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PDHonline Course G257 (5 PDH)

Adhesives

Instructor: Robert P. Jackson, PE

2012

PDH Online | PDH Center


5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.PDHonline.org www.PDHcenter.com

An Approved Continuing Education Provider

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TABLEOFCONTENTS
SCOPE 4 4 5 6 8 10 11 13 15 20 25 30 33 39 40 45 47 49 49 57 58 67 77 78 79 7
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INTRODUCTION

HISTORYOFADHESIVES GLOBALUSAGE

ADVANTAGESANDDISADVANTAGES USES

THEORIESOFADHESION WETTING

ADHESIVETYPES

MECHANICALCHARACTERISTICS JOINTDESIGN

SURFACEPREPARATION

PERFORMANCECONSIDERATIONS EPOXIES,CASANDPSTS

PRESSURESENSITIVEADHESIVES TYPESOFADHESIVEFAILURES ADHESIVETESTING STANDARDS EQUIPMENT APPENDIX

GlossaryofTermsforAdhesives

GlossaryofTermsforPressureSensitiveAdhesives UL746CStandard

AveryDennisonAdhesiveSpecification References

TABLES

Table1

GlobalUsage

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Table2 Table3 Table4 Table5 Table6 Table7 Table8 Table9 Table10

LOCTITESelectorGuide

22 23/24 31 34 36 37 38 43 44

MasterBondSubstrateReference Pretreatment Viscosity Hardness

MechanicalCharacteristics MechanicalCharacteristics 3MVHBBondingTape 3MTapeSelectionGuide

FIGURES Figure1 Figure2 Figure3 Figure4 Figure5 Figure6 Figure7 Figure8 Figure9 Figure10 Figure11 Figure12 Figure13 Figure14 Figure15 Figure16 Figure17 SurfaceEnergy WettingAngle BondingSubstrates LapJoints AngleJoints AngleJoints FlangeJoints 14 14 20 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 46 46 48 50 52 53
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OverlayJoints RodandTubeJoints MiscellaneousJoints MiscellaneousJoints FailureModes

LoadingFailureModes TestMethods

Pump/PailAssembly SCARARobot CartesianRobot

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Figure18 Figure19 Figure20 Figure21

AdhesiveReservoir CartridgeDispenser HotMeltGlueGuns

54 54 55 56

DispensingAccessories

SCOPE: Thiscoursewillconcentrateprimarilyonprovidinginformationthatallowstheengineeror managertobetterselectadhesivesrelativetoavarietyofneeds.Whilesometheoryof adhesionwillbegiven,wewishtospendmostofourtimediscussingadhesivetypes, application,materialspecifications,surfacepreparation,testingandmaterialstandards.We willlimitthestudytoadhesivesonlyandomitmaterialsusedforgasketing,pottingand encapsulation,retaining,threadlockingandthreadsealing.Theseadhesivesareveryspecific anddemandscrutinyasindependentsubjects.Sincepressuresensitivetapes(PSTs)aresucha hugeportionoftheadhesiveindustry,wewilltakeabrieflookatwhatisavailableasfaras types,globalusage,specifications,vendors,etc. IwouldliketodirectyourattentiontotheAppendixandtheGlossaryofTermsforPressure SensitiveTapesandtheGlossaryofTermsforAdhesives.Theterminologyissomewhat differentforbothtypesofadhesivessoIhaveincludedbothglossariesinthiscourse.Looking attheGlossaryofTermswillaidyoureffortsinreadingandunderstandingthetext,soplease takeabrieflookbeforeyoubeginreadingthecoursematerial. INTRODUCTION: Thedictionarydefinesanadhesiveas"asubstancecapableofholdingmaterialstogetherby surfaceattachment."Thisisasimpledefinitionformaterialsthatserveasthebasisforamulti billiondollarindustrywithmorethan750companies.Itisestimatedthat50ofthose companiesareresponsibleforatleast50%ofthesalesdollarsintheadhesiveindustry. Thiscoursewillexamineadhesivesandgiveanoverviewrelativetoadhesivetypes,uses, advantagesanddisadvantages,characteristicsandvariousfailuremodesthatcouldresultdue touseoroveruse.Adhesivetechnologyisadynamicindustrywithnewcompoundsbeing developedfrequentlytosatisfygrowingconsumerandindustrialneeds.Theneedforspeed andbondstrength,withminimalsurfacepreparation,arethedrivingforcesbehind developmentefforts.Oddlyenough,retailcostseemstobealesserconcernwhensearching forasuitablematerial.Getthejobdonerightistheclarioncall. ThehistoryofadhesivesisfascinatingandgoesbacktothetimeofthePharaohs.Wewilltake alookatthatnow.
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HISTORY: Thefirstevidenceofasubstancebeingusedasanadhesivedatesbackto4000B.C. Archaeologistsstudyingburialsitesofprehistorictribesfoundfoodstuffsburiedwiththe deceasedinbrokenpotteryvesselsthathadbeenrepairedwithstickyresinsfromtreesap. ArchaeologistshavealsouncoveredstatuesfromBabyloniantemplesthathaveivoryeyeballs gluedintoeyesockets.Thistarlikegluehasheldforalmost6000years. Thefirstreferencesinliteratureconcerningglueandtheartofglueappearsabouttheyear 2000B.C.Simpleproceduresformakingandusinganimalgluewerewritten.Theancient EgyptiansusedtheminveneeringthetreasuresofTutankhamen.TheancientGreekwordfor glueiso,fromwhichwegetthewordcolloid.Inallcenturiesupandincludingthe19th, gluesoriginatedfromplantsandanimals;duringthe20thcentury,however,syntheticchemicals havelargelytakenover,andthemorerespectablenameofadhesiveisgenerallyusedinstead ofglue. Theperiodoftimebetween1500and1000B.C.gavefurtherproofthatgluehadbecomea methodofassembly.Paintingsandmuralsshoweddetailsofwoodgluingoperations.Acasket removedfromthetombofKingTutshowstheuseofglueinitsconstruction.Ourmuseums todaycontainmanyartobjectsandfurnishingsfromthetombsofEgyptianPharaohsthatare bondedorlaminatedwithsometypeofanimalglue. Thenextperiodofactivityisfrom1500A.D.whentheRomansandGreeksdevelopedtheart ofveneeringandparquetry,whichisthebondingofthinsectionsorlayersofwood.Fromthis art,themakingofanimalandfishglueswererefinedandothertypesofadhesiveswere developed,suchasanadhesivefromeggwhitestobondgoldleaf.Inadditiontoeggwhites, othernaturalingredientswereusedtopreparegluesuchasblood,bones,hide,milk,cheese, vegetablesandgrains.TheRomanswereoneofthefirsttousetarandbeeswaxtocaulkthe plankinginboatsandships. Astudyofhistoryshowstheuseofgluefellintodisuseuntilabout15001700A.D.when adhesiveswereusedinthebuildingoffurniture.Someofthegreatestfurnitureandcabinet makersofalltimesusedadhesivesintheirproductsnamesyouwillstillrecognizetodaylike ChippendaleandDuncanPhyfe. Anothernameinhistorywhomayowehisnotoriety,atleastinpart,toadhesivesisGenghis Khan.About1000A.D.theGreatKhanovercameallattackersbecauseoftheexceptional powerandrangeoftheweaponryhismencarried.Bowsweremadefromlaminatedlemon woodandbullhornbondedwithanadhesivewhoseformulahasbeenlostinantiquity. ThesecretofviolinsmadebyAntonioStradivariuswastheadhesiveprocessusedtolaminate hisspeciallytreatedwoods.Hismethodshavealsobeenlostinantiquity,andhavenotbeen rediscoveredevenwithtodayssophisticatedanalyticalmethods. Abouttheyear1700,thewidespreaduseofgluebroughtrapidchangesinthehistoryof adhesive.ThefirstcommercialgluefactorywasstartedinHollandtomanufactureanimalglue fromhides.
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In1750,thefirstgluepatentwasissuedinBritainforfishglue.Patentswerethenrapidlyissued foradhesivesusingnaturalrubber,animalbones,fish,starch,milkprotein(casein).By1900, theU.S.hadanumberoffactoriesproducinggluefromthepreviouslymentionedbases. TheIndustrialRevolutioncreatedanexplosionintechnicalbreakthroughswhichresultedin newmaterialsbecomingavailableforuseinformulatingadhesives.Thefirstplasticpolymerto besynthesizedwascellulosenitrate,athermoplasticmaterialderivedfromthecelluloseof wood.Itsfirstusewasinthemanufactureofbilliardballs,whichhadbeenmadeofivory.The eraofplasticsbeganwiththeintroductionofBakelitephenolic,athermosetplastic,in1910. Withinayear,adhesivesusingphenolicresinwereputonthemarket.The1920s,30sand40s sawmanynewplasticsandrubberssyntheticallyproduced,manyoutofanurgentnecessity developedduringWorldWarII.Althoughadhesiveshavebeenknownforabout6000years, mostofthetechnologyhasbeendevelopedduringthelast100years. Theformulationofplasticsandelastomershasrapidlyadvancedthedevelopmentofadhesives. Thesediscoverieshavegivenawidevarietyofproductsthatcanchangeandimprovevarious propertiesofadhesives.Propertiessuchasflexibility,toughness,curingorsettingtime, temperatureandchemicalresistanceresultfromconstantexperimentation. Adhesivestouchourliveseveryday.Theyarenevermorethananarmslengthaway,even thoughwemaynotbeawareoftheirpresence.Adescriptionofsomeofthemorecommon typesofadhesivesandtheirusesshouldmakeyoumoreawareofhowadhesivestouchyour life.Wecertainlywillconsidertheadhesivetypesbutfirst,letuslookattheglobalusageand howprevalenttheyhavebecomeovertheyears. GLOBALUSAGE: Globalusageforalltypesofadhesiveswasestimatedtobe33billionpoundsin2007.Ifall countrieswouldoptimizetheirusage,ascomparedtoWesternindustrializednations,that numberwouldbeapproximately190billionpounds.Thetablebelowwillindicatethose countriesandregionsthatrepresentthelargestusersforthatyear. REGION DEMAND(MMLBS.) 9720 1641 7613 1747 5227 1893 4518
Table1GlobalUsage RobertP.Jackson Page6of76

LBS/PERSON 28.60 3.00 19.00 5.00 3.90 14.70 1.80

NorthAmerica LatinAmerica

WesternEurope EasternEurope China Japan

OtherAsia

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Themarketleaders,bycountry,are:1.)UnitedStates,2.)China,3.)Japan,4.)Germanyand 5.)TheUnitedKingdom.Growthoftheglobaladhesivemarketisapproximatelytwotothree percentperyear.Itisveryinterestingtonotethatithasgenerallytakeneighteen(18)yearsfor anewadhesiveapplicationtobeusedbyninetypercent(90)oftheproductsadoptingthat application.Onereasonforthisisthetimetoprovethequalityandreliabilityoftheusein question.Thisfrequentlyinvolvesextensivereliabilitytesting,especiallyformissioncritical parts.Anotherfactorisdesigningjointssothatanyadhesivebondfailureisafailsafe proposition.CaseinpointbeingtheBoeingDreamliner.Substantialtesting,overtheyears, hasbeenconductedonallofthebondedsurfacesandeveryapplicationhasbeenprovenby environmentaltestingandbyflighttesting. IfwelookattheannualU.S.adhesivedemandfor2007,wefindthefollowingusagecategories: Durablegoods6% IndustrialProducts2% Householdadhesives2% Construction40% Packaging39% Nondurablegoods11%

Furtherexaminationrevealsthe2007annualU.S.usageforadhesivematerialtypes: Phenolics37% Vinyls18% Acrylics4% Ureaandmelamine19% Syntheticelastomers15% Polyurethanes3%

Theglobalmarketforadhesiveemulsionscategoriesis:Packaging(56%),TapesandLabels (19%),ConsumerandOther(15%)andnonwovens(10%). Theprimaryvendorssupplyingthesemarketsare1.)Henkel(Germany),2.)NationalStarch andChemical(UK),3.)HBFuller(US),4.)BostikFinkley(France),5.)RohmandHass(US),5.) Konishi(Japan),6.)ITW(US),7.)ThreeBond(Japan)and8.)Reichhold(DainipponInkand Chemical(Japan).Henkelcontrolsmostofthemarketwithaglobalshareofapproximately 14%.Inlookingatthetapesuppliers,3MandAveryDennisonarethetoptwowith9%and7% respectively,oftheglobalmarket.


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ThetrendsforusageintheUnitedStatesandthroughouttheworldaredefinitelyup.Moreand moreapplicationsforadhesivesarebeingusedasresearchcontinuesonhowtoadequately testforqualityandreliability. ADVANTAGESANDDISADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES: Therewouldbenocontinuedneedforadhesivesunlesstherewereadvantagestotheiruse. Thelistbelowwillgiveseveralverifiedadvantagesprovenovertheyears.Thislistincreasesin lengtheveryyearasmoreandmoreresearchisconductedandbetteradhesivesreachthe marketplace.Therearesomanypossibleapplicationsinvolvingsomanysubstratesthattimeis necessaryforqualityassurancetomakesurethecorrectadhesiveisusedrelativetothe substratesinquestion.Also,testingagenciesaredevelopingbettermethodsandbetter equipmenttotesttheintegrityofabondandassurenovoids,cracks,porosity,inclusions,etc. Thelistisasfollows: 1.Allowsforfabricationofsmoothersurfaces:a.)reductionofdrag. 2.Reductionintemperatureduetoreductionindrag. 3.Allowsforacloserfitforadjoiningparts. 4.Allowsforbettercontourofraidusedsurfaces. 5.Eliminationofholes. 6.Permitstheuseoflighterweightmaterials. 7.Cangiveareductioninstressconcentrationfactors. 8.Canlessenultimatevibrationoffabricatedassemblies. 9.Providesforabetterdistributionofstresses. 10.Providesforbetterfatigueresistance. 11.Goodshockandimpactresistance. 12.Allowsforthejoiningofdissimilarmaterials. 13.Allowsforthejoiningofmaterialsofdifferingthicknesses. 14.Lesserissueswiththecoefficientofthermalexpansion. 15.Easierfabrication. 16.Fasterfabrication. 17.Canactasaseal. 18.Someadhesivesaresoundproofinginnature. 19.Canpreventtheadventofencapsulatedmoisture. 20.Someadhesivesareinsulators. 21.Generallylowercostswhencomparedwithbolts,screws,etc. 22.Easytoautomateprocess. 23. Canbelessexpensivethanmechanicalfasteners. Aswithanytechnology,therecanbedisadvantages.Severalarelistedbelow.Asyouwillsee, therearecertainlysomeconditionsandsituationsinwhichadhesivesareunsuitable. Environmentalconditionssuchastemperatureandhumiditycandictatetheneedfor traditionalmechanicalfasteners.Ofcoursethereisadefiniteneedtoexaminetheloads appliedtoajointtoprecludefailurepriortodecidinguponthetechniqueinsecuringthebond.

