE"services,February24, 2012,http://www.telecomasia.net/content/softbanklaunchespseudotdlteservices. [Softbank_TDLTE_Bandwidth]C114,"Ovumcomment:SoftbanktolaunchTDLTEservice,"January12, 2012,http://www.cnc114.net/2503/a665410.html. [LTE_LowBandDeployments]ChrisPerera,"BenefitsofaTechnologyNeutralLicensingRegime,"May8, 2012, http://www.mastel.or.id/files/08%20Chris%20Perera%20Technology%20Neutral%20licensing%20Jakart a%20May%202012%20FINAL.pdf. [Telstra_900MHz_1]CarolineGabriel,Telstraleadingchargeto900MHzLTE,May08,2012, http://www.telecomasia.net/node/25049. [Telstra_900MHz_2]JamesHutchinson,"Telstrasparks900MHzLTEmovement,"March23,2012, http://www.itnews.com.au/News/294712,telstrasparks900mhzltemovement.aspx. [Sprint_LTE_FDD_1900MHz_1]PhilGoldstein,"Sprintinksatleast10dealstowholesaleLTEcapacity," March8,2012,http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/sprintinksleast10dealswholesalelte capacity/20120308. [Sprint_LTE_FDD_1900MHz_2]EricM.Zeman,"Sprint'sLTEtoLaunchOn1900MHzOnly,"January10, 2012,http://www.phonescoop.com/articles/article.php?a=9639. [Sprint_LTE_FDD_800MHz]PhilGoldstein,"FCCapprovesuseofLTEin800MHzband,openingdoorfor Sprint"May25,2012,http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/fccapprovesuselte800mhzband openingdoorsprint/20120525.

[Power]FCC,InthematterofAmendmentofPart90oftheCommission'sRulestoAdoptRegulations forAutomaticVehicleMonitoringSystems,PRDocketNo.9361,Order,FCC9541,10FCCRcd4695; 1995FCCLEXIS763;77Rad.Reg.2d(P&F)84,ReleasedFebruary6,1995. [FCCEmission]FCC,90.210,90.210Emissionmasks,47CFRCh.I(10111Edition), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR2011title47vol5/pdf/CFR2011title47vol5sec90210.pdf [3GPP_LTE_900MHz]3GPP,TR37.804,UMTS/LTEin900MHzbandStudyItemTechnicalReport, Release11,V1.0.0,June2012. [Sprint_Band25]http://newsroom.sprint.com/news/sierrawireless4gltetrifihotspotfactsheet.htm (Therestofthispageisintentionallyleftblank.)

AUTHORSVITA NishithD.Tripathi,Ph.D. 419StonebridgeCircle,Allen,TX75013 Tel.:2144773516andEmail:ntripathi123@att.net


AREASOFEXPERTISE

LTE(EUTRANandEPC),LTEAdvanced,WiMAX,1xEVDO(Rev.0andRev.A),UMTS R99,HSDPA,HSUPA,HSPA+,CDMA20001xRTT,IS95,CDMA,OFDM,OFDMA,Advanced AntennaTechnologies,IPrelatedTechnologies,IMS


PUBLICATIONS Author of an upcoming book (with Jeffrey H. Reed), Cellular Communications: A Comprehensive and Practical Guide, Accepted for Publication by IEEE/Wiley, 2012. (Book Contents: Introduction to Cellular Communications, Elements of a Digital Communication System, Radio Propagation, IP Fundamentals, GSM, GPRS, EDGE, IS95, CDMA2000 1xRTT, R99 UMTS/WCDMA, 1xEVDO Rev. 0, HSDPA, 1xEVDO Rev. A, HSUPA, HSPA+, IMS, Emerging 4G Technologies) Author of a book (with Jeffrey H. Reed and Hugh F. VanLandingham), Radio Resource ManagementinCellularSystems,KluwerAcademicPublishers,2001. Contributor(WithJeffreyH.Reed)tothearticle,TechnicalChallengesinApplyingNetwork NeutralityRegulationstoWirelessSystems,inthebooktitledNetNeutrality:Contributionsto theDebate,EditedbyJorgePerezMartinez,2011. Author of one chapter in the book, NeuroFuzzy and FuzzyNeural Applications in Telecommunications,EditorPeterStavroulakis,Springer,April2004. EXPERIENCE AWARDSOLUTIONS PrincipalConsultant March04toPresent

