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Android (Operating System)

Android is a mobile operating system it is based on the versions of the Linux kernel. It is purchased by Google. It invented by Andy Rubin who is the former CEO and co founder of Android. Google had decided to extend its features then it tied up with open alliance handset, a consortium of hardware, software, and telecom companies only for mobile devices. Google has made most of the Android platform available under the open source license. The android SDK can be downloaded from its official website which includes virtual mobile Device.

Introduction:
Google acquired the startup company Android Inc. in 2005 to start the development of the Android platform the key players at Android Inc. included Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White. Android is mobile operating system initially developed by Android Inc. Android members of the Open Handset collaborated on androids developments and release. The android open source project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of android. Android has a large community of developers writing application programmers (apps) that extend the functionality of the devices. There are currently 2, 00,000 apps available in the android market. Android market is run by Google, though apps can be downloaded from thirdparty sites.

Core of Android:
The Android operating system stack consists of java applications running on a java-based, object-oriented application framework on top of java core libraries running on a Dalvik virtual machine featuring JIT compilation. Libraries written in C include the surface manager; Open core media frame work, SQLite relation database management system, OpenGL ES 2.0 3D graphics API, Web Kit layout engine, SGL graphics engines, SSL,and Bionic libc. The Android operating system consists of 12 million lines of code including 3 million lines of XML, 2.8

million lines of C, 2.1 million lines of java and 1.75 million lines of C++.

Versions of Android
Android 1.0 released on 23rd September 2008 On 9th February 2009, Android 1.1 update for Android was released for T-Mobile G1 On 30th April2009, the official 1.5(Cupcake) for Android was released. On 15th September 2009, the 1.6(Donut) On 26th October 2009, the 2.0(Eclairs) On 20th May 2010, the 2.2(Froyo) On 06th December 2010,the 2.3(Gingerbread) On 26th January 2011, the 3.0(Honeycomb) On 14th November 2011, the 4.0(Ice Cream Sandwich) On 9th July 2012, the 4.1(Jelly Bean)

Features of Android:
Handset Layouts: The platform is adaptable to larger,VGA, 2D graphics library,3D graphics library based on open GL ES 2.0 specifications, and traditional Smartphone layout Multiple language support: Android supports multiple languages Java support: While most Android applications are written in java, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and java byte code is not executables. Java classes are

compiled into Dalvik executables and run on Dalvik, a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. Multi-touch: Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level(possibly to avoid infringing Apples patents on touch screen technology at the time) Multitasking: Multitasking of applications, with unique handling of memory allocation, is available. Tethering: Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot. Before Android 2.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations. volume-down buttons at the same time. Prior to Android 4.0, the only methods of capturing a screenshot were through manufacturer and third-party customizations or otherwise by using a PC connection (DDMS developers tool). These alternatives methods are still available with the latest Android

Android Architecture:

Logo: The Android logo was designed with the Droid font family made by Ascender
Corporation. Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system.

Android SDK:
The Android software development kit(SDK) includes a comprehensive set of development tools. These include a debugger, libraries, a handset emulator (based on QEMU) documentation, sample code, and tutorials.

Conclusion:
Android is open to all industry developers and users and participating in many of the open source projects. Aim is to build for the web. Android would become number one operating system by stealing the number one spot from Symbian in global market share by 2014.

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