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All 45 Bugs Microbiology 1.

Staphylococcus aureus Habitat / reservoir: Normal human skin flora, nose Morphology and virulence factors: Gram positive coccus. - Protein A, exotoxins, carotenoid pigment, staphyloxantin Disease(s): Mild to severe- pimples, boils, cellulitis, pneumonia, meningitis, osteomelytis, endocarditis, TSS, bacteremia, sepsis, nosocomial infections, MRSA. Signs and Symptoms: localized abscess, boil, or furuncle. The affected area may be red, swollen, or with pus. When in the blood, it can cause fever, chills. Transmission: from person to person or cross contamination. Lab Diagnosis: commonly diagnosed by their appearance without the need for laboratory testing. More serious staphylococcal infections such as infection of the bloodstream, pneumonia, and endocarditis require culturing of samples of blood or infected fluids. Treatment and Prevention: Minor skin infections are usually treated with an antibiotic ointment, or oral antibiotics. Abscesses are surgically drained. More serious and lifethreatening infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic depends on the susceptibility of the particular staphylococcal strain. MRSA is resistant to many antibiotics. No vaccine is available. Since the bacteria are so widespread and cause so many different diseases, prevention of Staph infections requires attention to the risk factors.

Immunity: Methicillin resistant. Special Comments: It is a super bug!


Streptococcus pyogenes Habitat / reservoir: Human; no other known reservoir. Morphology and virulence factors: is a spherical, gram positive bacterium that is the
cause of group A. S. pyogenes displays streptococcal group A antigen in its cell wall. M protein and lipotheioic acid, hyaluronic acid.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Disease(s): ranging from mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic

diseases. For example, strep throat, scarlet fever, impetigo

Signs and Symptoms: Fever, rash, swelling of tonsils, headaches, muscle aches,
confusion, seizures.

Transmission: cross contamination from human to human. Lab Diagnosis: A throat swab is taken to the lab,gram stained, then cultured with
blood agar/bacitracin.

Treatment and Prevention: Penicillin is the most effective treatment. May use macrolides, chloramphenicol, and tetracyclines. No vaccines are currently

Immunity: No immunity, but specific protective antibody has shown after 45 years. Special Comments: Opportunistic pathogen. 3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Habitat / reservoir: Human genitals, Morphology and virulence factors: (gonococci) gram negative diplococcic. Type IV pili, twitching motility. Disease(s): Gonorrhea. Clamydia is a co-infection. Signs and Symptoms: Depend on the site of infection. 10% infected males and 80% infected females are asymptomatic. Purulent discharge in genitalia, foul smelling. Inflammation, swelling, redness, dysuria, burning/painful urination. It can also cause conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, proctitis, urethritis, prostatits and orchitis. Transmission: Sexually transmited disease. Lab Diagnosis: May get false positive results. Confirmatory test are needed. Inoculation of swab directly into a special medium. Treatment and Prevention: Avoid sexual contact with infected individuals, limit sexual partners Immunity: No vaccine is available Special Comments: Can cause eye infection on the baby passing through birth canal. Signs and symptoms can be nonexistent on females.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology


Neisseria meningitides Habitat / reservoir: Humans only. Morphology and virulence factors: ANTIGENS- Capsular polysaccharide, 13 serogroups, 5 Classes. Serogroups further subdivided into 20 serotypes, pili. Meningococcal, capsular. Disease(s): Meningitis Signs and Symptoms: Fatigue, fever headaches, neck stiffness, coma, death. Transmission: Exchange of saliva or respiratory secretions, coughing, kissing, chewing toys, airborne droplets. Lab Diagnosis: A blood work up and cerebrospinal fluid testing are the most common
test to diagnose meningitis. In a clinical setting the CSF is tested by a polymerase chain reaction test which can detect meningococcal DNA, as well as gram-staining.

Treatment and Prevention: Treatment is usually Penicillin, unless penicillin is not an

option than a large variety of other antibiotics are effective such as Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and cefuroxime. There is a vaccine for Meningitis and it is recommended by the CDC to be taken before the finishing of high school.