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DISADVANTAGES: 1.) Limitedtolessertemperatures;i.e.<550degreeF. 2.) Propersurfacepreparationisanabsolutemust. 3.) Jointdesignmustbeadequateandproper.(NOTE:Weneverstickthematerials together.Properjointdesignpriortousinganadhesiveisabsolutelynecessary.A jointdesignedforamechanicalfastenermaynotbeadequatewhenusingan adhesive.) 4.) Servicelifemaybelessenedduetowearofadhesive.Longtermbehaviormaynotbeas goodnoraspredictable.Thisiswherereliabilitytestingisamust. 5.) Specificationofadhesivesmustbemoreexactanddetailed.Itiscriticalthatthe engineerworkwithapotentialvendortoachievetheproperspecificationandadhesive typepriortousage.THEN;APPLY,TESTandPROVEtheapplication. 6.) Differingsubstratesmustbefactoredintotheproperspecificationoftheadhesive. 7.) Bettertrainingrequiredforapplicationofadhesive.Theusageandapplicationofan adhesiverequirestrainedworkers. 8.) Thebondareaiscriticaltointegrity. 9.) Uncertaintyofbondisaworry.Thereproducibilityofthebondcanbedifficultto control. 10.)Difficulttopretestadhesiverelativetosubstrates. 11.)Coefficientofexpansionmustbeconsideredrelativetothesubstrates. 12.)Curingtimecanbehighdependingupontheadhesiveandtheprocess. 13.)Dependingupontheadhesive,therecanbeassemblyhazardssuchasfireortoxicity.It Isalwaysrecommendedthattrainingprecedetheuseofadhesives,primers,cleaning agentsandaccelerants. 14.)Usually,nodisassemblyispossible.Thiscaneliminatethepossibilityofrepair. 15.)Difficulttoinspectbondedjoints.Xrayandultrasonicnondestructivetestingare changingthistosomeextent. 16.)Canbechangeinmechanicalpropertiesofassemblies. 17.)Lackofnondestructivequalitycontrolmethods. 18.)Bondqualityisverydependentuponmanyvariablesinthebondingprocess. 19.)Nosingleuniversaladhesiveforallapplications. 20.)Properstorageoftheadhesiveandanyaccelerantisnecessaryprior,duringandafter usage. USES: Wehavetalkedabouttheadvantagesandthedisadvantagesofadhesivessonowletusaddress someoftheusesformoderndayadhesives,bothsyntheticandnatural.Evenapartiallistis impressive. PackagingSealants Automotive AircraftAssembly

DentalTechnology Aerospace

ShoeFabricationandAssembly CommercialElectricalEquipment
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ComputerEquipment
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ApplianceManufacturingandAssembly AssemblyofToys ThreadLockingAdhesives

PottingCompoundsforElectricalandElectronicDevices AssemblyofBusinessMachines PressureSensitiveTape ManufactureofBoats HealthCareProducts RTVSiliconesforMoisturePrevention KitchenUtensils WindowsandDoors TVSets iPODS GolfClubHeads

ManufactureofLightBulbs FurnitureandCabinets Radios

BeltsforMenandWomen

ClosingWoundsfromSurgicalProcedures Carbatteries CellPhones PCBoards

PictureFrames ElectricalAssemblies MedicalEquipment PictureFrames DVDPlayers PowerTools Sandpaper ComputerEquipment CarpetBacking RoboticEquipment Clocks/Watches IndustrialMaintenance Paneling Wallpaper
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HandbagsforLadies BookBinding

PlayStationDevices HandTools

GPSDevices LightingFixtures CeilingFans Jewelry

HomeRepairs Plywood

CigarettePacks
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BandAids FloorTiles THEORIESOFADHESION:

BabyDiapers

I mentioned earlier that this course is meant to be a practical guide on how to select an adhesiveandthevarioustheoriesofadhesionwouldbeaminorconcern.Sincewearebuying adhesivesandnotMAKINGadhesives,Ifeltthiswouldbeaviableapproach.Withthatbeing said,wedoneedtoknowsomethingabouthowtheadhesivesandsubstratesinteracttoforma cohesivebond.First,letuslookatthebasicchemistryinvolved. Alladhesiveseithercontainpolymers,orpolymersareformedwithintheadhesivebond.This is universal. Polymers give adhesives cohesive strength, and can be thought of as strings of beads (identical chemical units joined by single covalent bonds), which may be either linear, branched or crosslinked. Linear and branched polymers have similar properties and it is not easy to distinguish between them. They will flow at higher temperatures and dissolve in suitablesolvents.Thelatterpropertiesareessentialinhotmeltandsolventbasedadhesives butmaybeverydetrimentalinotherapplications.Itisessentialthattheproperadhesivebe specifiedfortheproperusageKNOWINGallenvironmentalconditionsthatcouldpossiblyexist. Crosslinkedpolymerswillnotflowwhenheated,andmayswell,butnotdissolveinsolvents. Allstructuraladhesivesarecrosslinked.Thiseliminatescreep. Many adhesives contain additives that are not polymers. These include stabilizers that help preventdegradationbyoxygenand/orUV,plasticizerswhichcanincreaseflexibilityandlower theglasstransitiontemperature,andpoweredmineralfillers,whichmayreduceshrinkageon hardening, lower costs and modify flow properties. Other additives are tackifiers and silane couplingagents.Therearesixtheoriesofadhesion,asfollows: 1.) PhysicalAdsorption 4.)Electrostatic PhysicalAdsorptionTheory: Attractive forces due to physical adsorption are usually designated as secondary or van der Waalsforcesacrossaninterface.VanderWaalsforcesaretheresultofelectrostaticattraction between neighboring molecules having permanent or instant transient dipole groups. These include molecules with permanent dipoles, dipoles induced by permanent dipoles in neighboringmolecules,knownasDebyeforcesandfinally,Londondispersionforceswhichare present in all molecules. Dispersion forces are dipoles produced by the motion of electrons within the molecule and are independent of the polarity or lack of polarity of the molecule. Theseforcesaremorethansufficienttoproducebondsstrongerthanthecohesivestrengthof mostmaterialsusedasadhesives.TheresearcherEleyestimatesthetheoreticalvalueforshear force necessary to move a molecule across a surface to be as high as 56,000 PSI. Dispersion forces are usually considered to be the major attractive force even in the presence of polar groupsandhydrogenbondinggroups.
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2.)ChemicalBonding

3.)Diffusion

5.)MechanicalInterlocking 6.)WeakBoundaryLayer

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ChemicalBondingTheory: Thechemicalbondingtheoryofadhesioninvokestheformationofcovalent,ionicorhydrogen bonds across the interface. There is some evidence that covalent bonds are formed with coupling agents. It is possible that adhesives containing isocynate groups react with active hydrogen atoms, such as hydroxyl groups, when wood or paper are the substrates. One exampleofthistypeofbondistheattachmentofapostagestamptoaletter.Hydrogenbonds contribute to that attachment where the adhesive (polyvinyl alcohol) and paper (cellulose fibers)bothcontainOHgroups.Thisisanintermolecularbondformedwhenahydrogenatom chemicallybondswithanotherneighboringatom. Diffusion: Thediffusiontheorytakestheviewthatpolymersincontactmayinterdiffuse,sothattheinitial boundaryiseventuallyremoved.Suchinterdiffusionwilloccuronlyifthepolymerchainsare mobile. The theory is generally only applicable in bonding like rubbery polymers, as might occurwhensurfacesarecoatedwithcontactadhesivesandthenpressedtogether.Thistheory isgaininglesspopularityasmoreisknownaboutadhesivebonding. Electrostatic: Theelectrostatictheoryoriginatedbyproposingthatwhentwometalsareplacedincontact, theelectronswillbetransferredfromonetotheothertoformadoubleelectricallayer.This layerprovidestheforceofattraction.Sincepolymersareinsulators,itseemsverydifficultto applythistheorytoadhesives. MechanicalInterlocking: Ifthesubstratehasanirregularsurface,thentheadhesivemayentertheirregulariespriorto hardening.Thissimpleideaworkswellforadhesivebondsforporousmaterialssuchaswood andtextiles.Anexampleistheuseofirononpatchesforclothing.Thepatchescontainhot melt adhesive that, when molten, invades the textile material. This theory is the simplest of theories and basically states that the adhesive penetrates these feature irregularities and hardens forming strong bonds. Ideally, the weakest part of the bonded joint is the adhesive strength. WeakBoundaryLayer: This theory proposes that clean surfaces can give strong bonds to adhesives, but some contaminants such as rust, oils and greases give a layer which is cohesively weak. Not all contaminants will form weak boundary layers. In some cases, they will be dissolved by the adhesives.Thisisanareawhereacrylicstructuraladhesivesaresuperiortoepoxiesbecauseof theirabilitytodissolveoilsandgreases.

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WETTING: This is an appropriate time to discuss the wetted substrate, or adherent, surface. This wetting process is absolutely necessary for proper adhesion of the substrates. It involves spreadingadropofliquidadhesiveoverthesurfaceofthesubstrateandprovidingforintimate contactofthesolidsurfaces.Liquidswillwetonlysolidsurfaceswithhighersurfaceenergy thantheirown.Waterwillwetmetalsbutnotpolyethylene;naphthawillwetacrylicbutnot Teflon. The figure below will give you some idea as to the surface tension for various substrates.

Figure1SurfaceEnergy

Thesolutiontothisproblemofnonwettablesurfacesistomodifythesurface,convertingit toasurfaceofhigherenergy.Thiscanbeaccomplishedby1.)Flaming,2.)Acidetchingor3.) Treatment with UV radiation. The result is a reaction between the lowenergy polymeric surfaceandoxygenintheair.Adhesivesmustbefluidenoughtoflowoutwardandconformto theshapeofthesubstratesurfaceifstrongjointsaretobeformed.Onlyliquidscanpenetrate the valleysand crevices of a solid surface. Typically the angle between the apparent surface andtherealsurfaceis15to30degrees.Thespreadingadhesivemustflowoveraseriesofhills and into the bottoms of a series of valleys if good contact is to be made. The spreading adhesive must displace or absorb all weakly held contaminants for maximum adhesion. This can happen only when the adhesive wets the surface well. The actual wetting angle characterizestheabilityoftheadhesiveonthesubstrate.Goodwettingvaluesresultwhenthe wettingangleis<90.Poorwettingoccurswhentheangleishigh;i.e.,between90and180. Thefigurebelowwilldemonstratewhatwearetalkingabout.
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WettingAngle(PoorAngle) WettingAngle(GoodAngle)
Figure2WettingAngle