Successfully launched a new program to ensure and develop SME (Subject Matter Expert) expertise in the areas of LTE RAN and Ethernetbased Backhaul. Developed processes and plans to facilitate SME certification. Devised expertise development plans,onlinetests,anddefensetests.Directedtheoraldefensemeetingsforthefinal stageofSMEcertification. Managed and led SMEs for following course development projects: LTE Bootcamp Phase II (Topics: Endtoend Data Sessions in LTEEPC, PCC: QoS and Charging Architecture for LTE, Voice over LTE (VoLTE) using IMS, Voice services using CSFB and

SRVCC, LTE and eHRPD Interworking, LTE and GSM/UMTS interworking, and LTE Advanced),andLTERadioNetworkPlanningandDesign. MentoredSMEstopreparethemtoteachtechnologiessuchasLTE,WiMAX,OFDM,and AdvancedAntennas. DevelopedcoursesonLTEAdvancedandTDLTE. Developed two sessions, TDLTE and Self Organizing Network (SON), as part of LTE BootcampPhaseIIforaninfrastructurevendor. EnhancedtheLTERadioNetworkPlanningandDesigncoursetoreflectconfigurationsof commercial deployments using LTE logfiles and to adhere to customerspecific RF designguidelines. ContinuedtoteachavarietyofLTEandHSPA+courses(e.g.,VoIP,IMS,andIPv6forLTE andHSPA+Signaling)atnewandexistingclients. DeliveredseveralwebbasedsessionsofLTEBootcampPhaseII.

LeadSME

Taughtfirsttimeofferingsofcoursesatvariousclientstoacquirenewtrainingbusiness. Managed and guided SMEs for timely and qualitycontrolled completion of following course development projects: LTE/1xEVDO Interworking, EPC Overview, HSPA+ Overview, Fundamentals of RF Engineering, IP Convergence Overview, and Advanced AntennaTechniques. Devisedandimplementedstrategiestomaximizethequalityofprojectdeliverablesand toacceleratethecompletionofthedeliverables.

SMECourseDevelopment

Developed an indepth LTE Bootcamp Series for an infrastructure vendor (Topics: EPS Network Architecture, OFDMA/SCFDMA, Radio Channels, System Acquisition & Call Setup,DL&ULTrafficOperations,Handover,andAntennaTechniques). Developed numerous instructorled and webbased training courses by working in a team environment (Examples: Interworking of LTE with 1xEVDO & 1xRTT, LTE Air Interface, WiMAX Essentials, WiMAX Network Planning, UMB, 1xEVDO, HSUPA, MultipleAntennaTechniques,andIPConvergence). Example Course Contents: Network architecture, air interface features, DL & UL data transmission,callsetup,handover/handoff,resourcemanagement,andinterworking. Designedoutlinesforseveralnewcourses.

SeniorConsultantTraining

Taughtinpersonandwebbased(viaWebExandLiveMeeting)coursesatmajorchipset manufacturers, infrastructure & device vendors, service operators, and testtool vendors. Delivered an indepth LTE bootcamp multiple times for a major LTE infrastructure vendor.