Immunity: There is an acquired immunity to N. meningitides if the vaccine is taken


Special Comments: Bacterial etiology is S pneumonia. 5. Bacillus anthrasis

Reservoir: Infected animals, their hides, or meat. Biological weapons Morphology/virulence factors: Bacteria; Gram positive rods; spore-formers; edema factor and lethal factor toxins. Disease(s): Anthrax Signs and symptoms: Cutaneous anthrax- blackish eschars and edema; Gastrointestinal anthrax- fever, fatigue, sore throat, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,

All 45 Bugs Microbiology abdominal pain; Inhalation anthrax- flu-like symptoms, difficulty breathing, fever/hypothermia. Transmission: Airborne spread of spore, inoculation of spores into broken skin, ingestion of infected meat. Lab diagnosis: Gram stain, colony identification, and spore stain on blood samples or vesicular swabs. Treatment and prevention: Ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and penicillin are used as treatment. The live Sterne vaccine can be used in animals. Immunity: A vaccine is available, but it is only available to those at high-risk (military personnel and lab workers who regularly handle Bacillus anthracis.

Special Comments: Hope we have no more post office scares! 6. Clostridium tetani
Habitat/Reservoir: A normal flora of the intestinal tract of many animal species. Spores are ubiquitous in the environment. Morphology/virulence factors: Bacteria; Gram positive rods; spore-former; tetanospasmin and tetanolysin exotoxins. Disease(s): Tetanus. Signs and symptoms: Lockjaw, severe muscle spasms, paralysis. Transmission: By direct inoculation or airborne spread of spores. Lab diagnosis: No laboratory findings characteristic of tetanus. A spore stain could be performed, but diagnosis of tetanus is generally completely clinical and not dependent on bacterial confirmation. Treatment and prevention: Once contracted, penicillin stops the bacterial growth and administration of antiserum to tetanospasmin reduces symptoms. There is a vaccine for

All 45 Bugs Microbiology tetanus for both infants and adults. Infants must have a vaccination series of 4 doses given before 18 months of age. After that, children and adults should have a booster injection every 10 years to maintain their immune status. Immunity: Vaccinations are available for infants, children, and adults. Immunity is achieved by following the recommended vaccination schedule.


Clostridium botulinum
Habitat/Reservoir: An ubiquitous organism in the environment, present as spores. Morphology/virulence factors: Bacteria; Gram positive rods; spore-former; neurotoxins. Disease(s): Botulism. Signs and symptoms: Blurred vision, dysphagia, slurred speech, symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis. Transmission: Contaminated food. Lab diagnosis: Brain scan, CSF examination, EMG, tensilon test for myasthenia gravis. Treatment and prevention: Treatment with antitoxin and a ventilator, if the patient has experienced respiratory failure. The disease can be prevented be ensuring all foods are cooked thoroughly to kill any residual spores. Immunity: There is no vaccine available, therefore immunity cannot be achieved.

Special Comments: Used to dissipate wrinkles, treat migraines.. I will use!!

8. Etiologic agent Clostridium perfringes Reservoir/Host Found in nature. It is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, marine sediment, in insects, and even in the human intestinal tract. Morphology and Virulence Gram positive rods, spore forming, anaerobic bacteria. Diseases best known for food poisoning. It is also typical in infections such as bacteremia, necrosis, cholecystitis, and gas gangrene.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Signs and Symptoms stomach pain, cramping, diarrhea. This is rarely fatal Transmission Usually by eating contaminated food. Since its anaerobic it doesnt usually transfer person to person. Lab Diagnosis grown on blood agar plates. Visual confirmation of bacteria. Rough, flat, translucent colonies. Treatment and Prevention Prevention is the key. Avoid contact with the bacteria if possible. Good hygene and washing hands with soapy water is the best way to prevent infection. If infection does occur, there is no specified treatment or cure. Supportive care with IV fluids and controlling pain while waiting for the bacteria to run its course is the usual treatment plan. Immunity No natural immunity and currently no vaccine is available since it is normal flora for our GI tract. Special Comments 3rd most common food-borne illness.

9. Etiologic agent Corynebacterium diptheriae (diphtheria) Reservoir/Host usually asymptomatic human carriers house the bacteria in the upper respiratory tract. Morphology and Virulence Aerobic, gram positive bacillus. Highly virulent Diseases Anterior Nasal Diphtheria, Pharyngeal/Tonsillar Diphtheria, Laryngeal Diphtheria, and Cutaneous Diphtheria. Signs and Symptoms difficulty breathing or swallowing, double vision, slurred speech, sore throat, low fever. Sometimes signs of shock occur. Transmission person to person via airborne droplets. Lab Diagnosis gram stain for visual confirmation. They are gram positive, pleomorphic with no particular arrangement. Culture on enriched medium and selective medium with tellurite produces brown colonies. Treatment and Prevention prevent by avoiding contact with infected persons. Once acquired, its treated with erythromycin. Procaine penicillin G can be given IM. Severe Patients are hospitalized and given a diphtheria anti-toxin. Immunity Diphtheria booster is available Special Comments 5%-10% fatality rate 10. Etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reservoir/Host humans are the only reservoir