Goodexamplesofthewettingabilityofepoxiesonvariedsurfacesarecopperlinersbondedto internal fiberglass missile structure, and fabrication of printed circuit boards, which utilize numerous dissimilar metals. Wetting and penetration are also of critical importance in honeycombsandwich bonding, where node wetting and filleting are absolutely essential for success.Theabilitytowetisalsocriticalinglasslaminates,becausetheadhesivemustwetthe individualglassstrandsinordertoproducehighstrengths. ADHESIVETYPES: Wenowwishtoinvestigatethevarioustypesofadhesivebycategoriesandgiveverybrief descriptiveinformationastohowthesetypesareformulated.Ingeneral,adhesivescanbe groupedintothefollowingcategories: A)WaterBasedAdhesivesthatusewaterasacarrierordilutingmedium,andsetby allowingthewatertoevaporateorbeabsorbedbythesubstrate.Thereareseveraltypesof waterbasedadhesives. 1)VegetableGluesAdhesivesarebasedonstarch.Theyareusuallyambertobrownin color,commonlyknowasdextrineadhesives.Thesecanalsobemadeinahighviscosity, hightackversioncalledjellygum.Relativelylowcostadhesivecommonlyusedinpaper bonding,packagingandlabeling.Lowmoistureresistance.Bondlinestendtobebrittle. 2)ResinCementsTheseadhesivesarebasedonanemulsionofEVA(EthyleneVinyl Acetate)orPVA(PolyVinylAcetate)polymersblendedintoanemulsionwithwaterasa carrier.Theseemulsionsarecapableofbondingtowood,paperandsomeplasticsand foams.Whiteincolor.Bondshavehigherdegreeofmoistureresistancethandextrine,but costofresincementishigher.Certainresinsmaybeblendedwithdextrinestoforma hybridproduct.Bondlineshavesomeflexibility,andarerelativelyclearwhendry. 3)Animal/ProteinGluesThetwomajortypesofadhesiveinthiscategoryarehotanimal glue(whichismadefromprocessedanimalparts)andcaseinglue(derivedfrommilk).Hot animalglueisambertobrownincolor,andisappliedatapproximately140F.Itcanbe thinnedwithwater.Whenfirstappliedithasveryhightack,butdriestoanontackyfilm. Commonlyusedinsituationswherethehightackwillholdthepartstogetherwhilesetting, butwillnotbeexposedtohightemperaturesorhighhumidity.Caseinglueisappliedat roomtemperature,butformsabondwithahighdegreeofmoistureresistance.Commonly usedforlabelingbeer,champagneandsometypesofwinebottles.Caseinislighttotanin color. 4)LatexCementsTheseadhesivesareablendoflatexorotherelastomersinawaterbase
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emulsion.Inmostcasestheyareappliedtoparts,allowedtodry,andformalayer,which servesasacontactcement(twowaycements).Sometypescanalsobeappliedtoone surfaceandwillformbondsastheydry(onewaycements).Canbeformulatedtoremain tackyorbecomedrytothetouch(contacttypes).Generallywhiteincolor.Widevarietyof usessuchasselfstickenvelopes,fabricbonding,andleathergoods. B)ThermalAdhesivesThermaladhesivesarethoseadhesivesthatarebroughttoaliquid statebyheating,andareappliedtotheproducthoteitherasliquidorasahighviscosity paste.Themostcommontypesarehotmeltadhesivesandwaxes. Hotmeltadhesiveshaveseentremendousdevelopmentoverthepastthirtyyears.These adhesivesareblendsofvariouspolymers,butmostarebasedonahighpercentageofEVA (ethylenevinylacetate).Toobtainthedesiredcharacteristics,otherpolymersmaybe blendedintothemix,aswellaswaxes,oils,varioustypesofrubber,andtackifyingresins. Hotmeltadhesivescanbeusedtobondmanytypesofmaterials,andareavailableinthree generaltypescategorizedbyhowfasttheysetupafterapplication.Thegeneralcategories arefastset,delayedset,andpressuresensitive. Fastsettinghotmeltsaretypesthatformabondveryquicklyastheycool.Theseareused forsituationswherefastsettingisimportantsuchasthesealingofflapsoncartonsor certainlabelingapplications.Delayedsethotmeltsarealsoknownasadhesiveshavinga "longopentime".Theseadhesivesremaintackyforsomeperiodoftimeafterapplication, buteventuallysettoformabondlinethathasverylittleresidualtack.Theyareusefulin applicationswherethepartsmustbepositionedafterapplicationoftheadhesive,orin situationswherethepartscannotbeassembledimmediatelyaftertheadhesiveisapplied. Shoeandleathergoodsassemblyisanexampleofoneareawheredelayedsetadhesiveis used. Pressuresensitivehotmeltsremaintackyindefinitelyafterapplication.Thisallowsthe adhesivetobeappliedtoapartthatmaynotbeassembledtoasubstrateforalongperiod oftime.Italsoallowsthebondingofpartsthataredifficulttobond(examplewouldbe polyethylenefoam).Insomecasespressuresensitivehotmeltsareappliedtoapartand putonsiliconecoatedreleasepaper.Thereleasepaperispeeledofftoexposethe pressuresensitivelayer,whichisthenbondedtothesubstrate. Pressuresensitivehotmeltsareavailableinmanydegreesoftackiness,fromadhesivesthat formatemporarybondthatcanbeeasilybroken(fugitivebondadhesives)tovery aggressivepressuresensitivesthatwilltearfiberfromthesubstratesifremovalis attempted. Specialtyhotmeltsarealsoavailablewhichhavecharacteristicstailoredtospecifictypesof applicationsortemperatureranges.Afewoftheseareasfollows: a)RemoistenablehotmeltsThisisatypeoffastsethotmeltthatisformulatedwitha componentoftheblendbeingsensitivetomoisture.Ifmoistened,itformsatackylayer thatcanbeusedforenvelopesealingorlabels. b)PolyamidehotmeltsThesearehightemperaturehotmeltswithhighperformance
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characteristics.Generallytheapplicationtemperatureisaround400F,andstructural strengthishigherthanthemorecommontypesofhotmelt. c)ReactivehotmeltsThesearehotmeltsthatareformulatedwithchemistrysimilarto polyurethanepolymers.Afterapplication,anisocyanatecomponentoftheblendreacts withmoistureintheairorsubstratetoformapolyurethanecompound.Oncecured,the materialisnolongerthermoplasticinnaturebuthasexcellentflexibility,highbond strength,highmoistureandheatresistance,andresistancetomostchemicals.The disadvantageofreactivehotmeltsisthattheyrequirespeciallydesignedapplication equipment,sinceanyadhesivethatisexposedtoatmosphericmoisturewillreactwithit andformaninertpolymer.Applicationsforthereactivehotmeltsarefoundin bookbinding,footwearconstruction,andrecreationalvehicleassembly. Waxesaretheoldestformofthermaladhesive,havingbeenusedforsealingdocuments forcenturies.Intoday'sworldtheyseeuseaslaminatingadhesivesforfoilsandfilms. Bondsareformedtothesubstrateswhenhot,butthestrengthissufficienttokeepthe materialsbondedatlowertemperatures.Onespecialformofadhesivewaxispasteup wax.Thisisablendofstickywaxesandtackifyingagentsthatisusedtoformatemporary bondthatallowspartstoberemovedandrepositionedafterbonding.Itisusedby newspapersandprintersduringpagelayout(pasteup)processsinceitallowsphotosand columnsoftypetobemovedaroundasthepagelayoutisbeingdeveloped. C)TwopartAdhesivesTheseadhesivesaremadebymixingtwoormorecomponents thatreactchemicallytoformacrosslinkedadhesive.Ingeneral,theyarehighercostthan othertypesofadhesivesbutalsoprovideveryhighstrengthbondsandoutstanding performancecharacteristics.Themostcommontwopartadhesivesareepoxies, polyurethanes,acrylics,andsilicones.Manyadhesivessuchastheseareusedin constructionandmanufacturing. Twopartadhesivesareabletocureintheabsenceofairormoisture,andareoftenusedto formstructuralbondstometal,woodandplasticcomponents. Epoxiesconsistofabaseresinandahardener.Inmostcasesthebaseresinisahigh viscositypaste,andthehardener(catalyst)alowerviscosity,butmixescanbeformulated todifferingviscositiesandmixratios.Mosttypeswillsetatroomtemperature,butsome requireaheatcuretotriggerthecrosslinkingreaction.Heatwillacceleratethecurerateof mostepoxies,andwilloftenhelptheepoxyformbetterbondsandattainhigherstrength levels.Sometypesofepoxiesareavailableassinglecomponentpasteswhicharekeptcold toinhibitthereaction,butwhichwillformbondsandcrosslinkwhenexposedtoheat.A curetimeofabout24hoursmaybeacceleratedbyapplyingheattothejoint. Polyurethaneadhesivesareavailableastwopartformulasorasonepartcomponents whicharepremixedbutmixedwithacarriermaterialsuchassolvent.Polyurethanes generallyformbondsthataremoreflexiblethanepoxiesbutarequitetough.Urethanes formstrongbondstomostmaterials,andcanformstrongbondstorubber,plastics,metal, wood,paper,ceramic,andfabrics.Mosttypesarelimitedtoservicetemperaturesbelow 250F.Polyurethaneadhesiveareavailableinawiderangeofviscositiesandmixratios. Theymustbeverywellmixedtoobtaintopqualitybonds.Sometypescontainisocyanates orheavymetalcatalyststhatcanposehealthriskstoworkers,andrequireextrahandling
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precautions. Acrylicadhesivesareavailableeitherastwopartadhesivesorasproductsthatarecured byexposuretoultravioletlight.Acrylicadhesivesproducebondswithexcellentpeel strengthsaswellashighshearandimpactstrengths.Theyaregenerallymoretolerantof dirtyorpoorlypreparedsurfacesthenotheradhesives.Acrylicsofferexcellentadhesionto unpreparedmetals,ceramicmagnetsandplastics.Viscositiesrangefrompastetoliquid andthesettimesrangefrom2to35minutes.Fullcuretimeisabout2hoursatroom temperature. Mosttypes(withtheexceptionoftheU.V.curedtypes)arepreparedbymixingthetwo components,butsometypesareavailablethatallowtheonecomponenttobeappliedto onesubstrate,andthesecondcomponenttotheother.Whenthetwosubstratesare broughttogether,thereactionoccurstobondtheparts.Acrylicsaregenerallylimitedto temperaturesbelow300F. Siliconeadhesivesareavailableasbothonepartandtwopartadhesives.Theonepart versionsareknownasRTVsilicones(roomtemperaturevulcanizing)andcurebyreacting withmoistureintheatmosphere.Theseareusedmostoftenascaulkingandgasketing materials.Twopartsiliconesofferhigherperformance,andcanbeusedforbondingmetal, glassandceramiccomponents.Thesetypesofsiliconeadhesivesfinduseintheelectronics industry. Theprimaryadvantageofsiliconeadhesivesandsealantsaretheirtemperatureresistance. Siliconescanbeformulatedtowithstandtemperaturesashighas500F,butprovide flexiblebondlinesorsealingthroughouttheirservicerange. D)MoistureCureAdhesivesMoisturecureadhesivesareformulatedtoreactwiththe moistureintheairorinthesubstratestoformacuredpolymerlayerwithhighstrength. Theyareactuallytwocomponentadhesiveswithonecomponentbeingmoisture.Thetwo bestknowntypesaresiliconeandpolyurethane.ThesiliconesareknownasRTVsilicones (roomtemperaturevulcanizing),andaremostcommonlyusedascaulkingcompounds, gasketcompounds,andsealants. Polyurethanemoisturecureadhesivesareavailableinliquidform.Inmostcasesthe urethanemonomerisdissolvedinasolventcarrier,andreactionwithmoistureoccursas thesolventevaporates.Sometypesofwaterborneurethanesarealsoavailable,butthe newesttypesofmoisturecureurethanesaremadeintheformofhotmeltadhesives. Thesearecalledreactivehotmelts,andexhibitadualproperty.Theyareappliedlike regularhotmelts,butafterapplicationbegintocrosslinkwithmoisturetoformatough adhesivelayerwithhighresistancetoheat,moisture,andimpact. E)UltravioletCureAdhesivesTheseareadhesiveswhichcontainmonomersthatwill crosslinkuponexposuretoultravioletlighttoformapolymer.Thecrosslinking(orcure) canhappeninlessthanasecondatproperenergylevels,sotheseadhesivescanbeusedin highspeedsituations.AcrylicadhesiveslendthemselvestoU.V.curingquitewell,butU.V. cureversionsofsilicones,urethanes/acrylicblendsandcyanoacrylatesarealsoused.
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Ultravioletcureadhesivescanformhighstrengthbondlinesonmaterialswhichwillpass theU.V.light.TheprimaryadvantageofU.V.cureadhesivesisthefastcurespeed. F)CyanoacrylateAdhesivesThesearefastsettingonecomponentadhesivesthatare popularlyknownas"crazyglue".Cyanoacrylatesaresolventfreeandreactwiththe moistureonthesurfacesofthesubstratematerialstoformarigidplasticadhesivelayer thathashighstrengthcharacteristics.Thecuredadhesiveisveryhighintensileandshear strength,butlowinpeelstrength. Cyanoacrylatesareexpensivecomparedtootheradhesives,butonlyaverysmallamountis neededtocovertheareatobebonded,sincethismaterialworksbestwhenspreadintoa verythinbondline.Thematerialisavailableinarangeofviscositiesfromwaterthinto thickenedversionsthatareintheformofthixotropicpastesorgels. G)AnaerobicAdhesivesTheseadhesivescuretoasolidpolymerintheabsenceofoxygen. Theyarecommonlyusedasthreadlockingcompoundsandretainingcompoundsfor metalpartssuchasbearingsandshafts.Anaerobicadhesivesremainliquidaslongasthey areexposedtotheatmosphere,butcurerapidlyonceconfined.Theyarepackagedin specialcontainersthatcan"breathe"topreventthematerialsfromsettingupinthe containers.Theyareeasytouseandareavailableinarangeofviscositiesandbond strengths.Someversionsareavailableformakingstructuralbondsbetweensubstratesthat needtobelaminated. H)FilmAdhesivesTheseadhesivesaremadeintheformofsheets.Inmostcases,theyare carriedonreleasepaperalthoughsometypesareheatactivatedanddonotrequirerelease paper.Filmadhesivesaremadefromwaterbase,solventbase,orhotmeltadhesiveswhich arecastintoathinfilmleavingonlytheadhesive.Theyfinduseinsituationswherethe releasepapercanbeleftinplaceandpeeloffpriortoapplicationtothesubstrate.Theyare popularformountingofplasticcomponentssuchaswarningstickers,diecutpartssuchas lettersandnumbers,andamultitudeofotherparts.Thisformofadhesivealsofindsusefor coldlaminatingofpaper,plasticsandfilms.Theheatreactivatedversionsfinduseinfabric bondingandindustrialapplicationswhereheatcanbeappliedtothesubstratestomeltthe adhesive. Sometypesoffilmadhesivesarecastontoasupportingmaterialsuchasascrimclothor nonwovenfabric.Thesepreventstretchingoftheadhesiveinuseandsimplifyhandling. Doublebackcarpettapeismadeinthismanner.Filmadhesivestendtobeexpensive relativetootheradhesivesbecausethecostofthereleasepapercarriermustbeincluded inthepriceoftheadhesive.Formanyapplications,thereleasepaperstayswiththe productuntilitisapplied,sothecostpremiumisjustified.Filmadhesivesarealsousefulin caseswhereliquidadhesivesmightdistortthesubstratestobebonded.Thisisthecase withsometypesofthinpapers,filmsandfoils,especiallyinlowvolumeapplicationswhere easeofhandlingisofprimaryimportance.
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MECHANICALCHARACTERISTICS: Wenowwishtoconsiderthemechanicalcharacteristicsandselectioncriteriaforthe adhesivesthemselves.Wewillbediscussingavarietyofperformancecapabilitiessuchas 1.)Impactstrength,2.)Peelstrength,3.)Shearstrength,4.)Gapfill,5.)Temperaturerating, 6.)Curetime,7.)Viscosity,8.)Tacktime,etc.These,andothercharacteristics,arevery importantwhenspecifyinganadhesivebutfirstwemusttakealookat1.)Substrates,2.) DesignofJointsand3.)Surfacepreparation.Thefirsttwowilldefinitelyfactorintoaiding oureffortsindecidingthetypeofadhesivetouse.Surfacepreparationisthekeyto successfulbondingandthatwillbediscussedalsointhecourse. SUBSTRATES: Apictureisworthathousandwordssopleasetakealookatthesketchbelow ADHESIVE
SUBSTRATE#1

SUBSTRATE#2

Home

Figure3BondingSubstrates

Keepinmindthatthesubstratecanbeanyvarietyofmaterialsandthejointdesigncanbeof anyconfiguration;i.e.rods,tubes,extrusions,rectangular,corrugated,flanged,anglejoints, cornerjoints,etc.Asmentionedearlier,wewilldiscussjointdesignlaterinthecourseand whatconfigurationsaregood,betterandbestasfarasconfiguration. Letusnowlookatcuts;onefromLOCTITESTheAdhesiveSourceBook,Vol5,2008Table 2,andthesecondTable3,fromtheMasterBondIncSubstrateReferenceTable.Inlookingat Table3,youwillnoticethetableindicatestwosubstrates,onegivenatthetopofthepageand onegivenattheleftsideofthepage.Theguidedetailsthosematerialclassificationsmost commonlybondedtogether.Theonlyrealomissioninthislistingiscompositematerials. Whenconsideringcomposites,itisbesttoconsulttheadhesivemanufacturerforadviceand guidance.Thistableallowsforselectionwhenidenticalsubstratesorsubstratesofdiffering materialsareused.Theadhesivenumbersattheintersectionofeachrowandcolumnisthe recommendedstartingpointfortheinitialselection.Isaystartingpointbecause,asyou notice,onlymaterialclassificationsaregivenandnotthematerialcalloutitself.Themetals classificationdoesnotspecifywhetheritssteel,aluminum,copper,zinc,lead,etc.Theinitial determinationisagrossindicatorandmaynotbetheverybestforthesubstratesin question.Allofthematerialslistedinthistableareforepoxiesandurethanes,but manufacturershaveothertablesforcomparabledataforthecorrectusageofcyanoacrylates, hotmelts,lightcures,silicones,etc. Table3demonstratesanotherarrangementofsubstrates,onlyinadifferentfashion.The broadclassificationsare:1.)Plastics,2.)Rubbers,3.)Metals,4.)Miscellaneousand5.)Substrate combinations.AswithLOCTITE,theexactmaterialsarenotcalledout.Itisleftuptothe engineerorprogrammanagertocontactspecificvendorsforexactingdataand recommendationrelativetoanyapplication.Pleasenote:
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ITISCRITICALTHATADHESIVESBEPROVENINAPPLICATIONANDWITHADEQUATETESTING. Therearemanyvariablesandmanywaysamisapplicationcanoccur.Forthemostpart,the tablesfromLOCTITEandMasterBondwillguideyouinachievinglongtermsuccess.Ifthe bondismissioncritical,samplecouponscanbeassembledfromthesubstratesbeingused andtestedtodemonstratesurvivabilitywiththemostcriticalload(s).Thisistheplacetostart; thenfabricateasampleormodelusingthesameadhesivematerialbutwiththejointdesign contemplatedforuse.Installthatassemblyorsubassemblyinareliabilitytestlabor environmentaltestchamberforcycletesting.Therearemanytestlabsthatcanduplicatethe mostrigorousconditionsaproductwillfaceinrealusage.Wewishtotestforreliabilityover theexpectedlifeoftheproductpriortoputtingtheproductonthecommercialmarket.I definitelyrecommendasamplesizethatwillallowforstatisticalsignificance.Mostreliability testsengineerswillrequireasamplesizeofatleastthirty(30)piecesorsubassemblies.Itis importanttopreparethesesamplesinafashionidenticaltotheproposedmanufacturing method(s).DeviationwillallowpossiblemisrepresentationofthedataandSKUunderstanding oftheresults.Thisisveryimportant!

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Table2LOCTITESelectorGuide

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Table3MasterBondSubstrateReferenceGuide

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Table3(Cont.)MasterBondSubstrateReferenceGuide


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JOINTDESIGN: Thedesignofanyadhesivejoint,regardlessofsubstrates,involvesselectingtheproper geometryanddimensions,thecorrectadhesive,qualitycontrolmeasuresandpracticesand bondingprocessandbondingtechniques.Thebasicrulesmostoftenrepeatedbyadhesive authoritiesrelativetojointdesignareasfollows: 1.) Designtoutilizethelargestcontactareaaspossible.Thiswillgivethegreatestreal estateforadhesionandbonding. 2.) Designtoputthemaximumproportionofbondareatowork.Thisinvolvesexamining, notonlytheloads,butthedirectionoftheloads. 3.) Designtoputthemainworkingstressinshearortension,minimizingcleavageorpeel stresses. Thefollowingquestionsshouldbeaskedandansweredpriortodesigningthejoints: 1.) Whatmaterialsaretobejoined?Whatparticularalloys?Whathardnessconditionsand surfacefinishes?(Thisisamatterofspecifyingthematerialsandknowingtheir mechanicalcharacteristics.) 2.) Whatarethethicknessesofthesubstrates?Isasketchorprintavailableofthepartor thesubassembly?(Havingadrawingoftheassemblyand/orpartsiscriticalforquality controlpurposes.Idefinitelyrecommendobtainingthisdocumentationpriorto continuing.) 3.) Whatistheenduseofthepartorsubassembly? 4.) Whataretheconditionsofusageforthepartorsubassembly?Wearetalkingaboutthe maximumandminimumconditionsincludinganymomentaryexcursionsrelativeto temperature,pressure,loading,humidity,etc.Theselimitationsarecalledthelimitsof acceptability.Allproductsshouldhavethisinformationasapartofthespecifications. 5.) Willtheseconditionsbeconstantwhileinuseorintermittent?Ifcycling,discoverwhat thecycletimesareandprepareforthosecycletimes. 6.) Whatqualificationtestswillthepartorassemblybesubjectedto? 7.) Whatspecifications;i.e.,MilSpecs,FDA,AHAM,etcmustthepartmeet? 8.) Whatchemicalsolvents,oils,andotherfluidswillthepartandthebondbesubjectedto wheninnormaluse?Whatarethetemperaturesthefluidswillhavewhencomingin contactwiththeadhesiveandtheparts? 9.) Willthepartneedelectricalcontinuity?Ifso,whatisthevoltageandcurrent? 10.) Istheadhesiveexpectedtobeaninsulator?Ifso,whatarethespecificationsforthe dielectric,resistivity,etc? 11.) Whatstrengthisthejointexpectedtowithstand?Whattensile,shear,peel,impact, compression,vibrationetcwillthejointsee?Whataretheupperandlowerlimits expectedforbondstrength? 12.) Isthereanyreasontopreferatapeadhesiveoverapasteadhesive?Ifso,why?Isthis trueforalloftheassemblyorjustaportionoftheassembly?
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13.) Whatisthebondingsequence?Whatarethesteps;i.e.surfacepreparation,bonding,

curing? 14.) Whattypeofreliabilitytestingwillbenecessarytoprovethejointdesignandthe adhesivetype? 15.) Whatqualitycontrolwillbeeffective?Thisisdeterminedbythecomplexityofthe designconcept,thesizeandmobilityofthepartandthematerialstobejoined. 16.) Whatistheexpectedperformancelifeoftheproduct,subassemblyandparts? Wewouldlikenowtoportrayseveraljointdesignsthatrepresentgood,betterandbest approachestoconfigurationwhenadhesivesareinuse.Thesedesignsexemplifythethree rulesasgivenabove.


Figure4LapJoints

Asyoucansee,somejointconfigurationsareveryquestionableandshouldnotbetriedunless therearenootheroptions. Thesecondtypeofjointwewishtoshowisananglejoint.Asyoucansee,therearealso configurationsthataremoreacceptablethanothersandshouldbeconsideredifatallpossible. Again,wearedesigningsoastomaximizethesurfaceareaofthematingsubstrates.