Area Expertise: LTE Radio Network Planning & Design (including Certification), Interworking of LTE with (1xEVDO, 1xRTT, UMTS, and GERAN), LTE Protocols & Signaling, LTE Air Interface, WiMAX Networks and Signaling, 1xEVDO Optimization, 1xEVDORev.0andRev.A,IPFundamentals,HSDPA/HSUPA/HSPA+,UMTSR4/R5Core Networks,UMTSNetworkPlanningandDesign Strivedtomakethetrainingexperiencefullofrelevantknowledgeandtomaximizethe valueoftrainingtostudents. January10toPresent

VIRGINIATECH AdjunctProfessor

Cotaughtthecellularcommunicationsclass. Developedandpresentedthelecturematerial. Designedandgradedquizzes. October01toMarch04

HUAWEITECHNOLOGIES

ProductManagerandSeniorSystemsEngineer WorkedwithengineerstoresolvenumerousfieldtrialissuesforCDMA2000systems. DefinedtestproceduresforvariousfeaturestoevaluateperformanceoftheCDMA2000 product. DesignedadvancedRLMACandPowerControlalgorithmsfora1xEVDOSystem. Designed various highperformance radio resource management (RRM) algorithms for the CDMA2000 base station and base station controller. Major designed features include adaptiveforwardlinkandreverselinkcalladmissioncontrolalgorithms,dynamicFSCHrate and burst duration assignment algorithms, RSCH rate assignment algorithm, FSCH burst extensionandterminationmechanisms,schedulers,forwardlinkandreverselinkoverload detection and control algorithms, SCH soft handoff algorithm, FSCH power control parameterassignmentmechanism,adaptiveradioconfigurationassignmentalgorithm,load balancingalgorithm,andcellbreathingalgorithm. Worked on the design of an RRM simulator to evaluate the performance of call admissioncontrol,loadcontrol,andschedulingalgorithmsforaCDMA2000system. Designedsystemlevelandnetworklevelsimulatorstoevaluatethecapacitygainofthe smartantennabasedUMTSsystemsemployingmultiplebeams. Reviewed UMTS RRM design and proposed enhancements related to call admission control,cellbreathing,loadbalancing,softcapacitycontrol,potentialusercontrol,andAMR control. Educated engineers through presentations to facilitate development of the 1xEVDO product. Ledateamofengineerstodefineacomprehensivesimulationtoolsetconsistingoflink level simulator, system level simulator, and network level simulator to evaluate performanceofCDMAsystemsincludingIS95,IS2000,1xEVDO,1xEVDV,andUMTS. Managed a group of engineers, prepared project plans, and established efficient processestomeettherequirementsoftheCDMA2000BSCproductline.

NORTELNETWORKS SeniorEngineer RadioResourceManagement,July99toSept.01 DevelopedacomprehensiveRRMsimulatorthatmodelsdatatrafficandmajorfeatures oftheMAClayerandphysicallayer.AnalyzedvariousaspectsoftheRRMforseveraltest cases.Theperformanceresultssuchascapacityandthroughputwereusedineducatingthe serviceprovidersontheRRMforIS2000systems. Proposed a generic call admission control algorithm and filed a patent with the U.S. PatentOffice. ManagementofSupplementalChannels,June00toSept.01 Designed and analyzed supplemental channel management for enhanced data performanceandfiledapatentwiththeU.S.PatentOffice. DataTrafficModeling,Jan.99toSept.01 Preparedacommonframeworkfordatatrafficmodelsforanalysisofsystemscarrying data (e.g., 1xRTT and UMTS). Types of analysis include RF capacity, endtoend performance, and provisioning. The data models for telnet, WWW, ftp, email, FAX, and WAPservicesareconsidered. MultiCarrierTrafficAllocation,June99toSept.01 Provided MCTA capacity improvements (compared to nonMCTA systems) that proved to be identical to the ones observed during the fieldtesting. Developed a method to estimatetheMCTAcapacityusingthefielddata.ThismethodwasusedinestimatingMCTA capacitygainsbyRFengineeringteams. SmartRateandRelatedVocoderDesigns(e.g.,SMV),June99toSept.01 ProvidedestimatesofSmartRatecapacityimprovementsthatwerefoundtobecloseto theobservedcapacitygainsinthefieldtests. CDMABasedFixedWirelessAccessSystems,Sept.97toDec.98 Capacity Estimates. Determined the system capacity for a variety of configurations usinganIS95basedsimulator.Theseconfigurationsincludedifferentratessuchas9.6kbps and 13 kbps, different deployment scenarios such as 2tier embedded sector and border sector, and different diversity techniques such as switch antenna diversity and phase sweeping transmit diversity. These capacity estimates were used for various project bids. The simulator utilizes propagation channel models extracted from the actual field measurements. HandoffandPowerControlAlgorithms.Analyzedexistinghandoffandpowercontrol mechanismsforfixedwirelesssystemsandproposednewapproaches. September97toSeptember01