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Morphology and Virulence Gram positive rods. Obligate aerobe. Highly contagious Diseases Upper respiratory TB Signs and Symptoms coughing up blood/sputum, fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, chills. Latent TB infections have no symptoms, only a positive TB test Transmission airborne droplets Lab Diagnosis acid fast staining, fluorescent microscopy. TB skinn test, blood test indicating TB, abnormal chest x-ray, positive sputum smear. Treatment and Prevention prevention is avoiding close contact with infected persons, wearing proper attire while caring for infected patient. Treatment is a cocktail of drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol) over 2-7 months. Immunity BCG is a vaccine for TB, but only used for infants and young children where TB is common. Special Comments People with HIV usually die from TB 11. Etiologic agent Bordetella pertussis Reservoir/Host upper respiratory system in humans Morphology and Virulence small, gram negative, aerobic coccobacillus. Highly contagious Diseases Whooping cough Signs and Symptoms common cold symptoms with progressively worsening cough. whooping sound when breathing. Incubation is 7-10 days but can last up to 3 weeks. Transmission person to person by direct contact with airborne droplets Lab Diagnosis gram stain of nasopharyngeal culture. Bordet-Gengou agar with added cephalosporin should produce mercury-drop colonies. Treatment and Prevention typically use antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Azithromycin, or Clarithromycin Immunity Pertussis vaccine as part of TDaP vaccine Special Comments not usually fatal 12. Etiologic agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reservoir/Host soil and water sources, also found in humans and animals. Thrives on moist surfaces, so also found on medical equipment such as catheters. Morphology and Virulence GN bacillus, aerobic. Opportunistic pathogen

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Diseases ear infections, UTIs, hot tub rashes. This is the most common cause of infection in burn victims. Signs and Symptoms skin lesions, cough, fever, chills, ear aches, inflammation of infection site, sepsis. Signs and symptoms depend largely of the site of infection. Transmission ingestion, contact, but primarily nosocomial infection in the hospital setting. Lab Diagnosis EMB, oxidase test, MacConkey agar, gram staining Treatment and Prevention antibiotics (gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin). Immunity none Special Comments Honey may reduce colonization. 1:10 hospital-acquired infections 13. Etiologic agent Yersinia pestis Reservoir/Host fleas inhabiting rodents (mainly in the U.S. Morphology and Virulence GN bacillus. Galcultative anaerobe. Category A pathogen (CDC) Diseases Bubonic plague, Septicemic plaque, Pneumonic plague Signs and Symptoms lethargy, fever, headache, chills, swollen tender lymphnodes, Lymph glands often hot to the touch. Transmission human to human via aerosol. Animal to animal and animal to human via infected flea bites. Lab Diagnosis gram staining, Anti-F1 serology test to differentiate species. Treatment and Prevention antibiotics within the first 24 hrs with streptomycin, cholramphenicol, tetracycline, flouroquinolones, doxycycline, or gentamicin. Prevention with environmental sanitation and preventing bites by educating the public Immunity none Special Comments Last plague in U.S. was in LA from 1924-1925 14. Etiologic agent Salmonella typhi Reservoir/Host Human Morphology and Virulence Gram Negative short bacillus. Motile via peritrichous flagella Diseases Typhoid fever Signs and Symptoms fever, stomach pain, weakness, headache, loss of appetite. Occasionally flat rose-colored rashes develop.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Transmission oral transmission, shellfish, and contaminated water sources. Lab Diagnosis MacConkey agar, lactose, TSA plating, or stool and blood samples Treatment and Prevention antibiotics mainly ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Prevention involves only drinking and using fresh water and thoroughly cooking raw foods. Immunity two vaccines Ty21a (oral) and ViCPS (injected) Special Comments most common in people between 5 and 19 years of age. 15. Etiologic agent Shigella dysenteriae Reservoir/Host water. Mainly lakes and rivers Morphology and Virulence gram negative, non spore-forming, facultative anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria. Diseases shigelasis and diarrhea Signs and Symptoms diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps Transmission contaminated water and food prepared in contaminated water. Person to person, and drinking, swimming in, or playing in contaminated water Lab Diagnosis stool specimen Treatment and Prevention prevention is proper hand washing, using clean water for drinking, cooking, and bathing, and avoiding possible infected water sources. Treatment is a course of antibiotics such as ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin (in adults) Immunity none Special Comments - Every year, about 14,000 cases of shigellosis are reported in the United States 16. Etiologic agent Hemophilus influenza Reservoir/Host nasopharyngeal cavity Morphology and Virulence gram negative coccobacillus, in a capsule, aerobic Diseases bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute bacterial meningitis. Sometimes it can cause cellulitis, osteomyelitis, epiglottitis, or joint infections Signs and Symptoms flue like symptoms fever, chills, headaches, cough, fatigue Transmission droplets expelled into the air Lab Diagnosis bacterial culture, CSF testing, blood test for enzyme linked immunoassay, culture on nutrient agar ideally on chocolate agar