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Figure5AngleJoints

Flangesandfilletspresentaproblemwhenthebeamisacantileverbeam.Thefollowing sketcheswillgivetheconfigurationsbestforadhesiveusage.Designscanddare preferableduetoincreasedsurfacearea.


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Figure6AngleJoints

Flangejointsareeasiertoadherebutthereareguidelinesthatshouldprevailwhenusing adhesive.

Figure7FlangeJoints

Overlayjoints,rodjointsandtubejointsareverycommonandrepresentchallengesoftheir own.Figures7,8and9showacceptabledesigns.

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Figure8OverlayJoints

Figure9RodandTubeJoints

Thefollowingjointsarebasicallymiscellaneousjointscommonlyseeninconstructionand assembly.Again,pleasenotethatwearestrivingforamaximumofsurfaceareauponwhichto deposittheadhesive.Thisfactappliesfortheoverlayjoints,rotandtubejointsandallofthe miscellaneousjointsshownintheselinedrawings.

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Figure10MiscellaneousJoint

Figure11MiscellaneousJoint

SURFACEPREPARATION: Surfacepreparationiscriticaltobondingandwillvarydependinguponthesubstratesand adhesivesbeingused.Asyourecallfromearlierdiscussions,theadhesivemustwetthe surfaceandflowintothecrevicesandvalleysforproperbonding.Contaminatssuchasoil, grease,corrosion,scale,etcgreatlyimpedethatprocess.Substratesurfacesshouldbeasclean aspossibletofacilitatethiswettingprocessandallowforpropercontactbetweentheadhesive andthesubstratesurface.Itmaybecriticalfortheassemblypersonneltoweargloveswhen cleaningthesubstratesandapplyingtheadhesives.Thiswillminimizethetransferofoilsfrom handstoparts.Letusnowlookattherecommendedpreparationforvarioussubstrates. Thesetreatementsrepresentminimumacceptablepractice.Itisstronglyrecommendedthat theadhesivesupplierbecontactedpriortocleaninginordertogettheirrecommendations.
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Theevolutionofadhesivesisongoingandmanufacturersalwaysstriveforproductsthatrequire theleastsurfacepreparation.
SUBSTRATE Aluminum PRETREATMENT

Solventdegreases,abradeoracidetchwithconcentratedsulfuricacid,sodium dichromatesolutionat180for10minutes:alternativetreatmentisphosphoric acidetch. Solventdegreaseabradeandetchwithferricchoride/nitricacidsolutionat ambienttemperaturesfor1to2minutes:alternativetreatmentisammonium persulphate(25%inwater)etch. Solventdegrease,abradeanddegreaseoretchwithsolutionofBromderite250 orequivalent. Solventdegrease,abradeanddegrease Solventdegreasefollowedbyrinsewithsilanecouplingagent. Solventdegrease,abread,degrease,etchwith15%causticsodaat180for10 minutes. Abradeandsolventwipe. Abradeoracidetchwithconcentratedsulfuricacidforseveralminutesatroom temperature. Solventdegrease,abrasion:forpolyolefins,acidetchwithconcentratedsulfuric acidatroomtemperatureorflametreat:specialsodiumetchforPTFEand otherfluoropolymers. Solventdegreasewithaggressivehydrocarbonsorequivalentandabrade.

CopperandCopper Alloys

ZincandZincAlloys

Solder Glass

Tungstencarbide

Wood Rubber

Thermoplastice

Thermosets

Table 4 Pretreatment

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Generally,thefollowingsequenceofpracticesisrecommendedforcleaningthesurfacesofthe substratesinquestion: 1.) Degrease(Therearedegreaserscommerciallyavailableforanymaterialusesasa substrate.) 2.) AcidEtchorAlkalineclean 3.) Rinse 4.) Dry 5.) SurfaceConditioning(Thisisnotconsideredastandardprocedurebutissometimes used.) 6.) Prime.(Thelongerthetimelapsefromcleaningtoprimingorbondingthemorethe probabilityofcontaminationfromhandling,aircontaminants,etc.Partsshouldbe primedassoonaspossibleaftercleaning,handledincleanwhitegloves,wrappedin Kraftpaperandsealedinpolyethylenebagsforstorage.) Higheststrengthstructuralbondsareobtainedwhenpartsarefreefromoils,greases,paints, oxidefilms,dust,moldreleaseagents,rustinhibitorsandothercontaminants.Theamountof surfacepreparationtobecarriedoutdependsdirectlyontherequiredbondstrength,the desireddurabilitytoenvironmentalserviceconditions,andthecostofsurfacepreparation. Thethreemajormethodsforremovingsurfacecontaminantsaredegreasing,chemicalcleaning andabrasion.Theymaybeusedaloneorincombinationforgreatereffectivenessdepending onthedegreeofsurfacecleanlinessrequired.Apreferredsequenceofsurfacepreparation methodstogivehighestbondstrengthscomprises1.)Abrasion,2.)Degreasingand3.) Chemicaletching.Arecentlydevelopedpromisingalternativeis4.)Plasmaetching. Degreasingcanbecarriedoutwithsolventssuchasacetone,isopropanolorproprietary cleanersincludinghotalkalisolutions.Degreasingaloneisusedwheremaximumbond strengthoroutdoordurabilityarenotneeded.Abrasionmethodsincludingsandblasting,useof abrasivesandvaporhoningmayberequiredtohelpremovemillscale,oxidefilmsandcertain antirusttreatments.Chemicalcleaningsuchasetchingispopularforpreparingmetalsand, whereapplicable,providesasuperiorsurfaceforadhesion. Greases,oils,moldreleasesetc.cangenerallyberemovedwithEPAapprovedenvironmentally safeorganicsolventsorproprietarycleaners.Paintsandoxidefilmsareadvantageously removedbytechniquessuchassandingfollowedbysolventcleaning.Formaximumpossible bondstrengthfollowupwithaspecialsurfacetreatmentsuchasetchingformetals.The supplieroftheadhesiveshouldalwaysbeconsultedforspecialsurfacecleaningproblems.A simpleyeteffectivetestforsurfacecleanlinessistoplaceafewdropsofwaterontheareasto bebonded.Partsaresufficientlycleanifthewaterspreadstocovertheareawithacontinuous film.Ifthewaterbeads,aconventionalsolvent(degreasing)operationwillusuallyprove sufficientforcleaning.Useacetone,isopropanolorsimilarsolvent. Adhesiveprimerscanbeappliedtofreshlycleanedmetalsurfacestoavoidrecontamination duringstorageorproductiondelays.Theyarenotnecessaryifcleanedpartsarebonded immediatelyaftercleaning.Forspecificdetailsonsurfacepreparation,consultthesuppliers technicalstaff.Whenusingrecommendedchemicalsfollowappropriatefederal,stateand
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localregulationsforsafehandlinganddisposal.Appropriatecareisrequiredwhencarrying outnecessarysurfacepreparationprocedures.
PERFORMANCECONSIDERATIONS:

Wewishnowtoconsidertheperformancecharacteristicsforvariousgroupsofadhesive materials.Thefollowingmaterialistakenfromvendorreferencesandisbasedupontheir considerableexperienceinrecommendingproductstousers.Wewanttoconsiderthebenefits andlimitationsoftheadhesivestypesaswellasgeneralcharacteristics.Thesetablesaremeant tobegeneralguidelinestohelpyoudeterminewhichadhesivecategoryisbestsuitedforthe particularapplication.Afterzeroinginonthecategory,youthencandelvedeeperintothe characteristicsofthespecificadhesiveproducts.Asalways,contactingvendorswillbeyour bestoptionpriortomakingadecisiononwhichadhesivemeetsyourindividualneeds. WewillbelookingatperformanceANDprocessconsiderations.Processconsiderationsare everybitasimportantinthedecisionmakingprocessandfactorssuchas1.)Curetime,2.)Gap fill,3.)Fixturetime,4.)Tacktime,etcmaybecriticalwhenselectinganyoneadhesivematerial. IwouldlikenowtopresentseveralobservationstakenfromTables7and8thatwillindicate basicallywhatisavailablefromthestandpointinformation.Wewillstartwithviscosity. Animportantcharacteristicofanyadhesiveisviscosity.Viscosityismeasuredincentipoises andisabbreviatedcp.Theglossaryintheappendixindicatesthatviscositymeasuresthe abilityoftheadhesivetoflow.Thefollowingtablewillgiveyouacomparisonforseveral substances.

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PRODUCT

APPROXIMATE VISCOSITY IN CENTIPOISE (cP)

WATER @ 70 BLOOD AINTI-FREEZE MOTOR OIL SAE 10 MAZOLA CORN OIL MOTOR OIL SAE 30 MOTOR OIL SAE 40 MOTOR OIL SAE 60 KARO CORN SYRUP HONEY HERSHEY CHOCOLATE SURUP KETCHUP TOMATO PASTE PEANUT BUTTER CRISCO CAULKING COMPOUND WINDOW PUTTY

1 TO 5 10 15 50 TO 100 50TO 100 150 TO 200 250 TO 500 1,000 TO 2,000 2,000 TO 3,000 2,000 TO 3,000 10,000 TO 25,000 50,000 TO 70,000 150,000 TO 250,000 150,000 TO 250,000 1,000,000 TO 2,000,000 5,000,000 TO 10,000,000 100,000,000

Table 5 Viscosity

GapFillTherearetimeswhenthematingsubstratesarelessthanflatrelativetoeachother.It isimportantthattheadhesivewetsbothsubstratesforthebestpossiblebond.Wewantthe adhesivetofillthevoidsbetweenmatingsurfaces.Gapfillisameasureofhowmuchspace canbefilledbyvariousadhesives.Pleasenoticethevariousadhesivestypesgenerallycanfill between0.0001inchand0.0400inches.IfIhadagapof0.030inch,Iwouldnotspecifya cyanocrylate(CA),allthingsbeingconsidered.Itsimplywontdothejob. WaterBasedAdhesiveYoudefinitelywishtouseawaterbasedadhesivewhenadhering wood,paperorpaperboardproducts.Asyoucanseefromthetables,therearesomeadhesive thataredefinitelynotsuitedforbondingpaperproducts. ElectricalInsulationPropertiesEpoxieshaveexcellentpropertieswhenelectricalinsulationis needed.Hotmeltadhesivesandwaterbasedadhesivesarenotrecommendedwhenelectrical insulationisrequired. HumidityResistanceSiliconesareexcellentforhighhumidityenvironments.Iftheyare compatiblewiththesubstratesinquestion,theyprovidequalitiesthatwillguaranteelonglife. FixtureTimeFixturetimeishowlongthepartswillneedtoremainstationarybefore removingfromholdingfixtures.Ifyouneedaveryfastfixturetime,duetodailyproduction needs,youwillhavetochooseanadhesiveprovidingthatcharacteristic.Theveryfastestcure timesandfixturetimesareavailablewithlightcures.Ofcourse,thesecanonlybeusedifone
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orbothsubstratesaretransparent.Formanysubstrateslight cures are not usable due to jointconfigurationornontransparency.Frequently,fixturetimemaybelessenedbyapplying temperaturetothebondedsurfaces.Youmayalsofindthatapplyingpressuretoabonded surfaceimproveswettingcapabilityandifamaterialrequiresanaccelerator,fixturetimeis reducedbyvirtueofthatpressure. BondingStrengthEpoxiesprovidethebestbondingstrength,generally. FullCureTimeFullcuretimeisgenerally12to24hours,exceptforlightcureadhesives.This isthetimeittakesfortheadhesivetobecompletelyhardened.Pleasenotethatfixturetime andfullcuretimearenotthesame.Itisentirelypossibletoremoveanassemblyfroma fixture,package,rackandthenallowthatassemblytocurepriortoshipmenttothecustomer. Theimportantthingtorememberisthefullcuretimeshouldbereachedbeforetheproductis used. FlexibilitySiliconesarethemostflexibleduetotheirformulationbuttheyexhibitthelowest hardness.Generally,thehardertheadhesivematerial,thelowertheflexibility. ImpactStrengthSiliconeshaveexcellentimpactstrength.Mostadhesiveswithhighhardness exhibitlowerimpactstrength. PlasticBondingCyanoacrylatesandUVlightcuresareexcellentwhenbondingplastic substrates.Inlookingatthechartsbelow,youwillnoticethatepoxiesandsiliconesareonly fairwhenbondingplastic.Mostsuppliersofadhesiveswillrecommendstayingawayfrom thesetwoproductswhenbondingplastic. RubberBondingEpoxiesarejustabouttheonlyadhesivecategorythatcanassuresuccessful performanceforrubber. Glass/CeramicBondingEpoxiesandepoxyalloysprovideexcellentstrengthforglassand ceramicsubstrates.(Ihavehadagreatdealofexperienceinbondingglassandenameled products.Thisisaverytrickyapplicationofadhesivesandextensivetrialanderrormaybe expectedbeforefindingtherightproductfortherightapplication.Idefinitelyrecommend testingbeforelaunchingtheproductonacommercialbasis.) ShearStrengthHotmeltsandsiliconesdonotgivehighshearstrengthssoifthemajorcriteria forsuccessisshear,theyshouldnotbecandidates. HardnessAdhesivesvaryinhardnesswithsiliconesbeingtheleasthard.Thisisthereason thatsiliconeshavegreaterflexibilityandgreatervibrationresistancerelativetootheradhesive materials.Thetablegivenbelowwillindicatehardnessvsseveralcommonmaterialswesee anduseeveryday.

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SHORE A 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 45 55 74 78 82 86 90 0 32 63 95 125 Hardwood Desktop Glass or Formica 30 15 SHORE D ROCKWELL M REFERENCE OBJECT Art Gum Eraser Pink Pearl Eraser Rubber Stamp Pencil Eraser Rubber Heel Rubber Sole Typewriter Roller Pipe Stem Textbook Cover Douglas Fir Plywood

Table 6 Hardness

ResistancetoWaterandHumiditityCAsarenotveryresistivetopolarsolventssuchaswater. Asamatteroffact,CAperformancecanbeverypoorwhenappliedinanatmospherethatwill exhibitmoisture.OntheotherhandCAsareverygoodwhensubjectedtononpolarsolvents. Adhesivemanufacturersareyourbestbetwhenselectingadhesivesthatwillbesubjectedto solvents.Pleasekeepinmindalsothattheadhesiveindustryworkseverydaytoformulate suitableproductsfordevelopingmarkets.Newproductsareintroducedroutinelythatbreak themoldandanyrulesofthumbmaybeblownawaybyadvancesforanyoneproduct category. ThefollowingtwotablesweredevelopedbyLOCTITE(Table7)andMasterBond(Table8)and arepresentedasgeneralguidelinesforselection.

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Table7MechanicalCharacteristics

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Table8MechanicalCharacteristics

EPOXIES,CAsandPSTs:

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Iwouldlikenowtodiscussthreecategoriesofadhesivesthatgarnerthegreatestusageona globalbasis,1.)Epoxies,2.)Cyanoacrylates(CAs)and3.)PressuresensitiveadhesivesorPSAs. Allthreearewidelyusedforavarietyofpurposesrangingfromstickingadinnerplateback togethertouseasastructuraladhesive.Wewillgointosomedetailrelativetopressure sensitivetapesbecauseofthehugeusageonaglobalbasis.


EPOXIES:

Epoxiesaretheworkhorseadhesivesandthemostwidelyusedmaterialsforstructural purposes.Duetotheirhightensilestrength,upto10,000PSI,theyareespeciallyresistantto impact,vibrationandshock.Theservicetemperaturesrangefrom70Fto450Fandafew retaintheirstrengthattemperaturesexceeding500F. Epoxyadhesivesconsumptionhasgrown,notonlybecauseofperformancecapabilitiesbut becauseoftheirsimplicityofuse.Advancedepoxyadhesivebondingtechnologiesarereplacing traditionalmechanicalfasteners.Rivets,nutsandbolts,andscrewsarebeingreplacedwith onepartandtwopartepoxies.Theyareevencompetingwithprocessessuchasbrazingand, insomeapplications,welding.Singlecomponentsystemshaveheatactivatedcuringagents andneednotbemixed.Theresinandcuringagentsofatwopartepoxymustbemechanically mixedbeforecuringtakesplace.Curesvaryfromresintoresinbutgenerallytakebetweenone tothreehourswithappliedtemperaturesof200Fto400F.Postcureheatingcanfurther extendthemechanicalpropertiesforsomesystem. Epoxybondsareusuallyveryrigidbutexhibitpoorpeelstrength,althoughnewformulations havegreatlyimprovedresistancetopeel.Generally,pressureabove50PSIisrequiredtoinsure wettingofsurfacesandprecleaningisdefinitelyrecommended.
CYANOACRYLATES(CA):

AnothercategoryofadhesivesarethesupergluesorCAs.Liketheepoxies,theyarewidely usedintheUnitedStatesandtheworldtoday.Theyareveryveryfastsettingandgobyseveral brandnames;i.e.Gorillaglue,Krazyglue,etc.Technologyhascreatedtheseadhesiveswith awidevarietyofviscosities,lowodor,rapidcuretimesandhightemperatureresistance.Their gapfillcharacteristicsrangefrom0.006inchesto0.020incheswithtemperaturelimitsbetween 76Fand500F.SomeCAshaveovercometheresistancetomanyplastics,suchasPTFEaswell asdissimilarmetals.