Bridge between the Simulator and a Deployed System. Developed a procedure to estimatetheloadinglevelforthesimulatorsothatthecapacityestimatefromthesimulator isclosetotheachievedcapacityinrealsystems. SwitchAntennaDiversitySchemes.Proposedthreealgorithmstoexploitmobileswitch antennadiversity.TheseschemesprovidealowcostsolutionthatsignificantlyenhancesRF capacity. Combined Overhead Power and Handoff Management. Proposed a method of combinedmanagementofoverheadchannelpowerandhandofftoimprovecapacity.
Educator

Made presentations on topics such as data modeling, fixed wireless systems, and AI tools. Taught"IntroductiontoWireless"classatNortel. Preparedtutorialsonthestandardssuchas1xRTT,1xEVDO,andUMTS. VIRGINIATECH January93toAugust97

Research/Teaching Assistant, Mobile & Portable Radio Research Group (MPRG), Electrical Engineering Developedadaptiveintelligenthandoffalgorithmstopreserveandenhancethecapacity andtheQualityofServiceofcellularsystems. Helpeddevelopandteachanewwirelesscommunicationscourse(DSPImplementation ofCommunicationSystems)aspartofanNSFsponsoredcurriculuminnovationsprogram. Implementeddifferentsubsystemsofacommunicationsystem(e.g.,adigitaltransmitter,a carrier recovery system, a code synchronizer, and a symbol timing recovery system) using theTexasInstrumentsTMS320C30DSPdevelopmentsystem. Refinedtheclassmaterialforundergraduateandgraduatesignalprocessingclasses. Investigated different aspects involved in dualmode adaptive reconfigurable receivers aspartofaprojectsponsoredbyTexasInstruments. PATENTS/DRAFTS (AUTHOR/CO-AUTHOR) Enhanced Power Control Algorithms for CDMABased Fixed Wireless Systems, Patent Number6,587,442,FiledDate:October28,1999. Method and apparatus for managing a CDMA supplemental channel, Patent Number 6,862,268,FiledDate:December29,2000. Dynamic Power Partitioning Based Radio Resource Management Algorithm, Patent DisclosureNo.:11942RR,FiledDate:August23,2000. SwitchAntennaDiversityTechniquesattheTerminaltoEnhanceCapacityofCDMASystems, PatentDisclosureNo.RR2544,FiledDate:June19,1998. AdaptiveRadioConfigurationAssignmentforaCDMASystem,October2003. MulticarrierLoadBalancingforMixedVoiceandDataServices,October2003. MethodologyforHierarchicalandSelectiveOverloadControlonForwardandReverseLinks inaCDMASystem,October2003. ANewPredictiveMultiuserSchedulingSchemeforCDMASystems,November2003. ANewMethodforSolvingACKCompressionProblembyGeneratingTCKACKsbasedonRLP ACKsontheReverseLink,October2003.

ACTIVITIES MemberofIEEE.ReviewedresearchpapersfortheIEEETransactionsonVehicularTechnology, IEEElectronicsLettersandtheIEEEControlSystemsMagazine. EDUCATION VIRGINIAPOLYTECHNICINSTITUTE&STATEUNIVERSITY Blacksburg,VA

Ph.D.,WirelessCommunications,August1997,OverallGPA:3.8/4.0 Dissertation:Genericadaptivehandoffalgorithmsusingfuzzylogicandneuralnetworks

M.S.,ElectricalEngineering,November1994,OverallGPA:3.8/4.0

GUJARATUNIVERSITY Ahmedabad,India

B.S.,ElectricalEngineering,September1992