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Treatment and Prevention prevention is avoiding close contact with someone who is infected. Treatment is bed rest and antibiotics Immunity there is a vaccine for type B of H. influenza Special Comments H. influenza is not affected by our immune system. 17. Etiologic agent Escherichia coli Reservoir/Host present in normal flora in the human GI tract Morphology and Virulence gram negative bacillus, anaerobic. Diseases food poisoning Signs and Symptoms stomach cramps, blood in stool, diarrhea. Can also cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness, and pneumonia. Transmission ingestion of contaminated food, drinking unpasteurized milk, infected water, contact with cattle Lab Diagnosis MacConkey agar, EMB plate, TSA, MR tests, and stool samples Treatment and Prevention treatment is a strong course of antibiotics. Prevention involves thoroughly cooking raw meat, keeping hydrated, and maintaining proper hygiene habits. Immunity None since E. coli is normal flora Special Comments As weve seen, it is commonly used as a teaching tool in microbiology 18. Etiologic agent Vibrio cholera Reservoir/Host plankton in fresh and salt water Morphology and Virulence Gram negative bacilli with polar flagellum Diseases cholera Signs and Symptoms diarrhea, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, high pulse Transmission fecal-oral, drinking or cooking with infected water, and sometimes eating raw shellfish Lab Diagnosis stool samples before introduction of antibiotics Treatment and Prevention prevention is avoiding using infected water. Treatment is IV antibiotic therapy using broad spectrum antibiotics Immunity there is a vaccine available overseas Special Comments death can occur within hours with most cases occurring in Africa

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

19. Etiologic agent Treponema pallidum Reservoir/Host humans Morphology and Virulence gram negative spirochetes Diseases syphilis Signs and Symptoms There are four stages to the disease. Stage 1: soreness at site of infection (genitals, rectum, mouth). Stage 2: generalized aches and pains, internal organ damage. Later stages: uncoordinated muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, increasing blindness, dementia, and possibly death. Transmission sexually transmitted or mother-child during birth Lab Diagnosis dark field microscopy, immunofluorescence testing. Treatment and Prevention benzathine penicillin treats it. Safe sex practices or abstinence are most effective prevention methods. Immunity none Special Comments Vincent Van Gogh had syphilis 20. Etiologic agent Toxoplasma gondii Reservoir/Host cats. Can be carried by all mammals though Morphology and Virulence banana shaped protozoa. Crescent shaped during developmental cycle Diseases Toxoplasmosis Signs and Symptoms typically asymptomatic. When symptoms do occur they are tender lymph nodes and sore muscles. Can cause miscarriage, stillborns, or developmental impairments if acquired by a fetus of an infected mother. Transmission food borne, animal to human, mother to child Lab Diagnosis serologic testing measuring IgG Treatment and Prevention most recover without treatment. Antibiotics can treat infected people. Prevention is cooking food enough, changing the litterbox daily and not at all if you are pregnant, and keeping cats indoors where they cant pick up new diseases. Immunity none Special Comments Very harmful to fetus, so women should have men clean the litter box. 21. Etiologic agent Plasmodium falciparum