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PRESSURESENSISTIVEADHESIVES(PSA):

Pressuresensitiveadhesives(PAs)formabondbytheapplicationoflightpressure,which marriestheadhesivewiththesubstrate.Theseadhesivesaredesignedwithabalancebetween flowandresistancetoflow.Thebondformsbecausetheadhesiveissoftenoughtofloworwet thesubstrate.Thebondhasstrengthbecausetheadhesiveishardenoughtoresistflowwhen stressisapplied.Oncetheadhesiveandthesubstrateareincloseproximity,molecular interactions,suchasvanderWaalsforces,becomeinvolved,contributingsignificantlytoits ultimatestrength.Pressuresensitiveadhesivesaredesignedforeitherpermanentor removableapplications.Examplesofpermanentapplicationsincludesafetylabelsforpower equipment,foiltapeforHVACductwork,automotiveinteriortrimassembly,assemblyof appliancedoors,assemblyofrefrigeratorstructuresandsound/vibrationdampingfilms.Some highperformancepermanentPSAsexhibithighadhesionvaluesandcansupportpoundsof weightpersquareinchofcontactarea,evenatelevatedtemperatures.PermanentPSAsmay beinitiallyremovableandbuildadhesiontoapermanentbondafterseveralhoursoreven days. Removableadhesivesaredesignedtoformatemporarybond,andideallycanberemovedafter monthsorevenyearswithoutleavingaresidueonthesubstrate.Removableadhesivesare usedinapplicationssuchassurfaceprotectionfilms,maskingtapes,bookmarks,pricemarking labels,promotionalgraphicmaterialsandforskincontact(woundcaredressings,EKG electrodes,athletictape,analgesicandtransdermaldrugpatches,etc.)Someremovable adhesivesaredesignedtorepeatedlystickandthenberemoved.Theyhavelowadhesionand generallycannotsupportmuchweight. Pressuresensitiveadhesivesaremanufacturedwitheitheraliquidcarrierorin100percent solidform.ArticlesaremadefromliquidPSAsbycoatingtheadhesiveanddryingoffthe solventorwatercarrier.Theymaybeheatedtoinitiateacrosslinkingreactionandincrease molecularweight.OnehundredpercentPSAsmaybelowviscositypolymersthatarecoated andthenreactedwithradiationtoincreasemolecularweightandformtheadhesive;orthey maybehighviscositymaterialsthatareheatedtoreduceviscosityenoughtoallowcoating, andthencooledtotheirfinalform.
PRESSURESENSITIVETAPES(PSTs):

Thesaleofpressuresensitivetapes,worldwide,willexpandby2010toanannualusageof approximately30billionsquaremeters.Thevalueindollarswillexceed$25billionand projectedgrowth,intermsoftapesales,willincreasethroughouttheremainderofthisdecade. Atthepresenttime,theUnitedStatesisthelargestuserofPSTswith$4.7billionannuallybutit isprojectedthatChinawillsurpasstheUSAinusagebytheendof2010.Thisisaglobalgrowth of10%.Togiveyouanexampleofhowmuchtapeisusedandwhere,annually,morethan 1.65billionsquarefeetofwiringharnesstapeisusedbytheautomotiveindustryaroundthe


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world.Theaveragevehicleswireharnesssystemconsistsofapproximately3,500linearfeet, mostofwhichisheldtogetherbyPSTs. PSTsconsistoftwodistincttypes:adhesivecoatedPCVandnonadhesivecoatedordryvinyl material.Theproductsare1.)Singlesidedtapesuchascartontape,maskingtape,medical tape,ducttape,electricaltapeand2.)Doublesidedtapesuchasthoseusedinmanufacturing firms.Thegradesaretypicallysegmentedintofourtemperatureranges:1.)T1nottoexceed 85C,2.)T286Cto105C,3.)T3106Cto125Cand4.)T4125Cto150C.Byfar,themost predominantusageisforcorrugatedboxsealing. Theindustryleadersare:1.)3M,2.)IntertapePolymerGroup,3.)TycoInternational,4.) Shurtape,5.)Avery,6.)Beiersdorfand7.)NittoDenko.Thereareover300tape manufacturerslistedintheThomasRegister,whichunderscoresthefactthatcompaniesfeel thatcontinuedusagewillimproveovertheremainderofthisdecade. Averypopularformoftapeforstructuralpurposesisacrylicfoamtape.Acrylicfoamtapes havebeendemonstratedtobeverycapablebondingproductsoverthepast25years,providing anoftenidealcombinationofperformance,durability,andeaseofuse.Theyhavebeen successfullyusedinawidevarietyofdemandingindustrialapplicationsinareassuchas applianceassembly,aircraftsubassembly,automotiveusage,andcommercialbuilding construction.Althoughthesetapeshaveproventhemselvesinactualuse,theviscoelastic natureofpressuresensitiveadhesiveshasprovidedachallengeforthedesignengineer becausesuitableperformancevaluesforevaluatingadhesivelybondedjointshavenotbeen widelyavailable.Thishasremainedaconsistentproblemovertheyears.Underwriters Laboratories(UL)haspublishedateststandard,UL746C,thatstrivestotaketheguesswork outofevaluatingperformance.Portionsofthatstandardaregivenintheappendixtothis paperandaddresscycletestinginhighhumidityconditionsandwithelevatedtemperatures. Aseriesofothertestshavebeenrecentlyperformeddemonstratingthatacrylicfoamtapesare capableofprovidingperformanceonparwithotherbondingmaterialsusedintheconstruction industry.Theresultsfromthesetestshavealsobeenusedtogeneratesimple,useful,and conservativevaluesfortapeperformancethatcanbeusedindesigncalculations.Thesedesign criteriaprovidesufficientperformanceformanyconstructionapplications,whileincorporating safetyfactorstypicaloftheindustry.Theleadingglobalmanufacturersofpressuresensitive tapesisthe3MCompany.Theirproductlineincludesthefollowing: 3MVHBTapes 3MDoublecoatedFoamTapes 3MDoublecoatedTapes 3MRemovable/RepositionableTapes 3MAdhesiveTransferTapes 3MExtendedLinearTapes 3MMembraneSwitchAdhesives
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ScotchATGAdhesiveSystems

VHBtapesareusedbasicallyforstructuralpurposesandhavebeenonthecommercialmarket fortwentyfiveyears.Characteristicsof1.)Highholdingpower,2.)Goodshockabsorbtion propertiesand3.)ResistancetocommonsolventsmakeVHBtapeverypopularformany commercialapplications.Thefollowingtableswilldemonstrateseveraltapecategories, possibleusesandtemperaturerangesforthoseuses.Similartablesexistforother3Mtape categories.

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Table93MVHBBondingTapes

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Table103MTapeSelectionGuide

TYPESOFADHESIVEFAILURES:
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Wewishtodiscussnowthetypesoffailuresthatcanoccurwhensubstratesarebonded togetherusinganadhesive.Practicesaysthatallpartseventuallyfail.Itsgoodtoknowthe failuremodessothatcarefulexamination,throughperiodicpreventativemaintenance,canbe predictiveandrepairscanbemadebeforefailuredoesoccur.Wealwayshopeouradhesive bondisperfectbutwesuspectthattherearetimeswhenporosity,voids,inclusionsandcracks dooccurduetoimpropercleaning,contamination,workerserrors,etc.Wealsoknowthat overloadingissuspectwhencatastrophicfailureoccurs. Therearethreefailuremodesorfracturetypesasfollows: 1.) StructuralFailures 2.) AdhesiveorInterfacialFailures 3.) CohesiveFailures StructuralFailures:Structuralfailuresoccurinthesubstratematerialusuallyclosetothe adhesivebondjoint.Inthiscasetheadhesiveremainsintactandisstillbondedtoonesubstrate andtheremnantsoftheother.Forexample,whenoneremovesapricelabel,adhesiveusually remainsonthelabelandthesurface.Thisiscohesivefailure.If,however,alayerofpaper remainsstucktothesurface,theadhesivehasnotfailed. AdhesiveFailures:Thefractureisadhesiveorinterfacialwhendebondingoccursbetweenthe adhesiveandthesubstrate.Inmostcases,theoccurrenceofadhesivefailureforagiven adhesiveisduetosmallerfracturetoughnessrelativetothesubstrate.Theinterfacial characterofafracturesurfaceusuallyfollowsthepreciselocationofthecrackpathinthe interphase. CohesiveFailures:Cohesivefractureoccursifacrackpropagatesinthebulkpolymerwhich constitutestheadhesive.Inthiscasethesurfaceofbothsubstrates,afterdebonding,willbe coveredbytheadhesive.Thecrackmaypropagateinthecenterofthelayerornearan interface.Forthislastcase,thecohesivefracturecanbesaidtobecohesiveneartheinterface. Mostqualitycontrolstandardsconsideragoodadhesivebondingmustbecohesive. MixedFailureModes: Thereisalsoamixedfracturetypewhichoccursifthecrackpropagatesatsomespotsina cohesiveandinterfacialmanner.Mixedfracturescanbecharacterizedbyacertainpercentage ofadhesiveandcohesivefractures.
Thealternatingcrackpathfracturejumpsfromoneadhesiveinterfacetoanother.Thistypeof fractureappearsinthepresenceoftensileprestressesintheadhesivelayer.

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Figure12FailureModes

Thefollowinggraphicwillshowthefourbasicfailuremodesforadhesive/substrateloading. Pleasenotethatthefailuremechanism,asgivenbyFigure12,canoccurineachofthefour modes.

Figure13LoadingFailureModes


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ADHESIVETESTING:

Allmanufacturerstesttheirproductstoseewhatmechanicalcharacteristicstheyhave. Adhesivesareabsolutelynodifferentthananyothermaterialwithonebigexception;anyone givenadhesiveappliedtodifferingsubstrateswillexhibitdifferentmechanicalcharacteristics. Manufacturersspendagreatdealoftimeindeterminingthecharacteristicsofproducts.Some oftheteststhatareroutinelyperformedare: 1.) Tensile 2.)Creep 3.)Shear 4.)Fatigue 5.)Impact 7.) FireResistance 8.)BearingStrength 9.)CompressiveStrength 6.)Cleavage 10.)Modulus

Thereareprescribedstandardsforallofthesetests,suchasASTMMethodD897(Tensile Strength),ASTMMethodD1002(ShearStrength)andASTMD14(PeelStrength).Theseare quasigovernmentalstandardsbut,asmentionedearlier,therearestandardsfromtheindustry groupsthatservetheverysamepurpose.Wewishtonowlookatseveraltestmethods.Figure 12willaidourdiscussionindescribinghowthetestsareconducted. PeelTests:Whenabondedadhesivejointisgraduallyforcedapartfromtheedgesinward,the tearingoftheadhesivewhichoccursiscalledpeeling.Fieldandlaboratoryexperiencehas shownthatanunboundedareainabondedpanelcanbecomealocalizedsourceoffailure whichwillprogressivelybecomeenlargedwhenthepanelissubjectedtosufficientlyhighstatic oralternatingloads.Thereareseveralmethodsusedtotestforpeel;i.e.1.)TPeeltesting,2.) ClimbingDrumPeelTestingand3.)FourFootDiameterPeelTester. WedgeTests:Thismodemeasuresthefractureresistanceofanadhesiveusedtobondthin plates.Thesetestsconsistofinsertingawedgebetweentwobondedplatesuntiladhesive failureoccurs.Thisisalsocalledacleavagetest.Theadhesivesareactuallyloadedinthepeel mode,butthesubstratesarerigid. DelaminatingBeamTests:Thisisnotthatdifferentfromthewedgetestsexceptthesubstrates areforcefullyseparatedbywedgesinsertedattheadhesive/substrateinterface. EndNotchFlexureTests:Thistestinvolvestwobondedbeamsbuiltinononesideandloaded byaforceontheother.Forceisappliedasstrategicpointsalongthelowerbeamtothepoint whereseparationoftheadhesive/substrateboundarylayeroccurs. CrackLapShear:Twoplatesarebondedonalimitedlengthandloadedintensiononboth ends.Thetestscanbeeithersymmetricalornonsymmetrical. FireResistance:Fireresistanceratingsareveryimportantandmustbeknownifthereisa chancetheadhesiveandsubstratewillbesubjectedtoelevatedtemperatures. Creep:Theelongation,orshearstrain,whichoccursinanadhesivebondedspecimenundera constanttensilestressoveralongperiodoftime,isreferredtoascreep.

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Figure14TestMethods

ShearTests:Byfarthemostcommonandusefultypeofadhesivetestsisthesheartest.Not onlyisitquitesimpleandeconomicaltorun,butitalsoduplicatesandevaluatesthetypeof loadingtowhichstructuraladhesivesaremostoftensubjectedtoinservice. TensileTests:Anadhesiveisintensileloadingwhentheactingforcesareapplied perpendicularlytotheplaneoftheadhesive.Thetestmaybeaffectedbyseveralfactors, namely1.)Temperatureduringthetest,2.)Alignmentofthetestdevice,3.)Alignmentofthe joinedarea,4.)Rateofloading. ImmersionTests:Thistestistodeterminetheresistanceofthebondedjointstovariousfluids. Specificimmersiontimes,temperaturesandfluidconcentrationsareprescribedforeach material. STANDARDS: Asmentionedearlier,therearenumerousstandardsrelevanttoadhesives.Thesestandards provideawiderangeofguidelinesfor1.)Safety,2.)Performance,3.)Adhesiveformulation,
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4.)Cleanliness,5.)Bondinginvolvingadhesivetyperelativetosubstratetype,6.)Mechanical classification,etc.Severalsponsorsdeliveringadhesivestandardsare: a.) b.) c.) d.) e.) f.) g.) h.) i.) j.) TheDepartmentofDefense;i.e.MILstandards TheAmericanSocietyofTestingMaterials(ASTM) TheAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers(ASME) FederalSpecifications UnderwritersLaboratory(UL) NationalSanitationFoundation(NSF) AmericanBureauofShipping(ABS) CanadianFoodInspectionAgency(CFIA) FoodandDrug(FDA) ISO10993Compliance

Thereisasignificantnumberofindustrystandardsthatgovernpackaging,tape,firehazards, environmentalhazards,safetyinusage,etc.Theverybestsuggestionistoallowthevendor youaredealingwithtoaidyoureffortsindeterminingwhichstandardsaremostapplicableto theindividualapplication.Ifyouareworkingasasupplierandprovidingabondedassembly, youwillwanttoaskyourclientifthereareanyoutstandingspecificationsand/orstandards theyneedadherenceto.Iftheanswerisyes,makesureyouhavethemostuptodateversion WITHanyaddenda.Agreeuponthiswiththemandnailthemdownastoapplicability. EQUIPMENT: Thetypeofequipmentfordispensingadhesiveswilldependupon1.)Adhesivetype,2.)Daily productionneeds,3.)Calibrationrequirementsand4.)Thetrainabilityofproduction workers.Theequipmentrequiredforlightcureadhesives,RTVs,onepartadhesive,twopart adhesiveandepoxiesisalldifferent.Inmostcases,theequipmentforoneadhesivecategory typeisNOTinterchangeableforanothercategorytype.Lowproductionrequirementsmay necessitateahandheldpieceofequipmentinsteadofaroboticdispensingsystem,whereas dailyrequirementsinvolvingthousandsofbondedpartsmaydemandamuchmore sophisticatedworkcell.Itisalsoveryimportanttoconsiderreceivingmethodologyfor incomingadhesiveproducts,storageareaandproceduresforanyadhesivethatmustbe disposedof.Doyouneedastorageareathatmustbesprinkled?IsthereaneedtocallOSHA priortomanufacturing?WhatPPE(personalprotectionequipment)willbeneededtoinsure thesafetyofemployees?Howmuchtrainingmustemployeeshavepriortoworkingwith adhesivesandaccelerants?Isitnecessarytoremoveanyodorscreatedbytheadhesiveand/ oraccelerantduringtheproductionprocess?Theseareallgoodquestionstoaskandmustbe answeredpriortodispensingthematerials. Thefollowingfigureswillshowthelargevarietyofequipmentusedonadailybasistoday.