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Reservoir/Host parasites living in human blood stream and mosquitoes. Hidden from immune system while inside red blood cells Morphology and Virulence protozoa Diseases malaria Signs and Symptoms headache, nausea, fever, vomiting. In severe cases confusion, neurological issues, and sometimes death. Transmission female Anopheles mosquitoes Lab Diagnosis blood smear Treatment and Prevention antimalarials as treatment and prevention. Mosquito control is most effective prevention. Immunity no real effective vaccine, but red blood cell polymorphisms usually result in natural immunity Special Comments still kills over one million people every year 22. Etiologic agent Dengue Fever Reservoir/Host yellow fever mosquito and Asian tiger mosquitoes (which feed during the day) Morphology and Virulence RNA viruses belonging to Flaviviridae family Diseases Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Dengue shock syndrome, Dengue fever Signs and Symptoms sudden fever, severe headache, myalgias, arthralgias, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic manifestations. Its the possible shock and hemorrhaging that leads to death. Transmission Mosquitoes Lab Diagnosis visual confirmation of the virus on a smear or testing for antibodies. Treatment and Prevention Prevention is mainly about controlling the mosquito population. Treatment is supportive therapy, maintaining hydration. Immunity None Special Comments high risk in Asia, South America, and tropical climates. 23. Etiologic agent Coccidiodes immitis Reservoir/Host pathogenic fungus residing in soil. Morphology and Virulence spherical with spores. It is dimorphic, so it can live in room temperature and in body temperature

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Diseases valley fever Signs and Symptoms begins as lung disease and presents with flu-like symptoms. Fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, aches, sore throat, and coughing. Transmission inhalation of spores Lab Diagnosis visual confirmation of cells in body fluids and skin. There is also a test very similar to a TB test. Treatment and Prevention Amphoteracin B or azoles ketoconazole or itraconazole and common treatments. The best prevention is to avoid close contact with infected people and not eating soil/dirt. Immunity Once recovered from a mild case, immunity is the usual result. Special Comments Thrives in semi-arid regions. 24. Etiologic agent Candida albicans Reservoir/Host resides in certain yeast species Morphology and Virulence it is an opportunistic fungus Diseases produces infections of the mouth, nails, skin folds, vagina. Signs and Symptoms thick discharge and itching, creamy white, or bluish white patches on tongue. Transmission sexually transmitted, can occur with a change in normal flora. Lab Diagnosis blood tests and culture. A possible tissue biopsy may be needed. Treatment and Prevention prevention is keeping your skin clean, dry, and free of cuts. Antifungal creams exist. Immunity none Special Comments you can use crystal violet to prevent transmission between mother and child while breast feeling. 25. Etiologic agent Herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 Reservoir/Host human Morphology and Virulence a linear double stranded DNA enclosed in a capsid. Diseases Herpes type 1: cold stores. Herpes type 2: genital herpes Signs and Symptoms isolated itching, blisters on or in mucous membranes of any infected area mouth, lips, genitals, even eyes.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Transmission sexually transmitted via kissing, intercourse, or other intimate contact. Lab Diagnosis a blister swab, running a PCR, or visual diagnosis Treatment and Prevention prevention would be to avoid sexual contact with an infected person, especially while he/she is having an outbreak. Treatment is only for symptoms, as there is no cure. There are medications to help shorted and prevent outbreaks. Immunity there is no known immunity Special Comments most people minimal symptoms. 26. Etiologic agent Varicella zoster virus Reservoir/Host human Morphology and Virulence DNA enveloped virus. Closely related to the herpes virus. Highly contagious. Diseases chickenpox, shingles, and postherpetic neuralgia Signs and Symptoms skin rash in 2 or 3 waves, small open sores, fever, blister-like lesions covering body, usually concentrating on the face, scalp, and trunk. Transmission spread by coughing/sneezing, direct contact. Skin lesions can even aerosolize. Lab Diagnosis blood testing for acute immunologic response, T sanck smear, and visual diagnosis Treatment and Prevention can only treat symptoms by using anti-itch cream. The only prevention is maintaining good hygiene and avoiding infected people. Immunity there is now a vaccine to prevent the disease. Special Comments virus is susceptible to sodium hypochorite. 27. Etiologic agent Epstein barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4) Reservoir/Host humans Morphology and Virulence EBV is isolated in a linera, double stranded DNA. Its a viral disease that attacks the lymph nodes in neck and throat. Diseases mono Signs and Symptoms develops slowly starting with cold/flu like symptoms. Sore throat lasting 2+ weeks, swollen lymph nodes in neck, armpits, and groin, persistent fever, fatigue, malaise. Transmission contact with an infected persons saliva. It is not usually travel through the air. Lab Diagnosis diagnosis based on symptoms, serologic testing, and a mono spot test.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Treatment and Prevention there is no specific treatment and the disease is self-limiting. Immunity none Special Comments EBV seems to be a cause of chronic fatigue syndrome 28. Etiologic agent Hepatitis B virus Reservoir/Host human Morphology and Virulence enveloped virus Diseases hepatitis, and liver disease Signs and Symptoms jaundice, fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and possible death from liver failure. Transmission blood to blood, CSF, vaginal secretions, really any bodily fluids. Lab Diagnosis liver biopsy, serologic testing, assays Treatment and Prevention safe sex, abstinence, not sharing needles. Treatment by antiviral drugs such as lamivudine, adefovir, tenofovir, telbivudine, or entecavir Immunity a series of 3 vaccines that are usually good for life. Special Comments over 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with hep. B. 29. Etiologic agent Influenza virus Reservoir/Host humans, birds, animals Morphology and Virulence capsid layered virus enveloped in spikes. Diseases flu Signs and Symptoms chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness, lethargy Transmission droplets in the air by coughing or sneezing. Lab Diagnosis blood tests, viral tests Treatment and Prevention only symptoms can be treated. Prevention by covering nose/mouth when coughing/sneezing if infected, and staying away from infected people. Immunity there is a vaccine. A flu shot should be gotten every year for high risk individuals Special Comments the virus is easy to kill with uv rays, disinfectants, and detergents. 30. Etiologic agent Rubeole virus (Measles) Reservoir/Host humans

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Morphology and Virulence enveloped virus with a single stranded, negative-sense RNA. Virus resides in the mucus of the nose and throat. Highly contagious. Diseases measles, pneumonia or encephalitis can develop. german measles is the milder form of the disease Signs and Symptoms rash, high fever, cough, runny nose, red/watery eyes. Transmission spread by contact with infected person and by coughing and sneezing. Lab Diagnosis physical exam, blood tests, checking for measles IgM antibodies. Treatment and Prevention there is no specific treatment or cure for measles. Only treat the symptoms. Prevention would be avoiding infected people and practicing good hygiene Immunity MMR vaccine Special Comments it used to be very common and rarely developed complications 31. Etiologic agent Mumps virus (Mumps) Reservoir/Host human lymph nodes and upper respiratory tract Morphology and Virulence RNA virus in a helical nucleocapsid. Enveloped particles contain a lipid bilayer Diseases mumps, and rarely meningitis and encephalitis Signs and Symptoms fever, swollen salivary glands/parotid glands, and headaches Transmission airborne droplets, direct contact with infected saliva, sharing food/drinks, kissing. Virus can also survive on various surfaces Lab Diagnosis physical exam, testing saliva or blood, PCR tests Treatment and Prevention no specific treatments, just treating symptoms Immunity MMR vaccine Special Comments my dad had mumps through Christmas when he was young 32. Etiologic agent Rubella virus Reservoir/Host in human nasopharynx and lymph nodes Morphology and Virulence an enveloped togavirus with a single strand of RNA Diseases german measles (3 day measles) Signs and Symptoms rash and fever, fatigue, headaches, muscle aches