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Figure15Pump/PailAssembly

Thelinedrawingaboveshowsapump/pailsystemmarketedbytheLOCTITECorporationusing aGRACOpump.Itisasystemusedextensivelyinmanufacturingorganizationstodispensea varietyofadhesivesincludingveryviscousRTVs.Thepailisplacedbelowtheplungerplateon thebottomofaram.Asmaterialisused,theplateadvancesdownwardmovingtheadhesive throughadistributionhose.Thehoseisnotshowninthedrawing. Thedistributionhosemaybeconnectedtoahandheldwandoraroboticworkcell dispensingadhesivesonaprogrammedbasis.


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Figure16SCARARobot

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ThelinedrawingabovegivesthebasicdetailsofaSCARArobot.Thisrobotcandeliveradhesive attherateofsix(6)inchespersecondoveraflatorangledsurface.Itisaremarkably capabledeviceandonethatcansavehoursofsetuptimeandproductiontime,butitisnot cheap.Anothertypeofrobotisshownbelow.

Figure17CartesianRobot

ThisisagantryorCartesianrobot.Ithasthesamebasicfouraxiscapabilitiesbutcannot articulatetoprovideadhesiveforpartswithcompoundangles.Itisbasicallydesignedforflat parts.Inbothcases;i.e.SCARAandCartesian,adispensingheadisinstalledtothemovable post.Thisheadissuppliedwithadhesivefromstoragesuchasapump/pailassembly.The systemisdrivenbydry,compressedair,usuallyataround80to100psi.Mostsystems operatewith230VAC,singlephasevoltageandrequirea30ampbreaker.Dependingupon adhesives,aventilationhoodmayberequired.


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Nowletuslookatseveralbenchtophandheldsystems.Theonegivendirectlybelowisa reservoirusedfordispensingavarietyofadhesivetypes.Asyoucansee,itisapressurepot.

Figure18AdhesiveStorage

Thephotographbelowshowsahandhelddeviceloadedwithacartridgeof332acrylic adhesive.Thedeviceoperatesinafashionverysimilartoacaulkinggun.

Figure19CartridgeDispenser

Thedevicesbelowshowahandheldhotmeltgluegun.Theseareprimarilyforlow productionapplications.Pleasenotethegluesticksprotrudingfromtheguns.Asmentioned earlier,therearethreetypesofhotmeltadhesives:1.)Remoistenable,2.)Polyamideand3.) Reactive.Hotmeltsarerapidcureandareusedgreatlyincartonsealingapplication,generally dispensedfrombulkstorage.


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Figure20HotMeltGlueGuns

Regardlessofthemethodusedfordispensingadhesive,therearegreatvarietiesofdispensing tipsornozzlesavailabletocalibratetheproperamountofmaterialprovidedonthe substrate.Thisisdemonstratedwiththefigurebelow.Thevarietiesincludedispensingtips, onepartandtwopartstaticmixnozzlesandsyringebarrelcomponents.Thesedevicesare madeinvariouslengthsfrommaterialssuchasstainlesssteelandpolyethylene.

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Figure21DispensingNozzles

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APPENDIX
GlossaryofTermsforAdhesives GlossaryofTermsforPressureSensitiveAdhesives ExcerptsfromUL746C ExampleofHAZMATSheetforPSTs TypicalSpecificationSheet GLOSSARYOFTERMSFORADHESIVES
Definitionsofwidelyusedtermsinthetechnologyofadhesives, sealants,pottingcompounds,encapsulantsandimpregnants. Astage Theearlystageinthereactionsofcertainthermosettingpolymerswhereinthe materialisstillquitesolubleinvariousliquidsandflowableatelevated temperatures;readilyformableintospecificconfigurations. AcrylonitrileButadieneStyreneResinsversatilewidelyemployed thermoplasticpolymercompositionswithmoderateresistancetoheat,low temperaturesandchemicals;bondsreadilytomanydifferentadhesive materials. Acetalresinsbasedonformaldehydearehighperformanceengineeringplastics withsuperiorabrasionresistanceandtoughness;mayrequirepretreatmentsto enhanceadhesionproperties. Substancesemployedtospeedupthecureofadhesives,sealants, potting/encapsulationcompoundsandimpregnants;Seealsocatalyst. Afamilyofthermoplasticsyntheticresinsbasedlargelyonacrylicesterswitha widerangeofperformanceproperties;acrylicresinsareoftenrecognizedfor theirsuperioropticalclarity,strengthandhighdurability;acrylicadhesivesare availablewhichfeatureremarkableadhesiontomanydifferentsubstratesand quickcuretimes;limitedresistancetoelevatedtemperaturesand/orchemical exposurearefactorstobeconsideredwhenselectingsuchadhesives,sealants, etc.forspecificapplications. Thestateinwhichtwosurfacesareheldtogetherbyinterfacialforceswhich maybechemicalormechanicalinnatureorboth;frequentlycalledbonding.

ABS

Acetal

Accelerators

Acrylics

Adhesion

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Adhesive

Asubstancewiththecapabilityofholdingtwosurfacestogetherbyeither chemicalormechanicalinterfacialforcesorcombinationsthereof;bonding agent. Anadhesivewhichcanbeemployedtobondpartstogethersuchasinthe manufactureofaircraftandautomotivecomponents,electroniccircuitry, medicaldevices,furnitureandmanyotherstructuresorgoods. Thestrengthwithwhichtwosurfacesareheldtogetherwithanadhesive,also knownasthebondstrength;quantitativetestsareavailableformeasuringthe adhesivestrengthundervariousenvironmentalconditions;measuredinunits suchaspsiorN/mm2 Relatedtoorbasedonwatercontainingcompositions. Theassemblyofmaterialsbymeansofadhesives;maybecarriedoutat ambientoratelevatedtemperaturesforspecifiedtimeperiods. See"adhesivestrength".Specificmeasurementsincludetheloadappliedin tension,compression,flexure,peel,impactorshearneededtobreakan adhesiveassemblywithfailurenotedinorneartheplaneofthebond. Theintermediatestageinthereactionofcertainthermosettingpolymers whereinthematerialcanstillbesoftenedwhenheatedorswelledincontact withcertainliquidsbutcannotbecompletelyfusedordissolved;Bstagedresins generallypermitsomedegreeofformabilityorshapingintocertainspecific configurations. Failureofanadhesivelybondedassemblywhensubjectedtoexcessiveloads and/orhostileenvironmentalconditionssuchasexposuretoexcessivelyhighor lowtemperatures,aggressivesolventsetc;failurescanalsooccurastheresults ofinadequatejointdesignorcontaminationofthesurfacestobebondedby oils,grease,particulatesandsoon.Itcanalsoresultfrominsufficientadhesive applicationtoajoint. Arigidcontaineremployedtostoreunmixedadhesivecompositionsinpre measuredamounts;cartridgesmayfeatureasidebysideorcoaxial configuration. Achemicalsubstanceemployedtospeedupthecureofadhesives,sealants, potting/encapsulationcompoundsandimpregnants;seealso"accelerator"; frequentlyusedasthe"B"componentofatwopartthermosettingadhesive,
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Adhesiveassembly

Adhesivestrength

Aqueous Bonding

Bondstrength

BStage

Break

Cartridge

Catalyst

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sealantorpottingcompound. Cstage Thefinalstageinthereactionofcertainthermosettingpolymerswhereinthe materialbecomeslargelyinsolubleandinfusible;theattainmentoftheCstage signalsachievementofcompletenessofthecureoftheseproductsand realizationoftheiroptimumstrengthandotherpertinentperformances characteristics. Amaterialmadeupoftwoormoredifferentsubstances,eachhavingitsown properties,combinedtoformathirdsubstancewithitsownspecific performanceproperties;thusepoxyorpolymertyperesinscanbecombined withglassorgraphitefiberstocreatehigherstrengthglassorgraphitefiber reinforcedlaminateswithenhancedtoughness,dimensionalstabilityetc. Finecracksthatmayextendinapolymernetworkonorunderthesurfaceofor throughalayerofanadhesiveorsubstrate. Dimensionalchangethatcanoccurwithtimewithamaterialunderload, followinginstantaneousorrapiddeformationsespeciallyafterrepeatedcycling; creepatambienttemperaturesisoftencalledcoldflow. Applicabletoverylowtemperatureconditionssuchasliquidnitrogenand below;usuallyreferredtotemperaturesbelow100K. Theprocesswhichchangesthepropertiesofamaterialbychemicalreactions;it frequentlyinvolvesaphysicalchangefromtheliquidtothesolidstate;often calledhardeningorsetting;fullycuredmaterialsexhibitmaximumphysical, thermalandchemicalpropertiesinuse. Seeaccelerator,catalyst,andhardener. Afamilyofexceptionallyfastcuringsocalled"instantglue"adhesiveswiththe capabilityofquickbondingtoawiderangeofmetallicandnonmetallic substrates;specialprimersarealsoavailableforcertaindifficulttobondto substrates. Ingredientsusuallyaddedtoanadhesivecompositiontodecreasethe concentrationoftheactivebondingmaterialssoastoachieveenhancedflow propertiesorreducecost. Tochangethephysicalstateofanadhesiveonanadherendsurfaceby
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Composite

Crazing

Creep

Cryogenic

Curing

CuringAgent Cyanoacrylates

Dilutents

Drying

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evaporationofthesolventcomponentsoftheadhesivecomposition;dryingcan alsobeaccomplishedbyabsorptionofthesolventcomponentsontheadherend surface. Elastomer Apolymericmaterialwhichatambienttemperaturescanbestretchedtoat leasttwiceitsoriginallengthbyadeformingforceandthenreturnstoits originallengthuponremovalofthatforce;elastomerscanbesyntheticor naturalmaterials(rubbers). Amostversatilegroupofthermosettingpolymersforadhesive,sealant,coating, potting/encapsulation,impregnationandcoatinguses;canbetwocomponent roomtemperaturecuringoronepartheatcuringcompositions;featurehigh physicalstrengths,superiorresistancetochemicaland/orenvironmental damageandexcellentdimensionalstability;widelyemployedforstructural adhesiveapplicationsandaselectricalinsulationmaterials;specialformulations areavailablewhichfeaturehighelectricaland/orthermalconductivity; remarkablywideservicetemperaturerange. Chemicalreactionswhichreleaseheat;theoppositeofendothermicreactions whichrequireheattoproceed. Ingredientsfrequentlyhavingsomeadhesiveproperty,addedtoanadhesive compositioninordertoreducethecostoftheamountoftheprimaryadhesive componentrequiredperunitofbondarea. Seealsoselfextinguishing.Compoundshavingresistancetoburning. Breakageofanadhesivebondsuchthattheseparationtakesplaceatthe adhesive/adherendinterface. Breakageofanadhesivebondsuchthattheseparationtakesplacewithinthe adhesivebondlayer. Relativelynonadhesivesubstancesaddedtoanadhesivecompositionto improveeaseofapplicationand/orsomespecificperformancepropertysuchas strength,durability,hardness,dimensionalstabilityorothercharacteristics. Thatportionofanadhesivewhichfillsthecornerorangleformedwheretwo adherendsarejoined. Movementofanadhesivecompoundduringapplicationandthebonding
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Epoxy

Exothermic

Extenders

Extinguishing Failure,adhesive

Failure,cohesive

Fillers

Fillet

Flow

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process,priortotheonsetofcure. FRP Gelation Fiberreinforcedplastics. Descriptionoftheprocesswhereinaninitiallyliquidcompositionthickensand changesfromliquidtosolidstate;formationofasolidpolymernetworkfroma liquid. Asubstanceormixtureofsubstancesaddedtoanadhesivecompositionto promotethecuringreaction;hardenersbecomepartofthecuredadhesive compound(seealsocatalyst) Asubstancewhichisaddedtoslowdowntherateofachemicalreaction;they areattimesusefultoprolongthestorageorworkinglifeofcertaintypesof adhesives. Theprocessofimbeddingareactiveliquidintoaporoussubstrateinorderto changeitsproperties. Thelocationatwhichtwoormoreadherendsareheldtogetherwithalayerof adhesive(seealsobond). Ajointmadebyplacingoneadherendpartlyoveranotherandthenbonding togethertheoverlappedportions. Ajointthathasaninsufficientamountofadhesivetoproduceasatisfactory bond. Aproductmadebybondingtogethertwoormorelayersofmaterialwith adhesive. Theamountofforcethatabody,jointorboardcansustain;theforceappliedto abody,jointorbond; Adeviceusedasaconnectorbetweenastaticmixerandahoseorapplication toolsuchasadisposableneedle. Afamilyofhighperformancethermoplasticsfeaturingsuperioropticalclarity, abrasionresistanceandgoodphysicalstrengthproperties;thetermisalsoused todescribecertainmodifiedacrylicadhesives.

Hardener

Inhibitor

Impregnation

Joint

Joint,lap

Joint,starved

Laminate

Load

LuerLock

Methacrylates

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Modifier

Anyinertchemicalingredientaddedtoanadhesivecompoundthatchangesits properties(seealsoextenders,fillersetc). Asimplechemicalbuildingblockwithreactivitytomakepossibletheformation ofapolymer. Deviceswhichemploypassive(unmoving)meanstocombineandmixtwoor moresubstances;commonlyfoundattachedtocartridgesystemsormetermix equipment;frequentlycalledstaticmixers. Syntheticrubberswithsuperiorresistancetoheatandmanyaggressive chemicalsbasedonchloroprene. Syntheticrubbersfeaturingexcellentresistancetooils,fuelsetc.overawide rangeoftemperaturesbasedonbutadieneacrylonitrile. Toughthermoplasticspolyamidebasedresinswithsuperiorphysicalstrength properties,toughnessandenvironmentalresistance,usuallyemployedas moldingcompounds. Acirculardiscofrubberwhichfitssnuglyaroundthepistontohelpmaintaina sealbetweenpistonandcartridgewall. Anadhesivecompositionhavingthecharacteristicplasticlikeconsistencyofa paste;i.e.ahighorderofyieldvaluecomparedtoaliquid. Anadhesive'sresistancetobestrippedfromabondedjoint,usuallywiththe strippingforceappliedatapredeterminedangleandrate. Theenteringofanadhesiveintoanadherent,measuredbythedepthofthe penetrationachievedinagiventime. Adiscwhichfitstightlyintothebackofacartridgeagainstitscontent. 1.)Asyntheticpolymericmaterialmadefromorganiccompounds.2)Amalleable materialcapableofbeingformedintodifferentshapes. Aningredientincorporatedintoanadhesivecompositionthatenhancesflow, deformationandflexibility;theadditionofplasticizersalsotendstoreducemelt viscosity,tensilestrengthpropertiesandelasticmoduliwhileincreasing

Monomer

Motionlessmixers

Neopreneelastomers

Nitrileelastomers

Nylonplastics

Oring

Paste

Peelstrength

Penetration

Piston Plastic

Plasticizer

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toughnessandimpactstrength. Plunger Arodorstickwhichforcesthepistonandthusthecontentsofthecartridgeto thefrontandthroughtheopening. Acomplexcompoundmadebythereactionofsimplemoleculeshaving functionalgroupswhichpermittheircombinationtoproceedtoahigh molecularweightgivenappropriatereactionconditions;polymersmaybe formedbyadditionorcondensationreactions;additionalpolymersinclude acrylics,ABS,nylonsandstyrenes;condensationpolymersareepoxies, phenolicsandsilicones. Theprocessinvolvingchemicalreactionsleadingtotheformationofthelarge moleculesknownasthehighmolecularweightmaterialsalsocalledpolymers. Atreatmentusuallyinvolvingtheapplicationofheatwhichisappliedtoan adhesiveassemblyfollowinginitialcure;itspurposeistomodifycertainspecific jointpropertiessuchasheatresistance,chemicalinertnessetc. Afamilyofthermoplasticsbasedmainlyontheethylenemonomerwidelyused ininjectionmolding;extrusionandcalendaringprocessestoproducevarious plasticproductsincludingfilms,sheetsandfibers. Afamilyofthermoplasticproductsmainlybasedonpropylenemonomers;they generallyfeatureahigherdegreeofheatresistanceandenhancedstiffness comparedtopolyethyleneplastics. Agroupofcommodityplasticsproducedchieflyofstyrenemonomers;easily processed;especiallypopularformanufacturinginjectionmoldedpartsat moderatecost. Afamilyofrigidandflexibleplasticscharacterizedbytheutilizationofthe urethanegroupintheirmanufacture;manypolyurethaneproductsexhibithigh flexibilityandabrasionresistanceaftercure;specialpolyurethanebased adhesiveformulationsareavailable. Theperiodoftimeanadhesiveorpottingcompoundremainsusefulafter addinganaccelerator,catalystorexposuretocuringconditions. Theprocessoffillingacavityorspace.Usually,electronicorelectrical componentsarecontainedinthisspace.Thepurposebeingtoprotectthem
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Polymer

Polymerization

Postcure

Polyethylene

Polypropylene

Polystyrene

Polyurethane

Potlife

Potting

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fromvibration,shockand/orenvironmentalhazardssuchasmoisture, aggressivechemicalssuchasfuelsandlubricants,heatetc. Primer Aformulatedcoatingappliedtoasurfacepriortotheapplicationofanadhesive inordertoenhancethestrengthofthebond. Polyvinylchloride;polymerfamilybasedonvinylchloridemonomerusedin diverseapplicationssuchasflexiblefilmsforpackagingorrigidpipe. 1)asolid,semisolidorpseudosolidorganicmaterialwithnodefinitemelting pointusuallycomprisedofhighmolecularweightmaterial;whensubjectedto stressaresintypicallytendstoflow;2)inadhesives,sealants,etc.,resinsare thebasicrawmaterialsfromwhichthesecompositionsaremade. Thestudyoftheflowpropertiesofdifferentmaterialsespeciallyofnon Newtonianliquidsandplastics;nonNewtonianmaterialsaresubstanceswhere theflowisnotproportionaltothestressapplied. Resinsobtainedasaresiduefromthedistillationofturpentinederivedfromthe sapofpinetrees(gumresin)orfromanextractofthestumpsandotherpartsof thetress(woodresins). Adecreaseinthethicknessofapolymersection. Seealsoextinguishing.Compoundshavingresistancetoburning. Thehardeningorsolidificationofaninitiallyliquidplasticmaterialbychemical and/orphysicalaction. Theabilityofaplasticmaterialtowithstandshearstresses. Aqualitativetermdescribingthecharacteristicofapolymericmaterialthatdoes notstringorotherwiseformfilamentsorthreadsduringapplication. AfamilyofpolymericmaterialscontainingtheSiOchemicalgroupintheir structure;themostwidelyusedsiliconesareelastomericadhesivesandsealants capableofserviceovertheexceptionallywidetemperaturerangeof100Fto over500F.Bothoneandtwocomponentsiliconecompoundsareavailable. Thepercentagebyweightofnonvolatilematerialinanadhesiveorsealant.

PVC

Resin

Rheology

Rosins

Sag Selfextinguishing Setting

Shearstrength Shortness

Silicones

Solidscontent

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Spread

Thequantityofadhesiveperunitjointareaappliedtoanadherend,generally expressedinpoundsofadhesiveperthousandsquarefeetofjointarea. Theamountofadhesivepressedorsqueezedoutatthebondlineofajointdue topressureappliedtotheadherends. Thebasicsurfaceuponwhichtheadhesiveisappliedandtowhichitisexpected toadhere. Physicaland/orchemicalpretreatmentstoenhancetheadhesivestrengthofan adhesivetobeappliedtoaspecificsurface. Adhesive"stickiness"onacoatedsurfacethatisnotyetcompletelydry;the propertyofanadhesivethatpermitsittoformabondofmeasurablestrength immediatelyaftertheadhesiveandtheadherendshavebeenbroughtinto directcontactbyapplicationoflowpressure. Themaximumstressamaterialcanbesubjectedtowithouttearingwhen stretchedundertensileload. Polymericmaterialswhichwillrepeatedlysoftenandflowasthetemperatureis increasedandhardenasthetemperaturefalls. Polymericmaterialswhichhardenwhenexposedtohightemperaturesand pressuresbutcannotbesoftenedorremelteduponfurtherheating;the hardeningofpolymericmaterialsuponheatingisduetoalargelyirreversible chemicalreaction. Volatileliquidsaddedtoadhesivestomodifytheirconsistencyandenhance flow. Thepropertyofcertainadhesivecompositionstothinuponisothermalagitation andtothickenuponsubsequentrestingi.e.cessationoftheagitation. Theresistanceofafluidtoflow;theratioofshearstressbetweenlaminaeof movingfluidandtherateofshearbetweentheselaminae. Thecoatingofasubstratesurfacewithanadhesive. Theflowofanadhesiveintoatightlyrestrictedopening.

Squeezeout

Substrate

Surfacepreparation

Tack

Tensilestrength

Thermoplastic

Thermosetting

Thinners

Thixotrophy

Viscosity

Wetting Wicking

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GlossaryofTermsUsedinthePressureSensitiveAdhesiveIndustry
90OR180DEGREEPEELPeeltestingmeasurestheamountofforceneededtoremoveanadhesive fromaspecifiedsubstrate.Theadhesivecanbepeeledfromthesubstrateateithera90ora180degree angle.Adhesivewithhigherpeelvaluesaremoredifficulttoremovethanadhesivewithlowerpeel values.Peelismeasuredinpoundsofforceperlinealinchona1.0milcoatedsamplesunlessotherwise noted. ABRASIONRESISTANCETheabilityofatapetowithstandrubbingandstillfunctionsatisfactorily. ACCELERATEDAGINGAmeanswherebythedeteriorationofatapeencounteredinnaturalagingmay beacceleratedandreproducedinthelaboratory. ACCELERATEDWEATHERING(weathering)Ameanswherebythedeteriorationcausedbyoutdoor exposuremaybeacceleratedandreproducedinthelaboratory. ACETATE(celluloseacetate)Atransparentfilmwhichisusedforvariousreasonsintapebackings;the primarycharacteristicisthatofbeingmoremoistureresistantthancellophane. ACRYLICasyntheticpolymerwithexcellentagingcharacteristicsthatcanbeusedaseitherasingle componentadhesiveoracoatingorsaturant,dependinguponcomposition. ADHESION(pressuresensitive)Abondproducedbetweenapressuresensitiveadhesiveanda surface. ADHESIONBUILDUPAnincreaseinthepeeladhesionvalueofapressuresensitivetapeafterithas beenallowedtoswelltotheappliedsurface. ADHESIONTOBACKINGThebondproducedbycontactbetweenapressuresensitiveadhesiveand thetapebackingwhenonepieceisappliedtothebackofanotherpieceofthesametape. ADHESIVEAnymaterialwhichwillusefullyholdtwoormoreobjectstogethersolelybyintimate surfacecontact. ADHESIVEDEPOSITAdhesivewhichispulledawayfromthetapeandremainsonthesurfacetowhich thetapewasapplied. ADHESIVEFAILUREWhentheadhesiveisleftentirelyonthesubstratetowhichitiscoated.For example,whenperformingalooptacktest,aftertheinitialtouchofthecoatedstocktothestainless steelplate,alloftheadhesiveremainsonthecoatedstock. ADHESIVEMASSSometimesusedasanothernamefortheadhesive. ADHESIVERESIDUESeeadhesivedeposit.
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ADHESIVETRANSFERThetransferofadhesivefromitsnormalpositiononthetapetothesurfaceto whichthetapewasattached,eitherduringunwindorremoval. BACKINGArelativelythinflexiblematerialtowhichtheadhesiveisapplied.Theoretically,any materialwhichisreasonablyflat,relativelythin,andflexiblecouldbeusedasatapebacking. BIDIRECTIONALRelatedtostrappingtapes,inwhichthereinforcingmaterialconsistsoffilamentsin bothstrengthandcrossdirections,usuallyawovencloth. BLEACHINGAnerroneoustermusedtodenoteacorrosionofthesurfaceunderatapewhichhas remainedtheoriginalsurfacecolorwhilethesurroundingsurfaceareahasdiscolored. BLEEDINGPenetrationthroughthetapeofacoloringliquid(paint,etc.)ontothesurfacetowhichthe tapeisapplied. BURSTINGSTRENGTHTheabilityofatapetoresistdamagewhenforceisevenlyapplied perpendicularlytothesurfaceofthetape. CARRIERSometimesusedtorefertothebackingmaterial,particularlyindoublefacedtapes. CELLOPHANE(regeneratedcellulose)athintransparentfilmmanufacturedfromwoodpulp. COATEDCLOTHFabricwitharubberorplasticbackcoatingtogiveincreasedmoistureresistanceand longerwear. COHESION(cohesivestrength,internalbond)Theabilityoftheadhesivetoresistsplitting.Good cohesionisnecessaryforcleanremoval. COHESIVEFAILUREWhentheadhesiveisleftonboththesubstratethatitwascoatedtoandthe substratethatitcomesintocontactwith,afteritisremovedfromthatsubstrate.Forexample,when performingalooptack,aftertheinitialtouchofthecoatedstocktothestainlesssteelplate,the adhesiveisleftonboththecoatedstockandthestainlesssteelplate. COLDFLOWThetendenciesofapressuresensitiveadhesivetoactlikeaheavyviscousliquidover longperiodsoftime.Suchphenomenaasoozingandincreasesinadhesionaretheresultofthis characteristic. COLORTheparticularcolorofatape,whenlookingatthebacking,regardlessofthecolorofthe adhesive. COLORSTABILITYTheabilityofatapetoretainitsoriginalcolor,particularlywhenexposedtolight. CONFORMABILITYTheabilityoftapetofitsnuglyormakeessentiallycompletecontactwiththe surfaceofanirregularobjectwithoutcreasingorfolding. CREEPAslowmovementoftheadhesiveorbackingunderstress. CREPEDPaperwhichhassmall"folds"init,givingithighstretch.

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CROSSLINKEDThedevelopmentofathreedimensionalstructureinanadhesive,whichisactivated normallybyheat.Animprovementinshearresistance,hightemperatureresistance,andoilorsolvent resistancewillnormallyresult. CUPPINGAslightlyUshapeddeformationofthetape(atrightanglestothelength)whichusually appearsafterunwindtensionisrelaxed. CURED(SeeCrossLinked) CURLINGThetendencyofatapetocurlbackonitselfwhenunwoundfromtherodandallowedto hangfromtheroll. DEADSTRETCHThenetincreaseinlengthaftertapehasbeenelongatedwithoutbreakingand allowedtorecover. DELAMINATIONAseparationorsplittingofthetapesuchasseparationofthebackingintotwo distinctlayers,separationbetweenlaminationsofatapeconsistingofmorethanonebacking,orthe separationbetweenfilamentsandbackingofafilamentreinforcedtape. DELAYEDSTRAINSeeLatentStain. DIELECTRICSTRENGTHThevoltage,whichatapewillwithstandwithoutallowingpassageofthe currentthroughit. DISCOLORATIONSeeStain. DISHINGSeeTelescoping. DOUBLECOATEDTheadhesiveisappliedonbothsidesofthebacking,whichservesprincipallyasa carrierfortheadhesive. EDGECURLThepeelingbackorliftingoftheouteredgeofatapeafterapplication(seeCupping). ELASTICMEMORYAtendencyofsometapebackingstoattempttoreturntotheiroriginallength afterbeingelongated. ELECTROLYTICCORROSIONFACTORAmeasureofthetape'scorrosiveeffectonacopperconductor. Thisisparticularlyimportantinselectionoftapesforuseaselectricalinsulation. ELONGATION(stretch,ultimateelongation)Thedistanceatapewillstretchlengthwisebefore breaking,expressedasapercentageoforiginallength.Elongationisnotnecessarilyanindicationof conformance. FALLOFFTapepullscompletelyawayfromthesurfacetowhichappliedanddropsoff. FEATHERINGAjagged,irregularpaintlinefrequentlycharacterizedbysmall"feathers"ofthetopcoat projectingintothemaskedarea. FILAMENTSThinlongitudinal"threads"ofglass,polyester,nylon,orotherhighstrengthmaterials. FILMUniform,homogenous,nonfibroussyntheticwebs.
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FISHEYESRelativelysmalldeformations(pockmarks)intheadhesivecausedbytheentrapmentofair betweenlayersintherollarenotanindicationofaqualitydefect. FLAGGINGApeelingawayfromthesurfaceoftheendofalengthoftape,particularlyinaspiralwrap application. FLAKINGAconditionsometimesoccurringduringtheremovalofmaskingtape,inwhichflakesor particlesofpaintbreakoffofthetapebacking. FLAMERESISTANCETheabilityofatapetowithstandexposuretoflame.Fireproofmaterialswillnot burnevenwhenexposedtoflame.FlameResistant(fireretardant,selfextinguishing)materialswillbum whenexposedtoflame,butwillnotcontinuetoburnaftertheflameisremoved. FLATBACKSmoothpaperbacking. FLEXIBILITYTheabilityofatapetobefreelybentorflexed. FLUOROCARBONFILMSAfilmwithveryhighandlowtemperaturelimits,excellentelectrical characteristics.Suchasaveryslippery,nonstickingsurface.OneexampleisDuPontsTeflon. FOAMAsoft,cushionymaterialformedbycreatingbubblesinbasematerials,suchasnaturalor syntheticrubbers,orotherelastomericmaterials. FREEZINGAhardeningorresinifyingoftheadhesiveafterapplication,sothattapecannotbeeasilyor cleanlyremoved. GAPPINGOpeningsbetweenlayersoftapewithinaroll. GHOSTINGSeeOffsetting. GLOSSAnappearancecharacteristicoftapebackings.Usuallyexpressedbysuchtermsasglossy,low gloss,matte,etc. HEATRESISTANCETheabilityofatapetowithstandexposuretospecifiedtemperaturesafter applicationtoasurface.Cleanremovalafterexposuremayormaynotbeimportantdependingonthe intendedfunctionofthetapeandthetypeofadhesive. HIGHSPEEDUNWINDUnwindingordispensingoftapesatarelativelyhighrateofspeed,usuallyover 50feetperminute. HOLDINGTOWER(shearadhesion)Theabilityofatapetoresistthestaticforcesappliedinthesame planeasthebacking.Usuallyexpressedintimerequiredforagivenweighttocauseagivenamountof tapetocomeloosefromaverticalpanel. HOLIDAYAsmalldefect,particularlyinanelectricalorpipewrappingtape,whichlowersthedielectric strengthatthepointofthedefectbelowacertaindesiredminimum. HOTMELT(PressureSensitiveAdhesive)Apressuresensitiveadhesiveappliedtothebackingina hotmoltenformwhichcoolstoformaconventionalpressuresensitiveadhesive. IMPACTRESISTANCE(shockresistance)Theabilityofatapetoresistsuddenpullsorshocksasmay sometimesbeencounteredbypackagesintransit.
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INSULATIONRESISTANCETheabilityofatapetopreventtheflowofcurrentacrossitssurface,usually measuredonthebacking. INSULATINGTAPENormallyreferstotapeusedforelectricalinsulation. KRAFTAsulphatewoodpulppaper.(SeeSaturation) LABELSTOCKPressuresensitivematerials,whichareusuallyprinted,frequentlydiecut,furnishedin rollorsheetformwithaliner,andintendedforuseaslabels. LAMINATIONAcombinationoftwoormoresimilarordissimilarmaterials,whichfunctionasone backing,i.e,acetateandtissueinacetatefibertapes. LATENTSTAINAstaininasurfacetowhichtapehasbeenapplied,whichdoesnotbecomenoticeable untilsometimeafterremoval,usuallyafterthesurfacehasbeenexposedtosunlightorheat. LIFTINGAsituationwhereasectionoftapehaspulledawayfromthesurfacetowhichithasbeen applied. LOOPTACK(pli)Theinitialattractionorgrabofanadhesivetoasubstratewithoutanyexternal pressure.Measuredinpoundsperlinealinch. MASSSometimesusedasanothernamefortheadhesive. METALFOILThin,flexiblesheetsofmetalsuchasaluminumandleadusedastapebackings propertiessuchasweatherresistance,reflectivity,etc. MIGRATIONThemovement,overalongperiodoftime,ofaningredientfromonecomponentto anotherwhenthetwoareinsurfacecontact.Mayoccurbetweentapecomponentsorbetweenatape andthesurfacetowhichitisapplied.Someplasticfilmsandfoamscontainplasticizers,whichareaptto migrateintothetapeadhesive,causingtheadhesivetosoften. MULTIPLECOMPONENTADHESIVEApressuresensitiveadhesivecontainingoneormoreelastomers combinedwithresinsandothercomponents,whichimparttack,adhesion,andothernecessary properties. NONWOVENMATERIALSPaper"tissues"orsynthetic(e.g.rayon)nonwovenfabrics. OFFCORELayersoftapeareincorrectalignment,buttapeisdisplacedsidewaysoncore. OFFSETTINGOccurswhenaprintedtapeisunwoundandsomeoftheprintinginkispickedoffbythe adhesiveormigratesintotheadhesive.Itisineffectadelaminationoftheink. OOZINGA"squeezingout"oftheadhesivefromunderthebacking.Whenoccurringwhenthetapeis inrollform,theedgesoftherollbecometacky. OPAQUENESSTheabilityofatapetopreventthetransmissionoflight. PAINTLINEThelinebetweenatapemaskedsurfaceandapaintedorotherwisetreatedsurface. PEAKINGLargesingularupheavalsintheouterlayersofarolloftape.
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PEELADHESIONTheforceperunitwidth,expressedinoz/in.width,requiredtobreakthebond betweenatapeandasurfacewhenpeeledbackusuallyat180degreesatastandardrateandcondition. PENETRATIONRESISTANCETheabilityofatapetoresistslowpunctureunderpressure. PINHOLEAverysmallhole,whichmaypermitthepassageoflight,moistureorelectricalcurrent. PLAINCLOTHFabricwovenfromcotton,glassorotherfibers,withoutfurthertreatment. POLYETHYLENEAtough,stretchyfilmhavingverygoodlowtemperaturecharacteristics. POLYESTERAstrongfilmhavinggoodresistancetomoisture,solvents,oils,caustics,andmanyother chemicals.Itisusuallytransparent. POLYPROPYLENEAnewcousinofpolyethylene,withgenerallysimilarproperties,butstrongerand havingahighertemperatureresistance. POLYVINYLIDENECHLORIDEAusuallyverythintransparentfilmwithexcellentresistancetoacids, waterandorganicsolvents. PRESSURESENSITIVEAtermcommonlyusedtodesignateadistinctcategoryofadhesivetapesand adhesiveswhichindry(solventfree)formareaggressivelyandpermanentlytackyatroomtemperature andfirmlyadheretoavarietyofdissimilarsurfacesuponmerecontactwithouttheneedofmorethan fingerorhandpressure.Theyrequirenoactivationbywater,solventorheatinordertoexertastrong adhesiveholdingforcetowardsuchmaterialsaspaper,plastic,glass,wood,cementandmetals.They haveasufficientlycohesiveholdingandelasticnaturesothat,despitetheiraggressivetackiness,they canbehandledwiththefingersandremovedfromsmoothsurfaceswithoutleavingaresidue.General tradeusagebyleadingtapemanufacturersdoesnotsanctionextensionoftheterm "pressuresensitive"toembracetapesandadhesivesmerelybecausetheyaresticky(i.e.flypapers),or merelybecausetheyadhereorcoheretoaparticulartypeofsurface(e.g.selfsealingenvelopes);and termsotherthan"pressuresensitive"shouldbeusedinsuchcasestoavoidconfusion. PRIMINGCoatingthebackingontheadhesivesidewithathinlayerofadhesivelikematerial,which servesasabondingagentbetweentheadhesiveandthebacking. PRINTABILITYTheabilityofatapetoacceptandholdaprintedlegend,andespeciallytoresistoffset oftheprintingwhenrewoundintoarollafterprinting. PRINTINGThepatternofatapeleftonasurfaceaftertapehasbeenremoved.Mostapttooccur whentapeisappliedtoafreshlypaintedsurfacewhichhasnotfullyhardened. PUCKERINGTheuneven,nonflatconditionofmaskingpapertowhichtapehasbeenapplied. QUICKSTICK{Tack.FingerTack.InitialAdhesion.WetGrab)Thepropertyofapressuresensitive adhesivewhichallowsittoadheretoasurfaceunderverylightpressure.Quickstickisdeterminedby theabilityoftheadhesivetoquicklywetthesurfacecontacted. RECOVERYThedifferencebetweenultimateelongationanddeadstretch. REINFORCEMENTSAmaterialaddedtoatapetoprovideadditionalstrength.
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RELEASECOATING(easyunwindtreatment)Acoatingappliedtothebackingonthesideoppositethe adhesive,whichprovideseaseofunwind,andpreventsdelaminationortearing. RELEASECOATTRANSFERParticlesofthereleasecoatstickingtotheadhesiveonunwindandthe resultingtapewillhavelittleornoabilitytostick. RELEASELINERAweborsheetofmaterialcoveringtheadhesivesideofatape.Itisremovedpriorto application.Mostfrequentlyfoundondoublecoatedtapesandlabelstocks. REMOVALTheactofpullingtapeawayfromthesurfacetowhichithasbeenapplied. RESIDUESeeAdhesiveResidue. RESISTANCETOWEATHER,SOLVENTS,ACIDS,ALKALIES,OILS,GREASES,ETC.Theabilityofatapeto resistexposuretovaryingconditionsafterapplicationandtoperformsatisfactorily. REVERSESTAINSeeBleaching. RIDGINGAmoundlikeswellingontheouterlayersofaroll,lengthwisetothetape.Usuallyfoundon themoremoisturesensitivematerials,suchascellophane. ROPESTOCKAsmoothpapermadeofhempfiberforhightensilestrength. SAFTShearAdhesionFailureTemperature.TheSAFTreferstotheuppertemperaturelimitatwhichan adhesiveisabletosupportacertainamountofweight.Polymerdegradation,incorrectrawmaterial ratiosandincorrectblendingcanaffecttheSAFTresults.Thisisnotameasureofthebondbetweenthe adhesiveandasubstrate,butameasureoftheinternalstrengthoftheadhesiveitself.Generally,asthe shearstrengthofanadhesivesystemisincreased,tackandadhesiveperformancewilldecrease.Thisis generallymeasuredinFahrenheit. SATURATION(impregnation)Addingmaterials(saturant)tothebackingforimprovementofphysical properties,andresistancetovariousdeleteriousenvironments.Thebackingofpapertapes,forinstance, mayactuallycontainasmuchas50%byweightofarubberbasedimpregnant. SEPARATINGSeeGapping. SHEARADHESIONSeeHoldingPower SHRINKAGEReductioninanydimensionofatape. SILICONEAuniquepolymersystem,whichcanbeaveryeffectivereleasecoating,orpressure sensitiveadhesivecapableoffunctioningeffectivelyatextremetemperatures. SINGLEFACEDTheadhesiveisappliedtoonesideofthebackingonly.Mostpressuresensitivetapes areofthistype. SIZEDFabric,usuallycotton,treatedtogiveaddedstiffnessandeasierhandling. SLIPSHEETORINTERLINERAtreatedsheetusedtocovertheadhesivetofacilitatehandling. SLIVERINGTapetearsorbreaksintosmallpieces,eitheronunwindorremovalfromasurface.
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SMOOTHNESSTherelativeflatnessofthetapebacking. SOFTENINGPOINTThetemperatureatwhichanadhesivegoesfromasolidtoamoltenform.Thisis measuredinFahrenheitorCelsius. SPLITTINGSeeDetermination. STAINAdiscolorationofasurfacetowhichtapehasbeenapplied. STAINRESISTANCETheabilityofatapetobeappliedtoasurfacewithoutdiscoloringthesurface. STIFFNESSThemeasureofatape'sflexibilityandabilitytoconform. STORAGESTABILITY(rollagingresistance)Theabilityofatapetoretainitsoriginalpropertiesafter storage. STRINGINESSAconditionoftheadhesiveinwhichitfeelsverysoftandmushy,andonclose examinationrelativelylong"legs"or"strings"ofadhesivecanbepulledoutoftheadhesive. TACKYTheconditionoftheadhesivewhenitfeelsstickyorhighlyadhesive.Sometimesusedto expresstheideaofpressuresensitivity. TEARINGBreakingorsliveringofatapeduringunwind. TEARRESISTANCETheabilityofatapetoresisttearing,afteratearhasbeenstartedbycuttingor nickingtheedge. TELESCOPINGAsidewaysslidingofthetapelayers,oneovertheother,suchthattherolllookslikea funneloratelescope. TENSILESTRENGTH(breakingstrength)Theforcerequiredtobreakapieceoftapebypullingon oppositeendsofthepiece.MachineDirectionTensileisthetensilestrengthmeasuredparalleltothe lengthofthetape.Unlessotherwisespecified,tensilestrengthsaremeasuredinthemachinedirection. Crossdirectiontensileisthetensilestrengthmeasuredatrightanglestothelength. Wettensileisthetensilestrengthoftape,whichhasbeenkeptwetforaspecifiedperiodoftime. Measuresabilityoftapetofunctionsatisfactorilywhenexposedtomoisture. TgGlassTransitionTemperature.Thetemperatureatwhichanadhesivewillbecomemarkedlyless elasticandflexible.Attemperaturesbelow0Ctheadhesivewillhavemoreroomtemperature properties. THERMOPLASTICADHESIVESAdhesiveswhichbecomesofterastemperatureincreases,regardlessof thenumberofheatingcyclestowhichtheyareexposed. THERMOSETTINGADHESIVESAdhesives,whichsetuporhardenonfirstexposuretoheat,andremain setregardlessofsubsequenttemperaturecycles. THICKNESS(Caliper,Gauge)Distancefromonesurfaceofeitheratape,backingoradhesivetothe other,usuallyexpressedinmilsorthousandthsofaninch.Thisisusuallymeasuredunderslightpressure withaspecialgauge.
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TRANSFERNormallyrefersto"adhesivetransfer,"butsometimessaidofanytapecomponentwhich movesfromitsproperplacetosomeotherpositionduringeitherunwindorremoval. TRANSPARENCYTheabilityofatapetoallowtransmissionoflight.Atapeisratedastransparentif 10pointtypecanbeeasilyreadwhenthetapeisapplieddirectlyoverit. TREATMENTS(SeePriming,ReleaseCoating,Coloring,Saturation,Sizing) TWISTINGThecurlingaroundthelengthwiseaxisofalengthoftapewhichhasbeenunwoundfrom therollandallowedtohangfreely. TxOVERHighTemperatureCrossover.Thisisthetemperatureatwhichtheadhesivelosesits elastomericpropertiesandmeltstoaflowableliquid.Thisvalueisastabilityindicatorforhigh temperatureapplications.Forexample,thehigherthetxovernumber,generally,themoreheatstable theproductis. ULTIMATEADHESIONThemaximumadhesionavailablefromapressuresensitiveadhesive, determinedbytheforcenecessarytoremoveastripoftapefromasurfaceafteranextendedperiodof time. UNIFORMITYTheconsistencyofasingletypeoftape,eitherwithinaroll,orfromrolltoroll,orfrom lottolot. UNPLASTICIZEDVINYLORUPVCAtoughdurableplasticfilm,differingfromPVCprincipallyinthat UPVCisnotverystretchy. UNROLLINGSeeUnwind. UNWIND(Unrolling)Theforcerequiredtoremovetapefromtheroll. UNWINDADHESIONSeeUnwind(Unrolling). VINYLorPLASTICIZEDPOLYVINYLCHLORIDE(PVC)Atoughdurableplasticfilmhavingexcellent resistancetooils,chemicalsandmanysolvents.Ithasexcellentabrasionresistance.Itcanalsobe colored.Itshighstretchisduetotheadditionofaplasticizer. VISCOSITY(cps)Ameasurementoftheresistancetoflowofamaterial.Thehighertheviscosity readingatacertaintemperature,themoretheresistancetoflowaproductexhibits. VOIDAbareuncoatedareaoneithertheadhesiveorreleasecoatedsideofthetape. WATERABSORPTIONThemeasureoftheamountofwaterwhichwillbesoakedupbyatapeand held. WATERPENETRATIONRATE(WPR)Themeasureofatape'sabilitytoresistthepassageofwater throughthetapeitselfexpressedasg/100sq/in./24h. WATERVAPORTRANSMISSION(WVT)Theweightofwatervaportransmissionthroughatape measuredingram/hundredsquareinches/24hours. WEAVINGApoorlywoundrolloftapeinwhichtheindividuallayersoftapearenotinalignmentwith theotherlayers.
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ThefollowingisportionofUnderwritersLaboratoryUL746Cspecificationfortestingpressuresensitive tapes.Thepurposeofthiscopyistosimplygiveanexampleofaperformancespecification.Please keepinmindthisismerelyaportionofthespecification.

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Thefollowingpagerepresentsanadhesivespecification.Itisgivenforobservationonlyandto familiarizethereaderwiththetypeofcontent,theoveralllayoutandtheformatusedformaterial specifications.

ADHESIVES
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14November2008 REFERENCES 1.)HandbookofAdhesiveBonding,byCharlesV.Cagle,McGrawHillBookCompany Copyright:1973. 2.)ConstructionSealantsandAdhesives,byJohnP.Cook,WileyInterscience Copyright:1970. 3.)GlobalAdhesiveGrowth,byRogerJ.Lohman,TheChemQuestGroup,Inc,April 2008. 4.)GlossaryofAdhesiveTechnologyTerms,byMasterBond,Inc. 5.)AdhesiveBonding,byDSM,2008 6.)ASTMD90,StandardDefinitionsofTermsRelatingtoAdhesives,AmericanSocietyfor TestingMaterials. 7.)ASTMC717,TerminologyofBuildingSealsandSealants,AmericanSocietyforTesting andMaterials. 8.)MILHDBK691B,MilitaryStandardizationHandbook,AdhesiveBonding,Departmentof Defense 9.)Panel,J.R.AndCook,J.PConstructionSealantsandAdhesives,JohnWileyandSons 10.)Sharpe.H.,FundamentalsofAdhesivesandSealantsTechnology,Adhesivesand Sealants,vol.3,EngineeredMaterialsHandbookSeries,ASMInternational 11.)TheAdhesiveSourceBook,Vol5byLOCTITE,2009 12.)PressureSensitiveTapesbyRonaldC.Lilly,VPofScapaAutomotive,Windsor,CT 13.)GlossaryofTermsbyTheAdhesiveandSealantCouncil,Icn. 14.)WorldPressureSensitiveTapesbytheFreedoniaGroup,Inc.February1,2007 15.)IntroductiontoAdhesionSciencebyThreeBondTechnicalNews,April1,1983 16.)HistoryofAdhesivesbyBSAEducationalServicesCommittee,1991,USA 17.)TheHistoryofAdhesivesbyTheHenkelCompany,2008 18.)OEMAdhesives,SelectorGuidebyITWDEVCON,2007 18.)MasterBondSubstrateReferenceTablebyMasterBond,Inc. 19.)MasterBondPolymerSystemsbyMasterBond,Inc. 20.)MasterBondTechnicalProductsSelectorGuidebyMasterBond,Inc.
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21.)StructuralAdhesiveChallengeMechanicalFasteners,byMasterBond,Inc.2009 22.)EpoxyAdhesivesHoldTheirOwnbyDr.WalterBrenner,MachineDesign,2008 23.)PressureSensitiveTapesto2008DemandandSalesForecasts,Study1864, November2004 24.)StrategicSolutions:GlobalAdhesiveGrowthbyRogerJ.Lohman,ASI,Inc, April1,2008 25.)Adhesives101TypesandUsesofAdhesivesbyTheGlueStoreaDivisionof SchaeferMachineCompany,2009 26.)UltrasonicInspectionsofAdhesiveBondsbySoullisTavron,Dr.EliasSioresand Dr.IgorSbarski,2009 27,)PermabondAdhesiveSolutionsforIndustrybyPermabondEngineeringAdhesives 2005 28.)AITTermsRelatedtoProductsandApplicationsbyAITechnology 29.)FundamentalsofAdhesiveBondingbyDimitriKopellovich,December14,2007 30.)AdhesiveBondingTheorybyTheRoyMechCompany 31.)TheEquipmentSourceBookbyTheLOCTITECorporation,20082009 32.)WorldPressureSensitiveTapesbyFreedoniaGroup,Inc.February1,2007 33.)PressureSensitiveTapesInWireHarnessAssemblies,byRonaldC.Lilly,VP ScapaAutomotive,Windsor,Ct.,June1,2003 34.)China:TrendinPSATapeManufacturing,byMr.Wu,HongKongAdhesiveCo. Dr.YanZhang,KensingerGroup,Inc. 35.)JATMAORGANIZATIONANDJAPANESETAPEMARKETANDTRENDS,by AkiraKatakura,JATMAInformationCommitteeChair,TeraokaSeisakusyo 36.)UsefulDesignCriteriaForAcrylicFoamTapesinDemandingIndustrialApplications

TonyKremer,TechnicalServiceSpecialist,3MIndustrialAdhesivesandTapesD
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37.)3MAdhesivesandTapes,DesignandProductionGuideforApplicationSuccess,2008