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Transmission spread by contact with infected person through coughing and sneezing. Airborne droplet emission from upper respiratory tract of active cases Lab Diagnosis rubella virus specific IgM antibodies Treatment and Prevention no specific treatment, just managing symptoms. Prevention by avoiding close contact with infected individuals Immunity MMR vaccine Special Comments can pose a serious threat to developing fetus if mother gets infected while pregnant. 33. Etiologic agent Rabies virus Reservoir/Host animals Morphology and Virulence ssRNA virus, bullet shaped, helical symmetry with envelope Diseases rabies Signs and Symptoms infecting CNS causing encephalopathy and ultimately death. Early symptoms are fever, headache, and general malaise. More progressed disease caused neurological symptoms, insomnia, anxiety, confusion, slight or partial paralysis, excitation, hallucinations, agitation, hyper salivation, confusion, difficulty swallowing, hydrophobia. Death usually occurs within days of symptom onset. Transmission saliva transmission from an animal bite. Lab Diagnosis test performed on bodily fluids, dFA testing Treatment and Prevention prevention is good hygiene, washing hands with soap and water, and avoiding infected animals. Rabies vaccine should be given asap, and continuing for 28 days Immunity none Special Comments stricter organ donation prerequisites now due to 3 people dying after receiving rabies infected organs. 34. Etiologic agent Hepatitis A, C, and D virus Reservoir/Host human Morphology and Virulence C is a single stranded RNA virus, A and D are nonenveloped single RNA viruses Diseases liver disease Signs and Symptoms Hep A: acute liver disease lasting weeks to months, does not lead to chronic infection. Hep C: mild to severe liver disease. Can lead to chronic liver disease or liver cancer. Hep D: seious liver disease relying on HBV to replicate.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Transmission contact with infectious blood, sharing needles, ingesting fecal matter, person to person, or ingesting contaminated food/drinks. Lab Diagnosis serum or blood tests Treatment and Prevention antipheron, and liver transplants help treat disease. Prevention is mainly avoiding skin contact with infected blood, and not sharing needles. Immunity Hep A has a vaccine, none for C or D. Special Comments Hepatitis is a lifer. 35. Etiologic agent Polio virus Reservoir/Host human throat and intestinal tract Morphology and Virulence enterovirus with protein capsid and single-stranded positive-sense RNA Diseases polio Signs and Symptoms minor symptoms: fever, fatigue, nausea, headache, flu-like symptoms, stiff neck/back, pain in limbs. Major symptoms: paralysis, disfigurement of spine/limbs Transmission fecal-oral, through contaminated food and water, or with direct contact with infected person Lab Diagnosis sampling throat/stool/CSF secretions Treatment and Prevention no cure. Treating symptoms and secondary infections. Prevention by avoiding contaminated food, water, and people Immunity polio vaccine. Special Comments paralysis from disease can lead to permanent disability 36. Etiologic agent Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) Reservoir/Host humans Morphology and Virulence part of the Herpesvirus genus. Diseases mainly affecting infants and newborns. Can cause Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and neural tube defects Signs and Symptoms temporary symptoms: liver problems, spleen problems, jaundice, lucg problems, low birth weight, seizures. Permanent symptoms: hearing loss, vision loss, mental disability, small head, lack of coordination, and even death. Transmission person to person through close contact with body fluids. CMV stays in the body for life.

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

Lab Diagnosis blood tests for CMV specific IgG antibodies Treatment and Prevention current drugs for disease have major side effects. Immunity none Special Comments the most common congenital infection in the U.S. 37. Etiologic agent Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Reservoir/Host humans Morphology and Virulence part of the Lentivirus genus. Single stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus. Diseases AIDS Signs and Symptoms no symptoms for many years. Once they do occur, they will get sick a lot more often due to a lowered immune system. Transmission bodily fluids blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, even breast milk. Transmitted mainly by unsafe sex, sharing needles, breast feeding, and from mother to child during birthing process. Lab Diagnosis HIV-1 test. Treatment and Prevention prevention is avoiding exposure to virus. Treatment for HIV is using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) Immunity no current vaccine. There have been sex worker found to be immune to the virus. Special Comments more than 25 million have died from AIDS since 1981.
38. Etiologic Agent: Prions (Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) Reservoir: kuru= mouth and gastrointestinal tract creutzfeldt Jacob disease = the brain Morphology and Virulence Factors: Particular virulence causes victims brains to become riddled with holes Protein Disease(s): Spongiform encephalopathy Signs and Symptoms:

All 45 Bugs Microbiology Loss of balance, unsteady gait, progression to death Dementia coma Transmissions: No treatment is available Incubation period kuru = 4=35 years Creutzfeldt Jacob = 1 to 40 years Lab Diagnosis: Treatment and Prevention: Screening donated tissue and hormones Immunity: No immunity exists; do not eat animals infected with mad cow or animals that were fed with sheep brain Special Comments:

39. Etiologic Agent: Small pox Reservoir: Humans only

Morphology and Virulence Factors: DNA virus Entomopox virus = infects insects Chordopoxviruses = infects humans Disease(s): Smallpox Hemorrhagic smallpox account for 20-50% of deaths Signs and Symptoms: Rash, backache, headache, fever, scabs Transmissions:

All 45 Bugs Microbiology Person to person; respiratory secretions Vesicle fluids and scabs Lab Diagnosis: Antibody tests Treatment and Prevention: Cidofibver can be useful for symptoms when the disease was prevalent Immunity: Live virus vaccine called viccina Vaccine has a mortality rate therefore has not been a part of mass vaccinations Special Comments:

40. Etiologic Agent: Yellow fever Hepatitis/ hemorrhagic fever Reservoir: insects Morphology and Virulence Factors: Biological transmission multiplying in the vector Disease(s): Hemorrhagic fever Signs and Symptoms: Chills, fever, headache, muscle pain, shock, jaundice, unstoppable nosebleeds, bleeding of the gums, black vomit, 50% fatality rate Transmissions: Xmitted through insects, ticks, sand fleas take infected blood and transfers to humans and other animals Incubation period 3-5 days Lab Diagnosis: First Cultured in mice embryos Treatment and Prevention:

All 45 Bugs Microbiology No specific treatment is available Limiting growth of the of the vector (mosquito population) Immunity: Live attenuated virus vaccine 17-D is available Special Comments:

41. Etiologic Agent: Hanta virus Reservoir: Field mouse; excreted from urine and saliva Portal of entry is the upper respiratory tract Morphology and Virulence Factors: RNA Disease(s): Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal pain, back pain, muscle pain, headache, dizziness, and petechiae Tachycardia, low blood pressure, altered mental state. Mortality rate is 20- 30% from the diuretic phase whereby only small amounts of urine are passed Transmissions: Inhalation of dried urine; inoculation of urine or saliva into cuts and grazes Incubation period is generally 2-4 weeks Lab Diagnosis: Treatment and Prevention: No treatment other than fluid replacement and cardiac support Prevention would be to limit contact with rodent excreta Immunity: No vaccine is available Special Comments:

All 45 Bugs Microbiology

42. Etiologic Agent: Francisella tularensis Reservoir: Bacteria present in a number of wild animals Portals of entry are the skin, conjunctivae, lungs, or GI tract Morphology and Virulence Factors: Disease(s): Ingestion: necrotizing pharyngitis Absesses on the palate Peritonitis Septicemia; fatal pneumonia or menginitis Signs and Symptoms: Asymptomatic; a pustule sometimes develops from the insect or animal bite, this may enlarge the lymph nodes for several months Transmissions: Not transmitted person to person; only by insect bites (ticks, deerfly, or fleas) or by animal bites, inoculation into cuts, ingestion or by inhalation Incubation is up to 10 days Lab Diagnosis: Treatment and Prevention: Treatment is by antibiotics such as streptomycin or gentamicin Cook all meats thoroughly Immunity: No vaccine is available Special Comments:

43. Etiologic Agent: Avian flu Reservoir:

All 45 Bugs Microbiology Infected birds or contact with infected fluids Human to human contact is possible but mostly from birds to humans Pandemic possibilities Morphology and Virulence Factors: Highly pathogenic strain H5N1 avian flu RNA PB2/HA hemagglutinin Influenza A virus strains Disease(s): Bird Flu Death can result on a wide scale if pandemics occur Signs and Symptoms: Usually asymptomatic in the bird; if passed to domestic animals it can kill over 90 percent of the flock in just days Transmissions: Contaminated fluid or by birds themselves Lab Diagnosis:

Treatment and Prevention: Avoid contact with those that exhibit flu like symptoms; get vaccinated Protective clothing for workers; isolating flocks to prevent the spread of the virus Immunity: Vaccinations can reduce the risk of being infected with the avian flu but Clinical trials of influenza prototype are ongoing Special Comments: 44. Etiologic Agent: Norovirus Reservoir: mouth Morphology and Virulence Factors:

All 45 Bugs Microbiology Disease(s): gastroenteritis diarrheal disease Signs and Symptoms: Diarrheal disease, vomiting Transmissions: Excreted in feces, saliva, and vomitus and from infected person to person contact Fecal-oral route and can be spread by food and contaminated water Incubation: 24-72 hours Lab Diagnosis: Treatment and Prevention: Sanitary conditions, avoid contact with infected persons and bodily fluids of those suspected of being infected; there are no antiviral drugs available Immunity: No vaccine is available or likely Special Comments:

45. Etiologic Agent: MRSA/VRE/VISA (drug-resistant organisms) Reservoir: Humans Respiratory tract Morphology and Virulence Factors: Difficult to treat infections as they are multidrug resistant Attacks the immune system and engulfs white blood cells Disease(s): Any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and penicillins and cephalosporins Toxic shock syndrome; necrotizing pneumonia, sepsis

All 45 Bugs Microbiology Necrotizing fascilitis or pyomyositis; invective endocarditis Signs and Symptoms: Small red bumps, pimple like, spider bites, or boils accompanied by fever and rashes; then bumps become pus-filled boils; some affect vital organs Transmissions: 24 to 72 hours Nosocomial infections mostly caused by healthcare workers Lab Diagnosis: Swabbing nostrils and isolating the bacteria Cultured blood, urine, sputum Real-time PCR Rapid latex agglutination test Treatment and Prevention: Surface sanitizing; screening programs; hand washing; surgical respirator; proper disposal of hospital gowns; isolation Immunity: No immunity exists as theses are multidrug resistant bacteria Special Comments: